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~ : ~ ; i ~ n ~ : m n t l(simple ?

vowel)

rl

{Utl3:d>ltW

(diphthong) Daniel Jones

Q

uanwnutLn?udu

Y

r

w r

5i , 6i , ea , 6 a , o a , i a

d

Cil
'~onlef

Iniininu~ludi

r

I d

rleh,

klng,

goodness

Jones,

An Outline of Enalish Phonetics

(Combrldg., 1957). pp. 63.1 25.

82

LI 210

could food brother heard lemon same shoulder helght cup. score. area. fly. t o w n . baar. rulnation blllnlntrdl~61 Y ? n ~ ~ n ~ n s ~ ! u n 'going l I d I n ~ l m n~ s l u n ' ~playar Inii<lis~lun'1 slower * I d . hmr. lawn. sure. full. usual issuhp. mar. vacuum. Caul loud. vablng.pmn head glad. pay. after. rule. many pat alphabat. spare. put. money. salad. drama dog nor sorry. poor. blum. home. Cou I table. I n u n ~ n Jlun'l u w I d Y I d influence. f lr. house noise. 011. author. ehlld. so. beard. surely realistic Inunln tr Jlun'l w ~ d hideous. pond. alona. part. boy fierce falr four coarse.

~1::nta~ni:n1lr1ojn~vaonlnn~w 4 I d /u/ put bought li7UQi7751PltJ3 /i / /E/ pin add 4 / e l egg 101 /a/ up alms / a / . ~ u u ~ n l n u ~ r wC ~ :~ : n' I u a L ~ &.l.ir'n*~ d 9 nqluunnh ~ o u u m un?&tnn'lin'caM'u.sunYun~r~tnr1:~tie~nrrrro~Cnn1~7 & n~nn.:atnclfi u tdu 181 9 J 4 duguuuuuna:'li 1 . Language (New Yor&.rnur ~ n~ ln i r ~ o n l oli1~l.rn"n1uu.4 q b - ' I Lsonclrd Blogrnfield.n'u a:uun~ritnr~~~n'~~~~r:~n~~~~&n~'~n"u o~u.~ Daniel Jones ~iin\~R.~~~~1~~~n~~~n wu - 0 u m . 0 m d 9 u M u e.u I ~ I < ~ J ~ ~ ~ I ~ L ~ ~ E I J U ~ J L O L I J U t I & U ~ U & n u o t u ..uurC.lnw1~~1n1~1pl1~1n.jtnr~Lfs"u~un"lsuwu i A Bloomfield ~~~~~~~na&~ldP~nnLT~r~w&odnn?.almtuii. 1 9 3 3 ) ) p. odd 131 1i7tJqa~d~~~u /a j/ buy /awl bough lejl bay WI /ij/ j w low/ d W d bee few go /3j/ boy /uw/ do I ~:tM'uln?l?sn l . U 33 O:~ILMR-IU LnuJ [a I UYnq:nr~nYU t t o ' a ~ c r l Iwn~rnoLu. .i i L n T i : ~ ~ o ~ Bloomfield u T r a g e r ( o ~ n t d s ~ l d Y inr-tnns) 118: Smith n~nn~tuu~~~ld~J~~u~:w".I U a f t e r n'qut8a~dr:nun J dd A' d M A I ~ I I U [a] nluOa:oU L ~ 03.I~1unqrC:9rl. r : u i J l i l uL ~ U Charles F.tn. ~ u : /o/ a d u m u l d b " la/ (i~~~K1s~~~~nuld $JM& Bloomfield 16/j/ ~ d h 1 ~ .[&a] i * Id lflttnlfl~~ d ~ 1 ~ 6 f1 orayer m n u l {wo t j w n j o h tnotd.Ivd[ :1 Ukib m u d I tnousn~i1nr:uauunr::u1~ A tk tn numn u Leonard l d d t 4 * u d & d * ttcin'1~&nworurnuoni1tn*tl~t~u~nn~ Bloomfield la ~91n17 7~ 01nl~lfl1~~. 9 .

1942) p. fld I ~ ~ ~ g ~ ~ ~ ~ n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ 1 n"daus:~inwsinl~ ~ ~ : i ~ f .~inl?.1 unt 101 " d V d l muriirii I I n~uniws~:~iiainilr~n~~n~~u (New t. uusim. ~ u r n s ~ i n r i : ~ m ~ " G ' Chorien F . Idorylond. 1358)~' P. 52. Trager.L~. P o c k e t t .Hockett nuJ~fJulil j l w m d w - DQ ~ ( i ~ n ~ A l ( ~ly/ f i u lBloomfielrl i . 1 lun'iii sod. A Course i n Modern L i p i s t i c s York.i 1 ./ 1 1 . t'iiJnunJunL~~31: Bloomfield t l h h l i l l ~ l o / l u i l i l alms. Bernard Bloch and G e o r g e L . h ~ <mtHn. .\DJ. bou t - - boat - yeah calm law put d W I LLI: boot Tragcr - 1:111~1FI71 Bloch t : w w A pl t. ~ O U U UJRUIULSDJ U L R I I J OJ ~ $1 ~ ~ ~ /vr/ mirror merry marry sorry Iiurry jury IVhrI bcer Loar 1~1r Lorc burr 1)oor n7rno-rnu~uu 1.di~doIdu /vll/ fl /v/ pit Pe t pat Pot cut 1tiw/ - . Outline 0 f Linguislic Analysis (aoltirnore. . 31. 131 lul /e/ /a / d /r/ ?In Blbch LLR: /vj/ beat bait bite boil Trryer 1irh. t: b~ d1:fll.UJ 101 balm LLR: 1 1 .$unoJni701~eJ t t.J I.

c. clly ru~ate _---/--4 111 /el IfkLfifil I6Lfi. c a t t l e Ik~Ari7 but. c h i n a . rlde. m a d e . e y m . c a u g h t 1311 I6Lfi.C.l \1$~661 Ini~riii 1946) p. 8011 - a c. * W L$~m~~(i~~d~:~nnl~ii~~una~:o'~n~woanuuun~u 4 ~rgrnu3 u w a MU? nn7~ MAJ /I/ I 1 b e a t . wool 101 13/ Iclfiil note. i l ~ o v c I6~d61 f a t h e r . w r l i e bout boys. c o o l IniLri61 I 0 pull. houee.8. now. hot. n o t r t i o n . k e e p bit. bad. 011. C. bought.l 1 t * m a t e . Mexico * I f l ~ ~ n n l a u t u m n . Michigan. 12. rd. quotation. c a p e . klr. bed. cod Inirribl pool. bld. Fries 8 Y A A L L ~ J U M ~ ~ ~9 ~ ~ A ~ ~ U ~ L L ~ U W I U U ~ U ~ ~ U L d d I . a u t u m n a l . cot. weep. way. contest 181 I@/ 131 /a1 /u/ lul I n ~ ~ n m aiut. bead. ketlle. Teaching and Learning ~ n ~ l i sor ha ' Foreign i.anguagc (Ann Arbor. lee. . met. wlt. coat. cup.

Pike. aiari w d ucnnnuuuoi Fries a tk~vt~~on ~ ~ n ( l & d i m~ih. Phonemics (Ann Arbor..~fl'll:vt~~~Jnl:nl~l- &nqw 'Kenneth L. L Y w I dm LLA7 I ~ J U : 1 1 wtiiu9u: * b Kenneth L. e. Michlgon 1947). Fries ( I - I Id \I~. u LLIUffl.a WI d I d rl d 1 1 I Ld u P:LHu~~? Fries ~ tl011 i.nvr~:&tIIflfl7 Im: (voiced consonant) L ~ ~n UJAU t. p. C . Pike LO nnflWUmJ C. 45. .Lflfi? Llfl7lfil:~HP31UISAnktCU: w r Lnou (glide) A o ~ n j ~ I n l m n ~ : ~ U i q : i ~ ~ u ' I ~ sun:n~:an~n~:~aouW r"l~~u'i t : d 4 .

l l ~ f l l ~ . Smlth. Smith d 'I~~?~IY~L~I~:HL~U ~ ~ ~ o dL ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L u u L (Wathing. A. P P .C.jL3ulufi1 &r~iuIufil colony boot foot rote [Lalanil Cbutl Cfutl hot1 CkDt3 Cka'tl CmausI CSO~~I CDI CarI Caul EO'I f i i ~ ~ ~ l ~ f i l caught n'. Trsger LI11: Henry L. I 4 H.a' aU 01 &&odic&~~d. l l ~Fries U U O ~ & J ~ . Nelson Francis * G e o r ~ e1. ~ f l ~J lt~ C.~iulun'l kite f i ~ i ~ l ~ n ' l mouse n j ~ ~ ~ l ~ t i l soil # u soil d aolvirGrnni1 Pike L O J ~ B Jw I~ r iU J~ soil i n l d ~ n q i m i l ico'l 61 . 1 9 5 7 ) . D C.L4ulun'l r..j~i~I~i.. Troger and Henry 1.A.A.a Ic u n n n n u n i o o n r i ~ ~ a oo x 1 % ra I b 9 . 2 7 .on.l ~ k e t ~ nki~l~fil n'.2 8 . Gleason Jr. Hill. I r?ii~:oan~iu J L H ~ D U G ~ : lo: n. ti3 CCI Ce I &L~u\u& i suluti1 { J L ~ U ~ U ~ ~ Y I feat tit [fit] [fat] [met3 [sd] mate said cat [el fl J k a ~ l ~ f i l c*I La3 Cu3 Cul CoI r. LLIS W. ~ George L. AIL Outline 0 f Ertglish S t r u c t u r e .

yeah baa (18) (14) just ( 1 ) CUI(P) fur fur (19) bird (8) go (16) /a/ /u/ cot (8) put. a7 lnu4no nr: b d lil pit pet pat Lec Lay pass (6) bee (7) f e w (11) dear (18) /GI I=/ /i/ 131 house (19) house lrluon dare.\ Trnger LL~: Smith tt~sil~ anu * I rttI3~7:dr:flund~ufi.oonmo~ i j a ~ t l u *.. palm boor pour.( d (b) w ~ ~ & ~ ~ ~ ~ o u I ~ ~ (.a L R iqub. buy buoy (9) boy r a s h (lo) I r r house (16) far. paw (90) d0 BO 101 13/ home(*) wash(5) A O law (I?) Paw d ('11) (a) Luonn I just is~uun~alq~nvol olls~uu?ol&.n ~ Y I ~nouunnlrk ~ \ ~ ~ ~ J L L P ~ u ~ .

(a) w ~ n O j n ~ n n o ~ ~ ~ ~ n : ~ ~ s no~ o~ no ~~u ~e rd n /a/ uu n ' (d) 0 I Y r r d d . L ? U n?ic u ~Iunlt n n u .d n1~~7n~70~~ I n ~ n n n u l ~ ~ [su] ~n:m~onr~u ($ w w G q m & " (b) a~nu7acunu~ uoug1uit un:wannr?lunn a n r nnltnourailo' ( ~ n i ~ ~ u o u i i r r n mnouiu u w ~ n m ~ l n in oa ri j o ~ u j n i (d) W * ~ I ~ L L O ~ ~ ~ I L ~un:w7nnon. I J .w'i~ouuoon~ntl~n17~ I house ( ~ d~ ) [ ] rl a ~ n ~ ~ o u n r ~ n n ~ ~ n : n : ~ u n n ~ a " ~ ~ ~ ~nlm ~~~ot~~o~~n~r OO~L~UJL~U I moon ( a d ) go (0 [ih] ~IU&U u oon~n's~~u*u [ ~ n ' o q ] wnri'uIunouI. I qnS s~oonlnoJ bee $u [Gal bid ( ) (d) 1 ud~in~luunr~?u~.'o~ojn~~ I ~pnLiueLilu [ ~fl.n~~nr~iuf 4 u~~nt.ah ~ u u lqb/ nno ~ ~ o u d *d ni~c7 sh ~ ( 0 0) aanLn'ucrilu w*? n'oi~idwuuu~il nu'ulwu'oonriucn~u~~ . :o o n BI d e l b.j t c iu. Y I [ d ~ q ]M%l I [fyuw) #r rr (oh) U O U L ~ ~ I ~ L U il+ U bou~a (9 oonrilu [ ~ a i n ] u ~ r n o r l i ona.n~uon~mriinn~c~o~ln"n~c~~~j~~~~n~ ~ o n t d u [tcun] d d BI L U O L U U ~ ~ W ~ ~ J ~ L ~ B ~ ~ U O I U p~ u~ & hU L~ ~J U ~ U O ~ ~ ~ ~ ' lpuyr/ J 4 d (go) o o n ~ i t~ ~ci a u n ' l i U i! niuniu 86 w~nnoonriat push c i ~ t l u h d rraonrn'uc rash /W.1uoj ~ N ~ I I nrlun iniuooi' 4 . ) .~I/ rda w o .ln~~un~u~~ne~Djn~M b) f i l i 1 house t~nt~loun:iunnnnr~~~tna<jlatuI^fi1 .. tau n w 6 u ~h L L n : .1~ ] 11.n1 w ~ n L ~ U uain ..

G l e a ~ o n Jr. lflYl:~nlvl& ~RJ nqkt 0 ~nuni~~d /h/ n~~u rl t 0 ~ Smith Lin&LI /HI L. LIIIUWLDJ .?w L L R : / A.~olu. to E n g l i s h Gramnar (Chicago. 31. Hocketl. 1 958). Nelson Francis U U Y ~ ~ P I ~ ~ ~ ~ Trugur L ~ Y ~ : ~ ~ I ) J X11nJHUfl d d d James Sledd ~~~u~nun1~~~~o~n~.A - Charles F.U~{U Trager LLII: Smith lIDJ~l7~H f l 7 f t n L ~ u n "Confederate ~l a" 1 g . Trager _LLR: -- I ~ ~( lN n n l ~L .-/-- (bo) ionL&Jii war t d u [?D ] I.A. 46.lnl~7'~f~yl:~LiuJflj: -r I&:UIJL.p. A Modern Course in Linguistics (NW fork. S h ~ r l. Hill Smith 1 t: v I L L P : W.~istn~:n~~~o'~n~~'i~n~u LI - ftt!Mi e (O a a o 3 fl1 Jamor ~ l e d d . I -4 1L~~~ilnunl~ln~~fltlJ 1 fire1 L$u& r v rl* ~ Charles F.nl\ni.DIH'~J~J wore Go [ I?] _Trager LLP: Smith I -3B d ndi??7?82~n>i:&~U~u ?Iutl?u!dH~n~n~u n~ Henry A. . 19591. Hockett ~iii~n~~~1.Intrqduction. p.

v a I ly/ r f l i 1 J Tragcr LLR: Smith I1R: Y n'll.t~~Jtf OIAUUI:LI ~ l f l 1 7 : ~ l J ' i I Trnger ~~ Smith L$u(I& .nil Y B l o ~ n ~ f i e l dL L W U & : I .I.