You are on page 1of 8

x.DSL Dialup modems reached the peak data rate of 56 Kbps.

. A new technology, Digital subscriber line (DSL) was developed to provide higher speed access to the Internet. DSL technology is one of the most promising for supporting high-speed digital communication over the existing local loops. DSL technology is a set of technologies, each differing in the first letter (ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, and SDSL). The set is often referred to as xDSL, where x can be replaced by A, V, H, or S. ADSL The first technology in the set is asymmetric DSL (ADSL). ADSL, like a 56K modem, provides higher speed (bit rate) in the downstream direction (from the Internet to the resident) than in the upstream direction (from the resident to the Internet). That is the reason it is called asymmetric. Unlike the asymmetry in 56K modems, the designers of ADSL specifically divided the available bandwidth of the local loop unevenly for the residential customer. The service is not suitable for business customers who need a large bandwidth in both directions. Advantages and Disadvantages of ADSL - ADSL is well suited to residential applications. It uses lines that are already installed virtually everywhere and peacefully coexists with current phone service. ADSL is ideal for most home computing and small business applications because of the large downstream data capacity (up to 8 Mbps). Analog modem users will also appreciate that ADSL (like most other flavors of xDSL) is always connected. - There are disadvantages to ADSL also, such as low upstream data rates. For large businesses upstream data rates are often just as important as downstream, which would make ADSL a poor choice. ADSL data rates also suffer dramatically as line length increases. ADSL will extend out to 18,000 ft, but its ideal data rates only operate out to 9,000 ft. Using Existing Local Loops ADSL uses the existing local loops. But how does ADSL reach a data rate that was never achieved with traditional modems? The answer is that the twisted-pair local loop is actually capable of handling bandwidths up to 1.1 MHz, but the filter installed at the end office of the telephone company where each local loop terminates limits the bandwidth to 4 kHz (sufficient for voice communication). If the filter is removed, however, the entire 1.1 MHz is available for data and voice communications. Adaptive Technology 1.1MHz is just the theoretical bandwidth of the local loop. Factors such as the distance between the residence and the switching office, the size of the cable, the signaling used, and so on affect the bandwidth. The designers of ADSL technology were aware of this problem and used an adaptive technology that tests the condition and bandwidth

availability of the line before settling on a data rate. The data rate of ADSL is not fixed; it changes based on the condition and type of the local loop cable. SPLITTING THE SIGNAL There are two competing and incompatible standards for ADSL. The official ANSI standard for ADSL is a system called discrete multitone, or DMT. According to equipment manufacturers, most of the ADSL equipment installed today uses DMT. An earlier and more easily implemented standard was the carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) system, which was used on many of the early installations of ADSL. Carrier-less Amplitude/Phase Modulation (CAP) CAP describes a version of QAM in which incoming data modulates a single carrier that is then transmitted down a telephone line. The carrier itself is suppressed before transmission (it contains no information, and can be reconstructed at the receiver), hence the word "carrier-less. (single carrier but suppressed) CAP operates by dividing the signals on the telephone line into three distinct bands. Voice conversations are carried in the 0 to 4 KHz band, as they are in all POTS circuits. The upstream channel (from the user back to the server) is carried in a band between 25 and160 KHz The downstream channel begins at 240 KHz and goes up to a point that varies depending on a number of conditions (line length, line noise, number of users in a particular telephone company switch) but has a maximum of about 1.1 MHz. This system, with the three channels widely separated, minimizes the possibility of interference between the channels on one line, or between the signals on different lines.

Discrete Multitone Technique The modulation technique that has become standard for ADSL is called the discrete multitone technique (DMT) which combines QAM and FDM. There is no set way that the bandwidth of a system is divided. Each system can decide on its bandwidth division. Typically, an available bandwidth of 1.104 MHz is divided into 256 channels. Each channel uses a bandwidth of 4.312 kHz, as shown in Figure 9.10. Figure 9.11 shows how the bandwidth can be divided into the following: Channel 0: reserved for voice communication. Channels 1 to 5: are not used and provide a gap between voice and data communication

Channels 6 to 30 25 channels are used for upstream data transfer and control. One channel is for control, and 24 channels are for data transfer. If there are 24 channels, each using 4 kHz (out of 4.312 kHz available with QAM modulation, we have 24 x 4000 x 15, or a 1.44-Mbps bandwidth, in the upstream direction. However, the data rate is normally below 500 kbps because some of the carriers are deleted at frequencies where the noise level is large. In other words, some of channels may be unused. Channels 31 to 255 225 channels are used for downstream data transfer and control. One channel is for control, and 224 channels are for data. If there are 224 channels, we can achieve up to 224 x 4000 x 15, or 13.4 Mbps. However, the data rate is normally below 8 Mbps because some of the carriers are deleted at frequencies where the noise level is large. In other words, some of channels may be unused. DMT system constantly shifts signals between different channels, searching for the best channels for transmission and reception. In addition, some of the lower channels (those starting at about 8 KHz), are used as bidirectional channels, for upstream and downstream control. Monitoring and sorting out the information on the bidirectional channels, and keeping up with the quality of all 256channels, makes DMT more complex to implement than CAP, but gives it more flexibility on lines of differing quality.

Bandwidth division in ADSL

CAP and DMT compared for ADSL Adaptive equalizer is required for CAP since noise characteristics vary significantly across the frequency passband. DMT has the speed advantage over CAP DSP advances will enable the technologies to converge in cost and function Customer Site: ADSL Modem

Figure shows an ADSL modem installed at a customer's site. The local loop connects to a splitter which separates voice and data communications. The ADSL modem modulates and demodulates the data, using DMT, and creates downstream and upstream channels. Note that the splitter needs to be installed at the customer's premises. The voice line can use the existing telephone wiring in the house, but the data line needs to be installed by a professional. All this makes the ADSL line expensive. Digital Subscriber Line access Multiplexer (DSLAM) DSLAM is installed, at central office site. ADSL provides a dedicated connection from each user back to the DSLAM. DSLAM takes connections from many customers and aggregates them onto a single, high-capacity connection to the Internet It packetizes the data to be sent to the Internet (ISP server). DSLAMs are flexible and able to support multiple types of DSL in a single central office, and different varieties of protocol and modulation -- both CAP and DMT. DSLAM may provide additional functions including routing or dynamic IP address assignment for the customers.

Telephone Company Site: DSLAM At the telephone company site, the situation is different. Instead of an ADSL modem, a device called a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) is installed that functions similarly. In addition, it packetizes the data to be sent to the Internet (ISP server). Figure shows the configuration. The DSLAM at the access provider is the equipment that really allows DSL to happen. A DSLAM takes connections from many customers and aggregates them onto a single, high-capacity connection to the Internet. DSLAMs are generally flexible and able to support multiple types of DSL in a single central office, and different varieties of protocol and modulation -- both CAP and DMT, for example -- in the same type of DSL. In addition, the DSLAM may provide additional functions including routing or dynamic IP address assignment for the customers. The DSLAM provides one of the main differences between user service through ADSL and through cable modems. Because cable-modem users generally share a network loop that runs through a neighborhood, adding users means lowering performance in many instances. ADSL provides a dedicated connection from each user back to the DSLAM, meaning that users won't see a performance decrease as new users are added -- until the total number of users begins to saturate the single, high-

speed connection to the Internet. At that point, an upgrade by the service provider can provide additional performance for all the users connected to the DSLAM. ADSL Lite. The installation of splitters at the border of the premises and the new wiring for the data line can be expensive and impractical enough to dissuade most subscribers. A new version of ADSL technology called ADSL Lite (or Universal ADSL or splitterless ADSL) is available for these subscribers. This technology allows an ASDL Lite modem to be plugged directly into a telephone jack and connected to the computer. The splitting is done at the telephone company. ADSL Lite uses 256 DMT carriers with 8-bit modulation (instead of 15-bit). However, some of the carriers may not be available because errors created by the voice signal might mingle with them. It can provide a maximum downstream data rate of 1.5 Mbps and an upstream data rate of 512 kbps. Advantages and Disadvantage The primary advantage of G.Lite is that it is consumer installable. It provides speeds that will suit home users extremely well. The standards also make hardware manufacturers jobs easie. By eliminating the POTS splitter the number of components is reducded as so is the overall complexity of the system. Lower bit rate allows for more noise, and requires far less signal processing. The disadvantages of G.Lite are that it does not offer the speed of full rate ADSL. For customers who require huge download rates and are connected to a very high-speed backbone (which will help to avoid internet bottlenecks) G.Lite may not offer a high enough bit rate. High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) HDSL was designed as an alternative to the T-l line / E -Line (1.544 Mbps / 2.048 Mbps ). The T-1line uses alternate mark inversion (AMI) encoding, which is very susceptible to attenuation at high frequencies. This limits the length of a T-l line to 3200 ft (1 km). A repeater is necessary, For longer distances which means increased costs. HDSL uses 2B1Q encoding, which is less susceptible to attenuation. A data rate of 2 Mbps can be achieved without repeaters up to a distance of 12,000 ft (3.86 km). HDSL uses two twisted pairs (one pair for each direction) to achieve full-duplex transmission. Typical applications include PBX network connections, cellular antenna stations, digital loop carrier systems, Internet servers, and private data networks. HDSL Advantages and Disadvantages The primary advantage of HDSL is that it is a mature and proven technology. It is also very easy and economical to install. Its other main advantage is that it has decent

transfer rate in both directions at 1.544 Mbps (784 kbps x 2). The primary disadvantage of HDSL is that it requires two twisted pairs of wires to operate, which increases the deployment cost for service providers. Also, HDSL does not support Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) on the same lines as the data, so separate phone service is needed if the consumer wants to speak on the telephone. Another disadvantage is that HDSL is slightly slower than some other forms of DSL, but it is still far superior to analog transmission. Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line: SDSL SDSL is a one twisted-pair version of HDSL. It provides full-duplex symmetric communication supporting up to 768 kbps in each direction. SDSL, which provides symmetric communication, can be considered an alternative to ADSL. ADSL provides asymmetric communication, with a downstream bit rate that is much higher than the upstream bit rate. Although this feature meets the needs of most residential subscribers, it is not suitable for businesses that send and receive data in large volumes in both directions. On its face SDSL is simply a single line version of HDSL, transmitting T1 or E1 signals over a single twisted pair, and (in most cases) operating over POTS, so a single line can support POTS and T1/E1 simultaneously. However, SDSL has the important advantage compared to HDSL that it suits the market for individual subscriber premises which are often equipped with only a single telephone line. SDSL will be desired for any application needing symmetric access (such as servers and power remote LAN users), and it therefore complements ADSL It should be noted, however, that SDSL will not reach much beyond 10,000 feet, a distance overwhich ADSL achieves rates above 6 Mbps. Very High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line : VDSL VDSL, an alternative approach that is similar to ADSL. It uses coaxial, fiber-optic, or twisted-pair cable for short distances. The modulating technique is DMT. It provides a range of downstream bit rates (25 to 55 Mbps) for communication at distances of 3000 to 10,000 ft. The upstream rate is normally 3.2 Mbps. VDSL -- Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line VDSL began life being called VADSL, because at least in its first manifestations, VDSL will be asymmetric transceivers at data rates higher than ADSL but over shorter lines. While no general standards exist yet for VDSL, discussion has centered around the following downstream speeds: 12.96 Mbps (1/4 STS-1) 4,500 feet of wire 25.82 Mbps (1/2 STS-1) 3,000 feet of wire

51.84 Mbps (STS-1) 1,000 feet of wire Upstream rates fall within a suggested range from 1.6 Mbps to 2.3 Mbps. The principal reason T1E1.4 decided against "VADSL" was the implication that VDSL would never be symmetric, when some providers and suppliers hope for fully symmetric VDSL someday, recognizing that line length will be compromised. In many ways VDSL is simpler than ADSL. Shorter lines impose far fewer transmission constraints, so the basic transceiver technology is much less complex, even though it is ten times faster. VDSL only targets ATM network architectures, obviating channelization and packet handling requirements imposed on ADSL. And VDSL admits passive network terminations, enabling more than one VDSL modem to be connected to the same line at a customer premises, in much the same way as extension phones connect to home wiring for POTS. However, the picture clouds under closer inspection. VDSL must still provide error correction, the most demanding of the non-transceiver functions asked of ADSL. As public switched network ATM has not begun deployment yet, and will take decades to become ubiquitous, VDSL will likely be asked to transmit conventional circuit and packet switched traffic. (Indeed, a recent telephone company RFQ describes a VDSLtype transceiver with three circuit-switched video channels and a single ATM channel.) And passive network terminations have a host of problems, some technical, some regulatory, that will surely lead to a version of VDSL that looks identical to ADSL (with inherent active termination) except its capability for higher data rates. VDSL will operate over POTS and ISDN, with both separated from VDSL signals by passive filtering. Other Terms VDSL had been called "VASDL" or "BDSL" or even "ADSL" prior to June, 1995, when T1E1.4 chose "VDSL" as the official title.ETSI TM3, the European counterpart to T1E1.4, has also adopted "VDSL," but temporarily appends a lower case "e" to indicate that, until the dust settles, the European version of VDSL may be slightly different than the U.S. version. This is the case with both HDSL and ADSL, although there is no convention for reflecting the differences in the name. The differences are sufficiently small (mostly surrounding data rates) that silicon technology accommodates both. Summary of DSL technologies

Network Architecture for x DSL

ADSL: Modulation Modulation: DMT (Discrete Multi-Tone) (multicarrier) 256 subbands of 4kHz each, so occupying 1.024MHz Each subband is QAM64 modulated for clean subbands, down to QPSK for noisier lines

Modulation: CAP

CAP stands for Carrier-less Amplitude/Phase modulation, and describes a version of QAM in which incoming data modulates a single carrier that is then transmitted down a telephone line. The carrier itself is suppressed before transmission (it contains no information, and can be reconstructed at the receiver), CAP and DMT are similar in one way that you can see as a DSL user. If you have ADSL installed, you were almost certainly given small filters to attach to the outlets that don't provide the signal to your ADSL modem. These filters are low-pass filters -- simple filters that block all signals above a certain frequency. Since all voice conversations take place below 4 KHz, the low-pass (LP) filters are built to block everything above 4 KHz, preventing the data signals from interfering with standard telephone calls.