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9.

3 The Acidic Environment


1. Indicators were identified with the observation that the colour of some flowers depends on soil composition
Classify common substances as acidic, basic or neutral Acid: Substances that produces hydrogen ions pH 7 Has a sour taste, burns skin, conduct electricity in solution Common substances include: Hydrochloric Acid 0.1M (1) Stomach Acid (2) Vinegar (3) Orange Juice (4) Black Coffee (5) Moderately Acidic Soil (6) Base: Substances that accept hydrogen ions pH 7 Has a bitter taste, soapy feel on skin, conducts electricity in solution Common substances include: Seawater (8) Baking Soda (9) Lime Water (10) Ammonia (11) Bleach (12) Sodium Hydroxide (13) Identify that indicators such as litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange and bromothymol blue can be used to determine the acidic or basic nature of a material over a range, and that the range is identified by change in indicator colour Litmus: Good indicator for distinguishing from an acid and a base Red in acid Blue in base End Point is around a pH between 5-8 Phenolphthalein: Good indicator to distinguish from a weak base and a strong base Colourless in acid and weak base Pink in strong base End Point around a pH between 8-10 Methyl Orange Good indicator to distinguish from a strong acid to a weak acid Red in strong acid Yellow in weak acid and base End Point around a pH between 3-4 Bromothymol Blue Good indicator to distinguish from an acid and a base Yellow in acid Blue in base End Point around a pH of 6-7.5
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9.3 The Acidic Environment


Identify and describe some everyday uses of indicators including the testing of soil acidity/basicity Indicators are used in a range of applications, some of them includes: Classifying substances as acids or bases Maintenance for swimming pools Maintenance for soil acidity/basicity Colouring flowers Invisible ink

9.3 The Acidic Environment


2. While we usually think of the air around us as neutral, the atmosphere naturally contains acidic oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The concentrations of these acidic oxides have been increasing since the Industrial Revolution
Identify oxides of non-metals which act as acids and describe the conditions under which they act as acids Oxides of non-metals, excluding noble gases acts as acids In order for a non-metal oxide to be an acid, it must dissolve in water Non-metal oxide + H2O Acid For example, CO2 is a neutral gas, found abundantly in nature: It reacts with the water in rain, oceans and lakes to make carbonic acid CO2 + H2O H2CO3 However, CO2 can also react with a base to make salt and water CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O This is used as a proof to prove that non-metal oxides are acidic Analyse the position of these non-metals in the Periodic Table and outline the relationship between position of elements in the Periodic Table and acidity/basicity of oxides Going from left to right across a period, the oxides of elements becomes more and more acidic. This can also link with electronegativity the greater the electronegativity of an element, the more acidic properties of the oxides

Metals Basic Oxides Non-metals Acidic Oxides Elements on the borderline Amphoteric Oxides Define Le Chateliers principle If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature, or total pressure, the equilibrium will shift in order to minimise that change Identify factors which can affect the equilibrium in a reversible reaction Concentration: As concentration of a certain species increases, equilibrium will shift to the direction where it reduce the amount of that certain species As concentration of a certain species decreases, equilibrium will shift to the direction where it will increase the amount of that certain species Example: CO + 2H2 CH3OH Concentration of CO increases, equilibrium will shift to the right to reduce the amount of CO Concentration of CO decreases, equilibrium will shift to the left to make more CO

9.3 The Acidic Environment


Temperature: As temperature decreases, equilibrium will shift to the right to replace the lost heat As temperature increases, equilibrium will shift to the left to use up the extra heat Pressure: When there is an increase in pressure, there will be a decrease in volume. Equilibrium will shift to the side with less moles When there is a decrease in pressure, there will be an increase in volume. Equilibrium will shift to the side with more moles Addition of a catalyst This will not directly affect a system in equilibrium, it will however allow the system to reestablish equilibrium faster Describe the solubility of carbon dioxide in water under various conditions as an equilibrium process and explain in terms of Le Chateliers Principle Considering this equation: CO2(g) CO2(aq) + Heat The solubility of gases increases with decreases temperature, therefore equilibrium will shift to the left to produce more CO2 in gas form Considering this equation: CO2(aq) + H2O(aq) H2CO3(aq) When the concentration of hydrogen ions increases, the equilibrium will shift to the left until the gas CO2 has been removed from the system Considering this equation: When pressure increases, it will shift to the left as it has fewer moles. This will cause the gas CO2 to be removed from the system. Identify natural and industrial sources of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen Sulfur Dioxide ( ): Natural Sources: Combustion of Organic Matters (Bushfires) Decomposition of organic matters Volcanoes Industrial Sources: Combustion of fossil fuels (motor vehicles and fossil fuels) Metal smelting of sulfur ores Petroleum refinery For paper processing and sewerage treatment Nitrogen Monoxide (NO) Natural Sources: Produced by soil bacteria Lightening Industrial Sources Burning of biomass Combustion of fuels in motor vehicles Combustion in power stations Nitrogen (IV) Oxide ( ) Natural Sources: Action of Sunlight on NO and O2 Industrial Sources: Combustion of fuel in motor vehicles Power Stations
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9.3 The Acidic Environment


Di-nitrogen Monoxide (Nitrous Oxide) ( ) Natural Sources Produced by soil bacteria Industrial Sources Manufactured as a fuel for racing cars Used as a sedative/analgesic (laughing gas) Describe, using equations, examples of chemical reactions which release sulfur dioxide and chemical reactions which release oxides of nitrogen Sulfur Dioxide: Naturally, it is release into the atmosphere through the eruption of volcanoes and bushfires. This covers two-third of the released sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere The remaining third is released into the atmosphere through industrial practice, such as the burning of fossil fuels( ) and the metal smelting of metal ores ( ) Nitrogen Monoxide (Nitric Oxide) Through lightening, the bond in will be broken and will react with oxygen gas to form Nitrogen Monoxide, as shown in this equation: Nitrogen (IV) Oxide The colourless nitrogen monoxide will react with more oxygen gas to form the brown colourless nitrogen dioxide. This is done naturally through sunlight or is done industrially through combustion.

Assess the evidence which indicates the increases in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen There has been evidence that shows the emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen has been steadily increasing since the Industrial Revolutions. These includes: Ice core samples obtained in Antarctica by CSIRO and Australian Antarctic Division Carbon and other gas content in fossils Photochemical Smug Acid Rain However, there are difficulties in obtaining good evidence for the increases in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. This is due to: Accurate measurements of concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are very difficult to obtain as they occur in very small concentration Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide can form sulphate and nitrate ions which is soluble in water and do not circulate in form in which we can measure However, there are enough evidence to prove that there has been an increase in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, especially after the Industrial Revolution Calculate volumes of gases given masses of some substances in reactions, and calculate masses of substances given gaseous volumes, in reactions involving gases at 0C and 100kPa or 25C and 100kPa To calculate the volume of a given gas, the following steps must be done: Write a balanced equation Look at the mole ratios between the elements being compared Then use this equation Then substitution
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1 mole of gas has a volume of: 22.71 in 0C (STP) 24.79 in 25C (RTP) Explain the formation and effects of acid rain Normal rain water are slightly acidic, this is due to the abundant of CO2 gas in the atmosphere and is reactive with water (forms carbonic acid): However, this is not acid rain as it is only slightly acidic (pH 6). Acid Rain only exist when it pH is under 5. This occurs when the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen dissolve into water to produce a mixture of carbonic acid, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid.

Acid Rain can cause problem in three main areas: Surface Water The acidity of surface waters can kill living aquatic organisms as they have narrow pH level tolerance It can also affect the whole ecosystem of the surface water and the life depending on the surface water Plants, crops and forests Increased soil acidity reduces the nutrient content of soil preventing plant growth (less calcium) It will stop photosynthesis, therefore plants are unable to absorb nutrients Humans When acid rain is in a form of fog, it can be easily inhaled by human, this is very harmful as it can cause respiratory diseases such as asthma It can reduced visibility via photochemical smug Human structure will be damaged Analyse information from secondary resources to summarise the industrial origins of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and evaluate reasons for concern about their release into the environment Industrial origins of sulfur dioxide includes: combustion of fossil fuels and smelting of metal ores Industrial origins of oxides of nitrogen includes: combustion of fuels in motor vehicles Sulfur dioxide can be used as a food preservative in the food industry, and oxides of nitrogen is used as a fertiliser However, there are also negatives, these includes: It can cause acid rain through contact with rain water and can have severe consequences to living organisms, plants and human beings These oxides can cause respiratory problems to human beings Pollute the air, affecting the ecosystem and living organisms

9.3 The Acidic Environment


3. Acids occur in many foods, drinks and even within our stomachs
Define acids as proton donors and describe the ionisations of acids in water Acids releases ions in solutions, and ions are protons, therefore acids can be classified as proton donors When in water, released by acids often combined with the water molecules to form hydronium ion ( ) Identify acids including acetic (ethanoic), citric (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic), hydrochloric and sulfuric acid Acetic (Ethanoic ) Acid Chemical Formula An acid found in vinegar A weak acid (pH=3) Citric Acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic) Chemical Formula Found in citrus fruit Used as a preservative Weak Acid (pH=4) Hydrochloric Acid Chemical Formula H-Cl Used in gastric juice Found as stomach acid Strong Acid Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula Industrially produced Found in acid rain Strong acid Describe the use of the pH scale in comparing acids and bases The pH scale is a way of expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution as a practical number. pH (potential hydrogen) is usually between 0 (extremely acidic) and 14 (extremely basic) Describe acids and their solutions with the appropriate use of the terms strong, weak, concentrated and diluted Strong acids are completely dissociated in solution (that is, it is ionised completely). A single sided arrow is used to describe this Weak acids are partially dissociated in solution (that is, it is ionised partially). A double-sided arrow is used to describe this Concentration is a ratio of the amount of solute to the amount of solvent in a solution. It is concentrated when there is more solute than solvent, while it is diluted when it has more solvent that solute. Identify pH as and explain that a change in pH of 1 means a ten-fold change in pH can be calculated by using , where The pH scale is based on tens (e.g. pH of 1 is and pH of 14 is ) So when there is a change of 1 pH, this indicates a 10 fold change of

9.3 The Acidic Environment


Compare the relative strengths of equal concentration of citric, acetic and hydrochloric acids and explains in terms of the degree of ionisation of their molecules When the concentration of hydrogen ions and the concentration of the solution is given, the percentage of ionisation can be calculated through this equation

Considering citric, acetic and hydrochloric acid, each with equal concentration of 0.1M but with different pH, the percentage of ionisation can be calculated to distinguish between a strong and a weak acid. Hydrochloric Acid , , therefore percentage of ionisation is 100% (meaning it is a strong acid) Citric Acid , , therefore percentage ionisation is 8% (meaning it is a weak acid) Acetic Acid , , therefore percentage ionisation is 1% (meaning it is a weak acid) Through this, we can conclude that HCl is the strongest and acetic is the weakest Describe the difference between a strong and a weak acid in terms of an equilibrium between the intact molecule and its ions When a strong acid reacts with water, it will dissolve completely. Therefore there is no equilibrium in this type of reaction as there is only one forward reaction, so the molecular form will dissociate into ion form completely However, when a weak acid reacts with water, it will dissolve partially. Therefore there is equilibrium, meaning that only part of the molecular form will dissociate into ion form. Gather and process information from secondary sources to write ionic equations to represent the ionisation of acids Ionisation of HCl: Ionisation of H2SO4: Ionisation of Acetic Acid: Gather and process information from secondary sources to explain the use of acids as food additives Acids is added to foods as preservatives Food acids is added to make flavours more shaper Common food acids includes: vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid and lactic acid Identify data, gather and process information from secondary sources identify examples of naturally occurring acids and bases and their chemical composition Acetic Acid is found in vinegar Lactic Acid ( ) is found in milk and yogurt

9.3 The Acidic Environment


4. Because of the prevalence and the importance of acids, they have been used and studied for hundreds of years. Over time, the definitions of acid and base have been refined
Outline the historical development of ideas about acids including those of: Lavoisier: Antoine Lavoisier is French, from 1743-1794 Definition of acid is that it contains oxygen This is not valid as acid like HCl does not fit Davy: Humphrey Davy is English, from 1778-1829 Definition: Acids contain replaceable hydrogen (donates and accepts) This is not valid as CH4 is not an acid and NaOH is a base, but both contains hydrogen Arrhenius Svante Arrhenius is Swedish, from 1859 to 1927 Definition: Acids release hydrogen while bases release hydroxide in aqueous solution This is valid to a certain extent as HCl releases hydrogen ions in non-aqueous solution while NH3 has basic properties but does not have hydroxide ions Outline the theory of acids and bases In 1923, two chemist Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry, independently stated that acidbase reactions involves proton transfer It states: An acid is a proton donor, a base is a proton acceptor Describe the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base and a base and its conjugate acid All acid-base reactions involve proton transfer. Considering this equations: In the forward reaction, the acid is HA as it donated its proton to water to from hydronium ion, therefore the base is water. In the backward reaction, the A ion is a base as it can only accept proton to form HA, while the hydronium ion is an acid as it donates its proton to form water Therefore, it can be said that is the conjugate base of . While is the conjugate acid of . In general: Acid + Base Conjugate Base of Acid + Conjugate Acid of Base Identify a range of salts which form acidic, basic or neutral solutions and explain their acidic, neutral or basic nature Strong Acid + Strong Base Neutral Salt + Water As strong acids and bases ionises completely in solution, at equivalence point, the concentration of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion are equal. Therefore the salt solution is neutral (pH = 7) Strong Acid + Weak Base Acidic Salt + Water As the strong acid ionises completely but the weak base is still at equilibrium. Therefore at equivalence point, the concentration of hydrogen ion is greater than the concentration of hydroxide ion. Therefore the salt solution is acidic (pH 7) Weak Acid + Strong Base Basic Salt + Water The base completely ionises but the acid is at equilibrium. Therefore at equivalence point, the concentration of hydrogen ion is less than the concentration of hydroxide ion. Therefore the salt solution is basic (pH 7)

9.3 The Acidic Environment


Identify conjugate acid/base pair Conjugate acid/base is easily identified by applying the conjugate rule Conjugate base is acid without a proton Conjugate acid is base with a proton Identify amphiprotic substance and construct equations to describe their behaviour in acidic and basic substances Amphiprotic substances are those that are able to behave as both acids and bases, that is they can donate and accept protons Water is one example: As an acid: (base is hydroxide ion) As a base: (acid is hydronium ion) Hydrogen Carbonate Ion As an acid: ( is the base) As a base: ( is the acid) Hydrogen Sulfate Ion As an acid: ( is the base) As a base: ( is the acid) Identify neutralisation as a proton transfer reaction which is exothermic A neutralisation reaction is one which a base and an acid react. The product is always salt and water. All neutralisation reaction is exothermic reaction, meaning they release energy in a forward reaction. Neutralisation occurs at equivalence point, a point where the concentration of hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions. Also, neutralisation reaction are also proton transfer reaction, as the acid donates it proton to the base, becoming a conjugate base, and the base becomes a conjugate acid, therefore leaving the solution neutral. Describe the correct technique for conducting titrations and preparation of standard solutions A titration is a volumetric analysis used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid Before conducting titration, it is important to know which indicator to use. This depends on the two solutions in which we are titrating. Strong Acid + Strong Base: Litmus or Bromothymol Blue Strong Acid + Weak Base: Methyl Orange Weak Acid + Strong Base: Phenolphthalein It is critical that the equipment used in titrations is cleaned appropriately as possible contamination can affect the result of the experiment Burette: contains the acid of unknown solution. Must be rinsed with water first then with the solution that it is to hold Flask: Usually contains the base of known concentration. Must be rinse with water only Pipette: Used to transfer liquids into the burette or the flask. Must be rinsed with water first then the solution it is to carry Titration Technique: By convention, the solution with unknown concentration is slowly added to the solution with known concentration, which a couple of drops of indicator has been added already When equivalence point has been reached, the indicator colour will change and concentration of unknown can be calculated.

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A standard solution is a solution with an accurately known concentration. Primary Solution: One that has been prepared from highly stable and pure solid of known composition e.g. anhydrous sodium carbonate or oxalic acid Secondary Solution: One that has been titrated against the primary solution, and now has its concentration established A standard solution must: Be solid at room temperature Be available in pure form Have large molar mass to minimise weighting error Be soluble in distilled water Not react with gases in atmosphere Have an accurately known chemical formula Key Words: Aliquot: The acid/base of known concentration Titre: The acid/base of unknown concentration Equivalence Point: The point of neutralisation End Point: The point where the indicator changes colour Calculation of Concentration: This equation is used to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution: The solution of known concentration always has a volume of 25mL unless stated otherwise A rough first run must be done at the beginning to known roughly the volume needed to reach equivalence point

Qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system Buffers control the level of acidity of a solution and are usually made up of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base The mixture uses an equilibrium reaction to maintain the hydrogen ion concentration at a constant level, although large amount of strong acid/base has been added An example of a buffer in a natural system is human blood (pH = 7.4) When an acid is added: When a base is added: Therefore, the products are always those that are already in the system. pH is maintained Analyse information from secondary sources to assess the use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to minimise damage in accidents or chemical spills When there is an accidental chemical spill, there are three ways to minimise the damage: Neutralise with a base This is used when the acid spill is too large and the concentration is very high. Adding a base will neutralise the acid. But there is a potential to cause further damage when the mixture become too basic Dilute with water This is used when the acid spill is on a person This will minimise the burnt if excess base was used, however the rate of rinsing must be large

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Add carbonate This is the most preferred option because: This reaction with acid will give a visual indication as CO2 gas is produced, and once gas formation has stopped, the solution has neutralised. Excess carbonate will not cause damages.

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5. Esterification is a naturally occurring process which can be performed in the laboratory
Describe the differences between the alkanol and alkanoic acid functional groups in carbon compounds Alkanols are alcohols derived from alkanes, they have the functional group of OH E.g. Ethanol (C2H5OH) Alkanoic Acid are carboxylic acids derived from alkanes, they have the functional group of COOH E.g. Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) Both functional group are polar due to the present of hydroxide group Identify IUPAC nomenclature for describing the esters produced by reactions of straight-chained alkanoic acids from C1 to C8 and straight-chained primary alkanols from C1 to C8 Esters (alkyl alkanoate) are a naturally occurring organic (carbon) compound that allows the sweet smell in such things such as fruit and flower. Esters are prepared through the condensation of an alkanol and an alkanoic acid. The general equation is: alkanol + alkanoic acid ester + water Alkanol Alkanoic acid Ester Methanol Ethanoic acid Methyl ethanoate Ethanol Propanoic acid Ethyl propanoate Propanol Butanoic acid Propyl butanoate Butanol Pentanoic acid Butyl pentanoate Pentanol Hexanoic acid Pentyl hexanoate Hexanol Heptanoic acid Hexyl heptanoate Heptanol Octanoic acid Heptyl octanoate Octanol Methanoic acid Octyl methanoate Explain the difference in melting and boiling point caused by straight-chained alkanoic acid and straight-chained alkanol structures As alkanoic acid has twice the amount of hydrogen bonding than alkanols, the melting and boiling point of alkanoic acid is generally higher As chain length increases, melting and boiling point also increases, this is because, as chain length increases, more energy is needed to break the dispersion forces that is between each carbon atom Identify esterification as the reaction between an acid and an alkanol and describe, using equations, examples of esterification Esters are sweet-smelling, volatile organic compound, containing a functional group of -COOH In this diagram, R represents the alkanoic acid, while the R represents the alkanol Esterification is a condensation reaction, therefore water is produced The OH in the alkanoic acid and H in the alkanol will be bonded to form water Esterification is a reversible reaction, where the energy is in the forward reaction; therefore it is an exothermic reaction. Describe the purpose of using acid in esterification for catalysts As esterification is a dehydration reaction, adding a dehydrating agent will quicken the process. Therefore concentrated sulfuric acid is often used. The acid will absorb the water, thus lowering concentration, the esterification equilibrium will shift to the right, therefore, increasing the yield of the process

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Explain the need for refluxing during esterification Refluxing is needed for two main reasons: Heat can be continuously added without any loss of volatile substances No pressure is built, so there is no risk of an explosion Outline some examples of the occurrence, production and uses of esters Natural Occurrence: Esters occurs naturally The mixture of different alkanols and alkanoic acids creates a different smell that is found in nature such as flowers and fruits Octyl Ethanoate will have an orange smell Pentyl Pentanoate will have an apple smell Production and Uses: Esters are produced industrially for many purposes Domestic uses of esters includes: artificial flavourings for foods, nail polish remover and scents for perfumes Short esters are used as industrial solvents while long esters are used to soften hard plastics. Process information from secondary sources to identify and describe the uses of esters as flavours and perfumes in processed foods and cosmetics Esters are industrially produced to mimic flavours and scent found in nature Esters are used in food processing and mixed to produce unique smell for perfume Domestic food flavouring are esters dissolved in ethanol Cosmetics contain esters as scent such as perfume, soap and hand-lotion Other domestic used of esters involve nail polish removers.

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