A A Design R in RODS of Catalogue Four Colours for Cover . I.Frontispiece H Fig.

FASHION DRAWING ^ DESIGN A PRACTICAL MANUAL FOR ART STUDENTS AND OTHERS BY LUIE M. 94 HIGH HOLBORN . BATSFORD LTD. Member of .. CHADWICK Society Fashion Artist the of Women Journalists Member of the Society of Miniaturists LONDON B. T.


but to explain and illustrate the various methods and styles of drawing in general use for recording dresses of different types. though all its branches will be. is not vainly to record of fashions any particular time. Hampstead. the fashion students are discouraged by the master. with their manifold detail accessories. much may have altered by Dame Fashion's The aim of the book. of nothing can take the practice. 1926. the fashions sometimes change so is rapidly that by the time the book safely through the printer's decree. the technique of representing fabric. that a book dealing with the subject in practical assistance. hands. I think. but principally. however. place of intensive personal study and There are some classes in connection with Schools of Art. do not quite know the reason. and several have closed down. but I these are very few. So many young people aie seeking a career and wish to take up Fashion Drawing. and artists did that most of the celebrated not disdain any kind of painting. and not an up-to-date fashion book. The illustrations have been carefully selected to show the methods of painting for reproduction. . but they were chosen to-day.PREFACE This book on Fashion Drawing and Design is intended to be a text book for Fashion Artists. who usually affects to despise fashion drawing and tells the students he wishes for " real art. CHADWICK. fashion drawings in different stages. August. and the values of light and shade." instead of raising the standard them to go in and showing them how much good drawing is essential. and at it is hoped that a representative review on these lines has been brought together. I hope. even the signs of L. coaching inns. The modes may not be those if of the very latest moment.

Jays (Figs. advertising managers. 69. Aquascutimi for the powerful drawings by Mr. 114) Daily Express The Daily News and Star (Figs. (Fig. . . drapery firms and editors of newspapers and magazines. 66. 168). . 58. Harry who placed so many books of reference at my disposal. buted illustrations by Soulie. 164. 120) Sons (Fig. 82. 53. The reproduction of fashions published in the loUowing newspapers and magazines have been a great aisset to the book. 71. 142. 36. 113. Marshall and Snelgrove (Pigs. 62. 159). i) and Figs. The Daily Mail (Pigs. for the clever silhouettes John Barker (Figs. 158. 152. 35. III. 85) also Preebody for the drawings by Miss Beatrice Spiller (Figs. the doyen of Fashion Artists (Pigs. 41. Messrs. drawn by Ert6. :o2) Ascough (Fig. I of the Print Room. Messrs. 81. Emile (Figs. 83. (Pig. 61. C. . . 154) and Maison Nicol for studies of Hairdressing Messrs. 77 and 78) to Messrs. V . (Fig. 171) Madam Barri. Amongst other . and Messrs. well-known manufacturers. drawn by Miss Madge Munro) The Lady also The Gentlewoman (Figs. all of whom willingly lent me blocks and drawings to illustrate the different methods of Fashion Drawing. for the facilities he gave plates and the permission to reproduce them. 123). 163) Messrs. . 39. Many thanks are also due to the Director Kensington Museum. 40 and 145) The Celanese Company for Fig. 90). 147) (Figs. also 79 and 80) well-known Luvisca (Figs. 76) periodical widely known for its fine reproductions (Figs. 73. . 89. firms represented by illustrations are Messrs. Gorringe (Figs. 112. an American Vogue (Figs. Phillips and Co. no. 146. . Maclure Macdonald and Co. 116) . 109. . for the characteristic pen drawings of Mr. . 135) and Harper's Bazaar. Jenner (Pigs. (Figs. Derry and Toms (Fig. from a design by Captain Molyneux. 72. . Elliots (Fig. 59. . C. . 51. 153. . Debenham and Messrs.NOTE OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT I must acknowledge the great kindness I have received from everyone. 115. . . Messrs. . 170) Messrs. 151. Messrs. 68. 63. 47. and 52. 63. 166) The Queen (Pigs. 148. Thanks must be given to Messrs. 121). 86. 150. Batsford. Burberry and for the loan of illustrations (Figs. and the courtesy and Art ei La Mode contrikindness of the Editors was most encouraging. Lashwood Messrs. Haggis for the technical notes on his help and advice colour reproduction which appear in Chapter VIII. Roller (Figs. and for also to Mr. Tom Purvis (Figs. 152) whilst special thanks are due to Harrods for the charming Frontispiece Other illustrations were provided by Messrs. 74. . Tlii . . 38. and the Chilprufe Manufacturing Company for the charming drawings of children by Miss Hocknell (Figs. South me for studying old fashion cannot conclude these acknowledgments without thanking Mr. 88. 169). . 149. W. sketches by Miss Bessie 57. 43 and 44. Courtaulds for illustrations of the (Figs. 87) (Figs. A. 160) The Sketch (Pigs. 37. 144. 165) to the Aerograph Company for so kindly allowing me to quote from their booklet on the use of the Aerograph to Messrs. L. 64) Messrs. Hoyle and . 67. 161). 10 1) 119.

WASH DRAWING The method from detail. HOW TO BEGIN of 17 Materials required. first 32 of wash drawing to carried through washes for finished of sketch. Great demand and little competition.CONTENTS Chapter Page PREFACE I. etc. grouping. VI. CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE . Lingerie Graceful figures. simple III. Fine lines and — detail. wool. The danger of too many Chalk to give and wash effect. with instruction the painting texture and IV.. very few artists able to portray real children. 63 How V. studies of drapery. of this method.. to show silk. vii INTRODUCTION 3 II. 112 Natural and simple.. ix . for advertisements. in line. Care in drawing dresses according to age. Red chalk Stippling or cross hatching. pose. LINE DRAWING Line work suitable for catalogue or for newspapers and quick printing. Effects obtained by masses of black. making pencil sketches. 92 The difficulty of its lines.. Different styles of penwork. LINE AND WASH The vogue execution. Measurements of the The necessity of figure. numbers lines.

ribbon. cards. Ideas from old prints.. Quickness and brilliant these. X. flowers. Sketching at difficult warehouses. with suitable games or toys. Designing for magazines and papers. ground. for Landscapes Nursery. and other hat trimmings. MILLINERY The drawing wholesale please. Matt colours. . for 182 Greek. 133 of pretty faces. sports coats. Chinese influence. IX. XI. Cutting out and painting on coloured Colour and the reproduction of colour. golf clubs. not over- crowded. A department High prices given. The curve of the brim. FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 224 A of large stores. seashore or garden children. fruit. BACKGROUNDS Interiors for evening dresses. Furniture. afternoon frocks. for Perspective. restatarant 209 gowns. Branch of Fashion Drawing. Eg3T5tian. The same hat made to look dowdy or smart. How to paint and draw feathers. straw. Dresses Pageants and the Stage. tennis racquets. Two and Show three colour painting for reproduction. rods for sports dress. FASHION DESIGN Fashions of the Middle Ages. effect obtained by using Coloured paper or board for background. FASHIONS IN COLOUR Surface of boards. etc. VIII. Painting on white paper. costumes and play-room. I 155 Cover designs.X Chapter CONTENTS Page VII. Correct fishing accessories. Milliners to The correct angle at which to place the hat or the head.

Commercial and fashion studios. sunshades. sketched by fashion artists for complete catalogues. XIII. etc. Resum6. managers. shoes. bags. Advice upon specialising. Specimens to show. and wholesale houses. 239 Interviewing agents and Working for printers. Bead chains. FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER The Free Lance advertising Artist. 231 gloves. ACCESSORIES Christmas gifts.CONTENTS Chapter xi Page XII. Sketching at shops INDEX 261 . umbrellas.. etc.



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and extravagance of the garments are not cavilled at. well illustrated. even a glorified dressmaker's interest dummy of absorbing and of great value. and papers. is he or she will find that at the end of each period a section to manners and customs. and that is its historical If the student will turn to a good history. and days and months are spent not only in The richness excavation but in the reconstruction of these should relics. but not as a rule serious. natural. as again. and the dress and domestic devoted built life is . but the exquisite workmanship. no difference. . the Drapers' Advertising Managers more fastidious. trimming and ornamentation positively gloated over with the greatest enthusiasm by savants of all countries. There value. and yet when the dress and work fashion is is thousands of years old. was a golden time for the unskilled or partially trained it was thought quite undignified and derogatory to condescend to record fashions. given to the influence of events upon dress. or realisation that climate makes an enormous and environment. and now fashion artists have come into their own and it amateurs. and possibilities and struck out a new line.INTRODUCTION In the seventies and eighties and up to twenty years ago fashion drawing was very stilted and inartistic the figures were out of proportion. magazines life-like figures began to appear in the Fashion editors became more critical. more resembling hour-glasses than human beings. The attitude of the ordinary is drawing either is No thought mind towards fashions and fashion contemptuous or amused. until the present high standard was reached. What idea we have had is of this splendid civilisation without the wonderful care taken in the detail of dress. Then a few artists saw the Graceful. another aspect of the fashion art.

and wish you to imderstand that their love of dress. And if more is required. doves. colours the origin of Craft Guilds. black cloth for a mantle — such as shall be without a rival in the world. : and you are not to return the money if any is left after buying the things which I want. blue cloth for a camora.4 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN records. of chivalry. velvets of oriental make. the costumes are often copied If up from contemporary from brasses and left effigies in the churches. and has adapted to the kind of led by the The age Great epochs of history made equally great changes in dress. I had rather be without it. a patron of arts and a strong very fine Rheims linen finely and character. spirit of the age has generally manifested itself itself in life the dress of the time. rare perfimies. for I had rather be in your debt so long as you bring me the latest novelties. no record had been we should have been much historical novels the poorer in knowledge. In a letter to an agent who was going to France she writes " I send you a himdred ducats. dress. and eagles. wrought rings. and lost considerably in interest many if would have dress could not have been described. bracelets (finer than any sample)." Beatrice d'Este was cultured. The is history of dress can only be touched upon. brocades patterned all over with leopards. the birth of civilisaeach age left its mark upon the civil and domestic life and It may be interesting to refer to some historical characters Beatrice d'Este is a good example. But these are the kind of things that I wish to have engraved amethysts. as this book to be essentially a technical one. the Crusades which brought wonderful new fabrics. but are to spend it in buying some gold chain or anything else that is new and elegant. Murano silver. spend that too. and jewels from the East. tion. if it costs ten so long as it is of real excellence. never mind I only as good as those which I see other people wear. her devotion to clothes certainly did not indicate weakness. even ducats a yard If it is . rosaries of black amber and gold. and incidentally was The Renaissance. glass. The people." She besought an envoy in Venice at one time to get her " immediately silks. .

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3 and 10). The same period showed great extravagance in women's dress.INTRODUCTION Queen Elizabeth. are the thing. Pepys. own and says it is " vastly becoming. did not despise dress. One over the right temple perhaps. and the Marie Stuart cap and collar are often revived. and in her letters describes " My new dresses and caps. Women did not take part in games. a clever." want two new coloured gowns for the summer {see Figs. cap has come home. shaped round the face exactly like fullness at the left ear. Frances Bumey refers to this in Evelina. the Macaronis and Dandies of their day with their clouded canes. Beau Nash. . however. one of our greatest monarchs. Bath. Women and were not alone in their love of dress. the Prince Regent. etc. I mean to buy in In another letter she says " : " I shall . and were driven in a coach or carried in sedan chairs. one also hers fit is white sarsenet and laces of a different shape from mine. wigs. wonderful ruler and very strong-minded. to get more than one of them. so the hoops and spread-out skirts did not as incommode them as much we should think. My cap has a peak Large full bows of very narrow ribbon (old twopenny) in front. Jane Austen. more for morning wear. speaks frequently in his diary of both his his wife's dress. Fanny has intended for. " for my pink one will not do more than clear me from Steventon. and that is to be a plain the other. over i. The hair was powdered and dressed to a prodigious height. he was very witty and the life of the . it 9 crowded with dresses. which like is what it is and is in shape exceedingly our own satin and lace of last it. witty politician. with pipes and more and a round crown inserted behind. but it was really a man who wore stockings of that colour and attended the literary symposiums and salons. had a wardrobe and yet she was a rival.ooo is said. I shall not trouble you. which is brown cambric musUn for morning wear to be a very pretty yellow and white cloud." In the eighteenth century much time and money was spent by Beau Brummel. her was also devoted to the toilet. another intellectual. lace ruffles. and I like it very much." A learned woman is called a blue stocking. Marie Stuart. and another winter.

We all know what care is taken in dressing a play. swept in ample folds to her feet. And not to speak of the manner in which these of the a — cherry-coloured decorations brightened her eyes. which was of purple. and worn the merest trifle on one side just enough. and description of dress is not only valuable from an historical point of view." Thackeray in Vanity Fair describes in his inimitable manner Becky Sharp's dress on going to Court. and. was lappets. and upon the top of that hood straw hat trimmed with cherry-coloured ribbons. quickly spied out the magnificence of " the brocade of Becky's train." Again we have the fascinating Dolly Varden "As of to Dolly. Some noted men and women have been hat. Abraham The illustrating and orchid. and turned sUghtly upward. superb diamonds. a graceful buckle on the left shoulder. the very pink and pattern good little smart Uttle cherry-coloured mantle. ii. The toilet was now arranged according to the last mode of Rome. the various rings fitted to every joint of the white and slender fingers. to make it the wickedest and most provoking head-dress that ever malicious milliner devised. — — " Lady Jane and all . which were cased in slippers.— 10 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN company. such as Gladstone's collar.) — . Novelists have always been very particular in portraying the heroine's dress. there she looks.. richly wrought with threads of gold and clasped by interlacing serpents and lastly. Chamberlain's eyeglass distinguished by some Lincoln's eccentricity in dress. in a again. but of inestimable use to novelists and playwrights. with a hood same drawn over her head. if of bygone times.. {See Fig. and the rest. . and the splendour of the lace on her dress. in which was set an exquisite cameo of Psyche the girdle of purple riband. as do the Turkish slippers at this day . any anachronism is quickly noticed and pointed out. fastened round the slender ankle by white thongs while a profusion of pearls were embroidered in the slipper itself. and when he appeared the " blue stockings " were hailed with delight. or vied with . and we get a vivid description of Julia's toilet in The Last Days of Pompeii " Julia's tunic of a deep amber. in short. which well set off her dark hair and somewhat embrowned complexion. ." later on he says : The particulars of Becky's costume were in all newspapers —feathers.

Colonel Dent's black satin dress. and was so surrounded and hemmed in. is The dress of to-day a particularly happy one book of this kind. 5) In our own country. 6. her scarf of rich foreign lace.— INTRODUCTION her lips. 4 have the long sleeves and at the present time. is pictured in well-worn tweeds." (See Fig. Horace Vernet. fashion plates were carried out with great artistry. 2. she wore such a cruel had such a heart-rending pair of shoes. and a shawl turban of some goldwrought Indian fabric. are The Fig- figure in the brilliant silk is worn by William and can be [See taken as a very good example of how to paint silk or satin. in a modified form. girl. 7. up to the time of Victorian era.A. whose crimson velvet robe. as the style ranges from the Egyptian 3000 touches ..) The two ladies in Fig. Well-known artists sketched for the Lady's Magazine. and Charlotte Bronte also gave minute pictures of dress. pleased me . overskirt which. li new bloom on her face. and used all their talent in depicting the dresses and accessories." or shed a little muff. The staunch." " But the most distinguished was the Dowager Lady Ingram.C. sensible shoes and pull-on hat in the evening she is in a simple frock.. invested her with a truly imperial dignity. . and very much a sportswoman. especially in her celebrated book Jane Eyre. such as those by Paris R. 4 and 5. and her pearl ornaments. If we go back to 1790 or 1815-20 we find fashion plates were drawn and designed.) for a B.) perament. who devoted himself to fashion plates of the The beauty of the execution will [See Figs. Watteau Fils was one of these. in which she makes Jane depict the dress and character of Mr. genuine EngUsh somewhat of a hoyden. as it were.. and wearing jade ear-rings —her unsophisticated rival in white and pearls. by aggravations of all Hnds. Holler. her healthy sunburn contrasting with the exotic bloom of the adventuress. At the present time colour and fabric are used to denote temThe intriguing adventuress is clad in diaphanous purple with a long chain of jade beads round her neck. and including the Early skill and [See Fig. and others. also beautifully Incroyables and Merveilleux. be noticed in some of the illustrations we are showing. Rochester's guests " Mrs.

9. Fig. and even coquetting with the high hats and stiff flowers of 1897-8." the caps. . to encourage the would-be fashion artists and make them are they by no means obscure factors in the social life of the daj-. Walking Dress To reconcile all these differences of period requires knowledge whether we feel and wide reading. but I think I have said sufficient. 8. not leaving out quaint touches of the early Victorian (see Figs.— — 12 FASraON DRAWING AND DESIGN the Plantagenet in jumpers and sleeves. 8 and 9). the hoop and skirts after the " Beggar's Opera. consider the value of historical or modem aspects of dress. turbans and hats from the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. head-dresses. Early Victorian Fig.

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12. .i6 Fig. Preliminary Pencil Sketch of Figure.

it is better to select a good board. back view. but with care they last a long time. and having modelled my style on these foimdations. Noah. at all. 12. {See Figs. and teach myself to draw living figures. a wooden-like body k la Mrs. boards with no surface are better. finished drawings a good general art shop will keep Cheap boards can be used for practice. pressed both for line and wash. The surface should be hot .n HOW TO The BEGIN instruction in Fashion Drawing fonnerly given to a beginner was to draw a model figure which consisted of an egg-shaped face. stony and mechanical appearance. Hot pressed paper and Bristol board can be used for line work. with a narrow waist and a skirt drawn from a dressmaker's dummy. Two or three of these figures should be drawn every tmtil the student can put a smart figure on the cardboard ready for any style of dress. kneeling. but for . . 16. will be needed by the fashion artist are the chief outlay will be brushes. sitting. It is necessary to have some guide to correct figure-drawing and yet to avoid a stiff. I suffered from this kind of lesson myself. 17 and 18. These pencil roughs should not be finished up is as it is not detail that being aimed at but movement and day life. etc. not dummies. It is better to begin your study of Fashion Drawing by making numbers of pencil sketches of the figure in every pose you can see or think of. for furs especially in black and white and colour. had to mileam\it all again.) MATERIALS REQUIRED The materials which not numerous or costly . such as figures walking. Boards vary considerably several makes.

8. quickly gained. Ivory or Lamp-Black. 2. the preliminary steps will soon be passed. The paint for wash drawing can be Persian Black Process. Albanine Process or Chinese White. be absolutely accurate but appears only a lay figure. White paint must be used for the high lights and white lace. find materials i. No. Sable Brushes and Crowquill Pens. Water Colour Boards for Fashions in Colour. Process White or Chinese White. Board or Hot-pressed Paper for Line. which the musician plays over and over again until he is perfect. To get the sketches correct as well as full of life. measurement a compass marked and with paper centre of the drawn down the recommend the should This is not the way I off in sections. Persian Black Process. cover Matt colours are the best for show cards. Matt Colours for Show Cards. The last three are in tubes Ordinary water colours are used for fashions designs. Water Colours in Tubes. The student wUl begin with. of proportions . 6. in colour. 7.. 659 will be found most satisfactory. Coloured Paper for Show Cards and Chalk Drawings. 5. 6. Crowquill pens are the best. quite sufficient to Notes on Illustrations and if the student will look upon these pencil sketches as he would scales in music. 5. 4. some Generally a line is must be made. l8 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN For Line Drawing. : Process or Fashion Boards for Bristol Wash Drawing. and ease and facility Practice is everything. 3. List of materials required 1. etc. . 2. this should be Albanine. 7. The method I have adopted and found most successful in teaching then is to make the beginner draw in the figure very sketchily and figure may measure the height and other proportions. etc. At this stage it is easily corrected without spoiling the freedom of the sketch. ivory or lamp-black. black. 9.

19 Fig. Pencil Sketch of Draped Figure. . 13.


Fig. . Shows a Characteristic Study of Hands. 15. drawn by Lord Leighton.Fig. 14. A Chalk Drawing by Lord Leighton showing a back view of a Figure Nude and Clothed.



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HOW TO The BEGIN 25 MEASURING first measurements need only be the height and very simple is ones of the limbs. and between these the proportion taken from the chin to the pupil of the eye. 15) as it is impossible to give diagrams of every position. THE HEAD The head should rules will be a help also if it be studied from life. the top of the nose. If the fingers are spread out they span the face from chin to the top of the forehead. the elbow is raised above this line in a slight or greater degree according to its inclination. is The length of the hand about the length of the face. the width between being deeper than The upper lid is much . the distance and from that to the top points is equal. the elbow comes level with the waist line the arm hanging down. The comer of the mouth to the outside comer of the eye is equal in space to the distance from the comer the face is also divided of the eye to the middle of the ear. and the third to the point of the chin. the height of 7^ heads. If from the nose to the chin into three parts. and the student will find that very young woman is children only measure 4 heads. The head a taken as the basis of measurement. THE EYES The eyes should be placed equal to the width of an eye. increasing to 6 and 7 as they older. of the head. 20) The arm and hand reach is to half way between the waist and if the knee. grow THE ARM AND HAND {See Fig. the dip underneath the second part. It is very necessary to study the hand from life {see Fig. and the chin. a child's head is much larger in proportion. the line of the The head can eyebrows. also be divided into three parts. well apart. The pupils if of the eyes are is about the middle of the head. fingers should be tapered others . even in The and the middle finger longer than the an outline drawing the nails should be indicated. the mouth will be one-third down from the nose. If the arm is bent. that of a man 8 heads. but a few simple has to be drawn without a model.

Also draw the lines of the clavicle. The pupil very dark and surrounded by an of different colours.26 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN it is the lower one. and lip the most accurate description. and great care must be taken that the eyes are both looking the same way. The foot forms an arch. shown in the drawing. the weight resting on the ball in front and on the heel. The eye moving as it does on a pivot can be turned in every direction. although poets allude to the heroine's is mouth as a rosebud. The upper the exact curve taken by the traditional bow. cherry lips. if only emphasise these too much or it will give a bony appearance to the neck and shoulders. the foot at the back should be heel. but the upper lip folds over the lower one. the line of the and curved into a hollow between the two and this dip should always be indicated. point coming to the centre of the clavicle. Illustration The ankle bone should be noted and When the figure is walking. the string. There are two muscles which also come to a point at the depression in the neck and start from the ears. not taut the comers of the lips do not meet in a point. the under lip like . these lines form a triangle. lid at wider in the centre and folds over the lower is one comer and is more heavily fringed to protect the iris eye. the where there is the widest space in front points of the clavicle. . MOUTH A that perfect is mouth is generally described as a cupid's bow. The raised mounds of the lower lip fit into the depressions in the upper one. This arch or high instep is considered a form of beauty and also of good descent. but also curved. LEGS AND FEET Again taking the head as a basis of measurement. the distance from the top of the head to the knee measures 5J heads and the ankles 7 heads. but do not slightly. etc. it is liquid and reflects the light. with half a head to the sole of the foot. NECK The neck and shoidders neck is full are very important. the ball of the foot raised from the ground at the and toes .

19. Draped Figure. Preliminary Pencil Sketch. i8. is The pencil sketch of standing figure seen clothed in evening shawl or wrap. . Fig.2'J Fig.



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{See Figs. When these few proportions have been studied and mastered. garments according to the pose. tweed or washing amount of detail can be form a prehminary exercise to the dress designing which comes later on in studying Fashion Drawing. is better studied before other methods. even the student afterwards specialises in line or other medium. sitting figures can be drawn on the same page. 13. I think. sports coats. A it certain put into these sketches and will GROUPING At If this stage some grouping may also be attempted. river dresses.HOW TO resting BEGIN level 31 on the ground at an acute angle with the foot when stepping out. one and two and one standing. the student will soon be able to begin wash drawing. . detail until a certain sureness has DRAPING THE FIGURE The next step should be to clothe these figures in appropriate {See Fig. 14 and 19.) on figures in action.) . it is useless for him to begin the painting or been gained. the proportions are studied and quick sketches made every if day. which. 22. the pencil sketches can be corrected and the student's power of drawing quickly and correctly can be gauged . or coatfrock on a walking figure or restaurant frocks Draw a costume an afternoon on a sitting figure gown .

Then proceed to wash in the face." made clear and The boards will required for wash drawing should be Fashion or Process boards with hot-pressed surface. dry and then begin to paint. as it is sometimes difficult to erase after the water is washed on.) H. are all two or three good the materials needed. It is used for catalogues or magazines. and sable brushes. figure.Ill WASH DRAWING Now known comes a more fascinating stage in Fashion Art what is as " Wash Drawing. any of these with Albanine and Process white. which I deal with later on. but what we call " slick. It is a good plan to wash over the part you wish to paint with water and rtm in the black while it is wet this gives roundness to the face. which is sometimes this impossible to get out. draw in the details of the dress. very lightly. The sketch should then be washed When you are satisfied fixes the pencil. not hard and opaque. beginning dark part of the hair. a and paint a soft shadow Wash in the head. Persian black." This is really water-colour painting — in black and white for reproduction. so care over with plain water. pencil.B.H. Process black. not hard. with the pose. except for furs. with an 24. painting in first all the delicate shadows and indicating the features. few delicate lines to indicate hairs. this prepares the board and to some extent must be taken not to leave a wrong line. with the principal shadows and which should be painted in very strongly. keeping it quite simple with very few lines. hair. or H. using plenty of water with Let your black so that it may flow easily and dry light and smooth. so the dress and detail must be sharp. Sketch on your board a smart (See Fig. and some modelling . . If the brush is dry the black leaves a hard line. leaving the high lights to make it look soft and fluffy and like Where the hair touches the face.

22. 23. . by Lord Leighton. ^^ Muffs and other articles of Dress and Toilet. Fig. Study of Drapery.33 Fig. drawn by Hollar.

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then the first washes. The .36 Fig. 24. The Wash Drawi First the Pencil Sketch with detail drawn in .

26.'iG. . Fig. 25. all IX THREE SUCCESSIVE STAGES. id illustration shows the finished design with the details carefully worked up.



27. . Fig. Details in Wash. 29. Wash Drawings of different materials and patterns Serge and Herringbone. Fig. 28.— 40 Fig.

30.4« Fig. Knitted Wool Coat in Wash. Plaid Shawl in Wash. Fig. 31. .


it is better to leave the face in this state and not finish up entirely. both at the same time if they are painted separately they have the appearance of being a different colour and material. not one part finished up before the other. shade will be noticed in the tones to quite light to a drawing. that this is the reason the beginner spoils the drawing faintly some black is put on and then before that is dry the student tries to correct some imaginary fault. 37. Do often not be afraid of putting on the paint. don't make The same care should be taken with the other parts of the face. dark and clean and the the detail. Take a fairly large brush and wash in very broadly the shadow side of the coat and skirt. When the artist is quite satisfied with the finished wash he can next proceed to detail. THE DRESS For your first attempt at wash drawing choose something simple. as the whole drawing should be worked together. Paint the dark side of the sleeve and the little sharp triangular shadows thrown by the comer . If you have drawn a pretty one. this is the best to begin with. (See Fig. deepen all the shadows on the head and model the features as much as possible. probably the paint is half dry and half wet. (See Fig. 25.WASH DRAWING 43 can be done with the brush while the paint is wet. paint the minor shadows and the Several gradations of following the lines of the figure. folds. . them all When you iris paint the eyes get the pupils quite liquid and transparent. At this stage work up ready for the finishing touches the dress must now be brought up to the same tone until the whole figure only requires black with a dab of white to look like beads. of the collar. such as a plain coat and skirt . from very deep through half these variations make all the difference Before going any further with the dress. but go on to the dress. but every work up shadow and touch should mean something. and a hopeless muddle is the result and the student is in despair. I find .) .) Look over the painting and add any touches to sharpen the effect or take out any mark that should not be there. folds. [See Fig. 26. . with the features lightly painted in.) It is not necessary for quick reproduction to the face like a miniature. When this is dry.

which will help materially to give the lacy effect. it is purely mechanical and only requires practice. and the caprice of Madame Fashion is soon felt in the industrial centres and often makes all the difference between poverty and wealth. For very coarse or torchon lace the whole must be put in with Albanine. getting a certain amount of depth The mesh a thin wash of process white over the dark here and there gives it a filmy look. when the paint is quite dry. Quintin Matsys and numbers including it . braid and buttons will first named.44 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN DETAIL Modem painting ignores detail and all we get is frequently a suggestion of lace. which he wishes to advertise. pictures of You will find this meticulous care of detail in the by old masters. etc. paint Practise the different kinds of lace . For very fine white lace the space should not be dead black. At one season the fashionable woman is of the smothered that in lace. shadows and leave the high light as you would in the of lace. the flowers and tendrils. how they should be LACE The trimming or accessories to a dress depend upon the fashions moment. so we must not despise but. at another there are so many rows of buttons we are irresistibly reminded of Alphonse. This should be touched up in the high to throw up the pattern . To be your able imdoubtedly clever. is formed by cross lines in process white. lights with process white. draw the pattern carefully with process white. of course. veins and dots and let this also dry always be worn. but chiefly in half tones. others. 27. however. but client will usually require the exact pattern of the lace. a glimpse of fur. those known as pre-Raphaelites.) by drawing two lines on your board. Velasquez. the braid or the buttons. safe to assume that lace. or else she It is. a flash of to convey this impression is silk. (See Fig. the page in Nicholas Nickleby. then outline the petals. by blacking in the space to be covered and. blacking in the space between and following the If the trimming on the dress consists of flounces instruction given.. is braided and f rogged like a military attache. with Albanine. the leaves. Let us take several kinds of detail and describe painted. so I will begin with the The method of painting white lace is .

45 Fig. Flounced Silk Skirt. 32. The and Skirt. Notice the way silk is represented by sharp contrasts between dark. light Fig. pattern is darker than the ground but sometimes it is shown lighter. Brocade . 33.



. 34. An Example of painting Velvet.48 ^'w. .3R»:/ Fig.

' .49 K 4 hese illustrate the richness ^ Excellent Fur Drawings by Miss Beatrice Spiller and softness of the material.



S" Fig. . 37. Wash Drawing by Lilian Young.

also lines of process white mixed with black. cross lines in black. This makes all the between an ordinary commonplace dress and an artistic creation. and a half-tone on the shadow like marbles. by artificial light is sometimes most beautiful. with Albanine. evening dresses consist of a girdles. and a little In the high hghts the in the lines made shadows with process white mixed with black. sheaths and armour of The at others bizarre of fashion. shadow has a wider dark line to raise If it the design is thick. with a tiny white spot where the light catches the surface. Black lace is the same method reversed. On is white serge coats and children's sailor dresses white braid This is used. 27) is very usual on costumes or should be tailor- made dresses. tunics. with a sharp. must say a word about embroidery. black dot. little silk At the present time. 53 on this draw the pattern. Sequins are painted in a flat half-circle. light Pearls have a very high side . effect flounces. the from the mesh. Horizontal lines in black are drawn very fine and dose together. The lace is generally made with silk these catch the light. A . draw the detail with black (the flowers or design). etc.WASH DRAWING for a flounce of silk or cloth . Ordinary beads are painted as a round. Draw in your good method is to outline but the drawing must be quite exact as it is the appearance of being raised. and many beads. and we all love glittering things. very simple . draw fine lines in Albanine and in process white for the shadows. the mesh with threads . but like sheep we follow some leader and in every one of us there is something of the child and savage. and a shadow. the pattern in ink. paint delicate touches of process white. but I am deaUng at present with black and white. Avoid making them opaque BRAID Military braid (see Fig.. using Albanine only on the top of the folds and process white in between. The paper underneath the lace is left almost white . so on the top of the flower. A beaded sketch in colour can be made very artistic. beads. fine light on the outside edge. and barbaric. In painting embroidery in wash the student must I difference endeavour to give it design Ughtly in pencil or paint. this gives the beautiful luminous effect so characteristic.

) They lines. If and on the shadow the embroidery is the raised effect. is shown by painting in diagonal lines. 30. the next step . can be drawn across the pattern to give this appearance to is White embroidery simply reversed. client is a wholesale but there many is and if your manufacturer he will require each kind to be properly defined. and this must be shown. and white lines drawn but a dark flower. 28 and 29. It is impossible to describe every kind of detail as new trimmings it is are constantly being invented or resuscitated. DIAGRAMS also Another cloth used in making coats has a herringbone pattern in the weave. {See Fig. 39 and 40) When materials are a plain wash has been satisfactorily accomplished and is studies of detail made. in {See Fig 32. are difficult. . same direction even all straight folds of a skirt must be crossed in the same way. I well remember one of my first attempts when I rounded all the lines over folds. as in some Velour and thick cloth number of subsidiary should be painted by leaving the find a effect. is sufficient for ordinary cloth. the dress can be will still in as I have described. IU. of silk. FABRIC IliUSTRATiONS {See Figs. Paint Uttle strokes to represent side a dark line to give stitches. we edges of the folds slightly irregular to give a soft IlXUSTRATIONS Silk is painted in quite a different liquid manner. Notice if it is coarse or fine serge and draw the lines Serge very usual and all taking care that slant in the — accordingly. following the pattern and made dark as they cross each other.!.— 54 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN washed impossible to erase the ink without injuring the paper for painting. fruit or leaf to shadow under each show it in relief. the result being very clumsy and failing to convey the idea of serge. If the ink is used. and the design embroidery be visible. to experiment until the effect is and necessary obtained.) Plaids are painted in the same way as the plaids serge. {See Figs. to try to paint different the plain wash varieties.) Mix the paint very and washy and put on a direct manner.U3TRATIONS SmAI. white lines it.

I t .

Fig. 40. Fig. 38. . Fur in Wash.\. Two Blouses good EXAMPLES OF SILK TREATMENT. of Luviskc.

Again. . 35. way they are treated so it is with furs —^heads and is tails one year. the fur chosen skunk.. leaving high . FURS Fur is considered the most difficult to paint and specialise in this.) is real thing. Wash over with plain water and paint in the blacks . Don't let the white go on to the very black parts. in a few irregvdar touches give the silky effect. a few dashes of Albanine will give the required brilliance to Satin is not so sharp. of the drapery are sharp folds . varies in the . the paint must also be mixed very very black. 33. and then paint it as near as possible to the (See Fig. but with two half-tones. but where the two meet. {See Fig. beginning. notice that it it is generally made up of different strands.) softness. in moleskin the skin made into squares. soften with your brush before the paint is dry. and light part let Begin the colour flow over the light parts wet the and run in some process white. richness The principal effect to and depth there are no hard lines in fur. 57 The edges between the and should be left light. This is Sketch in the its best points. Try to get and then it. the folds are heavy and the high light not of the fold. on the top light. but even these do not lose their depth. (See Fig. WASH DRAWING deciding beforehand where the light and dark will be. pliable furs fall into the Sable and ermine and very soft folds most fascinating where wrapped round the shoulders. but perhaps fringe or big fur bottoms. stripes and other rather eccentric patterns.) For velvet. (See Fig. one each side the liquid. very important as there a certain fashion. neither the next. which. wet it all over and wash the paint on. these cannot be too black. this as far as possible without white until the very last. Black fox or skunk taking care to show is is Some are and little creases more stubborn fur. as I have said. with the very blacks before the board has time to dry. 23. Guide the paint.) If the whole dress is of velvet. some artists and by constant practice are able to paint any aim at is fur required. 34. new mode If Sketch in the figure in the best position to show the shape and of the fur. comparatively easy. like other fabrics.

but where the black and light line is irregular. drawing may I of in some cases your client may wish the coat to be longer. making the hairs The little tails add wonderfully very much shorter. Fig.58 lights. such as For ermine follow the same directions. furs. to the realistic rendering of ermine. FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Before it is dry paint little lines from the edge of the black in the direction of the hairs in the fur. 42).) White fur is. (See The hairs being so fine it is almost impossible to It takes much define them. These hairs from one strand come over the next paint the hairs over one. and moire effect silk are painted in a similar Pony skin method. The high lights should never be covered even with a faint tone (see Fig. then wash over the light part and nm in some Albanine. treated in a different manner. also the outside line is in irregular folds with fur suggested. 38. This describes the method for long-haired white fox. but the hairs are it is much longer and is not divided into strands. Feather ruffles and stoles of course are treated like fur. and they can only be suggested. 36. When these are deep enough in tone. To say they must be as fine as hairs exactly describes the effect at which the student must aim.) practice to paint these successfully. alterations may be necessary. of course. Seal very similar to velvet. the skirt . deep and soft. and that some be. shadows very delicately while the board is wet. {See Fig. I furs of whatever kind CORRECTING A WASH must not leave the subject of wash drawing without speaking It is inevitable. the hair making the difference. meet the with little hairs all painted in. It is impossible to get a dean wash with any black paint imder- Begin by a wash of plain water and then paint in the neath. however careful your making corrections. must repeat most emphatically that must look rich. Sable and beaver are very difficidt as a very rich must be given and soft creases and folds indicated. let it thoroughly dry. and IlXUSTRATIONS Black fox is painted in nearly the same way. drawing very fine lines from the white over the dark parts. so leave a little light between each it.


Fig. 41.

Example of Wash

Fig. 42.

White Fur is better shown with a dark background and the shadows quite soft.

shorter, a different hat or


some other sometimes




again, the dress



beautiftilly finished


the figure quite spoilt

by an ugly




take the latter

There is one way in which to make a drastic change by putting on a new head. Of course, this is a last recourse, but I have been asked to do up an old drawing and paint a different head and up-to-date hat. This is done by taking an accurate measurement of the space to be filled you then paint a head on a separate piece of cardboard (the same surface as the one you wish to alter). When you have finished the face, peel off the top layer of paper. Do this gradually, damping it if it sticks, cut out the painted head and fix it on the neck of the figure where the edges touch the board. Some hair can generally be painted over them to hide the join. It is better to cut away

and that



the old head, but sometimes this


not necessary





done very carefully the alteration cannot be detected in the


dress can also be altered.


a small sponge at one of the

art shops, or

you are

in a

hurry cut a small piece from your bath

sponge and

tie it to

the top of an old paint brush, winding the cotton

round and round.

Sponge out the part you wish to


clean water (the black paint does not always

come out and the



necessary to use a typewriter ink eraser).

the board dry thoroughly after being sponged before using
if it is

the rubber ;




the surface would be quite spoilt



This in a lesser degree applies to the sponging

should be done gently and the surface of the paper
the part you wish to change has been taken out begin to
first instance,



paint in as you would do in the

stippling in


roughness or uneven spots.

One chapter


be entirely devoted to backgrounds, so I
in white

explain the principles of those later on, but frequently
dressed or light material
it it

when the


necessary to

paint dark round the figure to show


If this is

not properly

done a hard

line shows,

which much detracts from the appearance

of the picture.


the figure


partly washed

wet the board

or partly round the figure.

While the paper

all round wet paint in very


figxire, shading in the same way that a photograph With your brush guide the paint, or if you think it

black near the



not dry smoothly, you can blow the paint from dark to




wash drawing

{see Fig. 41.)


the student will follow these instructions

should not be

difficult to paint

a good wash drawing, but every artist has his or


own pons


and must work hard to get across to reach

success on the other side.




more variety in the method of line drawing than in As a mle two or even three people can work on one wash wash. drawing, and then when a few finishing touches have been made
by the

original artist the

whole looks

fairly equal, of course


quite the

same as

if it

had been the work

of one artist only.

drawing there


a wonderful difference.


at the


drawings in the daily papers, some simply outlined, others almost having the effect of an etching {see Fig. 44), such as Pegram's or



This chapter on line drawing would certainly be incomplete without referring to the Burberry advertisements. This method

frequently seen in American magazines.

C. Roller is the artist,


do not remember any others quite






should advise the student to specialise either in line or wash,

and get as much originality and individuality into his work as possible. At the same time the ordinary fashion artist should have a good working knowledge of all the methods, so that he or she is
never taken at a disadvantage.

At the present time there seems to be more demand for fashions The reason for this is partly cheapin line than for those in wash. change in the style of magazine illustrations ness and partly the and the influence of French and American artists.

Of course, there has always been a considerable amount of drawing used and occasionally some of the West End houses have brought out their catalogues entirely in this way. Very few materials are required for line drawing, Indian ink the Mandarin and Dragon are good makes crow quill pens and a lining-in brush, which I will speak of later on, pencils and rubber


The boards should

with typewriter's ink-€raser for corrections.

be Bristol or Clifton boards or hot-pressed paper.

The student should


drawing any number of lines

with the pen, some curved and some straight, some thick and some

Figs. 43



method from any of

Illustrates the use of numerous lines and is the others reproduced

a different



This can be done with the same pen, making the difference by putting more pressure on the pen for the thick lines. These lines should be unbroken, sure and firm, not ragged and uneven. However fine the line is drawn, it need not be scratchy, or it will come out badly in reproduction and is not good pen work. The whole drawing must look clear and the blotted appearance seen in some line drawings is the result of faulty lines. Crosshatching is not used quite so much now as it was some years ago,

but I have seen very effective drawings

made with

the entire

backgroimd cross-hatched.

To form

this cross-hatching, the lines

drawn slanting


one direction and then crossed by other

lines slanting in the opposite

way, or upright


can be made with

the lines



a horizontal direction.




chosen, the cross lines should not be put in until the other
If crossed

lines are dry.

when the ink




makes a

where the

lines meet.


the student feels he has mastered
clean sweeping stroke with his

the different lines and can

make a

pen, a figure can be attempted.
Studies of

drapery and simple figures can

be drawn with

ink in the same


as the preliminary studies for

wash drawings.

It is necessary to begin

with simple lines although

it is difficult.

and in the end finds he has fallen between two methods and failed in both, making too many lines for a simple figure and too few for a highly
Usually the student keeps on adding line after

finished one.


the figure carefully in pencil and look


over and correct

faults before beginning

with ink, as line



difficult to

correct than wash.

The head {see Fig. 45) should be inked first, the hair indicated by a few curved strokes following the waves, the features only
outlined with the exception of the eyes, for these a black spot

made for the pupil and a line drawn rotmd for the iris, of course, shaped according to the direction in which the eyes are looking.

In outline figures, the mouth


sometimes blacked in but this

not the best



the upper lip and lower one are better drawn

separately, each with the correct form.

Line drawing with detail . 45.— Fig.

on the hair and by further. under the hat brim. . but when the details are examined any fine lines Very criticism of line. is turned into admiration for the wonderful delicacy [See Fig. including hands and feet. blown Fig. Even with is these extra lines. buttons. . the student can try the effect of conveying ideas by these simple lines. niggling lines.) B . line with some shading naturally follows simple is the preliminary work the same. billowing out. collar. by the eyes. and when this is dry. belt. but for the quick printing and block-making needed for newspaper work. seams. and although several EngUsh artists make use of this black no one does it in quite the same way. They are quite xmique. I in a high have seen a figure having the appearance of walking wind and this impresssion was entirely produced by the if way the lines were drawn in sweeping curves as the dress was gale. the whole kept to simple lines the drawing will be more effective without any shading.LINE DRAWING The 67 face proving satisfactory. the dress can next be lined in. must be clean and Nothing more fatal to a reproduction in a newspaper than weak. 43. the neck. MASSES OF BLACK and masses of black are illustrated by these drawings by Erte from Harper' sBazaar. 51. 46.) Newspaper line. Always work on the left side first the effect is obtained more quickly and there is not the danger of smudging the lines by touching these with the hand in drawing.) by a March wind or autumn {See Illustration (See Figs. the pencil sketch and the inked outline. he can add the inside details such as the coat. the student can outline the entire figure. the drawing all straightforward with the lines sharp and refined. 53 and 57. If the subject chosen for the first line sketch is a costume. the pen and ink must be carried lines The outside line must be much stronger and very black tmder the sleeves and under the coat or jumper lines also showing the folds of the skirt are usually put in and even a few on the face. At first sight the term eccentric is usually appUed to them. . Before proceeding to more elaborate line.

Some advertisements show first figure. then with a fine brush put in quite black shadows. 46. Simple Lines blacking in certain shadows. this very strongly. Begin by lining in as in the making the lines thicker and stronger.— 68 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN In these Erte also displays so much imagination that the dis- paraging remarks about fashion drawing can easily be silenced. To supplement the simple lines a good effect is obtained by Fig. the shadow side of the sleeve and coat following .

Line Drawing using Mechanical Tint . 47.— UNE DRAWING 69 Fig.

Showing Shawl and Embroidery . 48.— Fig.

. is impossible to do this unless the drawing elaborated. Fig. 49. the edge of the coat against the skirt. 54 and 56). Method of indicating Serge ILLUSTRATION Your client.— LINE DRAWING 71 the shape of the folds and creases. serge {see Fig. The . {See Figs. etc. however. wishes you to show clearly to his customers is that the dress offered for sale made and in silk. the triangtdar bit under the re vers. it is woven or brocade material. If this is followed out a good strong drawing will be produced. 49).

Woollen check and material in Lint. before begin- ning the other part think how you must convey the idea of Fig. . 50. For silk (see Fig. I different materials.— 72 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Then preliminary drawing must be just as careful as for the outline figure and all the principal lines should be^drawn first in. 55) up his own style on these draw straight lines broken and in the lighter part where the light falls on the top of the fold. can give some directions and the student must practise these until he can build foundations.

— LINE DRAWING 73 Fig. Pen Drawing by Erii . 51.

Study of Detail .— 74 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Fig. 52.

lace and this seeming carelessness.. all Be and original Don't be a poor imitation study from these good artists and 58. and velvet. In some cases the client will request the artist to show that the jumper or coat is made of Shetland wool. best way to try all these methods and then specialise in his style.) then strike out a line for yourself. and this done by lines each side the fold nearly wide to show the woolly substance. the penmanship shows great freedom. not straight. left and the fold horizontal. silk and lace are. line should be wavy. dashed in. is The one. The dresses are quite original and show the trend of fashion in France. but if the drawings are examined the student will find method in The lines follow the drapery. If {See Figs. there is no attempt at the merely pretty pretty and obviously sketched from life. thin lines which show exactly what clever they are meant for. expressed by masses and narrow high lights left white. rather resembling forked lightning this is for light For black or dark silk thick lines close together should be drawn and the folds blacked in with a brush. 57 advertisements are examined it will be seen that artists have made experiments with the pen more or less effectively. A knitted golf coat {see Fig. is a Barribal. leaving the high but against these the is lights. There is another style which I will call the "Souli6. a Shepperson. 53). it Every artist is known by and without seeing the signature we can generally tell . little lines 75 . others bordering on the eccentric . so in the Salon of 1885 might be a fashion much it reflects the mode of the day. a Lucie Attwell the difference . you might say. and zigzag lines joined to loops have to be put in to satisfy his requirements. so different from Erte that it is difficult to realise that both use the humble pen and ink. ! LINE DRAWING draw silk. A black fur cloak can the edge to show of black it is be put in quite black with Velvet again is little lines round hair. is unmistakeable. 50) or woollen dress should be made to look thick." I This is neither outline nor elaborated in the it is way have just described and the drawing good. Soulie's drawings are strong and virile . some very clever with a touch of genius. chiffon are drawn with light. Another great master of line is the French artist Soulie {see Fig. It is interesting to see that the reproduction of Soulie's picture plate.

53.— Fig. Drawing by SoulH .

hands. as there are windows and a suggestion of landscape outside. it There was a sketch in an old magazine was carried out in wash and line and it should perhaps have come under that heading.— LINE DRAWING and of 77 no permanent value. obviously in a carriage. but the clever manipulation of line which gave it was essentially the unique distinction. and silk stockings was entirely drawn in perpendicular lines. . P*S. The picture consisted of two sitting figures. to advertise silk stockings. — Tweed The whole drawing with the exception of the face. a man and a girl.54- Brocade in Line 56.


Fig. — Newspaper Advertisement: Furs in Line and Mechanical Tint . 58.

— 8o FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Fig. Roller . Line drawing by C. 59.

which . the expressed by the line being made very much darker and broader. the student will probably think that they are wash and line drawings. torchon.) is we are told there The same applies to nothing new under the may be true. 60. the cushioned seat. his suit. hands and silk stockings are carefully washed DETAIL IN LINE I think it is more difficult in sMie ways it is to draw lace in line. the man's hat. The detail is shown by white spaces where the straight line pauses and then is carried on. 57).— LINE DRAWING and it is 8i the wonderful way in which these different objects. and then be told by some Victorian that it is only book muslin imder another name. There is no infallible recipe and a question of experimenting is new patterns are constantly brought out and the artist filet lace expected to depict Irish crochet. materials. but this is not so . but still straight. the face. In Harrod's advertisement illustration and" the one from "ly'Art et la Mode " (Fig. Fig. Details in Line As I said before. The shadows are girl's hat. and a trolly are seen through the window. 60. their shoes. Valenciennes. in. Many of the illustrations I am giving here are the result of my own sun. although {See Fig. his stick and her hanging bag. —whichever holds the passing fancy. her dress. the printer has shaded them by a mechanical process. . but if we are asked to design a dress of organdi we may wonder what it is like.

6i. white lace is better indicated by the design left white and the square holes in the mesh . Detail in Line : Celanese by a few crossed lines. and I shall only give you those that have been successful. coarse. leaves or design fine lines. For in fine lace the flowers. and outlined with very must be lightly drawn The mesh should be shown Fig. Thick. Extra lines should also be drawn to show the way the lace falls.— S2 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN experiments. but not too many or the lace will look hard and stiff. these follow the folds and are drawn in a different direction to those of the mesh.

shewing the thichness and depth with very few Hnti. 62.Fig. This White Fur Coat drawn by Miss Hilda Russell is a very good example. .

(See Fig. or three usual furs. Wash lends itself so easily to the fluffiness. and in line impossible to get the same effect. too often a drawing of fur else.) I will take Black skunk has usually . Fur in Line done to give this softness It will require . is more like porcupine quills than anything or the bristles in an old broom. the length. and not only sureness of touch. of the skins. but much may be almost Fig. delicate little crinkles and folds.— 84 blacked black. in. richness it is and depth in a fur. much practice and much study Note of the way the hair grows. the soft. but knowledge of the way two the fur divides and the direction of the hairs. 63. FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN the linen threads of the lace showing up white on the FURS Illustrations {See Fig. 63. then draw them in pencil until you gain sureness touch. 62) There is a great art in drawing furs in line.

leaving high lights to show the glossiness of the fur soft little folds.) A row of tails helps to break the monotony of the surface. . Natural musquash and squirrel have much the same treatment. with light lines between. which are put in quite black in the deepest fold. (See Fig. 85 the hairs forming these separate pieces overlap each other. but with very light touches for the shadows. 64. ermine is very soft and winds round the neck in even on the plain part you find Fig. but in .— LINE DRAWING three or four strands. Fur Coal'showing method of drawing in Line uneven creases. 65.

Aitothtr txmmpU 0/ Pur in Lint . 65.— fig.

Line Drawing from " The Lady ' . 66.— Fig.

— Line Drawing with Mechanical Tint . 67.Fig.

. Wash and Line by Renee Maude.89 ^^^i^^ Fig. 68.


(See Fig. as If the paper takes the ink a to be altered. and the hair much longer than bear or skunk. In dealing with the golf coats. {See Fig. the required on the face and perhaps only a small line it can be painted out with white. curling at the end of each one. 66 and 67. is Pony is like watered silk. If good paper it used. 50. and you will find the paper almost uninjured in fresh lines. very thick camel hair ones I had to sketch had to be treated just like fur. as I will deal with is making no one line is infallible. . Do not erase only in one direction. and come and if the dividing line or dark and how the hair comes over the line that a good result is obtained.LINE DRAWING these the coat or stole is 91 it is by observing where is light these sections made with a number of skins. thicker and blacker. From this centre rib draw curved lines. The second method is to emphasise the principal features by a few lines of shadow by the eyes. So if you are drawing the figtire in simple hues. Faces sketched with expression. the head must be the same. as the ink lines put on in black masses. under the chin. and I must impress upon the student that the whole figure must be in harmony.) CORRECTIONS Before leaving the subject of line corrections.) Draw fine the rib of the feather with two lines slightly apart at the base. 64. with as many lines as the artist thinks necessary. and by the nose and the mouth. as they almost had that appearance. forms the third method. lines for hair. modeUing and. (See Figs.) is Seal is the easiest fur to show. Bristol boards or hot-pressed drawing paper. with broken where the light touches the fur. in fact. but rub it gently both ways. as too tends to take off the surface much and leaves a groove in the paper. little and you can then ink correction is is This also requires care. so very often the face is seen in outUne and the dress with all the shadows drawn in. There are at least three styles of line work for the face. In the chapter on millinery I shall probably deal with this subject again. tapering off to a point at the tip. fluous it is easy to erase any super- and wrong by careftdly rubbing out with typewriter's it ink eraser. with more Black fox has sections of deep black. the whole of the head drawn in detail.

) At first this does not seem carried out in line. 68. nose. mouth. and he was handicapped reverse way. with some shadows and details put in with wash. 70 first. When the eyes. In the old illustrations the artist had to make his drawing on wood to draw everything the direct blocks or steel plates. etc. and 75. a flat wash of black can be put over the face. difficult until the artist tries the effect. The hair need only be lightly touched. waterpoof Indian ink in the same way as in the preliminary stages of a line drawing.V LINE It will be noticed that for their illustrations.. line. as the artist does not wish to give a negro appearance to the head. When this wash . are drawn and the ink is dry. wash or all three. tunic and details (See Fig. {See Figs. that. The accompanying illustrations will give some idea of the use to be made of this combination of even more than plain wash and simple not understand the term line and wash line. and then the result is sad and leaves him humble indeed. it does not matter if it is in chalk. was pinned down to one medium and not allowed to combine the two. Now copper blocks are by having made drawing from the drawing. A wash drawing was begun and finished in wash without ink lines added. AND WASH of the best papers use line many and wash difficulties I think this method I bristles with For those who do must explain that they are line drawings. but reproduction has made such great strides. Sometimes the entire dress has a flat tint all over. the result At one time the artist is good. methods.) It is desirable to outline the using. taking care it is not too dark. given a really good drawing. of course. as a good effect of hair can be given with very few lines and an almost flat wash. in others the underdress is washed in and the overdress.

70 .93 Good Illustrations of Line and Wash.


Examples in Wash and Line.95 Fig. 72. .


) French and American magazines vary is but speaking broadly. but a line or wash. much more so than in the sharp contrast with line alone. The too principal snag which lines or too must be avoided is the danger of is many much paint so that the result not a line and wash. 69 light and 71. hat or coat must have the wash and line arranged to bring out the best points In these wash and line drawings. extra lines can then be put in to give expression and If emphasis.IvINE is AND WASH 97 also dry. sketchy lines to give a of the drawing. . A is figure in a delicate gown of some airy fabric washed over but if light tone against a black curtain is charming.) The overdress and the hat figures of the figure in plain line. the figure may be are in wash. all the figure white against black startling it more all than artistic. and each must work . A chiffon taffeta dress with side wings of lace should have the taffeta washed in and the lace done in very it . 72 slightly. line. the rest white. finished with fine lines for the from the Sketch have a shading and detail. is think the use of masses of black with line and wash very in a artistic. may be striking but is frequently In line and wash. and arms should be done at the same time. the masses of black such as I described in the chapter on {See Figs. the background painted with a light. A very smart drawing can be made for a millinery head or for a stole or scarf. {See Fig. a deeper shadow under the eyebrows. much use is made of in each. the lips darkened. transparent look to it a few lines on rest the taffeta must be added to bring into harmony with the The artist will see that each dress.) The two wash all over. thin wash. so I must impress upon the student to look at the drawing and quite decide upon the amount of line and where the wash will be most effective. the wash principally to emphasise contrasts of colour or material. the neck work. by sketching in the hat and scarf in line and putting It is also permissible to leave the a wash on the face. 72. it out in his or her I own way. This can only be done by practice there is no hard and fast rule. {See Figs. so that there should not be any inequalities in the the face is washed over. light. head in quite simple lines and only use the wash for the dress and background. a few lines under the chin and on the dark side of the neck. and 73.

and readily find a place in art exhibitions. The background should have very bold black and dose together lighter ones is strokes. and in chalk and wash some artists wash in the figure and some of the detail and finish up with the chalk. than may say I many fashion see far worse sketches artists turn out. and where the lines are close has almost the appearance of being stippled. 74 is a fine example of his drawing in chalk and wash. with on the outside. This is a good method and does not mess up the drawing as the student can see where to place the lines in the conte. Mr. easily If all the drawing is sketched in first in conte. is of art. among them Stanley the heads for the hairdressers' advertisements with conte. massed for the very dark. Tom Purvis is certainly fashion artists.98 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN {See Fig. Do all not cross-hatch. it is rubbed and soon loses its slick and clean appearance. Inddentally I and R. leaving a smudged and altogether unsatisfactory sketch. Get a good conte crayon from any of the art shops and sharpen to a fine point. His sketches are finished pictures. Hair is very successful Davies. dose together in the shadows and further apart in the lighter portions. which uneven patch in a drawing where there has been some rubbing-out or a fault in the paper. There are generally two ways of using materials. but otherwise when much of this has been done the drawing looks in chalk. I. the modelling begun in the wash can be very On the face. useful to rectify a small. but this old-fashioned way of shading should be avoided and only used as a last resource it irresistibly reminds one of the elegant dark by the assistance it together . Sketch the figure in and shade with lines. draw and many artists.) Chalk and wash seem to follow naturally on the method I have just described and come into the same chapter. if of any other subject would in the R. Some of Mr. a better result in one direction obtained by drawing them from thick to thin. Fig. his an acquisition to the ranks of work should go far to abolish the idea that a real artist does not paint fashions. A. Tom Purvis's paintings are in but this medium . oil. heads executed by the young ladies educated at a select seminary and belongs to the pretty-pretty age consists of tiny strokes or dots. Stippling. —in some very fact. stiff and stilted. 74. and with that of a few others. much improved of the chalk shading.

o OS M d Q O M a.m as W P-. < w o Q O O .



Fig. . Chalk and Wash Drawing by Tom Purvis. 74.

semi-transparent. I It is am dealing with it here. 76. over the drawing. liquid skating made of a winter scene of wearing white wool dresses and white furs.) WORK is As this method generally employed in con- junction with line or line and wash. Of course these and get a little variety. is placed over the costume or coat.) Indian ink or process black with water should be poured into a saucer. similar methods are used generally to it is although for a rough material very effective and gives a better suggestion of tweed and similar cloth than covering it with little dots made by the pen or brush. cut this out carefully and replace the paper on the drawing. getting the required thinness and sufficient quantity to finish the drawing without waiting for a further supply. the figures tried. The A drawing and paper should be held down firmly with the hand. This reproduces . sometimes applied to backgrounds and sometimes on the dress or accessories. training not so easy to manage as water colour or black SPATTER (See Fig. fine toothbrush is then dipped in the ink or paint and shaken Great care must be taken. 76. If the black is too wiU splash and blot instead of sprinkling Uttle dots over the surface.. The background of grey sky can be put in by spatter work. to get the texture of the tweed quickly stiff a piece of rather figure. such as chairs and couches. paper. which must be entirely covered except the part to be spattered it should this trace the outline of the . is requires special and and white. in line standing out against it. If a rough tweed coat or costume has to be drawn for an advertisement. I must also write about drawing with the brush. (See Fig. LINE AND WASH I 103 It should not recommend to the student. on be fastened down with pins to prevent it slipping. the first application of the ink must be left to dry a second spattering can then be it . Spatter drawings for fashions are done in the same way. An attractive sketch can be figtu-es. Like stippling it dates back to the time when young ladies made blotters for bazaars and ornamented them by placing dried ferns on a cardboard and with a fine tooth-brush spattering ink over the white part the ferns were then removed and a pattern of the fern showed up against the background. If any part is desired darker.

the strokes should follow the contour of the cheek. on line these can be obtained at any art shop. The Artist and TO BEGIN :—HOW TO MAKE STROKES photograph. given.g. {See Figs. of course.) By the courtesy of the Aerograph Company a few hints are given for the use of the Aerograph — Aerograph from their booklet. this and practice.. knowledge of drawing and essential lines . They are most useful for lettering. is The particular use of lining-in brushes I wish to point out the facility with which a drawing can be begun and finished with the brush. otherwise surplus colour will be deposited at the ends of each line. the erection of the contours. look like if a stencil. 77 and 78. . when drawn thick. is foundation but these are only for guidance. AEROGRAPH The Aerograph is very useful for backgrotmds and fine shading. very well for newspaper illustrations and has the appearance of If the student has mastered line and wash this should I mentioned a lining-in brush earlier be comparatively easy. and must continue its movement until after the flow of colour is stopped at the end of the stroke. GRADUATED TINTS AND SHADINGS In making these it is important that the strokes should follow e. it is only by the evenness or absence of brush marks that it can be noticed at all. in shading the curve of a cheek in a portrait. and it is sometimes difficult to detect where it has been used. outlined with the lining-in brush in the The figure same way in which the simple pen lines are drawn. as I said. This outline will be and if spaces are left at intervals will.: 104 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN stencilling. which is almost a separate . in the chapter branch of art. or is the lines are unbroken a strong convincing drawing shown. and also for blacking in shadows. knowledge I am hoping the student will gain by study I cannot advise him to draw with the brush without lines. Hold the Aerograph in the manner indicated in the above Note particularly that the hand holding the instrument must be in motion at the time when the finger-button is pressed to start the spraying.


Fig. 76.io6 Fig. Wash and Line with White Detail. . Spatter Drawing. 75.


Ahko(.. . 77.io8 Fi(.kaphs.

as this causes a PREPARING AND MIXING COLOURS It is not necessary to mix the colours on a palette. WASH 109 practise starting with a dark edge or line and gradually working further from the surface of the paper as away from it. It is possible with skill to . raising the Aerograph you extend the tint away from the dark edge. get fine gradations of shade and a very even surface spatter is much more irregular is and would not be so often used for shoes . and it is and paint fashions without having recourse lines in squares to any of them. FLAT TINTS To make is flat tints it is necessary to apply the colour in parallel strokes partly overlapping each other. The parts of the drawing which do not require shading should be masked as in spatter. the instrument. If there is latter there is risk of undissolved particles getting into and clogging a group of heads on one board planned for a page left in a magazine. as with the may spray of colour. as there is always danger of the paint spreading and spoiling the drawing. useful. The colour also need not be of the exact thickness or depth required.LINE AND To prepare graduated tints. as the tints may be modified by adding to them in the colour receptacle of the instrument. Do not attempt to make an even tint with a cloudy or lumpy effect. Aerograph and rub-out paper are quite possible to design Of course spatter. Chalk papers which are covered with used at one time. it is The Aerograph almost impossible for the brush to get the same smooth all effect. An ink or chalk drawing was were much made on this . so deUcate indeed they be quite invisible and only become visible by repeating the Moist colours are preferable to dry. artificial helps. as with a colour of full strength the tints most delicate can be made with the Aerograph. circular movement. unfinished look pulls the if these spaces are shaded between them which give an by the Aerograph it whole drawing together. spaces are . because discharged from the Aerograph it is when the colour somewhat deeper in the centre of the spray than on the outer edge.

I iJ5 S ^ .

Silhouette drawings are very attractive.) and not only that. Silhouette portraits were very much in vogue some 100 years ago.LINE AND WASH ill paper and completely finished up. 79. giving a brilliant appearance. masses of white paint. and lace. the high lights were then scratched out. much better than also be used. and when employed occasionally for illustration. the high lights put in Grey and brown paper can with body colour. SILHOUETTE {See Fig. but are quite adequate in their representation of style . form a pleasing change from the ordinary advertisement.

Children are never to suggest action that makes the difference little must and it is the ability between stiff wooden people and the real children of Gladys Peto. I said at the beginning that there still. and she places her masses of black where they will have the best effect. some of am not now considering the children depicted in the up-to-date fashion magazines. cushions.) I little garments wash on the face and hands. generally speaking. and Miss Peto's drawings are extremely dainty.. with a very slight (See Fig. so really good sketches can be offered to the advertising managers the artist will have as is many able to carry through. of windows. the principally in line. 8i and 82. The surroundings just right. 86. etc. Miss Hocknell others. It will not be necessary for . if There is a constant demand orders but very as he I supply. me how to paint in wash. must emphasise what life in be the pose.) It needs a special gift to be able to draw children in natural positions. seem Miss Hocknell's children are beautifully drawn. most difficult branch that line or line and wash ." CHILDREN {See Figs.112 VI CHILDREN'S FASHIONS Daintiness seems the right word to garments generally designated " AND tise LINGERIE for the style required for sketching anything belonging to children or for the ethereal lingerie. the student should be conversant with the this methods before attempting I think. line or chalk different of art. curtains. this and if the student can specialise in he will find little no lack of work. These make a certain appeal to recapitulate by their smartness.

"3 Fig. 8i. Children from Vogue. Children from Vogue. . Fig. 82.


Figs.. sketches of children walking. Smart child's dress rapid pencil etc. of. 83. 83. in fact in every position 85. wash Numbers alone. dancing. as . if {See 84 and These should be from possible. The children of friends are better than professional models.) you can think life. running. must be made in the same way as the beginning Make Fig. playing.— CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE are better for drawings of children than 115 to give a heavy look to the figure. as it tends of pencil sketches ones.

of a toy. a perky lip sticking nose. most intent on the mechanism Hands rather short and plump with creases at the wrist. and the legs long and slender. notice how it curves under at the back and is cut short draw the ink lines to show these points. See Name on Selvedge The cotton coming from them. — Child with Toys A great danger to be avoided is making try to get the lovely curves of childhood. draw half-circle lines and little tendrils of hair . 84. fabric that cleanses easily Fig.ii6 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN I the movements are freer and more spontaneous. upper lip full under tucked in at the comers. If over the forehead the hair is curled. drawn very carefully and then lined in with ink. dimpled chin out in a most fascinating manner. If the hair is bobbed. The smocks may be ornamented with feather-stitching or . and wide open eyes. or think one two children in smocks would be easy for a first attempt. or the long lashes down. the face too old little .

A party frock is a more difficult proposition and detail is needed. — Children in Pen Drawing The child holding cherries in check. the touches of black in the kitten and the gollywog strengthen the sketch. such as insertions of lace much more and almost invariably made hair. /S/- VJesh/andi^epr^ Fig.CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 117 smocked with a contrasting colour or embroidered with rows of animals in any case the great aim is simplicity. a big bow of ribbon on the It may sound . The Hercules group (see Fig. 85) is worth studying for the contrast in the dress a plain one in the middle. : and spotted on the right. sashes floating out. with a figured one on the left . into little rosettes. ribbon run through slots of embroidery. 85.

if a dress given you to sketch. . and are made of very soft leather.Ii8 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN complicated. These dresses must have shoes to long box-pleats and girdle of cord. the schoolgirl and the maiden. is Before leaving the subject of shoes. Children a little older still have similar shoes and the style does not change until about seven or eight. I (See Figs. we must consider shoes for very little children. and in the prevailing mode. is It is much safer. which very important and might have a chapter devoted to it. but there is A maid's dress is fairly easy. brown or black for outdoor wear and white kid for house or parties. thick brogues or gym shoes. but often the various garments are sent with no guide but the artist's knowledge and common sense. 87-88. or boots are worn. to ask for what age it is intended. — the child.) have pointed out the danger of making children look too old there are other pitfalls to be avoided and one is the different ages I might call them the four ages of childhood. and this difficulty is increased by the very skimpy skirts of the seven-year-old. heavy-looking dress upon a slender applies to a maid's dress losing the graceful figure. but gives great scope for daintiness and for the sketching of fairy-like fabrics. I cannot give an touches about a very little one's dress which are left out when they are a few years older. The advice to the frock I wish to give is that the figure should be appropriate —don't put an old. Some rather like a girl guides' or are generally girls worn by sailor dress. The infant. Maid's shoes are another matter very much in the fashion except for games. when special shoes With the shoes comes the question of suitable . or blue serge over white. which are not much longer than one infallible rule. These have ankle straps and quite rounded toes. They are then more like grown-ups but with flat heels and rounder toes. The artist is often called upon to sketch a games these from nine to fourteen or upwards. others in the djhibbah style. The same advice —smart girlish . correspond. without young dress appearance. it is without sleeves and worn over a blouse of contrasting shade and thinner material such as brown cloth over tussore silk. The style does not vary much. there are for a younger child. square-necked with The dress in serge or cloth material. small difference between a three-year-old and a seven-year-old.

Ch. Fig.'Vkacteristic Drawing of Children by Miss Hocknell. Another Style of Children's Drawing. . 86.Fig. 87.


plain or striped to for dress occasions match the dress. the best and are much smarter than fancy colours. Little girls look perfectly sweet in the small poke bonnet shape with narrow ribbon twisted round the crown and ends hanging down at the back. 88. shall I say. .— Dainty Children note of simplicity will be seen in looking at children's hats. Older girls have thin silk stockings and cashmere for school black or brown look . as they are usually included in a children's department. 121 Children wear socks until they are nine or ten. or a Tam-o'-shanter of never-failing popularity which seems to thirty? suit any face from three years old to. The same Fig.CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE stockings. I did not deal with children's hats in the chapter on Millin ery.

and the folds resemble those on a sculptured figure and do not convey the impression of lightness and graceful lines.— 122 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN LINGERIE I have put lingerie and children's fashions in the (See Fig. it should not be put on until the finishing touches are required. it is figure. so the student will see that extra care must be taken. keeping the very darks for the folds under the arm and where the material turns over. 94. broderie Anglaise. silk embroidery and many varieties of detail. which is generally on the top part round A standing figure can be made to look the neck and sleeves. if possible. The materials are usually thin and lend themselves to delicate line drawing and also to the strong contrasts in the black and white of a good wash. 90. and draw a verypretty face with boudoir cap. Lace. . more accurate than one intended for a costume or dress the arms and neck are generally bare and bad drawing is easily detected. also well. or for the tiny Although there should be a light and folds into a ribbon belt. This must be. 89.) it If a nightdress of crepe-de-Chine has to be painted. {See Fig. you can get better folds into the drapery and show the trimming. Design the cap if you have not one sent with the nightdress. dark side to the colours. as the Ungerie is generally white or in light found better to paint the whole figure light against . {See Fig. it is always —of course I mean for the material the trimming is a different matter.) same chapter as they both require dainty treatment. but students frequently get a Greek statue effect. wash as you would a crepe-de-Chine evening dress. First I must speak of the drawing. and only used.) Wash in all the shadows. as this knowledge will now prove of immense use. Although white (Chinese or Albanine) better to leave the white paper indispensable. I hope have been practised. I suppose the result of their studies from the antique. and white may be put on at in once if it is necessary for the pattern. LINGERIE IN WASH I will deal with lingerie in wash. some of which I have described. These caps are a great asset and make an If possible have otherwise ordinary sketch into an artistic one. a sitting figure. in the principal The whole drawing must be shadows much black is is kept light.

with it. 89.123 Fig. entirely Lace. Ribbons looped over . Wash Drawing OF Petticoat.



126 Fig. of Embroidered Velvet AND Georgette. . beautifully Painted. Rest Gown. 90.

is makes the drawing most useful. very much used it is to throw . and should be drawn with a backing of plain paper and placed against another figure in a contrast. the line of a fold instead of ending abruptly being continued by tiny dots. 92. which adds to the delicate effect.) is thinness of the material. dress.) DETAIL AND TRIMMING The detail and trimming in lingerie must also have the lightness and daintiness I have described as essential for the materials in wash and line. well placed and vignetted off is very effective. and instead of giving this effect heavy and overloaded. shown by the accompanjdng illustrations. and almost invariably for advertisements. and a black dressing table against which a standing figure in night- pyjamas or dressing gown gives just the right touch of Some of the figured or striped materials used for pyjamas or rest gowns do not require this setting. which carefully will not sometimes spoil the entire drawing. {See Fig. The fineness of the material seems to be shown by fine line almost better than in wash. however. (See Fig. up the but must not be made to hide bad drawing it may be overdone. A little.) in If it is a single figure petticoat or nightdress the effect can be obtained by a dressing gown thrown over one shoulder and one arm and held up on the other side by the hand. this will add to the done artistic appearance of the drawing and obviate if the necessity of running in black against the figure. Where there are several figures this method of washing in black must and two white figures with the black be used to a certain extent. In these drawings black figures. Lines ending in a little curve like a pothook also indicate the {See Fig.CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND WNGERIE a dark background. 92. white garment without any pattern on it. as the shadow side of white is 127 as a rule lighter than its surroundings. as and this method has been employed with good results. 93. line is For some catalogues.) ILLUSTRATIONS In studying line drawings of lingerie notice how the lines are finished off with dots. 91. {See Fig. used for drawing lingerie or line and wash. In wash drawing the lace should as a nile be .

Line Drawing of Pnncess Slip with only the simple essential line . 91.— 128 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Fig.


92. . Lingerie in Wash and Line.I30 Fig.

CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE qviite 131 defined in. the ground-work blacked and the pattern drawn with Process white and Albanine. will allow the artist to indicate Many West End P'g. . houses. stiffness which certain may creep in shadows this takes the whole of the detail . —that is every leaf and petal shown.93- — Two Figures showing black in background the pattern in the high lights and lose it in the if away any is mapped I. A amount of impressionism is allowable. out. however.

it may come out a patch of black with no distinctness. A dumpy. the bones of the corset will gives a clumsy appearance wrong place. also the suspenders. 94. but also to give the best effect to anjrthing he has to draw. is shown when the is corset is fitted on to the if the figure vmderneath out of proportion. fat figure and alters the position of the waist. so the pattern must be spread out that is when the lace has ten flowers across the To make it look lacy only three or four would be put in. as it look as if it . giving them come in the the correct curve over the hips . and on a very attenuated figure the same corset would look short and the bones awkwardly placed. if in line drawing almost more that as lace has to the garment it than in wash. The whole aim of an advertisement is to show the goods offered to the greatest advantage. are drawn and crowded. Some lingerie is shown on the figure above and below the corset. Put it on a dummy and draw each line in the right direction. CORSETS Corsets are very. the lace trimmings. Lingerie . The waistline of the corset should be taken as a guide. embroidery and the eyes and eyelet holes in the busks. effort not only to be accurate. were white trimmed with black. Fig. think the reason for this there is is be drawn with black much on may make yoke. first. any fault in the drawing of the figure outline . sUk. when it is reduced these would be qviite close together if more . and the artist must always make an painted or lined in.— 132 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN stiffness I The same must be avoided lines. very difficult to do .

95- —^"'« drawing. there are always some who pretend to be. showing treatment of feathers VII MILLINERY This of is a very important branch of fashion art just as interest to the majority of are. entirely indifferent as to whether the hat they are wearing suits it is is them or but one difficult to beUeve in the sincerity of this sentiment tempted to think it is conceit and the idea that whatever they choose must be " vastly becoming. soon find out that his ideas are mistaken and no thinking out an attractive grouping)." as Pepys would say. as her mere man and is final. . The artist has a difficult task. he he has jumped to — conclusions too soon. the artist will have three people to please : the printer or art agent. milliner. decision generally over-rules the . or it is a subject most profound women. I feel and last. First of all. the client. no will feet.P*g. the head that she should be printed in capitals. Of course. not. but not least. and if he approaches it thinking that he can paint a head and hat quite easily (as there wiU be no hands.

The it artist should get someone to wear the hat for her to sketch. METHOD The first instructions for drawing the head in pencil and preparing the board should be followed —that is. but patching up. one quite satisfied with the hat she wearing . if the student has some friend. the hat it to look Uke these materials may be of straw . washing over the pencil with plain water before beginning to paint. smart and attractive. This seems rather drastic. 96. it is much more difficult to fit . again. lines in the preliminary wash. but when the whole value of the drawing rests upon the head alone. HAT MATERIAI^ Notice if the hat is silk . It is essential that the artist should paint is a pretty face. it will be at once seen that the most meticulous care must be given to the painting. That is Mark out where the eyes would come and the chin. a face to a hat than a hat to a face. Begin with the hat and lightly wash it in. however. which should only be done work and the in the printer's if it is what we boy waiting on the doorstep. as there is is generally drawn without the not time at the shop or warehouse. 96). These represent the hat in the three stages I same way as the dress. with the features most carefully drawn and modelled. and paint then. In the chapter on wash drawing I have touched upon this. as fit must on the head. reaching this point there are several mile- stones to pass. and not only fit but look smart (see Fig. that in the preliminary sketch the hat face. 98. some studies can be made from life. must is indicate. 99). scrap it and take a it is fresh board far better call and than rush b^n again.134 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGNJ most Before. 97. If the artist is so unfortunate as to spoil the face by making the eyes not quite level or by getting hard . keeping a light and then paint the shadow side of the face. however. without any accessories of dress to take the attention. Figs. or velvet {see Fig. the eyes a dark side and the principal features. The rough-out to brought back to the studio and a suitable face is then drawn fit the hat. I should recommend a few very sketchy indications a very good guide for size of features.


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offer much BEAVER AND VELOUR (See Fig. sometimes it is smooth like a man's top hat and sometimes left rough. The rough beaver is painted Uke fur. canvas. raffia. If the straw is black. touch the edge with albanine in the lightest part and process white in the shadow. process white only should be This is for fine straw. this with lace often seen in hats. tagel. jet. georgette practice these. the jet for matrons' toques style. service of the millinery it designer. but narrows the so much that I do not recommend I is it. have described the painting of sequin and . but old and young is wear very much the same in former times. basket. used. only differing in shape and colour and sometimes in the way it is treated. no and in. leaving the detail and also the face nearly finished. keeping a certain distance between. and net. crotchet hats. loi) Beaver and velour hats are perennials and every autumn sees some variety of these the material is the same.MILLINERY 141 and the sketch must show the kind of straw. wash in shadows under each piece of straw where it crosses the other. paint it to light. very dark to If in the straw or silk. for the smooth very high lights must be shown to indicate the These are generally sports hats and it is better glossy surface. leaving the raised part light . the difference not so great as {See Figs. Some field artists specialise in millinery heads. COARSE OR BASKET STRAW First draw lines in pencil round the hat rather wide apart. Take beaver for instance. Draw lines round the crown. When the lights and shadows have been washed in. I will describe an ordinary staw hat trimmed with ribbon and cherries. to draw a very young girl wearing them. two or more colours are mixed together show the different shades from and ingenuity to paint all Knitted hats.) . the straw can then be defined. coarse or fine. the edges of the straw can then be touched in with albanine. Suede and oiled silk for wet weather and other unusual materials are pressed into the . then draw the straw crossed or plaited exactly as it appears. When these lines are drawn.

with a bright spot of albanine. although there is not the rage for them every year. but in the useful trimming.' pose of the head is good.142 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN HAT TRIMMINGS Cherries are always used in millinery. A straw hat with ribbon and cherries sounds very commonplace. If autumn they form a most mixed the fruit is light in colour a little white Fig. it is but the shape and the way it is placed on the head which . This is a newspaper illustration from the " Daily News. to and make side it look solid and round a half-tone first is painted on one when the groundwork is dry . and the corded ribbon clearly indicated — The with the black can be used and the colour put on quite raise it flat . will make a very good representation of a cherry. this. 102.

See Fig. and artist have the gift if so. wide at the root and tapering single thread. paint with albanine a fiae line When this is quite down the middle the ends under . with Plumes FEATHERS Feathers are nearly as difficult as fur. Paint the shadows in from this rib the feather fronds are first. The student must use her own judgment and put effect. \ N Hat in Brocade. If it is made to an ostrich feather. a drawn and generally curled tmder. a line mtist off to be painted down the centre. of the rib and little lines branching off.— MILLINERY gives it 143 a certain cachet most difficult to obtain unless the milliner . 103 be quite smart. feathers. it turning don't outline each little frond until looks like porcupine quills. 103. and must be look light and graceful. dark enough. unless fashion's dictate says they must be straight as if they had been out in the rain. drawing lines from the centre each side in opposite directions. this seemingly ordinary hat for may illustration of brocade with (^1 Fig. the white lines where they will have most .

A spray of Roses.is of Feather. a Wing ani Straw .Fig. an Ostrich ttvi kin. 104.— Millinery details in line. Cherries. a Ribbon Bow.

Fig.H5 Fig. 107. From 1805. 1810. Fig. 108. Fig. 105. 1812. 106. . 1805. 1925.


Draw the exact shape of the . — Hat with graceful lines. appearance. 109. Try and make these as natural as possible. or a " sport " as your gardening friends would call it. This is fairly easy in Fig. where you get a bright blue rose. by Miss Bessie Ascough black and white it is the colour which gives them a freak .MILLINERY 147 FLOWERS In the spring and summer flowers predominate in the trimming.

generally sold in tht Millinery Evening Headdresses Department .— Figs. no and in.

Fig. 112. 113.149 Fig. Veil with Oriental Touch. Hat with Jet Trimming. .


so that 151 when if it is reproduced the purchaser is can easily see from the catalogue daisies. in fact there is more variety I think in the shape and trimming and material of hats than in any other article of dress. twisted in a basket pattern and form the entire hat. effectively imprisoning stray hairs . and to take the veil is a shutting off from the world altogether." the style of the veil is as variable as the breeze that blows it about. etc. the veil may half cover the eyes and just hang down on the side. and where the hat is almost composed of leaves each leaf is defined. however. however plain. and women. the veil is of no practical use. the boisterous or cutting winds of our climate. except for the religious orders. but like other articles of ladies' dress to " make her fair or leave her neat. . mesh with a few black is much prettier and dis- more fascinating than a big eccentric design which. open. {See Fig. Flower stems are sometimes in painting them. To me a rather fine spots. In England. seen at a tance. at the choice of the wearer. the centre vein drawn in. and each little branching vein with the edge round or serrated. who are not improved by the shadow against which the face is seen. 109 is another example of Miss Bessie Ascough's art with free graceful lines. VEILS Veils are alwa}^ in fashion. so it will be seen that to paint the veil effectively is no easy matter.) ItLUSTRATION Frequently. The veil is pre- sumably of Eastern origin.MILLINERY flowers on the hat. the hat trimmed with pansies. coarse or fine. Some of the flowers are so beautifiilly modelled that a millin er's room has quite the appearance of a florist's. veil is veil is merely an adjunct of dress. and worn to preserve the complexion from the For this purpose the drawn down completely covering the the mesh of the veil is face and tied more or less tightly at the back of the hats. these having the effect of patches. Again. 112. but flowing from the back there are few film of of the hat forms a background to the face. resembles a bum or scar. as it is in nature. Fig. wallflowers. with a lining of silk and tulle. and indicates withdrawal and seclusion. As the flowers are so well shaped it is worth while to take trouble Get sharp touches under the petals.

from '•VArtet La Mod*" — . 1 14 Dainty Hat in lint.152 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN Fig.

detail. in right across the face Paint the neck and shoulders.) Fashions frequently come round in cycles. hair. falls over. 105. eyebrows carefully drawn and painted. line. show dark against the light side Where the veil comes over the eyes.: MII. IlJ. and 107 will be seen illustrations of old turbans. a little The edge finishes with picot which adds to the realism of the painting little when shown by thin strokes. neck and shoulder.) .LINERY 153 PAINTING THE VEIL Paint the hat. One modern boudoircap from old design. the hair. but make the detail quite it would be visible through the net . are drawn. (See Fig. if possible. 106. throwing the eyes deeper into shadow and heightening the artistic look of the whole drawing. as it is a subject most It will also be seen that the illustrations in this chapter on MilHnery are in most of the mediums I have been writing about wash. in fact every part that it covers. copying the way it hangs and lines. even under the veil. going over the part which is covered by the veil clear. In Figs. almost like ink lines. the brim of the hat should be quite dark at the edge. and a deep but under the edge of the shadow washed the veil. 114.USTRATIONS Arrange the of the face little veil. as of course with a lighter tone. (See Fig. giving a fine thin lines crossed to On this foundation for lace. draw a few if form a mesh as you would and there is a border the pattern also should be drawn. and wash and line. taking the paint over the hat. 108. and vice versa. Very few effect. as the outlines will show through Now with very liquid paint wash in the veil. to lines of process white or albanine can be used. coming down to a pointed end. the eyes and soft veil. I interesting have dealt with millinery in and worth studying.

raw sienna. but these can be tried first . cadmium.) The green drapery in this illustration a good example of the way the yellow is superimposed over the blue to form the green. yellow ochre. sky blue cobalt for faces. Most That there of these is a demand at the for dainty figures in colour can soon be seen by looking best catalogues and magazines. for body colour Chinese white should be used with these. are also used for the hat and hair. i. is (Fig. inside page in colour. all these with different and appropriate designs. . Other colours can be added. vermillion. rose madder. lemon yellow with blue will give the tint but it is by experimenting that the student will learn a delicate grey for shadows . have the front and generally a page of coloured millinery. which is delightfully furry. and emerald green. brown madder. but I may say that blue and brown madder .VIII FASHIONS IN COLOUR Frontispiece. varied by special season numbers. A complete knowledge of fashions includes colour work as well as line and wash. The face is beautifully finished. Then think of the COLOURS REQUIRED Water colours in tubes will be needed. If a fresh spring green is required. The brown and black tints in the fur. number of covers required for the weekly magazines. make well. " Fashion drawing in colour may be called the " Edition de Luxe of this branch of art. blue and vermillion also mix Rose madder and blue make mauve and purple. The pink in the face is repeated on the tassel of the chain. The same I tints can be got in matt colours for the showcard and for granted that the student has flat colour designs. cobalt. am taking it some knowledge of mixing colours.

which is probably the reason so many advertisements are done in just two Ver- The colours generally used are blue and red. as by mixing the two colours one part of the dress may be blue and the other delicate lilac or mauve. Some paint and shadows on face. 115-118). 117. Rose madder or carmine with blue make a very dainty drawing. and I can only repeat the old advice brains. with cobalt or ultramarine with a touch of darker blue in the shadow.FASHIONS IN COLOUR i55 the numberless shades." Fig. with only a touch of red to deepen the dark folds. the best. The girl with the mirror is another example of finished colour work. as a rule necessary to use . and then put it grey in the shadows and the Another method which I prefer and have used with is to mix the blue and red at the same time. Bold and striking designs can also be made by the contrasting of black and red or black and yellow. Green is also most effective. million is of colour is naturally expensive. the painting figures. 119. good effect for the face. using pure red for the lips. Note in this. hair There are several methods of two-colour painting. THREE OR MORE COLOURS (See Fig. or it may be all red with blue in the shadow parts. The dress is probably entirely blue. the two figures of detail being taken from a long panel painting. DIFFERENT METHODS in the entire figure in blue.) This is a more elaborate design. every colour having gradations from light " mix them with to dark. but as a composite colour more difficult to use. this and the three separate colour printings of are given so that the student may be able to see the different processes (Figs. the deep tone of the curtain throwing up the light dresses and When the artist is required to draw a cover design introducing it is the actual dresses to be advertised. and especially the red over the blue. and the arrangement of colour. thus making light part red. TWO COLOURS The reproduction colours only.

three or


more colours. This gives much more scope and allows for more highly finished work. In every case it is advisable to begin by making a rough sketch and submitting this to your client. Any alterations can then be
details left out as he wishes.

added or

This rough-out being passed,

the artist feels that at least one bridge sketch should then be



careful pencil

made on a process board with slightly abraded
broad shadows as you do in black and white

Wash in the




the colours pure and light

do not go over


until dry,

especially in the darker parts, as they are apt to get thick


in the whole sketch with



impossible to gauge the strength of a sketch


and treacly. you have one it is one part is worked up

and the other part just begun. In the chapter on Millinery, I have pointed out that the success of a drawing of hats depends so much upon the face this applies

For the cover of a millinery catalogue a pretty face and a smart hat are often used. Some clients like a broad wash,
certainly to colour.

and others more


Considerable practice


essential before

attempting these millinery cover designs, as the head
rather large and the whole effect depends




being well placed

and painted.
Begin the painting of the face by washing in the shadows with blue and brown madder. Next block in the hat and hair, and put a light wash over the face rose madder, yellow ochre and sky-blue cobalt

are suitable colours.


not get the face too pink, a

little light


helps the flesb tint.

The shadows should be delicate, not heavy or opaque, and in these raw sienna and cadmium may be used with good effect. The hat, of whatever material, must be painted in detail, and the whole finished up as much as a portrait study. Touches of body colour on the dress and hat will give just that
brilliant finish



so charming in this work.

As we are
considering sketches from model dresses the design must

be highly finished, every detail accurately drawn and the different fabrics shown, i.e. if the coat is velvet and the skirt of cloth this

must be

clearly defined.


future purchaser should be able to


All these

what kind

of lace is used

—torchon or valenciennes.
painting for advertisement.

points are of importance



paint velvet use the colour very liquid, but get the darks

is always seen on velvet Chinese white should be mixed with colour, and put on very carefully or it will look opaque. Only practice will give the facile touch in just the right place and in the right strength. vSilk is a great pleasure to the artist, even if he sometimes despairs at getting the effect. The silk is not painted with quite so much water, as the

very rich and deep and for the delicate bloom which

touches are sharper than in velvet or cloth.

Here again white


used for the high lights, but in silk
are sharp
Silk also has beautiful reflections

it is

almost pure

these lights

and broken, giving the shimmering and changing tones. and these should be put in to give
of gold

value to the painting.

with a


silver is often


difficult in colour,


For gold use ochre and raw sienna in the shadows, and cadmium mixed with white for the bright parts. For silver, for the light use pure white, and in the shadows blue, and with a very slight touch of ochre to prevent it
looking leaden.

care can easily be expressed.

(Fig. 121.)

A method most frequently used now is that of


ing in Matt colours or with water colour in flat tints.

As most

have had some experience
figure stand out

ordinary water colour the

painting of fashions in flat colour should not prove difficult

but to

from the background and look solid is a different thing, and this can only be done by the careful placing of colour and some knowledge of colour perspective. Many of the
magazine covers are in
flat colour,

make a

such as Vogue, The London,

Pan and numbers

of others.

I must describe how to use the paint in this way. First sketch your subject in very carefully, not leaving any part of the design unfinished it is almost impossible to arrange your colour imless this



It is

a good plan to draw the design on the board or paper

the exact size you wish

to be, and then on a small card or cards

cut in proportion to the larger one, you can try several different

arrangements of colour and decide upon the one which






out before beginning, as

it is fatal

to alter a flat colour

you wish to paint a light figure against a dark background, or dark against a light. Then again, you may have a group of two or more figures these must be in strong contrast
First, consider

either against each other or the backgroimd.

I will describe a showcard which proved very effective. It had two figures. One was in deep plum colour dress, light petticoat and black hat this was dark against a light blue curtain and window. The other figure had a white cap, yellow dress and white apron this was silhouetted against a tree seen through the window and the dark shadow under the window-sill, the purple and the yellow harmonising, although with a marked difference between them. Another was drawn in a circle with a half figure in the centre in a light green dress and with red hair standing against a dark blue curtain on the right a grey chest of drawers, and on the left a red lacquer table on which was a green bowl of flowers (the red table repeating the tone of the hair), and a scarf thrown over the back



of a chair, the stripes repeating all the colours in the design.

There was a very good one on the cover of one of the magazines.
There are two half-length

one with deep pettmia cloak

and brown fur, light jade green hat. This figure is bending forward. The near figure coming in front of the dark one has a bright red hat, white fur and pale yellow coat this is shown up in strong relief against the brown and purple. The backgrotmd has a dark

blue grey sky with vivid orange streaks, black


trees against the

and a foreground

of snow, a few flakes falling

on the two




could show a reproduction of this cover design,

as words cannot convey edways the idea of colour contrast.

Miss Hawkesley,

who has adopted


somewhat Japanese


most beautiful

the principal lines very


drapery of wonderful colour, but generally very rich

and subdued.

When you have tried the colours on small cards, begin to paint. Wash over the face, neck and hands with vermillion and a little ochre or, if preferred, a very light sepia tint. When this is dry.





"Three-Colour" Process— The Yellow Plate

161 Fig. "Three-Colour" Process— The Red P LATE . 1 1 6.


163 > 1 '1 Fig. "Three-Colour" Process —The Blue Plate . 117.


A Completed Reproduction by "Three-Colour' P rocess .165 ^\ 'IG. 8. II».


drawn in a darker brown or red be drawn. and for brilliance does not matter. a few outside lines should The dress is next washed in to ensure the paint drying quite you must mix enough on your palette to go over all of it at the same time. if the hair is absolutely black. when dry. lines can be . if and a yellow lampshade in the other part carefully patched up. A brown and black figure on a light brown . the head with black hair against yellow Chinese lanterns. With not mind too dark it always dries lighter. it make . paint all these at the same time so that the tints may match and not be lemon yellow in one place and cadmium in another. red or black. known as Poster colours are most useful for . Do A figure in deep blue cloak over a rose pink dress on a grey paper looks very smart. is too light. as I find the paint does not dry up or crack so quickly. yellow and rose madder. To give the effect of hairs. Very water should be used. that is. the eyes in blue or black. the aim is to the paint a little liquid. emerald green. MATT COLOURS These and what show cards they are particularly good on tinted paper. 167 outline the features with vermillion. only enough to an ordinary brush paint if it looks too bright or show cards or posters attract. but of paint it is always better to have the exact quantity of tone required. A few colours can be bought as a trial — ^vermillion. I should recommend the tubes. This brings are me to the subject of Matt colours. These colours are ready mixed with white and can be obtained at most art shops in tubes or jars. cerulean and French blue. If the colour does not dry smoothly the uneven places can be touched up with the paint mixed with a little Chinese white and the colour is . a second wash flat — can be put on. the colours of the cloak and dress repeated in the other accessories. straight on to the paper.FASHIONS IN COLOUR in pure red. and the depth scattered Proceed now with the background in the same manner. where the you have yellow flowers in one comer and yellow drapery somewhere else. the lips also should be painted and the hair brown. These the little student would find sufficient as a beginning. If the colour.

etc. elaborately worked up. all the blue tone is put in. but there is a great way these heads are painted . but vignetted on a plain ground.. golf coats. This can easily be reproduced. shoes. The student must not forget that let the fascination of colour I find make him good drawing these flights of fail. red over blue purple. frequently have just a head difference in the . such as those by frame and adds Harrison Fisher. and if the can keep to two or three he readily than may be able to sell his design more also save if it had been painted more elaborately. the kind of sketch for a cover design entirely depends upon the purpose for which For instance. These three colours superimposed (one over the other) in the picture . daffodils and butterfhes would be suitable. blue over yellow gives green. and this very to the finish of a sketch. The first trial sketch may be entirely in black and white. a Fur Catalogue would probably have it is intended. The more artist colours. as I said at the beginning of the subject. the whole of the red part in one printing and the black in a second one. much — . i68 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN paper with blue sea and sky can be made most effective. The showcard must impress upon the pubUc the desirability of buying someone's silk. In colour work. a girl holding up a muff and clad in a sumptuous ermine stole. the student must have a knowledge of the process of reproduction. is essential. Catalogue and magazine covers. and what is more to the point. others enclosed in a circle this acts as a Of course. For a three-colour sketch the drawing passes through several printings. first of all the parts which are green and have a basis of yellow are printed over with yellow the next printing.. my pupils are so carried away by trying experiments that when they are brought back from they often fancy to the prosaic line and wash So it is necessary to quite master wash and line before attempting anything in colour. with only the pattern on the dress and the hat painted in red. and so on. and it will him from disappointment at the result of the reproduction i where probably the printer has been obliged to minimise the colours to meet the wishes of his client as to price. then the red. lingerie. make all the tones red over yellow gives orange. of course the more expensive. For a spring and sunmier one children and yoimg girls with flowers and birds. —some. is cheap to reproduce.

reflecting none. If he understands and adheres to these principles he is not only simplifying the task of reproduction. it is important that the of will artist should from the very commencement any colour project bear in mind the process to which the drawing be subjected in course of reproduction. the substance appears black it is absorbing all light. When an to object it viewed in a natural white is appears all be white means that the object reflecting the rays of Ught. when the fault is largely their own by not conforming to the limitations of the process by which their work is reproduced.FASHIONS IN COLOUR must alwajrs be remembered. which it is reflecting. but it will serve a useful purpose here to outline those Science of light scientific principles of colour upon which the photo-reproduction processes has proved that It all are based. really colour is the property and not of the substance is which appears to the human eye to possess colour. however desirable. the artist assume that it provides but such an opportunity. at any rate so far as they affect his work. and it can be proved by means of the spectrum that natural light contains aU the known light colours. This being the case with practically all Fashion drawing. is rarely accorded in work which is subservient to the economic requirements of commerce. the same as the light in which it is viewed. all whereas a substance appearing to be red is absorbing Therefore the colour of light except red. It should be and submitted in the rough to the client. In order to achieve this end it is essential that the artist should become somewhat acquainted with the principles and methods of colour reproduction. I . an estabUshed fact that different substances reflect and absorb rays of light in different ways. so far as the discernment can detect. The main objective should be to produce the desired result by such methods as will involve the most economical process of reproduction and printing. absorbing none. is Colour reproduction a vast subject in itself. so that the reflection from the object of the eye If is. well 169 thought out COLOUR AND THE REPRODUCTION^OF COLOUR The use to of colour for Fashion drawing unlimited may tempt scope . but he may also expect more faithful results. Many artists complain bitterly about the bad reproduction of their drawings.

red and blue. absorbs all yeUow transmits all red and blue rays of light. . whereby it follows that the whole surface of the plate must of necessity get inked. is upon this scientific theory of colour that the photo- reproduction of coloured drawings or objects working on these principles reproduction of process.— ." These separate coloured subjects into the three " filters " are pieces of coloured glass interposed in the camera between the subject and the negative. green and orange. . The violet filter colour filters are violet. of possible occasion he should endeavour to obtain his effects solely by the use of those standard colours or by shades or tints which can be produced by combinations of those colours. is based. but rays. find a way by means of photography to subject into as few " primary "• colours the separate the colours of " primary " colours as possible. 170 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN is the apparent colour of any object produced by those rays of light which It it reflects. By means of these colour filters it is found possible to " primaries. but in such a way that when these The next step was to were super-imposed on paper by means of printing ink they would combine to form a reproduction in colour of the subject photoThe " primary " colours found to be effective were graphed. which certain shades were standardised. With coloured in printing inks at the same time bearing mind the fact that each plate is only capable of being inked with one colour at a time. as the method of ink distribution is by revolving rollers. and on every draws who studied by the artist yellow. which means that shadows are cast by the red and blue rays * of view " These colours are not "primary colours from a purely scientific point the latter are the seven colours of the rainbow or spectrum. " primary " colours should be very closely These standardised for reproduction. and by was found possible to make the coloured objects a practical and an economic it The first consideration make the process capable (a) (6) in modem colour reproduction : was to of being printed From a flat surfaced plate . which is specially made For the three-colour process the threeto be colour-sensitive.

» .

A Section of a Design for Showcard. 119.KiG. .



An Effective Design.175 Fig. of Japanese Character . 1 20.


Ground . ii An Example of Flat Brilliant colour on a Dark.177 (2-I4M0RTIMCR ST OXFORDCIRCUS tfHMl Fig. 121.


known as a set of three-colour individually inked with the colour for which they if when are specially made.. therefore. the introduction of the special extra plate the result cannot be guaranteed to be entirely satisfactory. can. adding thereby Tints which appear to be black or grey can be obtained by the " three-colour " process. viz. that an artist unacquainted may quite inadvertently a drawing which would involve four. It frequently two entirely different blues. whereas two shades of the standard blue would have just as well given the required effect. be pointed out that the violet it filter " not only " picks out the yellows seen as such. blocks. carefully produced. then the former being transparent where the yellow rays have penetrated allows the In a similar manner the sensitised copper plate to be exposed. green filter absorbs the reds and transmits blues and yellows. happens also that an artist quite unnecessarily uses which cannot possibly be reproduced without making two blue plates. These three plates. a red plate and a blue plate." which. drawing invariably set. but the yellow rays penetrate the filter. These methods of colour separation by photography form the common fundamental principle of all the commercial photo-colour . " grey or two or more contrasting shades of one of the " primary colours. five or even more colour plates to reproduce it through introducing black. of course.FASHIONS IN COLOUR 179 on the negative. : In this way three copper plates produced a yellow plate. yellow not being one of the components which violet. so long as colours or tints foreign to the three " primaries " are The introduction of black or grey to a colour means that a " special " plate of the black or grey portions has to be made. but is also picks out all yellow where are a component part of some other colour. . give a fairly accurate reproduction of any colour subject. When is printed on to copper plate. but without considerably to the expense. red . In other words. involves four printings. the violet picks out the yellow values. out the red values It should all it the green filter picks and blue combined and the orange filter picks out the blue values. It with the principles of colour reproduction produce may be easily understood. and printed one over the other. thus making a " four-colour not introduced. the negative whilst the orange filter absorbs the blues and transmits the red filter and yellow form tones.

ZINC LINE PLATES FOR COLOUR WORK " Zinc Line Plates " are considerably cheaper to make than copper " Half -Tone " Screen Plates. In other words they vary in diameter according to the tones of the drawing. containing very fine lines running across each other in opposite This screen inserted in the camera cuts the reproduction directions. can be produced. Rough surface papers give uneven contact with half-tone blocks owing to the fine pressure and delicate inking required. No into gradations of tone process. . of the drawing printed on to the copper plate into very fine dots which are distinguishable in the printed copy under a magnifyingThese dots are fine and far apart. is only suitable for printing on a paper with a highly-finished surface. glass. or heavy and close together." HALF-TONE SCREEN COLOUR BLOCKS The from plates of these blocks are made of copper. two named being by far the most generally used. owing to the hard. chiefly on the score that they combine both economy and reasonably faithful the first reproduction. whether Colour Blocks. smooth face of the copper blocks. or hatching or dot tinting. and are distinct inasmuch as they are suitable for such drawings as possess various degrees of colour and tone as well as light and shade. The principal condition to remember in connection with this process is that only " tones " produced by open line solid mass or " flat " colour. and where the requirements of the subject can be met by the former process the artist should see that his drawing is executed in a suitable manner. These blocks are printed by a flat-bed letterpress machine. according to whether that part of the drawing is light or very dark. Offset.l8o FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN by Zinco Line Colour Blocks. Half -Tone Screen processes. This process. and to the fineness and closeness of these dots. Chromo-Lithography or Colour Collotype. absolutely touching where the tone is solid. by wash methods can be introduced principles of this The the colour separation are the same as in " Half-Tone Colour Process." which is a piece of optical glass line plates. This is achieved by the " Screen.

The pliable surface of the rubber conforms to any roughness of surface which the paper possesses and gives proper contact. for large work. a fault which. theoretically speaking. special filters by using tints which require hand engraving. good inks and high-class that perfection in If all printing. and on the off-set machine it is designed to make an impression first on to a smooth rubber " blanket. results can only be achieved by perfect absolutely perfect filters. Ofttimes. Off-set is still in a somewhat undeveloped off-set state. like posters. is and it easy to understand these respects exceedingly difficult to attain. chiefly conceived to satisfactorily printed meet the objection that the latter can only be on a highly-finished paper. during reproduction. should give the right result. but a little varia- tion in one or more of the primary colours will possibly correct the whole reproduction. little has already been made to give surprisingly good however. etching of is colour photographic operation. some- times an advantage. The artist must remember that Accurate lighting all these processes are subject to certain limitations.FASHIONS IN COLOUR OFF-SET This process is i8i a further development of half-tone printing. not only are the chances of accurate reproduction then rendered much more remote. the copper plates." and transferred from the blanket to the paper. If the first proof submitted by the engraver is defective. y . but the the artist adds to these difficulties and special cost of reproduction is accentuated considerably. The first proof is invariably pulled with inks of the standard " primary " colours which. however. too bold in is work tends to be a colour effect. colour At present. do not condemn it without intelligent analysis as to the cause of its defects. it does not. To print these on a rough paper a special half-tone block is made. although sufficient progress results.

In fact. I think this is a mistake.IX FASHION DESIGN I HAVE previously dealt with the technique of painting in relation to fashions and explained how to show the different styles and I must now write about the way to design dresses. colour. etc. so we need not There is no reason at It is all why London centre of Fashion. should not be the designer that is a different matter. Elspeth Phelps and others are English. If that is possible a wonderful vista will be opened for the fashion artist and designer. as it leaves the student not fully equipped it is at the end of his training. to have a flair for It is true that . bales of goods are being ." Some enterprising people of whom I but heard took a room say a salon —in Bond —or I should Street. On the other hand. line. not given to everyone was jormerly considered a special gift of the French. and every day the model dresses were " I do not think these " mushroom Of course if the directing head is a Captain Molyneux. Fore Street and other parts of the City. brought over by aeroplane businesses last very long. it will at once be evident that most of the warein this houses are connected with clothes. Trap-doors are open in the pavement. Mr. In a walk down Wood Street. it is if a draper or dressmaker wishes to impress a always the magic words " The latest from Paris. despair. customer. but of late years we have been much more in the running. The need does not always come to the ordinary fashion artist to originate a mode and some do not attempt it at all. it is quite dangerous. Reville. fabrics in wash. There is a movement to make London the fashion centre instead the future style it of Paris. and can originate and also grasp and adapt the more advanced of the French fashions to the Englishwoman's taste. . For many years now it has been taken for granted. dress said that the French are more devoted to and devote a great many of their energies and business talents way. some well-known designers.

Modern Dress showing Chinese of business. leather workers. .— . My Lady's number Dress. weavers. lace makers. Silk spinners. influence books and pencils called " —a whirl of people A play some years ago film. fashion artists with sketch Fig." since shown on the was a revela- tion of the and activities required for one dress. vans and carriers' carts][are by the and pyramids are being built up of hat boxes apprentices hurrying by with parcels. 122. to basement storerooms. FASHION DESIGN lowered 183 down kerb. hosiers.

tributes many beautiful ones — .Fig. The Shawl pattern is Spain conChinese or Indian. 123.

This Painted Evening Frock might easily have been taken from an old fashion plate. .'85 Fig. 124.



i88 < o < a^ N z " w >.s -1 i- lb o z c En Q III z i s CJ H o' Q M W u d = .

189 00 Z O OS IM w H Z en CQ o 00 H O H O w fe • t« as Q W J .



A Lady From Contemporary Re. in (Late her Private XV Century). 131. Fig.192 Fig. 130. {XV Century). Manuscripts. .\ding. A Rich Lady reading before the Painted Altar Piece Chapel.


. in Floss Silk. Panel of a Dress. Fig.194 Panel Embroidered Fig. 132. 133. Chinese Embroideries.

glover. when it gives occupation and employment to such numbers of people. shoemaker. the dressmaker.— FASHION DESIGN milliners. the lonely trapper. Fig. Surely fashions should not be despised. artificial flower 195 makers. 134. . etc. not to mention the designer. or the fashion makers. button and braid manufacturers. Modern Dress with Victorian influence the m il lin er.

The artist will see that the ideas from fashion designer is many sources. jumpers are Saxon. they are also drawn on . 138. if the sleeves only reach the elbows. if He must notice the dress has a tendency to be long or short. and also the daily Press . Materials should be taken into consideration. gold The design is then elaborated and silver paint. the long-waisted dress and the hanging sleeves might easily have been copied from the Tudor period the skimpy tight dresses of 1914 were modified Merveilleuses. so in this there is a wide give field. or crepe de chine and silk. and wholesale costumiers the magazines from the highly priced monthly or weekly . There has also been an attempt at (see Figs. seems absolutely true certainly. If the student can get in touch with some wholesale houses he may obtain hints which will be of great help to him. all the htmdred and one which are so important. ink. and I certainly think it is unwise of the student not to It is some time to the study of design. and sometimes there is a distinct ecclesiastical touch in the hanging stoles or the Dalmatic shaped tunic or cloak. in fact employed to convey the idea. both fascinating and profitable. in the chapter on Colour are used for the gold tissues. It is said there is nothing . in- troducing dresses of the Victorian Era 124 and 134) able to cull his modern adaptation. books.: 196 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN HISTORICAL DRESS Fig. as the style you wish to design may require a heavy velvet or cloth. and accordionpleated skirts Egyptian and thousands of years old. These original designs are required by the dressmaker and : the magazines. Designs for dressmakers can be made any size some drawn about seven or eight inches on rather thin paper. water colour paper or boards. but even these are divided into several classes Court dressmakers. a description any medium can be Metallic powders and paints described . and this when we are looking through old . theatrical dressmakers. iridescent beads and brocades which are the mode. Even the Church has been called upon to contribute ideas. new under the sun. several colours. In fact. the high or low neck little details —in fact. What is required is a certain gift of seeing it in the trend of fashion and presenting an attractive and practical way. or come to a point over the hand. to the 3d paper.

but in other cases the dress should be very lightly inked in and tinted. COURT DRESS is more intricate than for must be thoroughly conversant with the rules and regulations in relation to Court dress. skirt.FASHION DESIGN of a fashionable 197 like those of the wedding to-day reads very much Renaissance. and very frequently This colouring is the drawing not carried any further. Detail and material can be on this foundation build up the dress or costume. or any fabric which itself will drape weU and lend shortness of to decoration. There are many opportunities nowadays in local towns and suburbs for practising theatrical designing. the train embroidered with diamante and pearls or real The dress also of brocade. but designing for a pageant is a different matter (see Fig. as most of the costumes are home made and a clever designer will is soon discovered. and the work he or she does be of immense use in the future. and these must be carefully followed and any style which is taboo avoided. elaborated. shown in the pencil. An attractive figure is sketched in with the face and hands quite carefully drawn is . and the artist should have the power of seeing in his mind the a dress will have on a stage or in the open-air. THEATRICAL DRESSES To effect dress a play or pageant requires much historical research. just sufficient is not washed on to indicate the scheme and convey the whole effect to the customer. but gradually an idea comes to hjm which he tentatively tries. for these Court dresses. the the these requirements and restrictions hamper the designer and need much study of Court etiquette. all The length of the train. but it can be cvdtivated. he feels that every possible style has already been used. and the massing and grouping of colours to be seen in brilliant stmlight is a good test of the artist's power in colour design. If it is for a play. designing is quite a gift. At first when the artist is asked to design a dress. As I have said. it seems to look well and . as the Very beautiful materials are used of silver tissue lace. the lighting must be taken into consideration. chiffon. 135). Designing for a Court dressmaker artist an ordinary one. satin.

135.Fig. — Fancy Dress .

199 o Q Z a a: o J < o g o » Z o 55 in Q .




every and it seemed impossible to think of a new shape in collars or crochet edging. One very important point is the suitability of the design. same when I had to design some sports coats I had been sketching about one hundred. if it is for a restaurant gown almost any graceful thin material is permissible. and velvet trimmed with Q . and jimipers. can only suggest recipes for a few points which the artist should make a note of. 140. for instance. but Fig. one different. I cannot give an infallible guide to dress designing. Dress. or in the combination of colours. Grecian Female from a fictile vase after the first one it it became easier to go on contriving and thinking I out.— FASHION DESIGN he begins to develop I felt exactly the it 203 until he has evolved quite an original dress.

204 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN and lace in summer. the smaller magazines catering require a simpler style altogether for the home dressmaker a wide and cheaper materials must be suggested for carrying out the design. georgette. or V. but it must have even if they are short . or whatever fabric is in fashion. . — Grecian Dress End firm. jumpers and sports are eagerly sought coats. There is still field for etc. a sleeveless gown is not good form for restaurant wear. and new by the manu- facturers. or georgette into a smart dress. but the design is for a society paper or West Fig. if A house dress must not be so elaborate. marocain.. it can be of silk. stitches and new shapes. cut into a round sleeves. On the other hand. 141. fur in winter. would work up The neck may be a little low.

the most elegant . This might be adapted for a muslin or tub frock. the old-estabUshed ones. and must remember that the printed ones. This is usually more is individual. but go one better. 128. 12 g. editor. adapting it some new lace to the best This was done by introducing panels of lace. characteristic dresses left is. but an elaborate ball dress. MAGAZINE DESIGNING There zines. 129). that they seem to call for a separate description. The figure on the left is of a simple girlish dress with becoming high waist and two ruches or frills on the skirt. This design proving very gave the artist satisfactory. The dressmaker knows her clients. is more to be done in designing for newspapers and maga- New of periodicals are constantly being started. etc. We can imagine Becky Sharp wearing it We have again three as in Fig. On one occasion a wholesale dealer in trimmings asked a fashion artist to design a dress showing advantage. to the dress of the moment. I referred to designing for dressmakers. is and although There are also the life some very short. silk. the same period. it will be embroidery. must not only equal useful. {see Fig. I much the same time The one on the think. the artist Before submitting any sketches to an style of those designs already his designs must study the published. and design to suit some characteristic. and not to offer a . The illustrations given in this chapter on Design are so as well as charming. tinsel and various other materials. Fig. and from these he If biult up some smart tailored costumes. The figure on the right is from a painting by Miss Pierpoint. Another year raffia. requires the client who unfortunately stout a dress with lines going round the figure. or a heavy brocade to a young girl but this is comparatively easy. the future fashion designer will think of these.FASHION DESIGN DESIGNING FOR TRIMMINGS 205 Materials and trimmings play a large part in deciding the style of a dress. as the dressmaker will guide the artist. he next some braid and buttons. he will notice that one year the dresses will be designed to show off lace in every colour and every kind. and even that is subdivided into wool. others come to stay..

CHINESE EMBROIDERIES {See Figs 132 and 133) Perhaps we are too near the Victorian era to appreciate the crinoline fashion. The graceful pose of the figure. The centre figure is also very simple and has several points vogue that would give ideas for a design {see Fig. designed by Captain Molyneux. 140 and 141 are good examples. harmony a strong Chinese influence shown in the dresses worn this year. The design of the cloak in the third figure has been in (see Fig. is quickly gone. 123. 127). the cloak and hat. 142.ao6 of FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN any of those given. a good idea of ancient The shawl is Chinese in origin. Figs. all form a fashion plate that the modem school would do well to copy (see Fig. many times since this plate was published Figs. but when he finds . 136 and 137. the quaint and fine backgroimd are worth a close study. the long tunics. sleeveless coats all and at rich embroideries are culled from this nation. It was a passing phase and. as variable as the wind. 126). 125). A bride's dress. brooches and headdresses. scarab and other symbols were woven into materials made as chains. but when it is seen on the stage it is very quaint and pretty. Rare Chinese dresses and There is in colour most beautiful their . rose colour and gold are wonderful for of colour. like others. the rich blues. and the lotus. Figs. with its billowing skirts. fascinating bonnets and wreaths of roses. the richness of the dress. Fig. is Fig. These are very beautiful designs. the one reminiscent of a painted missal. The opening of Tutankahmen's tomb had a great Egyptian. and from time to time plainly. influence on fashion. will give The lady the loom and the group of three China. Greek figures and designs have always been used by dress designers for inspiration. : the There are two sources from which to draw inspirations some remarks made already old. I have very the and new very upon these and told the designer how he must watch the changing styles. we see this very this The clinging drapery of the Empire period shows tendency. 130 and 131.

Egyptian design. — Dress. 142. Sketch by Miss Madge Munro . by Captain Molyneux.Fig.

told me the embroidery design had just been copied by an artist to adapt for a wallpaper. Illustration and Design) of the Victoria and Albert Museum there is a fine collection of Uttle think where was looking at the fashion plates and costume illustrations. . on one occasion at South Kensington. veering in certain directions he must have reference or to look at bygone fashions. a Georgian dress of rich silk When most exquisitely embroidered.2o8 it FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN know where . We I the designs dresses we admire come from. while replacing a most beautiful specimen. In the Room (Department of Engraving. the attendant. So ideas may be gathered for draping material. by him books of The Lady's Companions of 1815 to 1830-40 are very useful also a book of the one by Dion Calthorp is very good. South Kensington. and permission to draw any of these is easily obtained. . At historical costume the Print Room of the Victoria and Albert Museum. there Print is a splendid collection of dresses of all ages. fine needlework and numbers of attractive costumes evolved from these examples.

It requires some ingenuity to think of variety and suitability.) A figure in evening dress is comparatively easy to place. With some artists this is quite a gift. motoring or shopping any place. {See Fig. must be arranged by their quality and shape.) . and the background must be subordinate to the figures. but the background spoils the effect. and . CHOOSING A BACKGROUND If the gown an is very elaborate.. garden parties. 143. etc. others find it most difficult. Above all things. at the opera. golf. in may appear skating. as the Fashion Artist is often asked to paint the figure in suitable surroundings. and hanging lamps. and not only to plan these out. fishing. For country wear a tweed coat and skirt are the most correct. river. The figure and dress are quite good. A client asked me to group some figures. the figures in fact. a few palms and a polished floor will give the desired effect. but not essentially an evening the dress. again. it at once suggests a restaurant with tea tables and perhaps interior. sometimes by being out of place and sometimes by bad drawing. but to choose scenes appropriate to the dresses. only taking care that your cheap coney coat is not worn at a reception and the 500-guinea ermine or sable is not drawn on a figure skating or on a country walk. three on a page and each page with a different background. 145. or Academy private view or some afternoon reception. and as there were about thirty pages I had to sketch railway station. {See Fig. Furs.X BACKGROUNDS It is necessary to study backgrounds. fishing or any sport according to the cut and shape of the costume. the artist must remember she is a fashion artist and not a landscape painter. flowers. and a background with shooting. hockey.

but the must decide the method. but also composition. Or another instmction to the student was to draw two lines from the four comers. 146. and ideas. a square inch. crossing in the middle of the picture the figures were then drawn in to occupy the centre. tub frocks. however . toys. 147. are most realistic. and that is tmnecessary space. I of the sketches of Mr. Tom would advise the student to study some Purvis and others. Bradley's catalogues. or washing we used to say . artist Not only must the surroundings be chosen with care. and if it is {See Fig. as now called. but there are other considerations to take into account in commercial carrjring out the colour art. rushes and trees make an attractive picture. {See Fig. calls for some eccentric. most ingenious with her backgrounds. especially in the fur sketches. pillow fighting. style is If more difficult.) much in sketching backmaimer does not look A girl in sports coat sketched in a natural well with a background of trees blocked in (Fig. the client does not wish to pay for a meandering river or grove of trees. 144). . conventional flowers formed of dotted lines and fountains with nymphs. also of Miss Hocknell's children with the cats. etc. the decorative style well done it is most and draws the attention at once. the rest of the space suitability Not only must the considered. These two or three rules are quite good for a general guide. and one looks forward to seeing the latest catalogues. bizarre robe or fancy and harmony of backgrounds be The old rule was to draw a line diagonally across a picture from comer to comer. wondering what new ideas she will have. for these the sea or river form very good backgrounds. as they are dresses. the rest of the picture filled in with minor accessories or scenes. the chief figures or interesting object was placed in the space to the right or left of this line.) In contrast to this. 150. boats. Fred Pegram's delightful advertisement sketches decorative.. but the warning I gave about mixing methods holds good quite as groimds as in the figures.) The block costs so much to advertise a dress. and is apt to show the weakness is of composition. (See Fig. They can be roughly divided into two. in the newspapers. This kind of decoration dress.210 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN is Miss Hoare. in Messrs. the realistic and the Mr. Japanese umbrellas. The other arresting.


212 Fig. Evening Dress with suitable Background. . 143.


144. . Background suitable for Country or Sports Dress.214 Fig.


. 145.\ce Scene in Oils. Fig. good ex. A K. 146. An Excellent Pose with Effective Background for Light Dresses.\mple of Grouping.2l6 Fig. by Tom Purvis.

. Autumn Background. 147.Fig.


. 148. Background Sketch by Tom Purvis.319 Fig.


— Fig. Good sketch with light background of leaves . 149.

well painted.


A glance through a good catalogue will show how in


few lines distance can be suggested without taking up much space.
Colour blocks are especially expensive, and again the question of
space must be considered.




speaking of economy of space, when a crowd of

Fig. 150.

— Figures

enclosed in circle with chair, chandelier arm and hand holding tray




must be got

into a rather small space I should suggest a

platform or steps on which the figures can be posed at different
heights, not only enabling the artist to
figures than

show many more



they were on

a level, but also to

in the sky,


always presents a

difficulty, the artist wishing to leave

a nice open

space to show up the figures and the client to advertise as



things as he can have crowded on the same page without quite
spoiling the effect.
{See Fig. 149.) Where the figures are painted singly, the advertisement manager arranges the paper for the printer in what is known

as a lay-out, but



arrangement of things

is left

to the artist he

must study



display everything to the best advantage



and brain-racking

calculations, as



in to a fraction of

an inch.


paint backgrounds successfully the student
It is

must have

working knowledge of simple perspective.
see the floor going uphill, a chair which

not at

imusual to

glaring faults which

would not stand, or other show at once that the student has little or no

knowledge of perspective.
It is

not necessary to study the subject deeply, but I shotild

certainly advise the fashion artist to learn the principles of the centre
of vision, the vanishing points, point of sight, etc.

A very good exercise is a street of houses receding in the distance,
which can be studied by most people very easily, and also another exercise would be to draw a tesselated pavement in lozenge squares
of black

and white. The latter is most useful and most effective. With just a few of these rules it should be easy to place the f igtires

in suitable surroundings.


is one branch of fashion drawing which is very profitable and not much noticed. In fact, I have not seen it mentioned in any advertisement of correspondence lessons or in any manual of instruction. It is that of drawing models of hairdressing for the

different firms;

these drawings are generally published in the

In this
it is


even more than in the millinery drawings to

sketch a pretty face

the hair must show the very latest



hairdressing. (See Fig. 151.) It is not an easy task, as great exactitude

demanded, and every wave must be shown.

Chalk or pencil seem the best medium to employ in drawing


either of

them lend themselves

to giving a soft, fluffy appear-

nothing destroys the effect of hair more than a hard wiry









drawings for the West End name of Stanley Davies will be noticed. This artist seems to have made a speciality of pretty heads, some in colour, but very often in chalk and wash. They are artistic and give a faithful
of the advertisement
coiffeur the

On many

idea of la mode without being at

all stiff.


all of this

kind of work
the sketch

done directly

for the shops,


give a good price

well carried out.

same way as he would furs or other fabrics. I mention fur, as a good fur artist should make a good hair artist the methods are similar.




practise painting hair in the




a o


but in some of the fashion magazines . but are not. — Head in coils line in the direction of the waves or and finished up by painting face highly finished to in hairs with a very fine brush. for these the paint liquid. are in wash . 153). IN LINE A few advertisements are in line (see Fig.FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 227 HAIR IN WASH Some advertisement drawings must be used very left. The correspond. all the darks put in first is This should be done when the board and high lights wet. but before it is quite dry the paint should be dragged over the light parts Fig. 153. qmte so successful . I think.

whole of the face and hair should be sketched and shaded in and after that is finished to the artist's satisfaction a broad wash can be put on. lines. of course. and the deep shadows in the curves of the hair and the eyes can be much improved. The faces have very drawn. in a frame ornamented with ribbons or . It may Or if be necessary to show the style of hair almost but the shoulders may be three-quarters with the head turned round. 154) In sketching for hairdressing the position of the head of the is very important. but there are other ingenious ideas.228 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN effective. little shadow except the eyes. distinct made thick in the shadows and thinning off on the top of a wave or continuing coil. Some heads are also shown as miniatures flowers.USTRATIONS If the hair is intended to be light. drawing is pencil. The pose of the head must be studied. By chalk is Conte crayon. IU. the shading of the face THE POSE OF THE HEAD {See Fig. in pencil drawings of hair. which are carefully CHALK AND WASH Chalk is more used than the other methods. and no wash used. the whole background of the is blacked in or very dark and cloudy. Several degrees of fineness should be bought. is a side view required the face is drawn in profile with the neck and shoulder back view. meant The first. or even leaving a little space in the line and then these breaks indicating the high lights. In many cases the whole begun and finished in and the hair. PENCIL The same method can be employed these are very artistic and delicate. full face. devoted entirely to hairdressing the sketches are very clear and The heads are large and the hair drawn in firm. and various means are used to give different views same style. is a mirror in which you see the back of the head reflected. The most usual. it.

154. It is not unusual to see a figiire beautifully painted as regards the dress but the head quite the prevailing mode. the artist not having studied difference to the smartness makes a great When selected these various by which the is artist up-to-date fashion methods have been tried and the one can get the best results and the most noted. Fig. It requires but it some patience to get into the best methods is quite worth while as it will enable the artist to draw a figure of hairdressing. of a figure. Hair in Line in evening dress with the hair properly painted for the occasion. It spoilt.— FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING The principal 229 West End coiffeurs issue a brochure nearly every season and also have advertisements in the best ladies' magazines. It is almost a separate art from fashion drawing but there are quite a number who take it in with their other work. some specimens should be painted .

If more confidence or practice is is needed. Weldons a few fashion artists take up this branch of their probably be fairly easy to get in. who seldom an introduction to his more distinguished confreres.230 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN hairdressers and the shown the sketches. and this makes the initial step much more pleasant. . the instructions must be carried advertises. every year. so the artist in that case magazines are generally advertisements would be employed by the hairdresser and not the paper. and as only it would have catalogues the art. may be able to get a post as assistant to one who has plenty of orders. I think. Many of pages devoted to hairdressing. The Icx^al hairdresser. Some help frequently needed. The illustrations in the from some particular firm. FASHION PAPERS There are not hairdressing. as some hairdressers make a speciality of period fashions for theatricals and fancy dress balls and pageants. If an order is obtained. especially those published by large shops or stores which have a hairdressing department. will perhaps give out to please the the artist client. Some knowledge of historical headdresses is an asset. and in that way valuable experience may be gained. many fashion papers dealing exclusively with issue one.

must be shown to the best advantage. As it is not considered as is important as the figure pages. this is essen- tially catalogue work. the quality of the painting inferior. The figure pages are given to experienced artists. who odd naturally charge accordingly. and we it see these often despised pages quite charmingly arranged. as these large catalogues are contracted for. however different. and they in turn give over the sketches to their assistants. and in a studio would be given to beginners. The few pages of a catalogue are generally given over to a miscellaneous collection of things which. and only a .P*g- ' 55 — -^ ccessories XII ACCESSORIES (See Fig. Some- times the artist is given thfe task of planning the lay-out. but generally falls to the lot of the advertising manager. and so one page is as valuable as another to the printer. 155. In the best catalogues attention is given to accessories.) I MUST say a word about the painting last of accessories . also I do not see why this should be.

All varieties must be tried. The most difficult accessories to the student will be To make the gloves seem natural. as the stitching must be most neatly painted. 156.— «3a guide is FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN given to the artist. 159. back view. and kid. as they is always changing. SHOES Fig. as whole catalogues of shoes are sent out by the numerous shoemakers with an attractive cover design in colour. gloves and shoes. such as the evening shoe. The practice the student has had in depicting the variety of fabrics will here be most useful. Fig. as if they were walking. side. or holding a whip for driving gloves. front view. and shoes and boots illustrated in every possible position. some on both feet. The best way to learn is to paint from the real shoes these placed in different positions. etc. and there is much detail than in more variety and gloves. To be able to paint shoes will give the fashion artist another chance of adding to his income. which are drawn to call attention to some special shape or stitching. some single. fabric. . . as the gloves are not treated separately but on the hands. GLOVES AND SHOES Fig. a knowledge is of hands in different positions absolutely necessary. or silk shown to advantage. or with a fan for evening ones. and the hands are drawn grasping the wheel of a motor car for thick. are very tricky. 156. the brogue. The experience gained in patiently devoting time to detail will give the artist confidence in dealing with gloves. the style Shoes are not given to a beginner to paint. Sketch of Gloves There is even scope for original ideas in this arrangement.

The welt is generally a plaia colour. and very pretty heads in becoming ornaments find place the miscellaneous pages of a catalogue it is amongst these that in these . The shape of the stockdrawn out first. but the lines must indicate knitting.) ORNAMENTS Illustrations Some to of the bandeaux for the hair. . walking shoes for the 233 town and for the country. will be found most useful in costume STOCKINGS in seems natural for shoes and stockings to follow each other These are not quite so difficult as gloves and Here again is much scope for shoes. at the same time not easy. and all the diamonds and squares to fit in over the instep. in pencil.— ACCESSORIES boots. especially with the fancy stockings used with These stockings are checked and sports coats and dresses. ribbons or feathers. (Su Fig. flowers. fruit. others of gold leaves. and ingenuity. detail ^Hribbed. Even if the artist is never asked to sketch shoes for advertisement after it the experience gained. painting. '5 7- Stockings ing must be woven in diamonds and stripes. some It is generally better to in the Russian headdress style. 157. and with the exact pattern. It a catalogue. of most charming pages of accessories are those devoted which there is infinite number. show these in use.

If either is partly open. 158. and a few rules must be followed. are also illustrated. or outside. .I<USTRATIONS Umbrellas and sunshades claim some attention. transformations. Waistcoats in the centre and the ribs radiating from it at regular intervals. The artist must see that the handle is absolutely Fig. curls. the shop has a hairdressing department. and curving inwards on the concave and convex curves. the ribs must be drawn curving over on the inside.— 234 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN if toupees. Il.

Fig. 159. . Examples of Shoes in Wash and one pair in Line.

I .

LACE Lace is methods are already described another item which need not be dwelt upon as the different in the chapter on wash and patterns Fig. Accessories of lace are sometimes photographed. is again called upon to paint and arrange them.— ACCESSORIES 337 If the framework is drawn on these lines any eccentricity of fashion can easily be added. fichus or scarves. also waistcoats shown separately if and {See Fig. but no elaborate ornament or shape will hide the bad drawing.) . 1 60. but the fashion artist if it is made up into collars. is very new and startling. Veils are sometimes the mesh or pattern jabots. 158.

and. and very neat and exact work. these are generally in line. above all. afternoon teacloths as well as stationery. miscellaneous articles and include any small things suitable such as lamp-shades. that they may be able to do everything required. although the chief sketches would be done by the assistants. are multiplied for the occasion. mechanical toys of all descriptions. for For the Christmas catalogue. etc. bags accessories (see Fig. so it finds a place in the fashion artist's training. aeroplanes and motor studio. and are done in a large trivial but even in this apparently and rather tedious work. cars . a lot would remain to be supervised given to It is also to help those who take a post in a big studio.238 Illustration I FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN am dealing with these as the fashion artist may have if a whole catalogue to illustrate. The artist who specialises in dress designing subject in the same way as he studies of drawing. rolls of materials. MISCELLANEOUS there are too fans. presents. pin-cushions. must study his and practises the technique he must remember that it is not alwa3^ will the rare and bizarre which will give him brilliant ideas. baskets. i6o). line skill is required. the commonplace. is Children are especially catered issued. Much more need not be written about many to ennumerate. ribbons. . which inspiration transmute into a thing of beauty. of all kinds are included. but often the simple. dolls'-houses. and. for. the homely. artist. and a special bazaar catalogue is The artist then finds he or she required to paint teddy- bears.

shorthand. languages. a student line who a failure at and develop quite wash drawing may make good with a talent. but generally require one who is able to turn out . it must be studied as as music.XIII FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER It becomes more necessary every year for the daughters and sons of professional and earn a living. first The question : I will take the last question : How long the training should Given a certain talent and some general art training.) in a studio is Does it pay ? If the post of fashion artist compared with a secretarial one. 171. My concern in this book is with fashion drawing as a to go out into the world career. —that is. They must not be ? . where there is always room. I men am often consulted about it and asked if it pays well. and if ? it is easy to get into a studio and how long the training will take All these are difficult questions to answer. but that is quite at the top of the ladder. training. a few of these take begirmers. and imtil lately was much better paid than teaching. and every year there are fresh professions and businesses open to them. medicine. With regard to getting into a fashion studio. the student can train in a year some are much quicker than others and soon show if they will make anything of it. etc. I should say it certainly pays. unless the student to be always in a subordinate position. despair if the is first attempts are crude and hopeless looking . as not an easy seriously some seem is satisfied to think . 161). Of course. {See Fig. one always hears of fashion artists with a thousand a year or more (see Fig. but I will endeavour to take each question and explain the position of a fashion artist. Much also depends upon the It is time given to practising in between the lessons.

— Fig. Newspaper Sketch by Miss Bessie Ascough . i6i.

Others are kept to detail. STUDIO Where I think I it is essential for the student to earn money at once should recommend a fashion studio as a beginning. some more talented to making the preliminary sketches. There she falls she will see a great variety of work and will be able to compare her own and see how much she excels and how much short of the other artists. the fascination of seeing the coloured posters in the process of being designed and painted. (See Fig. again. work they undertake is closely connected with studios advertising these often have a department devoted to fashion drawing or one or staff. an introduction will not get them a position. perhaps if artists to see the is head of the studio. . and the discipline and necessity and in of working to time will help the student in the future. and.FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER good work at once. unless some special talent is the drawing will gradually become mechanical. As in the fashion studio. of the studios are the . There is two fashion artists attached to their much more variety of work and more experience can be gained than in a studio exclusively devoted to fashions. and the admiration shown for some novel and ingenious idea in an advertising scheme may lead the young artist to try too many kinds of art and too many methods. this does not give much scope for originality or individuality you are part of a machine. what is known as Commercial Studios. and by distributing the sketches amongst their workers to put the order through very quickly. in the other too set and mechanical. but the sketches are not what required. a short term of work in a commercial studio is good. remains some time in a studio. so after a time it would be better for her to become a free lance. they will enable Introductions are of very little 241 use . COMMERCIAL STUDIOS (See Fig. Of course. . 168) Some that is. some studios anyone who is good at faces is given faces to sketch all day and every day. The danger in one is too much variety. This is all good practice for a time.) On the other hand. If the artist noticed. The studios are able to take large orders. but should not be prolonged. 169.

Even if the staff is complete the it is time the artist sees the advertising manager. such as . have men who arrange is all the advertising for the firm in some cases the sketching like given out to a large studio. 165. many. as it generally means waiting some time before getting known. There are numbers of openings Fig. but other men a more individual touch and the free (See Fig. of course. children's clothes. Before caUing at the shops. one artist's best . you can approach the advertising As in the case of manager with confidence. always study one of their catalogues and see which department is given the most importance. advertising managers are very courteous. free lance artist A for free lance artists. not too work one line drawing. one fur in line and one in wash. do not offer probably a good artist already any of these sketches the firm has and only wishes for novelty. or whichever all these method the artist wishes to make As his speciality. or the artist calls at the psychological moment first and fills a vacancy. well to call . 162. colour drawing and one decorative suitable for showcard. whereas in another branch you may be able to turn out much better work than you have seen in the catalogue if so.) magazine designing. The is well received they know exactiy what they want. it may be a branch in which you do not excel. they are quite easy to approach and are generally kind and helpful. In that case. It sometimes happens that they have just and do not wish to change. are always looking out for originahty.242 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN FREE LANCE must have a great deal of patience and a little money to fall back upon. Armed with the specimens. 162-164. he or she can call on some printing these managers firms in the city and ask for the manager. (Figs. and the artist . and efficient artists if the sketches submitted meet these requirements. First.) lance artist has a chance. but the drawing of good specimens must be prepared. one wash ordinary dresses. an order will follow. your work must either show originality or great . and your sketches would not reach the standard. ADVERTISING MANAGERS Most of the big shops . skill in the usual technique.

163.— FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 243 Fig. Example of magatin* illustration . Study of vth*t in line.

Fig 163^— Illustration of strong lines for newspaper work .

164. Sketch by Erti .— Fig.

and their success is very encouraging. the sketches offered must be briefly to children. Of course. he may be overlooked when the rush sets in. This lasts until the middle or end of September. I must again emphasise the necessity of of studying the special style the different shops. artist. C. so much has crammed into the short time between the return of the buyers from the wholesale houses and Paris and the date on which the complete catalogue is published. or a few The best time to go is about the second or third week in January. the artist to be the time the fur artist obtains the most work. before the work has been given out for the spring season.246 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN many that it is again after two or three months. Miss Hoare (see Fig. Some are entirely devoted to children's clothes. 171). and others are given. In that case. If the artist is sent to sketch at a shop or wholesale warehouse. mapped out if it is a large town. Miss Olive Hewerdine (see Fig. consideration. Roller (see Fig. there is always a certain amount for newspaper advertisements. interviews the advertising managers in between these seasons. editor gives the artist In the newspapers. the process All more or less more rapid and into the fashion ephemeral. 166). AUTUMN The This is third week in July is the time to call for the autumn and If winter season. . these points must be taken Throughout the book are given examples by well-known artists. as they see so easy to be forgotten. to a furrier's paintings of I have referred most sumptuous furs. magazine designing and must repeat it is the advice to the student that necessary to study the sketches in the papers before submitting specimens. 170). which they give to their own district A should be shops visited each day. 167) of the material and detail written at the side. In this chapter on careers. a careful pencil sketch must be made (see Fig. Some is are printed on glazed paper and the a free hand. examples of work by Mr. If it is and the description trimmed with . This time lasts until the second week in March there is then an interval and very little work to be obtained from the retail shops.


Good Illustration by Tom Purvis. 165. .248 Fig.


. Sketch by Miss Olive Hewerdine. i66.250 Fig.


georgette.2. Lace drapery from shoulder with buckle. Dress sketched at Dressmakers or Shop. .2 -Beads. 167. — Silk fringe. WITH description OF DETAIL.!. mauve Material of dress. — Pink rose. Fig.

253 . - jfii ll'i':! .


. Beautiful Drawing of Fur by Miss Beatrice Spiller.255 Fig. 170.


by C. Roller . Example of Tweed.— FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 257 Fig. 171.

as the smaller ones get the printer to do all the art work for them . neither the printer nor the advertising manager asks what examinations the artist is has passed or what certificates he holds. and their agents arrange for the goods autumn seasons which have been selected to be sketched before they are shipped. For the in-between seasons. and the sketches are satisfactory. . so to obtain this work it is necessary to call . What they so the fashion artists what work he can do and the quality of it. There is more scope with printers than with the retail shops. taking the specimens previously referred to. 167.258 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN show the exact must be sketched at one mesh of the lace. upon printers as well as shops. As a rule it is no use calling at the wholesale houses. as they do not select their printer to own artists. even a small one. Promptness always appeals to business people. a very good start has been made. except the very big ones. in this way. but give the contract to the who is bringing out the catalogue he in turn employs artists make the sketches. also the advertisement columns in the daily papers should be studied and any advertisement answered at once. there are numbers of by the wholesale houses and for the overseas Buyers come over. September and very early January are the best times to call. There is who is in charge of the art department who will willingly look at the speci- mens the artist brings . the catalogues being sent out as soon as completed. or even in December. generally someone The printers also arrange for the coloured designs of catalogue covers and for showcards. if the artist can get in with a good firm. for. unlike the applicant for an art teacher's post. A list of these firms and of art agents can be found in the London Directory. side lace or embroidery the pattern larger to much stitches or the OTHER OPENINGS FOR THE FREE LANCE In between the spring and catalogues issued trade. he all will be sure of steady work the year round. must take only their best specimens. ' PRINTERS See Fig. and a bigger wish to see commission will follow. If the printer gives an order.

order would follow in other cases more than one visit must be made before there put aside any success. and after three or four months should fetch them all away. The cry of the day is to specialise. if They then communicate with him direct. as the number of times he has to call at one printers or is very discouraging the managers are out or engaged and he often has to return home alter three or four houis without one opportunity of showing his wares — The art agent probably has a (if number . of clients. sketching himself. It will be seen that there is a great scope for the ambitious fashion artist but he must have initiative. and certainly it saves time. he secures an order he pays a commission to There are ver>' many art agents and commercial studios who now undertake to place work. and many up the ladder of fame.— FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 259 ART AGENTS Many one shop artists take their sketches to art agents. who is doing all the .) in view who wants some particular sketches. and try other agents who may have amongst their clients just the man who is looking out for the kind of work offered. in It is impossible for which the art agent can be of use is with provincial a free lance artist. may have been submitted and then the artist should take new ones. PRO\aNCIAL CLIENTS Another way clients. There are many steps up to the advertising manager's room. and when he his looks through the sketches they are up to his standard) selects a or he takes few which he asks the of art he thinks If artist to leave it down name and address and writes against he has a client his opinion and also which branch would be his speciality. {See Figs. and ask them for the name of an artist whom they can recommend. he should make good ." and much perseverance. an quickly is . 168 and 169. " the infinite capacity for taking pains. and the art agent. and given good conditions of trade. to get into touch with firms at a distance these generally apply to a big studio or agent. It is better not to leave the sketches too long. and it is better to make a name in one branch of art than be able to do a variety of styles without rising above mediocrity. they . . but he must have patience. and talent and enterprise on the part of the artist.

• .

184 18 Drawing Materials. Gloves. indian Influence. 177 Colour Drawings. 11. 112. 227. 209. 206 Chinese Influence. 207 Elizabeth. 77. 155. 49. 45 Brocade in Line. 153 Hats. 212. 53 Fabrics. 255 Career of Fashion Artist. 104. 31. 93. 86. 44. 56 Braid. 234 Aerograph. 225 Hairdressing Fashions in Line. Hat Materials. 43 Hats. 33 17. 155 Consulate Period. 139 Children. Accessories. 83. 85. — Those 23 figures which appear in heavy type indicate on which illustrations appear. 219. 25 Colour Drawings. 1 34 Detail. 41. Examples of Drawing in Four Stages. 224. the pages Accessories. 2 Beatrice d'Este. 183 Chinese Dress. 127 Details in Wash. 217 Early Victorian Period. 177 Flounced Skirt. 232 Graduated Tints and Shadings. 40 Historical Dress. 91 Court Dress. 145 Dress. 216. 126 Empire Period. 212 Evening Head-dresses. 201 I Drapery. The. 102. Introduction. 84. 148 Herringbone. Accessories. 173. 59 Fashion Design. 3 261 . 115. 40 Details in Line. 54 Fancy Dress. 79. 25 B Backgrounds. 116. 214. Accessories. 4 Beaver. 235 Stockings. 86. 237 Ornaments. 59. 45 Fur. 95. 232 Lace. 25. 233 Shoes. 52. 233 Waistcoats. 183 Feathers. 13 Evening Frock. 147. Frontispiece. Frontispiece. Millinery. 148 Evening Shawl. 232. Accessories. 119.B. 11. 121. 144. 182. 9 Embroidery. 77. 113. 30. 143 Feet and Legs. 24 Flat Colour. 204 H Hairdressing Fashions. 74. Accessories. 143. 197 of. 82 Chalk and Wash. 30 Autumn Background. Queen. 239 Celanese. 109. 201 Brocade. 229 Hands. 12 Egyptian Influence. 217. 106. 82. 136-7 Hats in Colour. 70. 26 Fifteenth Century Costume. 185. 21. 27 Eyes. 198 Fans. Accessories. 158 Georgette. 2 Correcrions. 154. Mixing. 25 Head-dresses. 194. 142. 104 Grecian Dress. 141 Blouses. The. The.1 INDEX N. 117. 139. Drawing. 221 Ball Hresses. 199 Colour Drawings. 143 Figure Studies. 203. 253 Chinese Embroideries. 196. Materials Colour Drawings. 108 Arm. 57. 56. 83. 159165 Head. Reproduction 159-165 Colours. 81 Details. 40. Methods. Evening. 175. 126 Gloves. 79.

205 Trimming. I S2 Louis XVIII Period. 36-7. 143 Preliminary Sketch. Simple. 41 Wool Jumpers. 176 Jet Trimming. Rendering of. 99. 142 Japanese Influence. 92. 2 Sleeves. 102. 178 Silhouette. 33 N Neck. 136. 69 Line Detail. Early. 27 Printing of Colour Reproductions. 17. 106 Sports Dress. iii Silk. 201 Shawls. 21. Use 87 Millinery. 139 Line Drawing. 137 Drawings. 169 Rest Gown. 27 Period Fashions. Trimming. 56. 232. 81. 128. 188. 149 Jumpers. 89. 95. Serge. 133 Millinery Details. 139 Ornaments. 69. 233 M Magazine designs. 205 Masses. 79. 95. 71 33 Line and Wash. 128. 41. 149 Tweed. 130. Aerograph. 44. The. 237 Legs and Feet. 103. 112. 63. 248. 151 Velour. Jet. 196 > Oil Painting. 72. 141 Velvet. 99. 82 Lace. Designs for. 219. 169 Drawings. Wash Wash Plumes. 233 Pencil Sketches. 32. 149 W Waistcoats. 66. 159-165. 110. Correction of. 40. 48. Rendered by Line. 216 Oriental Veil. 71. 92. 93. 189. 54. 45 Line Drawing with Mechanical 77 Tints. 149. 131 Seventeenth Century Costume. 54 Wash and 139 Line. 17 Theatrical Dress. 72. 45. 73. 68 Lingerie. 123. 126 Ribbon. 122. 24 Veils. 78. 123. 57. 41. 235 Showcard in Colour. 127 Mechanical Tints. 192 Plaids. Lord. 67 Materials for Drawing. 26 Muffs. 104 Trimming. 26 I^ighton.8 Wool Coat. 70. 141 Stockings. 131. 52. 64. Drawings by. 145 of. 66. 89. 214. 78-88. 26 Nude Studies. 93. 16. 137. 197 Tints. Rendered in Line. 19. The. 27. <. 30 Spatter Work. 67 Ijnes. 77 Mouth. 59. 16. 40. 1 Victorian Influence.1 262 INDEX Reproduction of Colour. 12 Wash and Chalk. 70 Shoes. 126 Victorian. Skirts. 72 . 234 Walking Dress (Early Victorian). 257 Straw Hats.




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