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# Introduction One of the most important and pervasive goals of schooling is to teach students to think.

All school subjects should share in accomplishing this overall goal. Science contributes its unique skills, with its emphasis on hypothesizing, manipulating the physical world and reasoning from data.The scientific method, scientific thinking and critical thinking have been terms used at various times to describe these science skills. Today the term "science process skills" is commonly used. Popularized by the curriculum project, Science - A Process Approach (SAPA), these skills are defined as a set of broadly transferable abilities, appropriate to many science disciplines and reflective of the behavior of scientists. SAPA grouped process skills into two types-basic and integrated. The basic (simpler) process skills provide a foundation for learning the integrated (more complex) skills. These skills are listed and described below.

Table of content

Integrated science process skills Recording and Interpreting Collecting bits of information about objects and events that illustrate aspecific situation; organizing andanalyzing data that have been obtainedand drawing conclusions from it bydetermining apparent patterns or relationships in the data Stating how to measure a variable in anexperiment, defining the variableaccording to the actions or operationsto be performed on or with it Being able to identify variables(recognizing the characteristics of objects or factors in events) that areconstant or change under differentconditions, AND that can affect anexperimental outcome keeping mostconstant while manipulating only one(the independent) variable. Stating or constructing a statement,that is tentative or testable, about whatis thought to be the expected outcomeof an experiment (based on reasoning Recording data from an experimentand forming a conclusion that relatestrends in data to variables; studying agraph of data collected relatingvariables and determining arelationship between the variables Stating that bean growth will be definedas the amount of change in height asmeasured from the top of the soil to thetip of the longest stem in centimetersper week Listing or describing the factors that arethought to, or would, influence the rateat which an ice cube melts in air or water

Defining Operationally

## Identifying and Controlling Variables

Formulating Hypotheses

Experimenting

Being able to conduct an experiment,including asking an appropriatequestion, stating an hypothesis,identifying and controlling variables,operationally defining those variables,designing a "fair" experiment,conducting the experiment, andinterpreting

Making a statement to be used as thebasis for an experiment; "if one icecube is placed in cool water and anidentical cube is placed in warm water,then the cube in the warmer water willmelt first, or the greater the amount of organic matter added to the soil, thegreater the amount the bean growth The entire process of conducting anexperiment to determine the relationbetween soil conditions and plantgrowth, population and pollution, etc

## the results of an experiment

Science manipulative skills skills Use and handle science apparatus andsubstances definition Use at least 5 apparatus correctly andcarefully example During an experiment pupils able tohandle the science apparatus withgreat care and with adhering to all themethods and manuals in order not tobreak any of it Using the living specimen such asleaves and worms and non-livingspecimen such as the dead leaves. Drawing the apparatus that used in anexperiment in their practical book anddraw the processes involved Clean the apparatus frequently rightafter each experiment and wipe it clean Keep all the apparatus in appropriate place

## Handle living and nonliving specimens

Handle living specimens and nonlivingspecimens correctly and carefully Draw neatly and label drawingscorrectly with considering on what isobserved with correct scales clean apparatus using the correct method Store apparatus and substance and safely

Clean apparatus