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Chapter 8 CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.1 Introduction

An airplane in flight can be maneuvered using the aerodynamic control surfaces; the elevator, rudder, or ailerons. As the control surfaces change the amount of force that each surface generates, the aircraft rotates about a point called the center of gravity. The center of gravity is the average location of the weight of the aircraft. The weight is actually distributed throughout the airplane, and for some problems it is important to know the distribution. But for total aircraft maneuvering, we need to be concerned with only the total weight and the location of the center of gravity. 8.2 Methodology used for calculating center of Gravity

An airplane is a combination of many parts; the wings, engines, fuselage, and tail, plus the payload and the fuel. Each part has a weight associated with it which the engineer can estimate, or calculate, using Newton's weight equation: w=m*g where w is the weight, m is the mass, and g is the gravitational constant To determine the center of gravity cg, we choose a reference location, or reference line. The cg is determined relative to this reference location. The total weight of the aircraft is simply the sum of all the individual weights of the components. Since the center of gravity is an average location of the weight, we can say that the weight of the entire aircraft W times the location cg of the center of gravity is equal to the sum of the weight w of each component times the distance d of that component from the reference location: W * cg = [w * d](fuselage) + [w * d](wing) + [w * d](engines) + ... The center of gravity is the mass-weighted average of the component locations.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION

We can generalize the technique discussed above. If we had a total of "n" discrete components, the center of gravity cg of the aircraft times the weight W of the aircraft would be the sum of the individual i component weight times the distance d from the reference line (w * d) with the index “I”going from 1 to n. W * cg = SUM(i=1 to i=n) [w * d]i This equation says that the center of gravity times the sum of "n" parts' weight is equal to the sum of "n" parts' weight times their distance. The discrete equation works for "n" discrete parts. In general the procedure adopted for calculating center of gravity of the entire aircraft is as follows:Estimate the weights of individual masses

Determine the distances(arm) of the above masses from the particular reference point in the aircraft

Calculate moments by multiplying weights with distances of the masses

Add the moments of all the masses together

Divide the total moment by the total weight of the aircraft to give an overall arm 8.3 The arm that results from this calculation must be within the arm limits for the center of gravity that are dictated by stability conditions. If it is not, weight in the aircraft must be removed, added (rarely), or redistributed until the center of gravity falls within the prescribed limits. Formulae Used:-

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION ∑ ∑ Xcg = Zcg = 8.4.4 Fuselage ∑ ∑ Fuselage cross section is of rectangular shape. Its variation is as per the 3D view shown in the following figure. 8.1 Fuselage nose .

G:Xi from nose of fuselage = 187.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Mass of the section = 69.438 mm Zi from bottom of fuselage = 37.253 mm Y from the reference point = 0 mm .5 gm Location of C.

G:Xi from nose of fuselage = 475 .CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.4.2 Fuselage mid section Mass of the section= 92.7 gm Location of C.99 mm Zi from bottom of fuselage = 50 mm Y from the reference point = 0 mm .

G:Xi from nose of fuselage = 854.4.775 mm Zi from bottom of fuselage = 63.27 gm Location of C.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.396 mm Y from the reference point = 0 mm .3 Fuselage rear section Mass of the section=112.

5 mm Y from the reference point = 0 mm .4.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.3 gm Location of C.G:Xi from nose of fuselage = 1256 mm Zi from bottom of fuselage = 82.4 Fuselage tail Fuselage tail Mass of the section=14.

The co-ordinates of centre of gravity were obtained in terms of chord length. the c.759 mm Y from the reference point = 0 mm 8. Centre of gravity of aerofoil is calculated using CATIA software. is calculated by multiplying with chord length. Mfuselage = 289 gm Location of C.5 Wing Wing was designed with 1 spars and 20 ribs. . For ribs. Hence total mass of the main wing. Total mass of the fuselage.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION For complete fuselage Hence.g.G:Xi from nose of fuselage = 592.638 mm Zi from bottom of fuselage = 53.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Mw = g.G.1 wing ribs Mass of the wing ribs = 124.921 mm Z from base of fuselage = 76. of individual components.g.491 mm Y from reference point = 0 mm . Centre of gravity of entire wing was calculated by taking into account c.5.7 gm Location of C. 8.:X from nose of fuselage = 437.

49 gm Location of C.:X from nose of fuselage = 402.36 mm Z from base of fuselage = 77.5.264 mm Y from reference point = 0 mm .G.2 wing spar Mass of the wing spar = 59.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.

88 mm Y from reference point = 0 mm .3 wing skin Mass of the wing skin = gm Location of C.975 mm Z from base of fuselage = 75.:X from nose of fuselage = 458.G.5.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.

925 mm Z from base of fuselage = 76.179 mm .:X from nose of fuselage = 435.488 mm Y from reference point = 28.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION For complete wing Mass of the wing = 209 gm Location of C.G.

1 horizontal tail ribs Mass of the Horizontal Tail ribs= 70 gm Location of C.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.:X from nose of fuselage = 1253.6 Horizontal tail 8.441mm Y from reference point = 0 mm .6.602 mm Z from base of fuselage =82.G.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.5 mm Y from reference point = 0 mm . = 11 gm Location of C.6.2 horizontal tail spar Mass of the horizontal tail spar.401 mm Z from base of fuselage = 82.G.:X from nose of fuselage = 1236.

429 mm Y from reference point = 0 mm .CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.852 mm Z from base of fuselage = 82.2 horizontal tail skin Mass of the horizontal tail skin.:X from nose of fuselage = 1264.G. = 12 gm Location of C.6.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION For complete horizontal tail Mass of the horizontal tail = 93 gm Location of C.897 mm Z from base of fuselage = 82.G.442 mm Y from reference point = 7.:X from nose of fuselage = 1257.645 mm .

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.7.1 vertical tail ribs .7 Vertical Tail 8.

:X from nose of fuselage = 1243.57 gm Location of C.G.7.00251 mm 8.01 mm Y from reference point = 0. = 5.829 mm Z from base of fuselage = 251.2 vertical tail spar .CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Mass of the Vertical Tail ribs.

:X from nose of fuselage = 1225.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Mass of the Vertical Tail spar = 5 gm Location of C.G.018 mm .869 mm Z from base of fuselage = 283 mm Y from reference point = 0.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION For complete vertical tail Mass of the Vertical Tail = 14.113 mm Z from base of fuselage = 263.:X from nose of fuselage = 1250.863 mm Y from reference point = 0.6 gm Location of C.G.006 mm .

971 mm Z from base of fuselage = 20.8 propeller Mass of the propeller = gm Location of C.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.415 mm .G.:X from nose of fuselage = -43.36 mm Y from the reference point = 1.

487 mm .CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.693 mm Z from base of fuselage = -89.9 Landing gear X from nose of fuselage = 652.804 mm Y from the reference point = .

804 mm .506 mm Z from base of fuselage = 16.10 Complete Aircraft Mass of the aircraft = X from nose of fuselage = 568.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION 8.067 mm Y from the reference point = 73.

415 89.693 1257.067 73.645 0.804 73. coincides with the c. of aircraft so that they don’t affect position of c.628 435.971 652.804 Y(mm) from the reference point 0 28.g.10 Conclusion: The location of c.506 568. Zc. Yc.36 -0.804 82.067 16.487 7.g.925 -43.067 16.179 20.1: Tabulated Data For All Components X(mm) from nose of fuselage 593.g = 16.g.067mm from the reference point.506 568. Whereas servos are arranged symmetrically about the c. of the aircraft.863 16. Xc.804mm from bottom of fuselage. .g.9 Motor.804 73.442 263.488 1. battery and payload is placed such that its c.006 Vertical Tail Payload Motor Battery 14.113 568.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Table-8.506 mm from nose of fuselage.759 76.6 200 25 428 Component Mass (g) Fuselage Wing Propeller Landing Gear Horizontal Tail 289 209 22 50 93 8. 8.506 Z(mm) from Base of fuselage 53.g.g = 568. is obtained with the help of CATIA software (for aerofoil) and considering other components separately.g = 73.897 1250.

Washington.W. 2003. Tulapurkara “Introduction to airplane design (Aerodynamic.. S.. D. 20024 2.G. Raymer “Aircaft design: A conceptual approach” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. E. S. http://www. Lloyd Jenkinson and Jim Marchman III “Aircraft Design Projects for Engineering Students” Butterworth-Heinemann Limited.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION References: 1.grc.html .lecture notes)” IIT Madras August 2008 4. IIT Kanpur. Kamle “Aircraft Design lecture notes” Department of Aerospace.nasa. Dr.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/acg. 370 L’Enfant Promenade. Daniel P. Dr.C. 3. 5. Inc.

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