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Hybrid Power Systems

Roger Taylor

Hybrid Power System Examples: Communications


Carol Spring Mtn., AZ Mt. Home AFB, ID

Test Ban Treaty Monitoring, Antarctica

McMurdo Station, Antarctica

Hybrid Power Systems


Hybrid power systems use local renewable resource to provide power. Village hybrid power systems can range in size from small household systems (100 Wh/day) to ones supplying a whole area (10s MWh/day). They combine many technologies to provide reliable power that is tailored to the local resources and community. Potential components include: PV, wind, microhydro, river-run hydro, biomass, batteries and conventional generators.

Agricultural Water Pumping


Livestock watering at the Bledsoe Ranch Colorado, USA PV, Mechanical wind and diesel backup solves problems with seasonal variations in resource
NEOS Corporation

Home Power Systems


Systems do not have a dispatchable backup generator like most hybrids Very simple architecture: Turbine, PV, Disconnects, Batteries DC Loads or AC power through an inverter Primarily PV dominated for small loads, wind has potential at larger loads. In many instances a combination of PV and wind make most sense Can vary in size, power output

Inner Mongolia, Wind/PV Home Systems

Energy Flow for all Renewable Hybrid


Power sources and sinks, kW 0.2
Wind

0.15 0.1 0.05

Load

Solar

11

13

15

17

19

21
21

Hour of the day


Battery SOC, %

100 50 0

11

Hour of day

13

15

17

19

23

23

Single Home Systems/mini-grids


Chipepte, Mexico
Windseeker 503 1000Ah, 12V, No maintenance Battery Bank < 100W DC Loads

Pez Maya, Mexico


2 AIR Marine 403 turbines 1000Ah, 12V, No maintenance Battery Bank 1100W inverter power to a small mini-grid for homes and cottages

Pez Maya

Village Scale Power Systems


Larger, village scale power systems can further be distinguished into two sizes. Micro-grids Mini-grids All have the same feature that they are centrally located and used by the whole community or area through a common distribution system

Micro-grid System Architecture


Wind Turbine Guyed Lattice Tower

Turbine Disconnect

Turbine Controller DC Source Center

PV Charge Controller

PV Array

Generator (optional) Battery Bank DC Loads AC Loads Inverter (bi-directional optional)

Micro-Grid Power Systems


Small systems with demands up to ~100kWh/day load (15 kW peak load) Components of wind, PV, batteries and conventional generators Provide AC and potentially DC power Use of batteries to store renewable energy for use at night or low renewable times Generator used as backup power supply Mature market

Energy Flow for Small Hybrid


30.0 Diesel 25.0 20.0 15.0 Load 10.0 5.0 Wind 0.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Hour of day 17 19 21 23

Battery SOC, %

Power, kW

100% 50% 0%

11

13

21

Hour of day

23

15

17

19

Sunwize Power System


Whisper 3000 wind turbine 1.8 kW PV (Siemens) 5.8 kW diesel generator 25.6kWh battery bank 2-SW4048 4kW inverters

Santa Cruz Island, California, USA


Remote Telecommunications station Power System
PV array Two wind turbines No Backup generator

Vary costly access/site visits Remote operation and monitoring of system

Northern Power Systems

Mini-Grid Power Systems


Larger systems with demands up to ~700kWh/day load (100 kW peak load) Same components used as in Micro-Grids, just more of them and larger Use of batteries to store renewable energy for use at times of light loading Generator used to supply large loads Mature market though fewer examples Provide AC power

Parallel System - Smaller Diesel


20 18 16 14 Power, kW 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of day

Wind

Diesel

Load

Battery SOC, %

100% 50% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of Day

Both diesel and inverter needed to cover the maximum load. Both units run together.

Switched System - Larger Diesel


30 25 Diesel Power, kW 20 Wind 15 10 Load 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of day

Battery SOC, %

100% 50% 0%
c

Both diesel and inverter sized to cover the complete load. Only one runs at a time.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of Day

Village power system in Joanes, Brazil


Remote village the Island of Marajo 50kW Power System
PV array Four wind turbines Backup generator

Northern Power Systems

Power system used to support local grid

Hybrid Power System Examples: Parks


Sleeping Bear Dunes Nat. Lakeshore, MI (11 kW)

Farallon Island, CA, US Fish & Wildlife Svc. (9 kW)

Dangling Rope Marina, Lake Powell, UT (160 kW PV/Propane)

Hybrid Power System Examples: Xcalac, Mexico

n u R w o N

n o g n i n

s e Di

y l n O el

60 kW Wind, 12 kW PV, 40 kW Inverter

Hybrid Power System Examples: Campinas, Brazil

50 kW PV 50 kVA Inverter 300 kWh Batteries

San Juanico, Mexico


Remote fishing & tourism community of 400 people

San Juanico

Power System 17 kW PV 70 kW wind 80 kW diesel generator 100 kW power converter/controller Advanced monitoring system

Wind-Diesel Power Systems


Larger systems with demands over ~ 100 kW peak load us to many MW Based on an AC bus configurations Batteries, if used, store power to cover short lulls in wind power Both small and large renewable penetration designs available Large potential mature with fewer examples Provide AC power

Wind-Diesel System Penetration Ranges


Low Peak Instantaneous Annual Average Commercial status Examples <50% <20
Fully utilized

Medium 50 100% 20 50%

High 100 400% 50 150 %


System prototype Operating St. Paul Wales Ak

Well proven Fully commercial Multiple use Denmark, San Clemente, CA Greece Kotzebue, Ak Coyaique, Chile

Diesel Only Power System


System Controller
100

80

Power

Diesel Gensets

60

40

20

0 0 6 12 18 24

-20

Time

Village Load

Low Penetration wind/diesel system


Wind Turbine Diesel Gensets
Power
100

80

60

40

20

0 0 6 12 18 24

-20

System Controller
Time

Village Load

Multiple diesel plants with control


In multiple diesel systems the diesels may be dispatched to take advantage of the renewable energy. Requires automatic diesel control.
1500 Power Sinks Power Sources 1000 500 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 -500 -1000 -1500 Hour of Day Load, kW Wind power Dsl #1Power Dsl #2 Power 23

Ascension Island
U.S. Air Force installation on British island in mid-Atlantic ocean. Prime diesel generation with rotary interconnect to British 50 hertz system Four NEG-Micon 225 kW turbines installed in 1996.

Coyaique, Chile

Isolated Community Private Utility


2 MW Wind, 4.6 MW Hydro, 16.9 MW Diesel

Remote installation

High Penetration Wind-Diesel with storage

AC Wind turbines Control System

DC DC Bus

AC AC Bus

Rotary Converter

Wind/Diesel with short term storage


300 250 200 150 Power, kW 100 50 0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 Time, minutes
250
D i e s e lp o w e r ,k W

Wind Load

Battery power (Charging is negative)

200 150 100 50 0

Diesel used to provide power to system when the wind can not cover load. Battery used to fill short gaps in or to start diesel

1 3

2 5

3 7

4 9

6 1

7 3

8 5

9 7

1 0 9

1 2 1

1 3 3

1 4 5

1 5 7

1 6 9

1 8 1

Time, minutes

1 9 3

193

Wales Alaska Wind Diesel System


High penetration system 80kW average load with 130kW of wind power Short term battery storage Resistive loads used for heating and hot water

Wales Alaska
Wind Turbines (Induction, Stall-Regulated)

2 X 65 KW = 130 KW
Diesel #1 142 kW

Diesel #2 DC Battery Bank 240 VDC, 130 Ah AC 75 kW

~30 kWh

Rotary Converter 156 kVA Diesel #3 Secondary Load Controllers 148 kW

School Heating System

Resistance Heaters Diesel Plant Hydronic Loop

Primary Village Load 40-120 kW

Schematic of Wind-Diesel without storage


Control System

AC Bus

Synchronous Condenser

Dump Loads

Wind Diesel without Storage


When the wind power is larger than the load by some margin - Diesel is shut off. Frequency controlled by dump load Voltage controlled by condenser
100

80

60

40

20

0 0 6 12 18 24

-20

Red = Diesel Blue = Load Green = Windpower

St. Paul Alaska, USA


Island in the middle of the Bering Sea Peak load of 160kW Cost of Power, + $0.21/kWh Waste energy used for heating

St. Paul Power System


225 kW Wind Turbine 2 x 150 kW Diesel Gensets Digital Engine Controls NPS Components System Controllers/ RemoteView Synchronous Condenser Heating and Thermal Plant Integrated Shelter Dump Load Regulator

Key Points of Large Hybrid Systems


Differences in Energy Storage
Long term energy storage: Larger battery bank to transfer energy from one time to another. Order of hours. Short term power storage: Energy used for very short periods to provide grid stability and allow controlled diesel engine starting. Order of minutes.

Power Quality issues System Control


DSP based advanced control is required

Power Balancing Alternatives


Control wind generation: mechanical pitch control, electronic control, individual machine switching in multiple machine windfarms. Dispatchable Loads: Installations of controllable incremental loads like resistance heating to consume extra power. Load shedding where non-critical loads are temporarily shut off to quickly reduce system load.

More Power Control Alternatives


Back-driving the diesel generator, a process where power is actually put into the generator to overcome the generator losses while keeping the generation running so that it can be loaded quickly. Installing systems, like block heaters, to allow quick starting of generators. Installation of a synchronous condenser or rotary converter, which is used to produce reactive power Installation of a capacitor bank to smooth out rapid power transients and partially correct the systems power factor

Conclusions
Lots of options for the configuration of hybrid systems - Depend on load, resource, and costs. Medium penetration wind-diesel systems are operating in various isolated locations around the world. Instantaneous wind penetration levels exceeding 50% of load are common. Several high penetration systems, with and without energy storage, have been successfully demonstrated. High penetration systems are capable of prolonged diesel-off operation.

CPCs 5 to 25kWe Small Modular Biopower System


Alaminos, Philippines April 2, 2001

Village Power Hybrids


Simulation Models for Options Analysis

Wind Inverter Diesel Bio-Power -Hydro


losses

PV Fuel Cell DC Bus Wind -Turbines


losses

Rectifier AC Bus
losses

Load

Dump Load
losses

Battery Bank

Rate Structure