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Guy Dimonte and P. Ramaprabhu Citation: Phys. Fluids 22, 014104 (2010); doi: 10.1063/1.3276269 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3276269 View Table of Contents: http://pof.aip.org/resource/1/PHFLE6/v22/i1 Published by the American Institute of Physics.

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At large Atwood number. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. USA University of North Carolina. the RM instability is driven impulsively and may thus be more sensitive to the initial perturbations. The purpose of the simulations is to develop an empirical nonlinear model of the RM instability that is applicable to inertial conﬁnement fusion ͑ICF͒ and ejecta formation. but not for the larger values that characterize ICF and ejecta formation. This differs from the ϳ 0. there are © 2010 American Institute of Physics 22. models.24 The nonlinearities are important22–46 because they reduce the growth rate relative to the linear rate and they cause the perturbations to grow asymmetrically as bubbles and spikes. A recent comparison of linear theory. This can be done with multidimensional.5 We believe the RM instability can also produce ejecta6. We thus develop a new nonlinear empirical model that captures the simulation results consistent with potential ﬂow for a broader range of A and kho.30–33. These results are then compared with a variety of nonlinear models that are based on potential ﬂow.4 predicted by bubble merger models. they break down at large Atwood number and initial amplitude in the regime characteristic of ICF and ejecta formation.1. experiments. The single mode evolution of the RM instability has been studied extensively. In experiments with an unstable impulsive drive. For such purposes.128. USA ͑Received 27 February 2009. but they have had only limited success. They reveal that bubbles stagnate when they grow by an increment of 2 / k and that spikes accelerate for A Ͼ 0.25 for bubbles and ϳ 0.1063/1. This gave rise to heuristic impulsive models1. Los Alamos. but this may have been due to nonlinearities ͑and possibly membranes͒ since the initial amplitudes were relatively large.aip. the bubbles and spikes have quite different asymptotic velocities.9 and kho Ͻ 1. However. 014104 ͑2010͒ Simulations and model of the nonlinear Richtmyer–Meshkov instability Guy Dimonte1 and P. a model of the RM instability must describe how particular broadband initial perturbations grow from the shock impulse and then saturate due to nonlinearities. This could destroy the pusher and modulate the transmitted shock. namely. the discrepancy in may be due to an inadequate description of single modes or the modal interactions.PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 22.10.36 have been developed to bridge the linear and nonlinear regimes.13. It is important in inertial conﬁnement fusion ͑ICF͒ since several shocks are used to initiate the implosion along a low adiabat.14.14 that are easier to evaluate but they have a limited range of accuracy. Unlike the continuously driven RT instability. Later experiments20–23 with stronger shocks obtained a good agreement with linear theory at small amplitude. heuristic models25. North Carolina 28223. published online 21 January 2010͒ The nonlinear evolution of the Richtmyer–Meshkov ͑RM͒ instability is investigated using numerical simulations with the FLASH code in two dimensions. this shock could drive a virulent RM instability because perturbations will have been ampliﬁed by previous RM and RT unstable episodes. The shocks excite the RM instability at several capsule interfaces which amplify the perturbations that seed the Rayleigh–Taylor ͑RT͒ instability.12 but the resulting equations are complex and were ﬁrst solved numerically.75.5 due to higher harmonics that focus them. Eventually. Charlotte. where the models are least accurate.7 from shocked metal surfaces.3– 0. The evolution of the RM instability is difﬁcult to calculate because of the shock compression. Our hope is that such empirical models concisely capture the RM simulations and inspire more rigorous solutions. The ﬁrst experiments2 obtained growth rates that were smaller than calculated. at large Atwood number A and scaled initial amplitude kho ͑k ϵ wave number͒ of the perturbation.15 Analytical solutions16–19 became available later and have a wider range of applicability.43. but these must be validated using more basic studies.25 ⇒ 1 for spikes as the 1070-6631/2010/22͑1͒/014104/17/$30. and simulations was conducted by Dhotre et al.00 density contrast increases. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. and nonlinearities in the late stages.4 a shock is also launched at the end of the laser drive to ignite the fuel.11 Since such models are based on the nonlinear evolution and interaction of many single modes. accepted 3 November 2009. complex material properties.3276269͔ I. In addition. ͓doi:10. The FLASH code is ﬁrst validated with a variety of RM experiments that evolve well into the nonlinear regime. The RM growth rate can be obtained at small amplitude by linearizing the ﬂuid equations. it is useful to employ reduced “mix models”8 that capture the main features of the unstable ﬂows at moderate resolution. We ﬁnd that the models agree with simulations for moderate values of A Ͻ 0. INTRODUCTION The Richtmyer–Meshkov ͑RM͒ instability1.34 Since the full behavior is difﬁcult to describe rigorously. high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations but they are computationally intensive and prohibitive for ICF design optimization studies.org/about/rights_and_permissions . This is complicated by the fact that ICF and ejecta formation operate with an Atwood number near unity.3 In shock ignition.250.2 occurs when a shock encounters interfacial perturbations between two materials of different densities or compressibilities. 014104-1 Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. Ramaprabhu2 1 2 Los Alamos National Laboratory.9 the perturbations are found to grow in time as t where ϳ 0. New Mexico 87545.26.1–47 yet issues remain. see http://pof.40.46 Unfortunately.

We summarize our ﬁndings in Sec. we build on the virtues of the previous nonlinear models25. respectively. II C–II E.13. see http://pof. We ﬁrst describe the RM conﬁguration with the aid of Fig. The postshock parameters are obtained by solving the transcendental equations distilled from the usual conservation laws. Zhang and Sohn25.24͒–͑2. line denotes the interface between ideal ﬂuids A and B which have densities A and B and speciﬁc heat ratios ␥A and ␥B. The nomenclature is deﬁned here.2͒ The gammas remain ␥B in regions 0 and 1.29.1͒ changes to a postshock value of The RM instability has been studied extensively in the linear1. the main contribution comes from the vorticity deposition from the misaligned pressure and density gradients. potential ﬂow models10. 24.27͒ in Sec. respectively. the shock produces a transmitted shock with velocity Wt into region 0 and a reﬂected wave with velocity Wr back into region 3. III.26. For our purpose. 1 + 2 ͑2.1. kVo sets the time scale for the nonlinear phase. but not at the large values encountered in ICF and ejecta production.34. We ﬁnd that these models are able to describe the saturation of bubbles and spikes for moderate initial amplitudes and Atwood numbers. Linear and weakly nonlinear growth rates For small amplitude. However.5. For strong shocks. In Sec.43–46͒ As a result.35 Such subgrid models are useful for simulations of applications in which interfacial perturbations cannot be resolved. II F.1 we develop a simple nonlinear impulsive model in the Appendix to compare with the measured growth rates at large initial amplitude. V is taken to be the growth rate dh / dt with various subscript modiﬁers. which is assumed to be an incompressible ﬂow since Vo is usually less than the postshock sound speeds. Ramaprabhu Phys. For weak shocks.23. We are interested in investigating these issues in a systematic way by ﬁrst understanding the nonlinear evolution of a single mode for all Atwood numbers and initial amplitudes.15 and have been updated in Ref. 014104 ͑2010͒ compression effects5. II. Conﬁguration and nomenclature for RM instability before and after the interaction of shock with material interface. It is discussed in Sec.org/about/rights_and_permissions .41. and ␥A in regions 2 and 3. 15͒ with minor simpliﬁcations in nomenclature where noted. the asymptotic phase is also amenable to analytical treatment as summarized in Sec.22. The paper is organized as follows. A higher pressure p3 in region 3 produces an incident shock with velocity Wi. II A because the initial growth rate Vo determines the early phase and describes most of the compressibility effects. linear theory predicts that the RM instability has a constant growth rate Vlin that applies equally for bubbles and spikes for all time. we describe the conﬁguration and the linear and nonlinear models.12–23. we validate the FLASH code using experimental data and make comparisons to the nonlinear models.15 A. but they eventually dampen out.12. and can be positive or negative as discussed below. II F. Our new nonlinear model is summarized by Eqs. to describe applications. there are signiﬁcant reverberations from refracted sound waves that produce oscillations in the growth rate. IV.42 that are fundamental to the RM instability and are difﬁcult to model. Thus. II B. The single-mode behavior is studied here for a variety of conditions using the FLASH hydrodynamics code47 in two dimensions ͑2D͒ since most experiments use 2D perturbations. In our nomenclature. Fraley16 and Wouchuk17–19 obtained approximate analytical solutions. We describe the models of MIK. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR MODELS FIG.14. Like the early phase. Good summaries of the linear behavior exist12. 1.10. The spikes exhibit a more complex behavior. II. In the spirit of Richtmyer. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. impulsive models1.30–32. as summarized by MIK.014104-2 G.11.2.250.128. Fluids 22.11. In Sec. and our new model in Sec.29.aip.75. ͑2. The results are compared with the experiments and the nonlinear models of Mikaelian40 ͑MIK͒.32 were also considered but they work only in the initial stages.26 ͑ZS͒. Both ﬂuids begin in pressure equilibrium at po ahead of the shock.16–19 The resulting equations remain complex due to the shock compression and are usually solved numerically.40 and suggest a new model that agrees with simulations over a wider range of conditions and that recover the asymptotic behavior expected from potential ﬂow models.14 were developed to capture the asymptotic RM Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. To complement analytical solutions. Here. Dimonte and P.43–45 and nonlinear22–47 regimes and only the salient results are summarized here. the nonlinear models must bridge the early and asymptotic stages.35 obtain an asymptotic growth rate that scales like 1 / kt for bubbles. and SEA in Secs. they are compressed to different densities ͑B ⇒ 1 and A ⇒ 2͒ such that the preshock Atwood number A− ϵ B − A B + A ͑2. ZS.34 Then. 1.34.30 ͑SEA͒ for bubbles and spikes. By encountering the interface. The solid horizontal Aϵ 1 − 2 . and Sadot et al. ͑Other models31. Regions 1 and 2 acquire the same particle velocity ͑and release pressure͒ equal to the interface velocity U ͑MIK uses u1 = u2 for U͒. the growth of sinusoidal perturbations can be obtained by linearizing the ﬂuid equations. It is adopted from MIK ͑Ref.

it is important to keep track of the sign of the amplitude and growth rate. ͑2. ͑2. ͑2. differentiating Eq. As usual. Nonlinearities can most easily be treated in the incompressible ͑weak shock͒ limit by expanding the perturbations in terms of spatial harmonics n. As expected. unlike the RT instability. but they are accurate only for small compressions. 2 2 2͑x.29. Another issue is that linear theory is applicable only at small amplitude ͑kh− o Ӷ 1͒ when the growth rate is small. Thus. The spikes are centered at kx = 0 and the bubbles at kx = for A Ͼ 0 and vice versa for A Ͻ 0. t ͒ = − k2 3 3 2 2 ͓͑4A2 + 1͒Vlin t + 3hoVlin t + 6h2 oVlint͔ 24 k2 3 3 2 2 t − 3hoVlin t͔ ͓͑4A2 − 1͒Vlin 8 ͑2. This was indeed observed24. 13͒ conﬁrmed Eq. but the scaled time is always positive as indicated by Eq.22.3͒.6͒ and ͑2.014104-3 Simulations and model Phys.4͒ where the linear growth rate reduces to Vlin = AUkho in the incompressible limit since A ϳ A− and ho ϳ h− o . the magnitude of the perturbation ﬁrst decreases as it passes through zero and then increases in the negative ͑phase shifted͒ direction. However. In this case. the velocity is U − Vsp for spikes and U + Vbu for bubbles.6͒͒ with respect to time and collecting the terms at kx = 0 and .14. In the laboratory frame where U Ͼ 0. However. exceeds unity as discussed below. Then.31.20–23.8͒ 1͑x. they found that the growth rate depended on the average of the pre. Fluids 22.and postshock parameters ͑Atwood number and amplitude͒ are similar in the incompressible limit.30 before the growth rates eventually decayed due to drag effects.7b͒ These so-called impulsive models are useful for their simplicity. They lose accuracy for strong shocks when the densities or adiabatic indices differ substantially. At this point. the bubbles ͑spikes͒ refer to the penetration of the light ͑heavy͒ ﬂuid into the heavy ͑light͒ ﬂuid. their values in Eqs. What is surprising is that Eq. it is important to clarify the meaning of bubbles and spikes and the sign convention because. This behavior is observed explicitly in numerical simulations.aip. t͒ = 0. the inferred growth rates are smaller than those predicted by linear theory. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.5AkVlin t cos͑2kx͒ .23 An immediate sign change can be produced by the shock if U Ͼ Wi.6c͒ ϫcos͑kx͒ + ϫcos͑3kx͒ . For A Ͻ 0. we obtain a spike velocity kho Vsp =1− Vlin 2 ͩ ͪ ͩ 2 + A− 4A2 + 1 kho kVlint + ͑kVlint͒2 4 2 ͑2. 014104 ͑2010͒ growth rates for moderate conditions because they are easier to evaluate. Simulations with kh− o Ն 1 obtain a growth rate that peaks quickly to a value below that of linear theory and then decays in time. as indicated by Eq. ͑2.7a͒ ͪ was able to describe the asymptotic growth of his numerical solutions.6a͒ ͑2. for A Ͼ 0. ho + h− dh o ϵ VMB .128.15.41–45 have a limited duration and typically use kh− o ϳ 0.10 According to Eqs. see http://pof.24 namely. t͒ = ͑ho + Vlint͒cos͑kx͒ .3͒ Then. This led Velikovich and Dimonte29 ͑VD͒ to obtain a Padé approximant for the reduction in the initial growth rate with kh− o which was found to be in reasonable agreement with the data. in the RM instability. This can happen in two ways as seen in the NOVA experiments.8͒. kVlint + 4 2 ͑2. the additional nonlinear effects assert themselves when the scaled time lin ϵ k͉Vlin͉t ͑2. = AUk 2 dt ͑2.org/about/rights_and_permissions .6͒ and ͑2. Equations ͑2.5͒ and a bubble velocity kho Vbu =1− Vlin 2 ͩ ͪ 2 − 4A2 + 1 kho ͑kVlint͒2 . ͑2. Their amplitudes ͑hbu and hsp͒ are both taken to be h− o Ͼ0 initially but they can become negative if the perturbations change phase by 180°.7a͒ predicts that the spike will accelerate for large A. the RM growth rate can be positive or negative. In such cases. most RM experiments2.32 Please note that the pre. In the nonlinear regime.7͒ become more ambiguous in the compressible regime. ͑2. Indeed.6͒ and ͑2. It was necessary to use the postshock Atwood number ͑A͒ and amplitude ͑ho͒ to capture the shock compression effects.4͒ but only for A− Ͼ 0. possibly because the instability quickly becomes nonlinear. ͑2. in most applications. the velocity of bubbles and spikes depends on the sign of A.26. Thus.7͒ show how the spatial harmonics have a profound effect on the bubble and spike evolution.6b͒ 3͑ x . Richtmyer1 found that the simple model dh = AUkho ϵ VRM dt ͑2. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. ͑2. the RM instability is consequential mainly for signiﬁcant initial amplitudes and this requires a nonlinear treatment. the velocity is U + Vsp for spikes and U − Vbu for bubbles. ͑2.7͒.75. For A Ͼ 0. when the incident Mach number is near unity or the adiabatic indices are large. each with a time dependent amplitude.250. and thus not very important in applications except to seed subsequent RT episodes. their growth rates decrease with kh− o even at t = 0. namely.1– 1 in order to observe signiﬁcant growth.and postshock amplitudes. For a sinusoidal perturbation of wavelength = 2 / k. the preshock amplitude h− o is reduced by compression to an estimated postshock amplitude2 of ho = h− o ͑ 1 − U / W i͒ .12. A more gradual sign change occurs if the growth rates ͑Vbu and Vsp͒ are negative such as when A Ͻ 0. for A− Ͻ 0. Using numerical simulations. Meyer and Blewett ͑MB͒ ͑Ref.25–27 The simulations with kh− o Ӷ 1 conﬁrm linear theory but the growth rate diminishes late in time when kh Ͼ 1. The leading harmonics are found to be25. it is customary to describe the perturbations as bubbles and spikes.

͑U + Vsp Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. ͑2.128. but the discrepancies increase with both.16͒ To bridge the initial and asymptotic stages. see http://pof. ͑2. Goncharov found Fbu /sp͑3D͒ = ͑1 Ϯ ͉A͉͒ / 2. The models are particularly useful for ascertaining the asymptotic velocities for bubbles ͑bu͒ and spikes ͑sp͒. However.9͒ The scaling of velocity as / t was suggested by Alon et al. ͑19͒ in Ref. However. Dimonte and P. For kho Ͻ 1 / 3. ͑2.46 and experiments43 when compared with the average growth rate for air-SF6 and Kr–Xe gas mixtures. Furthermore. However. D. but they are only strictly valid for A = 1.38 extended such models to A Ͻ 1 by ignoring vortical effects and assuming different forms for the velocity potential. and as observed by SEA. From Fig. ͑2. ͓In Gon three dimensions ͑3D͒. Zhang–Sohn empirical model The ZS model25. In 2D. as suggested by VD and discussed further below.15͒ Again.͔ Sohn obtained a more complex expression ͓Eq. ͑2. it is still interesting to evaluate Eq. The initial growth rate Vo is not speciﬁed and can be taken as the linear growth rate Vlin. ͑2. II A. the bubble velocity in the Goncharov and Sohn models agrees to Ͻ20%.11͒ V2 ϵ Vo ͉A͉ 2 2 1 + 2͉kho͉ + 4͓k2h2 o + ͑1 − A ͒/3͔ .13͒ ͑with Fbu acceleration suggested by Eq. 014104 ͑2010͒ B.13͒ 1 . Physically. ͑2. Mikaelian empirical model where the scaled time is ϵ k ͉ V o͉ t .11͒ predict an everlasting spike velocity but it also predicts that the spike will accelerate from Vo to ͱ3Vo at small kho. Not only does Eq. the initial velocity Vo is not speciﬁed but can be related to Vlin. 36͒ found analytical solutions under limited circumstances. respectively. ͑2. he found the analytical solution This model is in good agreement with numerical simulations25.75. 36. They obtain nonlinear differential equations similar to the Bernoulli equation for the amplitude and curvature near the bubble tip. Oron et al.26 attempts to describe the bubble/spike asymmetry and large initial amplitudes while preserving the nice properties of Eq.5 − A ͒ .9͒ is that it fails for spikes as ͉A͉ ⇒ 1 since Fsp ⇒ 0. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. Differentiating Eq.10͔͒. k2h2 o + 0.6͒ and ͑2. MIK36.67 for A = 0 and 1. the analytical solution would not apply for kho Ͼ 1 / 3 which may occur after reshocks or previous RT episodes.014104-4 G. ͑2. They start with the harmonic expansion of Eqs. A critical problem with Eq. The bubble and spike growth rates are then given by ZS Vbu /sp = V1 ϯ V2 .12͒ with respect to time gives the bubble growth rate Vbu͑t͒ = Vo Vo OG . 2 in Ref.7a͒. Thus.13͒ as a model for kho Ͼ 1 / 3 because of its simplicity compared with other models. but their bubble curvatures differ by factor of 2.10͒. Fbu/sp͑A͒kt ͑2. which can be written in the form ϱ ͉Vbu /sp͉ = hbu = ho + OG ln͑1 Fbu k 1 OG + Fbu k ͉ V o͉ t ͒ ͑2. Indeed.aip. The functions Fbu/sp depend on the postshock Atwood number. Fluids 22.org/about/rights_and_permissions . ͑2. 3 Ϯ ͉A͉ ͑2.10 based on simulations and buoyancy-drag considerations. ͑2. Asymptotic growth rates The late stage ͑kh ӷ 1͒ of the RM instability can be described by potential ﬂow models10.7͒ that indicate a nonlinear dependence on both kho and A. the nonlinear solution would be given by Eq.12͒ for the bubble amplitude when kho = 1 / 3.9͒ and ͑2. ͑2. ͑2. Then for t Ͼ tء. Zhang34 found such an analytic solution Z = Vo Vsp where the asymptotic bubble velocity is given by the OG model ͓Eqs. In general.28.5 for Eq. and build a Padé approximant consisting of the two contributions V1 ϵ Vo 1 2 2 1 + ͉kho͉ + max͑0. Goncharov35 and Sohn37.12͒ with a time shift t ⇒ t − tء. this solution agrees best with 2D numerical simulations for small A and kho.10͒ where the upper ͑lower͒ sign applies to bubbles ͑spikes͒.11 and Goncharov35 ͑OG͒ obtained OG Fbu /sp ⇒ 3 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ . ϱ = kt 1 + ͉Vo͉/Vbu 1 + ͉Vo͉Fbu ͑2. This is bution of V2 since it is cancelled out ͑Vbu an important omission since V2 is required to describe the spike acceleration and the maximum penetration velocity ZS ͒ of material for ICF and ejecta applications. compared with 1 and 1. as suggested by the harmonic analysis in Sec. ͑2.17 and 1.39 constructed the simplest nonlinear model for a single mode based on analytical solutions he found to the evolutionary equations of potential ﬂow for A = 1 ͑Ref. C. This may be due to the fact OG OG ⇒ Fsp ͒ does not describe the spike that Eq.26. ZS discuss how Vo can also be some nonlinear growth rate similar to VD if kho ӷ 1. Vo is not speciﬁed in Eq.14a͒ ͱ 3 kho + 1 3kho + 1 ͑2. using the average growth rate ignores the contriZS ZS + Vsp = 2V1͒. MIK36 suggests using the linear solution for a time t ءϵ ͑1 / 3k − ho͒ / Vo until kh = 1 / 3. ͑2.250.14b͒ to the potential ﬂow equations for the asymptotic spike velocity at ͉A͉ = 1. 38͔ for bubbles which reduces to Fbu ϳ 1.12͒. Equation ͑2.34 by assuming a quadratic spatial proﬁle around the bubble tip. they must be solved numerically although MIK ͑Ref. Ramaprabhu Phys.35 Even though the equations are nonlinear. 28͒ and later for all A. ͑2.13͒ bridges the initial and asymptotic velocities nicely. However.11͒ and can itself be smaller than Vlin at large kho. this reﬂects the fact that spikes feel no drag when ͉A͉ = 1 and should simply coast indeﬁnitely.

26͒ is 33% larger than Eq. The coefﬁcient Cbu/sp ϵ 4. ͑2. ͑1͒ of Ref.5.15͒. 30͔ SEA Vbu /sp = Vo is able to describe simulations for a wide variety of ͉A͉ and kho. ͑2. New empirical model for A ϳ 0 and V1 ⇒ Vo 1 ͉kho͉ ͑2. they expect their model to be accurate only at A Ͻ 0. III. For intermediate times.23a͒ for small ͉A͉ ⇒ 0 and SEA Fbu /sp͉͑A͉ Ͼ 0. For t ⇒ ϱ. The term ϰ in the numerator describes an acceleration mainly for spikes since 1 ϯ ͉A͉ is larger for spikes than bubbles. Indeed. ͑2. ͑2.10͔͒ because it was derived from the Bernoulli equation.21͒ The comparisons to experiments and simulations in Sec.5kt for A ϳ 1. III will clarify both the virtues and limitations of the aforementioned nonlinear models.7a͒ indicate a reduction in spike acceleration. and they can sometimes be negative. For spikes near ͉A͉ = 1. After many variations. their average growth rate reduces to V1 ⇒ Vo 1 ͑ k 2h 2 o + 0. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. but it did not ﬁt the simulations as well as Eq.46 However. Eq. ͑2. their spike velocity increases without bound at ͉A͉ = 1. + ͑ 1 − A 2͒ / 3 ͔ ͑2. The two forms for Fbu/sp ͓Eq.5 Ϯ ͉A͉ + ͑2 ϯ ͉A͉͉͒kho͉ 4 ͑2.5͒2 ͑2.75. For moderate ͉A͉ and kho. 014104 ͑2010͒ Another important issue with Eqs. we ﬁnd that spikes are much more sensitive to kho than bubbles and this is described by the 2 ϯ ͉A͉ prefactor. as will be shown in Sec.32 based on different Padé approximants than ZS agree with experiments43 and simulations46 for Ͻ 2 – 4. while the second term reduces to V2 ⇒ Vo 4 ͓ k 2h 2 o A . see http://pof. F. ͑2. the scaled time is = k͉Vo͉t. namely. ͑2.3Vlin when kho Ӷ 1 and this is important for ejecta. The two terms ϰ are intended to describe the spike acceleration for large ͉A͉. For example. Fluids 22. the asymptotic growth rates become ϱ Vbu /sp = ϯ 4 ͓ k 2h 2 o A + ͑1 − A2͒/3͔kt ͑2. 30͒ is based on experiments and numerical simulations. In simulations. as SEA ⇒ 0. but the variation with kho is too strong. We shall ﬁnd below that an explicit dependence on kho is necessary to describe simulations with large A and kho. However. the spike terms ϰ make Vsp asymptote to 2.26͒ is not important because the 2 term is inconsequential since both Fsp ⇒ 0. E.26.25. These velocities are ϰ1 / kt as expected from potential ﬂow. In addition.16͒ is that they do not reduce to universal asymptotic velocity equation ͑2. and is designed to capture the asymptotic growth rates expected from potential ﬂow.10͒ and Eq.26͒.18͒ for A ϳ 1. Similar results were obtained in Refs.24͒ for A ϳ 1.19͒ Thus.25͒ 1+ SEA 2 1 + ͑1 Ϯ ͉A͉͒ + Fbu /sp . the 50% difference between Eq. The ZS model could capture this reduction since it depends explicitly on kho. ͑2.43 and simulations.15͒ and ͑2.9͒ expected from potential ﬂow theory. The quadratic term in the denominator is required to obtain asymptotic velocities ϰ1 / kt as expected from potential ﬂow. Equation ͑2.5͒ = 1.014104-5 Simulations and model Phys.17͒ ͑2.22͒ has some beneﬁts and limitations relative to previous models. ͑2.23b͒ for large ͉A͉ Ͼ 0.22͒ where SEA Fbu /sp͉͑A͉ → 0͒ = 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ 1 + ͉A͉ 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ 1 + ͉A͉ ͑2. Our new model builds upon these models to describe simulations relevant to the applications where ͉A͉ and kho are large.aip.10͒ and the asymptotic bubble velocity is in better agreement with simulations. this term is balanced by the analogous term ϰ in the denominator. but they diverge later in time. the models obtain a good agreement with experiments30.23͔͒ are used so that the asymptotic bubble growth rate reduces to 1 / kt for A ϳ 0 and 1 / 1. as suggested in Eqs. ͑2. For spikes. Sadot et al. the MIK model predicts an immediate reduction in growth rate for both bubbles and spikes. However. to large ͉A͉ and kho.11͒.250.7͒ and ͑2. but the prefactors are not universal since they depend on A and kho.org/about/rights_and_permissions . like Eq. ͑2. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. the peak spike velocity can ex͉A͉ ⇒ 1 such that Fsp ceed Vo since ͑1 + ͒ / ͓1 + ͑1 − ͉A͉͔͒ Ͼ 1. The SEA model describes a spike acceleration by introducing the terms ϰ.9.7 For bubbles near ͉A͉ = 1.45 our simulations ͑in this paper͒ are best described with Fbu/sp = 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ . Eq. ͑2. Other models31.128.5 must depend explicitly on kho in order to describe the observed reduction in spike acceleration for large kho. the models do not adequately describe the spike acceleration exhibited in the harmonic analysis and simulations. 43 and 45. As with previous experiments. empirical model The nonlinear model proposed by SEA ͑Ref. They propose the growth rate ͓Eq.43.20͒ for A ϳ 0 and ϱ Vbu /sp = ͫ ͉A͉ 1 1 ϯ 2 ͉kho͉ 4͓k2h2 kt o + ͑1 − A ͒/3͔ ͬ ͑2. we found that the model Vbu/sp = Vo 1 + ͑1 ϯ ͉A͉͒ 1 + Cbu/sp + ͑1 ϯ ͉A͉͒Fbu/sp2 ͑2. but it fails at large kho where simulations and Eq. ͑2. ͑2.26͒ We ﬁrst tried the OG model ͓Eq. The upper ͑lower͒ sign applies to the bubble ͑spike͒ and.22͒ does not have an explicit dependence on kho. particularly as they apply to the extreme conditions of interest.

23 on the NOVA laser and Jacobs and Krivets ͑JK͒. The NOVA experiments22.4 Ͻ 0.128. Vo is simply Vlin as expected. the small scale features vary signiﬁcantly. hbu and hsp vary by only 2% for N Ն 64. 014104 ͑2010͒ Perhaps a more important parameter in our model is the initial growth rate Vo. The experiments are summarized in Table I. The velocities and foam density were measured with side-on radiography.02 and the initial pressure is po = 1 bar in the interfacial region. The perturbation has a wavelength = 2. As a result of this study.43 SEA ͑Ref. ͑2. Our results agree with the Padé approximant of VD.09 cm and initial amplitude kh− o = 1. Dimonte and P. Since the velocities and kt are both scaled by Vo. We obtain an excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments.98.27͒ depends on the preshock amplitude since it sets the degree of nonlinearity in the initial growth rate. = 2. As a result.4͔͒ or negative ͓Eq.7͒ suggests a simple Padé approximant of Vo = Vlin / ͓1 + ͑kho / 2͒2͔. 2. Nevertheless. EXPERIMENTS.27͒ FIG. see http://pof. The average scaled ͑and inverted͒ RM amplitude kh ϵ k͑hbu + hsp͒ / 2 is represented in Fig. COMPARE SIMULATIONS. Validation with experiments The models are evaluated in this section using the existing experimental data and new numerical simulations with the highly validated FLASH code.15͒. Their amplitude increases by 15% over this zoning.98. ͑2. A− = 0. we test our use of the FLASH code for numerical convergence in Fig. we use existing experiments not only to test the models but to further validate the FLASH code. which can then be used to test the models in more detail. which we take to be the same for bubbles and spikes.͖ Please note that Eq. it is necessary to determine Vo independently.7 so that the bubble/spike asymmetry is limited. we can discern both bubbles and spikes with greater clarity and over a longer time than is currently possible experimentally. Ramaprabhu Phys. we propose a new nonlinear model and test all of the models further with new numerical simulations over a wider range of parameters that include those of the applications. III. The Kelvin–Helmholtz ͑KH͒ features become ﬁner with added resolution and there is some degree of asymmetry.09 cm. the results are converged on the wavelength ͑cm͒ scale.and postshock amplitudes differ in sign because the shock induces a 180° phase inversion since 1 − U / Wi ϳ −0. ␥A = ␥B = 1. as expected.͒ This is an example of how the MB model is better Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. and kh− o = 1.1. and 80% of VRM.22. ͑2.23 were conducted with a target consisting of beryllium ͑Be͒ and foam driven by a thermal radiation source. The shock was essentially inﬁnitely strong ͑Mach Ͼ 10͒ and ionized the solid materials.6– 0.29 which can be described by Vo = Vlin 4/3 1 + ͑kh− o /3͒ ͑2. However. 3 for 2D perturbations. the subsequent ﬂow is best determined by the postshock amplitude in Eq. The spikes are poorly deﬁned and off-center with N = 8 but develop a symmetric head when N = 32. The initial shock has a Mach number of M i = 1.1. III. which is in excellent agreement with VMB. Before reporting the results.250. time is scaled by k and an initial growth rate of Vo ϳ −8 m / ns.014104-6 G. and Niederhaus and Jacobs ͑NJ͒ ͑Ref. This is done by plotting kh ͑which does not depend on Vo͒ versus and adjusting the Vo applied to the simulations for the best ﬁt. but this decreases faster with kho than our simulations. we ﬁnd that Vo / Vlin must be reduced below unity to ﬁt the simulations. to within 10%. The experiments are those of Dimonte et al. 45͒ on an impulsive experiment. the experiments are useful for validating the FLASH code. The results vary mainly as the zoning is increased from N = 8 to 32. As suggested by Eq. However. The bubbles vary by 5% in hbu Here. The number of zones per wavelength N is indicated for each image and by color in the plot. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. ␥A = ␥B = 1.aip. The pre. The shocked Be density was estimated to be 2 ϳ 2. but. ͑Color͒ Amplitudes and images at t = 20 ms for simulations of a representative case with M i = 1. AND EMPIRICAL MODELS and their symmetry improves. but the existing models are only moderately successful.47 FLASH is an adaptivemesh compressible hydrodynamics code that solves Euler’s equations using the piecewise parabolic method. The numbers represent the number of zones per wavelength for each simulation. This method uses parabolas to interpolate between zones on a Cartesian grid in order to better represent smooth spatial gradients than linear interpolation schemes. they produced similar postshock Atwood numbers A ϳ 0. the following simulations are performed with N = 256 and a 2% estimated numerical uncertainty in hbu and hsp.47 and references therein. ͕Equation ͑2. For kho Ӷ 1. 2 with a zoning study of a representative calculation using gamma-law ﬂuids with A− = 0. ͑Please note that both ho and Vo are negative. For N Ն 64.2 g / cm3 based on simulations.75. For kho Ͼ 1. The Be density is less than solid because the Be was evaporated onto a mandrel with machined interfacial perturbations. ͑2.25͒. The effective gammas were obtained by solving the shock equations15 and matching the measured Wi / U and Wt / U for a variety of conditions. With the more complete data set. A. Fluids 22.5͔͒. ͑2.org/about/rights_and_permissions .24. The points were measured with face-on ͑circles͒ and side-on ͑diamonds͒ x-ray radiography. 30͒ on shock tubes. Remember that Vo contains most of the compressible effects and can be positive ͓Eq. Even though they were performed in very different venues with weak and strong shocks.02. These points will be discussed further in Sec. A complete description of the code including the results of test calculations is described by Calder et al.

b 1.375 because it lies between the two experimental values of 0. Our new model ͑red͒ and that of ZS ͑brown͒ are smaller due to the explicit dependence on kho. ␥B. 3–6.67͒ ͑0. 3.47. 2͑a͒ of Ref. 30 informed us48 that their abscissa was actually A ءinstead of .2 g / cm3 ͑1.63 0. the nonlinear models with A ϳ 0. Parameters associated with experiments in Figs. Reference 45.26 0.26 are also in excellent agreement with the experiment and simulation.12 g / cm3 ͑1.8 and ␥B ϳ 1.78 0. where A ϳ 0.org/about/rights_and_permissions .12–0.87 Ϫ0. 3.45͒ ϳ10 50 m / ns 71 m / ns 90 m / ns ͑2. reference parameter NOVAa. The MIK ͑blue͒ model is smaller yet because it does not have any spike acceleration. and kh− o as input. 4 by plotting the change in scaled average amplitude kh-kho versus scaled time . as seen in Fig. This supports the usual hypothesis that the compression effects can be described by Vo and that the subsequent ﬂow is largely incompressible.250.27͒.87 g / cm3 1. 014104 ͑2010͒ TABLE I. The models are evaluated with the postshock values of A = 0.69 1. 3.26 Shock tubec Shock tubed Coil springe 0. Our simulation is similar to that of Latini et al.5 mm 0. but for a wide variety of conditions.2 g / cm3͒ 0. Fluids 22.3.1͒ A B ␥A ␥B Mach Wi U Wt 2 1 A− A h− o kh− o kho a 1. 43͒ and the gray circles from the SEA experiments ͓Fig.24͒–͑2.75.27 90 m/s ͑0.aip. for A Ͻ 0 than the RM model.128. We use kh− o = 0. c Reference 30.6 g / cm3 Ϫ0..66 0. and ␥B ϳ 1.22 Reference 22. 9 of Ref. A− = 0.4. The values in parenthesis are only estimates used in the associated FLASH simulations which require M i. 26 of Ref.17 0. The SEA ͑green͒ model exceeds the experiments and simulations whereas the MIK ͑blue͒ and ZS ͑brown͒ models are smaller by an amount of kh ϳ 1 – 2 at ϳ 18.67. The models are tested further by separating the bubbles FIG. see http://pof. and our Eqs. The black line in Fig.4. FLASH simulations ͑black line͒.16–0. the differences among the models are small because the experimental duration is relatively short ͑ Ͻ 5͒.3. ͓Please note that our gray circles differ from the points in their Fig. NOVA data taken with face-on ͑circles͒ and side-on ͑diamonds͒ x-ray radiographs on many different shots. and models due to SEA ͑green͒.16 3 mm 83 mm 0.46 which is also in excellent agreement with the experiments. ͑Color͒ Scaled amplitude vs scaled time for NOVA experiment. 23. Expt.014104-7 Simulations and model Phys.43 were conducted on shock tubes using an air ⇒ SF6 combination and weak shocks near Mach ϳ 1. b Reference 43.47 mm 35.27 The agreement is excellent not only for the case in Fig. Reference 23.67͒ ͑1. The agreement is impressive since the incident shock is strong and the models are incompressible.71 and kho = 0.4 1. ͑2. ␥A ϳ 1.͔ The JK and SEA experiments are now in excellent agreement with each other and our simulation and model. However. 3 represents our new calculation with FLASH using the pressure drive with ␥A ϳ 1.3.4 1.71͒ 2 mm 16–80 mm 0.1 is represented by the black line and open diamonds.7. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.09 1.26 and 0.6 and kho = 0. The growth rate decreases for Ͼ 1 since the nonlinearities assert themselves with kh Ͼ 1. Relatively longer experiments30. The experiments are described very well by a variety of simulation codes with either a radiation drive and a tabular equation of state23 or a pressure drive and gamma-law ﬂuids. ZS ͑brown͒.62 d e 0.09 1. In this case.16 0. The discrepancy gets worse with time for the ZS model since its growth rate nearly vanishes by ϳ 18. A−. 3͑a͒ be- cause the authors of Ref. The results are summarized in Fig.7 g / cm3 0. Our simulation with Mach= 1.67͒ ͑1. In Fig.8͒ ͑1. We estimate the gray diamonds from the JK experiments ͑Fig. The simulations exhibit the reduction in growth rate beyond Ͼ 1 and also reveal minor oscillations due to the wave reverberations.23 0. MIK ͑blue͒. the SEA ͑green͒ model obtains the largest amplitude late in time due to the spike acceleration term. ␥A. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. 30͔.3 1.61 10 m 100 m Ϫ0.

Ramaprabhu Phys.250. We plot only the SEA data30 ͑gray circles͒ since the corresponding JK data ͑Fig. For the spikes.128. MIK ͑blue͒. The MIK model is in reasonable agreement with SEA because it lacks the term ϰ the data even with a large Fsp in the numerator.177. The ZS model grossly underestimates the data because it does not capture the asymptotic velocity ϰ1 / kt predicted by potential ﬂow models. 8 of Ref.16. There is an excellent agreement between experiments and the FLASH simulations and a good Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138.75. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.26. The simulation ͑black line with open diamonds͒ and most models are in good agreement with the bubble data. and our Eqs. ͑2. 5.1. The NJ experiments were driven impulsively using a coil spring system with a liquid combination ͑A− ϳ 0. Fluids 22. and spikes. as shown in Fig.aip. The ZS model is again smaller than the data.24͒–͑2. 4. The SEA model is larger because it overestimates the spike acceleration for A ϳ 0.26͒. Like our model.27͒ for kho = 0. 6. The MIK model does not describe the spike FIG. as shown in Fig. 4.27͒ for kho = 0. and our Eqs. ͑Color͒ Scaled average amplitude vs scaled time for air/SF6 shock tube experiments of SEA ͑gray circles͒ and Jacobs ͑gray diamonds͒ with M = 1. 45.27. MIK ͑blue͒. see http://pof. The SEA ͑green͒ model overestimates the experiment and simulations because of the term ϰ in the nuSEA merator and their choice of Fsp is too small. ͑2. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. ZS ͑brown͒.26. acceleration and thus underestimates the spike development. and kh− o = 0. and kho = 0. but they also expose some limitations. the bubbles and spikes evolve asymmetrically largely because the bubbles are stagnating for Ͼ 4 at a value near kh ϳ 2. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG. The models and simulations are tested further into the nonlinear regime by the incompressible experiments of NJ. ZS ͑brown͒. As noted by the difference in scales.24͒–͑2. 11 and SEA .24͒–͑2.26. MIK ͑blue͒.org/about/rights_and_permissions . The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. Our model obtains a good agreement even with the term ϰ in the numerator because it uses the larger value of Fbu/sp. They are performed with M i = 1. our simulation and model are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The difference is 16% 14 by using 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ instead of Fsp for A = 0. This experiment is particularly useful because it validates the asymptotic velocity and establishes that 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ is a better coefﬁcient than SEA . ZS ͑brown͒. ͑Color͒ Scaled amplitude of bubbles and spikes vs scaled time for the incompressible experiments of NJ ͑gray diamonds͒.27.014104-8 G. 5 for the same conditions in Fig.16͒ and small initial perturbations ͑kh− o = 0. The exception is the ZS model because it overestimates the rate at which the bubble stagnates.16. 14 in Ref. FIG. 6.27͒ for k = 0. Fsp These comparisons to experiments are useful because they validate the simulations and models. The gray diamonds in Fig. ␥A = ␥B = 5 / 3. kh− o = 1. ͑Color͒ Scaled amplitude of bubbles and spikes vs scaled time for air/SF6 shock tube experiments of SEA ͑gray circles͒ with M i = 1. The FLASH simulations ͑black lines and open diamonds͒ are in excellent agreement with the data. NJ obtained a better agreement in their Figs. and our Eqs. A− = 0. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒.7. Dimonte and P. 43͒ have more scatter.26.47. ͑2. 6 represent the experimental data from Fig.

The MIK model differs only slightly from Fig.6 for the ZS ͑brown͒ and our ͑red͒ model. ZS ͑brown͒. However.47 we shall use FLASH simulations to evaluate the nonlinear models more stringently than is currently possible experimentally. we will investigate larger values of A and kho. ͑2. 8. whereas it is 4.45 The numerical simulations have an advantage over experiments because it is easier to take the time derivative of the amplitudes when the measurements are plentiful ͑every time step͒. However. FIG. The Mach number = 1. 7 for A− = 0.8 and 1. the ZS and our model agree best with the simulations for spikes. MIK ͑blue͒.27͒. Of course. For ͉A͉ ϳ 1. Our model ͑red͒ obtains such an excellent agreement with the simulation that it masks the associated black line and diamonds.125.org/about/rights_and_permissions . The bubble velocity decays immediately in the simulation and in all models but for varying reasons. B. 9͒. the spike velocity now increases by only 10% and again decays weakly for Ͼ 1. whereas the ICF and ejecta applications can have much larger values for both. the initial growth rate Vo increases nearly eightfold to a value of 0. The MIK model ͑blue͒ shows no spike acceleration because it does not have a term ϰ in the numerator.5 for the SEA ͑green͒ model. the ZS model depends too strongly on kho and grossly underestimates the growth of both bubbles and spikes. In particular. Of course. and our Eqs. III B. see http://pof. 8 by only changing kh− o = 1.250. MIK ͑blue͒. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. This is due to a ﬂattening of the bubble proﬁle in the simulations as expected from the harmonics ͑see Fig. ␥A = ␥B = 1. Fluids 22.128.24͒–͑2.1. it is easier to enlarge the computational domain and to vary the ﬂuid characteristics. A very different behavior emerges in Fig. this is done by construction.aip. the harmonic analysis and the ZS and SEA models predict that spikes should accelerate in time from their initial ͑linear͒ growth rate.75. The SEA model does not depend explicitly on kho and basically repeats its evolution in Fig. 7. and our Eqs.014104-9 Simulations and model Phys. In this case. In this case. For example. A particularly interesting example is shown in Fig.98. the MIK spike velocity decays from the start because the denominator asserts itself immediately. most cases had A Ͻ 0. agreement with the nonlinear models.6 and kho Ͻ 1. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. The bold black lines with open diamonds represent the simulation results.27͒. In the other extreme. the SEA model was not intended for A Ͼ 0. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity ͓͑a͒ and ͑b͔͒ and amplitude ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ for bubbles ͓͑b͒ and ͑d͔͒ and spikes ͓͑a͒ and ͑c͔͒ for A− = 0. namely. ͑2. In this case. In Sec. but the decay is slow since the upstream ﬂuid is so tenuous. Compare models with new 2D simulations Since the FLASH code has been validated here and more extensively for many unstable ﬂows. and over a long time to ascertain their asymptotic velocities.24͒–͑2. the range of parameters in this comparison is limited even though there were examples with weak and strong shocks. and kh− o = 0. with ͉A͉ ϳ 1 and kho Ͼ 1. we are interested in conditions that approximate the ICF and ejecta applications.98 and kh− o = 1 ͑40͒. respectively.125 ͑37͒. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity ͓͑a͒ and ͑b͔͒ and amplitude ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ for bubbles ͓͑b͒ and ͑d͔͒ and spikes ͓͑a͒ and ͑c͔͒ for A− = 0.02 is chosen to be near unity to remove any ambiguity in the important scaling factor Vo.95VRM. The ZS model has a negative term ϰ in the numerator and thus exaggerates the bubble decay to the point that the bubble amplitude becomes negative. In addition. 7 with a spike acceleration that is far too strong. As expected. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. all the growth rates Vo ϳ VRM ϳ VMB ϳ AUkho agree to within 9% because the compression is weak.9 and Fig. ZS ͑brown͒. the peak scaled velocity for spikes is 1.98 and kh− o = 0. This can most easily be seen by plotting the growth rate of the bubbles and spikes separately. The spike acceleration is attributed to the sharpened proﬁle due to harmonics and it is pre- dicted by the models containing terms ϰ in the numerator.02͒ in our model. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG. That term is large ͑͒ for the SEA model but it is normalized by an even larger ͑2͒ term in the denominator. 7 shows why. The bubble decays quickly because the term ϰ in the numerator is absent in the MIK model and small ͑0. The bubble evolution is only slightly different than in Fig. whereas all models except the ZS model describe the bubbles. 7. Instead. 7 because the nonlinear reduction is applied immediately since kho Ͼ 1 / 3. and for a longer duration to further differentiate bubbles and spikes. The spike velocity is seen to increase by 60% above its linear growth rate and then decays for Ͼ 1.

The SEA model exceeds the simulation signiﬁcantly. 12 for the cases in Figs. the bubbles have broadened and their growth rate has decreased. 15 and 20. Please note that the perturbations are primarily symmetric in the transverse direction. MIK ͑blue͒.27͒. for kh− o = 0. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity for spikes ͑a͒ and bubbles ͑b͒ for A− = 0. see http://pof. Fluids 22. 9 at various scaled times. 5–11 show that nonlinear models of varying complexity are able to describe RM bubbles and spikes. Our new empirical model is constructed to expand the range of FIG. and our Eqs. Its agreement for bubbles is not surprising since the bubbles depend only weakly on kho.15 and kh− o = 1 ͑23͒. MIK ͑blue͒.125 ͑a͒ and 1 ͑b͒. This behavior is consistent with the harmonic analysis described in Sec. all the calculations show that the bubble and spike growth rates decay from their initial values when Ͼ 1 in the nearly symmetric manor expected for A Ӷ 1. Conversely. 10 and 11. which indicates that the FLASH code is behaving as expected. 10–12 for A = 0. 7 and 8 with A− = 0. and our Eqs. the perturbations remain symmetric well into the nonlinear regime ӷ 1 as expected. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. 7 and 8 are shown in Fig.24͒–͑2. 11 with kh− o = 1. A different Vo could be applied to the simulations to favor a particular model. Fig.15.15 and kh− o = 0. Essentially. In Fig.75. The lines represent the FLASH simulations ͑black line͒ and models due to SEA ͑green͒. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. the perturbations are symmetric with a nearly sinusoidal proﬁle and grow at a rate close to the linear growth rate. The sample proﬁles of the interfacial perturbations are shown in Fig. ZS ͑brown͒. the KH roll-ups are pronounced and exhibit a cascade to smaller scales as they break up due to the unstable shear ﬂow. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138.250.128. We also change ␥A = ␥B = 5 / 3 to expand our parameter space and keep the Mach= 1. The top two images are for kh− o = 0. 11. the spike tip becomes multivalued as the KH roll-ups develop. However. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG.03VRM. The interfacial proﬁles for the simulations in Figs.24͒–͑2. the spikes have narrowed and have accelerated their growth.98 and kh− o = 0. we obtain a good agreement on average between the simulations and the MIK and our models with Vo = 0. as shown in Figs. However.8VRM due to the initial nonlinearity. but only within a few percent since this is the magnitude of the compressible effects. The comparisons in Figs. 9. ZS ͑brown͒. Ramaprabhu Phys. In addition. for Ͼ 1. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity ͓͑a͒ and ͑b͔͒ and amplitude ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ for bubbles ͓͑b͒ and ͑d͔͒ and spikes ͓͑a͒ and ͑c͔͒ for A− = 0.aip. this option is problematic as discussed in connection with Figs. As before.014104-10 G.98 and the ﬂow can nearly be described by potential ﬂow. 10 shows a good agreement between the simulations and all models with Vo = 1.125 and the bottom two are FIG. although the agreement can be improved by reducing Vo by 40% for the simulations. but only under limited circumstances.27͒. ͑2.1 near unity to minimize the ambiguity in Vo.125 ͑22͒.125 and the bottom two are for kh− o = 1.125. II A. However. ͑2. The ZS model again depends too strongly on kho and grossly underestimates both bubbles and spikes. As time progresses beyond ϳ 3. 10. When Ͻ 1. Indeed. but the agreement for spikes is a bit more fortuitous. The behavior is easier to understand and more forgiving at small Atwood number. Dimonte and P. these are not pronounced at this large Atwood number A− = 0. Interface proﬁles at selected times for cases in Figs. Since A = 0.15 is small. the top two images are for kh− o = 0.org/about/rights_and_permissions . − for kh− o = 1.

15͑c͒ and 15͑d͒ where the agreement is excellent. the scaled bubble velocity would exceed unity and violate the simulations. this has a little effect on Figs. 13͑b͔͒ is not enhanced and decays immediately for all A since ͑1 − ͉A͉͒ / Cbu Ͼ 1. 13 vs Atwood number for kh− o = 0.88 ͑34 green͒.98 and ␥A = ␥B = 1. ͑2.͔ Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. 0. 0. 13.98 and approaches 2 / Csp = 2. This is expected from the harmonic analysis ͓Eq. Interface proﬁles at selected times for cases in Figs. the spike velocity ͓Fig.34 The bubble velocity ͓Fig. This does not occur FIG. This requires that the model is accurate over a wide range of A and kho.7͔͒ and we ﬁnd that Vo can be related to the linear growth rate Vlin by the Padé approximant of VD.5.25 ͑46 magenta͒. 10 and 11 with A− = 0. This will be shown in the following.25. 0.75.98 ͑37 black͒. as shown in Fig. 0. Another key set of simulations for model development involves the variation with kh− o . 14. these characteristics can be traced to the contributions of the spatial harmonics at large amplitude. The key simulation results for model development are as follows. 0.aip. However.014104-11 Simulations and model Phys.1 and are represented by solid lines of different colors for A− = 0. Indeed. Our simulations ͑black line plus diamonds͒ exhibit no spike acceleration for A Ͻ 0. which by themselves approach ͑1 + ͉A͉͒ / Csp Ͼ 1 for kho Ӷ 1. see http://pof. However for ͉A͉ 1. ͓Please note that the code values of Vsp / Vo do not approach unity as ⇒ 1 when kh− o Ͼ 2 because we have had to time average the hsp͑t͒ in order to take its derivative. to describe the decline in the spike acceleration with kho in Fig. The magenta point is due to Zhang ͓Eq. the 2 term eventually dominates and the spike velocity decays asymptotically.5. M = 1.125. 0.5 and increase to Vmax / Vo ϳ 1. the bubble velocity decays more rapidly as A increases.24͒–͑2. as predicted by Zhang34 for A = 1. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity ͓͑a͒ and ͑b͔͒ and amplitude ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ for bubbles ͓͑b͒ and ͑d͔͒ and spikes ͓͑a͒ and ͑c͔͒ for kho = 0. The initial amplitude kh− o = 0. as shown in Fig.94 ͑43 red͒. ͑2. at ͉A͉ = 1 and the spike remains at the enhanced value as calculated by Zhang. Physically.65 at A of 0. and this is observed in the simulations. ZS ͑brown͒. 14. and 0. and 0. Black lines with diamonds are FLASH simulations and colored lines are SEA ͑green͒. ͑2. our model ͑dashed lines of corresponding color͒ is in excellent agreement for all A−.06 at A = 1.57 from Eq. Fluids 22. 1. with kh− o = 0. it is necessary for Vo to decrease with kho. A key set of simulations for developing our empirical model is summarized in Fig. and 4.02 are small to minimize the ambiguity in Vo. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. The initial increase is described by the interplay between the two terms ϰ.98.98. 0.27͒. 15͑a͒ while maintaining the agreement with the variation in A.27͒ ͑red͒. Of course.125.29 If a smaller value of Vo were used. Our model ͑red͒ is in excellent agreement with the simulations for A Յ 0. The simulations ͑solid lines of different colors͒ are performed with kh− o = 0. By construction. the value of Vo applied to the simulation results is always within 7% of VRM.11͒ with kho = 0. and our model equations ͑2.02 is kept small to minimize compression effects so that A− ϳ A and kh− o ϳ kho. 2.125 ͑a͒ and 1 ͑b͒.11͔͒ at A− = 1.125. For large ͉A͉. and then decays asymptotically. the MIK model has no spike acceleration and remains at the initial value of Vo. However.org/about/rights_and_permissions .24͒–͑2. 13͑a͔͒ increases from its initial value to a peak value that increases with ͉A͉.75 ͑44 blue͒. our empirical model ͑dashed lines with same colors͒ ﬁts the simulations very well. whereas the SEA ͑green͒ model greatly exceeds the simulations. 0. The ZS ͑brown͒ model obtains slightly larger peak velocities than the simulations. By construction. MIK ͑blue͒. However. Again. 0.125 ϳ kho. This compares well with the value of 1. validity to include the ICF and ejecta applications.25.5 ͑45 brown͒.75. in contrast to the spikes.15 and kh− o = 0. FIG.125 and Mach= 1. ͑Color͒ Peak spike velocity taken from Fig. 13 in which we vary A−. 15.94. 0. 12.128. The simulations are performed with ␥A = ␥B = 1. It is possible to compare all models with these simulations compactly by simply evaluating the peak scaled spike velocity at various A.125 and A− = 0.88.250.1. at A− = 0. Solid lines are from FLASH simulations and dashed lines are our model equations ͑2.

and 4 ͑magenta͒ ͑37– 42͒. Fluids 22. the simulations ͑black solid lines͒ in Fig. as described in Sec. In particular.2 Ͻ kho Ͻ 2 and larger for kho Ͻ 0. Finally. at A = 0. The ZS model ͑brown͒ is smaller than observed for 0. and 4 ͑magenta͒ ͑22–24a͒.27͒ ͑red͒.27͒.125 ͑black͒. The ZS ͑brown͒ model does not exhibit the expected scaling because it involves the difference of two terms and can become negative. 1 ͑blue͒.5 ͑green͒. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity for spikes ͑a͒ and bubbles ͑b͒ for A− = 0. Solid lines are from FLASH simulations and dashed lines are our model equations ͑2. our model ͑red͒ is in excellent agreement with the simulations.25.25 ͑red͒.98. 0. FIG. Our use of the VD scaling coupled with our choice of Cbu/sp is the key for obtaining a good agreement for both bubbles and spikes. ͑2. Again.15 and kh− o = 0.75. ͑Color͒ Peak spike velocity taken from Fig. 17. The Mach= 1.11͔͒ at A− = 1.1 and kh− o = 0. Basically.1͒ FIG.98 and kh− o = 0. Solid lines are from FLASH simulations and dashed lines are our model equations ͑2.24͒–͑2.29 Our model ͑dashed lines͒ agrees with this prescription. 15 vs kh− o at A− = 0. 1 ͑blue͒. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG. For bubbles. The dashed magenta line represents the theory of Zhang34 ͓Eq. 0.15 is shown in Fig. asymptotically for ͉A͉ 1. Dimonte and P. 17. 15. The MIK and SEA models do not depend explicitly on kho and are ﬁxed at Vmax / Vo = 1 and 4.5. II. and 4. 15.02 is kept small to minimize compression effects so that A− ϳ A and kh− o ϳ kho. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. Black lines with diamonds are FLASH simulations and colored lines are SEA ͑green͒. for the four conditions summarized in Table II. The peak scaled spike velocity from the models is compared in Fig. For completeness. respectively. As before. 2 ͑brown͒.98. whereas the bubbles are not. 1. the simulations ͑solid lines͒ are performed with ␥A = ␥B = 1. the variation in the bubbles and spikes with kho at small A− = 0. Figures 18 and 19 show the scaled velocities for bubbles and spikes. the simulation results are scaled by a Vo that relates to the linear growth rate according to the VD Padé approximant. This qualitative difference between bubbles and spikes can only be described by having Vbu/sp and Vo depend explicitly on kho ͑as suggested by VD͒. 0. 16 as a function of kho for the conditions in Fig.aip.125. The asymptotic behavior of the other models is also independent of Vo.128. Again. but the dependence on Vo cancels out late in time.24͒–͑2. and our model equations ͑2. The magenta point is due to Zhang ͓Eq. our model reduces to Vbu/sp ⇒ Vo Fbu/sp = 1 Fbu/spkt ͑3. respectively. 0.25. 0. The other models show the expected scaling but the OG factor is too small at large A so that the asymptotic velocities are too large. our simulations show that the spikes are very sensitive to kho. see http://pof.125 ͑black͒. the scaled spike and bubble velocities decay more quickly with kho but only weakly.5 ͑green͒.25 ͑red͒. In particular. ZS ͑brown͒. For example.0 to obtain appreciable growth during the simulation.org/about/rights_and_permissions . Ramaprabhu Phys. ͑2. for Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity ͓͑a͒ and ͑b͔͒ and amplitude ͓͑c͒ and ͑d͔͒ for bubbles ͓͑b͒ and ͑d͔͒ and spikes ͓͑a͒ and ͑c͔͒ for A− = 0.24͒–͑2. MIK ͑blue͒. 18 do indeed exhibit the 1 / kt scaling represented by the slope of the dashed lines. 16.11͔͒ for A ⇒ 1 and it agrees within 15% with our simulations and model. it is possible to evaluate the Fbu/sp term by investigating the asymptotic velocities from simulations of long duration. 2. 2 ͑brown͒. The simulations ͑black line plus diamonds͒ indicate that the spike acceleration relative to Vo occurs only for small kho.250.27͒.2.014104-12 G. 0. We set kh− o = 1. at small A.

98. as seen in Figs. this distincOG tion is reduced as A decreases since 1 + ͉A͉ and Fbu approach SEA = 1 for all unity at A = 0.29 This is demonstrated in Fig. 0. However.1 ͑b͒ 0. the spike velocity deviates from the 1 / kt scaling represented by the dashed lines.aip.1 ͑d͒ 0.1 1. ␥B. These results show that the asymptotic spike velocities are not universal and cannot be obtained by simply changing the sign of A in potential ﬂow models10. 19.35 for bubbles.128.98.5. Solid line is from Padé approximant of VD and dashed line is our approximation equation ͑2. ZS ͑brown͒. Diamonds are the initial velocity required to ﬁt the simulation result to our model ͓Eqs.67 1. Dashed black line shows a slope of 1 / t expected from potential ﬂow.02 ͑c͒ 0. Simulation parameters for Figs.15 ͑23͒. MIK ͑blue͒. ZS ͑brown͒. and 0. MIK ͑blue͒. 18͑a͒ and 18͑b͒. see http://pof.98 ͑40͒.75. the SEA model has Fbu A Յ 0. The linear growth rate Vlin is deﬁned by the observed initial growth in our simulations at kh− o = 0.5 1.1 1. Of course. as ͉A͉ approaches 1.67 1. for the same conditions in Fig. 18.27͔͒ scaled to linear growth rate ͑from simulations with kh− o = 0. 7 and 8͑a͒. the bubble velocity for the MIK ͑blue͒ and SEA ͑green͒ models exceeds that of the simulation ͑black͒ beOG ϳ 1. thereby validating our time dependence and choice of Fsp. Conditions for each case are summarized in Table II. It is meant to capture the largely incompressible ﬂow following the initial impulse Vo. which is smaller than 1 + ͉A͉. Dashed black line shows a slope of 1 / t expected from potential ﬂow.24͒–͑2. ␥A. 20.014104-13 Simulations and model Phys.02 FIG.27͒. and our model equations ͑2. Black lines with diamonds are FLASH simulations and colored lines are SEA ͑green͒.250. ͑2.15 ͑23͒. 18.1 1. 0. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. Our model ͑red͒ reproduces the simulations ͑black͒ for all A. Our model is made to ﬁt the simulations cause Fbu better by choosing Fbu = 1 + ͉A͉ = 1.51. as in all such models. This is a contributing factor to the large velocities obtained from the SEA model in Figs.87 ͑26͒. Fluids 22.87 ͑26͒.1 1.27͒. 0. The ﬁrst component depends explicitly on A and kho as described by Eqs.125 and is meant to capture most of the compressible effects. A = 0. 014104 ͑2010͒ TABLE II. 18 and 19 with kh− o = 1. The MIK model is insensitive − to kh− o whereas the simulations vary substantially with kho . Vo is not speciﬁed. Vo and large amplitude experiments Our empirical model shows excellent agreement over a wider range of parameters than previous nonlinear models because it is based on two components. However. 19.5 ͑45a͒. 20 for all of our simulations ͑diamonds͒ over a variety of conditions ͑Mach.5 ͑45a͒.27͒ ͑red͒.87 1. However.24͒–͑2. An exhaustive comparison of simulations with analytical solutions and impulsive models is described previously. Conditions for each case are summarized in Table II. and 0. The spikes behave differently. They achieve the 1 / kt velocity only at small A where they are similar to bubbles.98 ͑40͒.24͒–͑2.24͒–͑2. A−.67 1. ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity of bubbles vs scaled time to asymptotic − values for kh− o = 1 at A = 0.24 In our FIG. The MIK ͑blue͒ model has the next best agreement but this is somewhat fortuitous because our simulations have kh− o = 1. Black lines with diamonds are FLASH simulations and colored lines are SEA ͑green͒.125͒ vs initial amplitude.67 1. Our second component involves the realization that Vo itself decreases with kho and our reduction factor is consistent with the VD Padé approximant.27͒ ͑red͒. This is reasonable since the spikes go through an acceleration phase at large A and actually approach a velocity that exceeds Vo as predicted by Zhang34 at A = 1. as shown in Fig. The spike velocity is underestimated by the ZS ͑brown͒ model and overestimated by the SEA ͑green͒ model. FIG. ͑2.15 1. and kh− o ͒.98 1. Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. and our model equations ͑2. Case parameter A− ␥A ␥B Mi ͑a͒ 0. C.org/about/rights_and_permissions . ͑Color͒ Scaled velocity of spikes vs scaled time to asymptotic − values for kh− o = 1 at A = 0. 0.

IV. As mentioned previously. The FLASH code was used to expand the parameter regime ͑M i. For example. we did use available experimental data on a variety of platforms to validate the FLASH code for RM ﬂows. as indicated by the points in Fig. we compared the linear evolution with theory and impulsive models24 and the late-time behavior with empirical models. 20 represents Eq. namely.014104-14 G. with kho = kh− o . Solid black line is the Padé approximant of VD and dashed ͑dotted͒ black line is our model equation ͑2. we obtain excellent agreement between our simulations and linear theory.250. Ramaprabhu Phys.27͒.3͒ case. This is usually done in a time period during which the amplitude increases by some fraction of a wavelength.27͒ evaluated at = 1 for A− = 1 ͑0͒.2͒ We have conducted many simulations with the FLASH code to investigate the RM instability over a wide range of conditions including those relevant to applications such as ICF and ejecta formation. − Then.30–33 At small amplitude. respectively. and ␥B͒ beyond that available experimentally. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ͭ ͫ 1 4/3 1 + ͑kh− o /3͒ ͬ ͮ ͑3. We rewrite the model ͓Eq. ͑Color͒ Initial growth rate scaled by the linear growth rate vs kh− o. FLASH has also been validated for different ﬂows47 and compared with other codes. The Padé approximant of VD ͑solid line͒ agrees with the simulation results within 10%–15%. Eq. 014104 ͑2010͒ FIG. 21. Vo is determined by ﬁtting the scaled average amplitude kh from our simulations to that in our model. ͑diamonds͒ ͑Refs. and Dimonte et al. since the RM growth rate increases Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. we interpret Vo as the linear growth rate Vlin and the initial growth rate ͑dh / dt͒o as measured over a small but ﬁnite time in an experiment or simulation. but further investigation is required.26.128. which increases our conﬁdence in FLASH. we tried to ﬁt the established models to our numerical simulations by only adjusting Vo / Vlin for each case.5 due to higher harmonics that focus them. we conﬁrm the expected result that the impulsive models are accurate only in limited regimes. 21 represents our nonlinear impulsive model obtained in the Appendix in the spirit of Richtmyer. This is reasonable since the measurements are typically ﬁtted over such a time scale. at = 1. A−.3͒ is proportional to 1 / kho such that the growth rate saturates at ϰAءU since the linear growth rate is ϰkh− o . The small increase kh− o with above unity may be accidental or it may reﬂect the spike acceleration at large A.5 − ͉A͉ + ͑2 + ͉A͉͒kho͔/4 2 in order to apply the model to the data for all A and compressions. such an adjustment would not be successful at large A ͑Figs. ͑2. and 15͒ where the behavior for bubbles and spikes is dramatically different. In the beginning of our study. The red line is given by our nonlinear impulsive model equation ͑3.27͔͒ at t = 0. The two terms in the ﬁrst bracket are the bubble and spike growth rates. the simulations provide more complete diagnostic clarity. ␥A. ͑3. The second bracket contains the initial reduction factor and it depends on the preshock amplitude. Fluids 22. although they are attractive intuitively. ͑A3͔͒ as 1 dh Vlin dt ͩ ͪ = o − 2 ͱ − 2 ͑kh− o − 1͒ + ͑kho − 1͒ + 8͑kho ͒ 2 4͑kh− o͒ ͑3. ͑squares͒ ͑Refs. 11 for A− = 0. the simulations would better ﬁt the SEA model if Vo was reduced by 40 %.75. The observation occurs over a ﬁnite time during which the growth rate decreases due to additional nonlinearity.5 + ͉A͉ + ͑2 − ͉A͉͒kho͔/4 + ء 2 + ͉A͉ 2 − A + ͓4. This was successful at small A where the bubbles and spikes are similar. and they depend on the postshock amplitude.41 ﬁnd that growth rate decreases with kh− o . At the same time. Points are from SEA ͑circles͒ ͑Ref. However. 30͒. The dashed line in Fig. 20 and 21͒. which agrees with the VD approximant to within a few percent but has a simpler form. This is just the upper limit for the growth rate since the experimental observation only begins at t = 0. the experiments20–23. 21. In order to capture the simulation results quantitatively. ͑2.3͒.15. A lower limit to the growth rate can be estimated by our model 2 − ͉A͉ Vexp 1 = Vlin 2 2 − A2 + ͓4. However. but not at large A where the spikes are very sensitive to kh− o and the bubbles are not. Dimonte and P. 13. see http://pof. Such behavior is suggested by our simulations. 7. The dashed ͑dotted͒ line represents Eq.aip.2͒ at A = 1 ͑0͒ assuming no shock compression. The solid black line represents the initial growth rate ͓Eq. many RM experiments used large initial amplitudes in order to observe a signiﬁcant growth and their results can also be explained by our model. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. ͑3. In other words. the model reduces to the linear growth rate as it should. For kh− o Ӷ 1.org/about/rights_and_permissions . in Fig. ͑A3͒. The agreement between the data and our nonlinear impulsive model is surprising yet interesting because it captures some essential features. The simulations reveal that bubbles stagnate when they grow by an increment of 2 / k and that spikes accelerate for A Ͼ 0. It can be seen that the experimental points lie between our model results at = 0 and 1. In experiments.27 In addition to a wider parameter range. We also believe that the initial amplitude should be the preshock amplitude because it establishes the degree of nonlinearity prior to compression. However. for kh− o ӷ 1. the initial growth rate is inferred by ﬁtting a straight line to measurements of the peak-to-valley amplitude ͑divided by 2͒ at various times. 22 and 23͒.25. Aleshin et al.24͒–͑2. The red line in Fig. evaluated at = 1 since the amplitude has increased by ϳ1 / k by this time. This yields a different dependence of Vo / Vlin on kh− o . 8. When compared with the expected linear growth rate. in Eq.

However. and ZS that bridge the initial and asymptotic evolution. L.75.1 an impulsive model that may be applicable to large initial amplitude is constructed here by integrating the nonlinear equations of potential ﬂow28. K. at large A−.9 and does exhibit the spike acceleration. Then. and ZS. However. Finally. However. ͑8͒ of Ref. Mikaelian. Before describing the virtues and limitations of the empirical models. at A− = 1. Our hope is that such empirical models concisely capture the essence of RM simulations and that they may guide more rigorous analysis. the bubbles and spikes evolve similarly. It works well at small A− but does not describe the spike acceleration at all. this can be traced to the spatial harmonics that develop in the initial nonlinear regime which focuses the spikes and broadens ͑and retards͒ the bubbles. the particular Padé approximation often produces a strange behavior such as sign reversals.aip. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. which has no explicit dependence on kh− o . Our model compares much more favorably with the simulations over a wider range of parameters than the previous MIK. The SEA model is based on experiments and simulations for A− Ͻ 0. the remaining terms ͑h are proportional to a delta-function ␦͑t͒ and can be integrated to yield an impulsive model such as Eqs.27͒ that builds on the virtues of the previ- ous nonlinear models. Our model then has terms ϰ designed to capture the spike acceleration and its explicit dependence on A− and kh− o . Wouchuk for many useful discussions and A. and ZS models. Since rigorous nonlinear theories are limited.24͒–͑2. dh / dt in Eq. the initial growth rate is smaller than that given by linear theory in agreement with the Padé approximant described by VD. we ﬁrst summarize our simulation results.g. Calder.35.9 and kh− o Ͼ 1 that occur in the applications such as ICF and ejecta formation.10͔͒. APPENDIX: NONLINEAR IMPULSIVE MODEL In the spirit of Richtmyer. we had to develop a new empirical model given by Eqs. the RM instability is of consequence in applications mainly when the amplitude is large and impacted by nonlinear effects. we examined the empirical models of MIK. they do not agree for the large values of A− Ͼ 0.29 However. The bubble growth is consistent with conventional wisdom. ͑A1͒ At small amplitude. the potential ﬂow equations in a gravitational ﬁeld g ͓e.128. our model is intermediate between the SEA model. we postulate that such a time is related to a transit time across the initial perturbation at a rate given by the interface Downloaded 23 Feb 2013 to 138. This work was performed for the U. the spikes evolve in a complex manner since they are ﬁrst accelerated and then reach an asymptotic velocity which depends on both A− and kh− o. These models agree with simulations for moderate A− and kh− o but not for the large values relevant to the applications. The PARAMESH software was developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center under the HPCC and ESTO/CT projects. Dhotre for assistance with the simulations. However. Physically. O. ͑2. As in the previous models. Sadot. see http://pof. ͑2. Fluids 22. With these approximations. Some of this behavior is captured by the existing empirical models of MIK. For a large initial amplitude. SEA. In practical terms. Since the evolutionary equations of potential ﬂow vary differently with Atwood number depending on the form of the velocity potential. the bubble evolution is similar to that at small A− but the spike evolution is quite different. II F. we assume that the RM growth is incompressible such that kh− o ϳ kho. To be accurate for the large values of A− and kh− o in the applications. we simplify this analysis by choosing A = 1. they grow initially with the linear growth rate and then transition to the asymptotic velocity ϰ / t expected from potential ﬂow. 35͔ reduce to ͑1 − kh͒ dh d 2h +k dt2 dt ͩ ͪ 2 = gkh . At large Atwood number.014104-15 Simulations and model Phys. Velikovich.34 Our simulations and Zhang’s theory show that this maximum spike velocity decreases with the initial amplitude. DE-AC52-06NA2-5396. our model has a term ϰ2 in the denominator in order to capture the expected and observed asymptotic velocity ϰ / t.38 across the initial amplitude. this reduces further to the RT unstable form used by Richtmyer because the coefﬁcient in the ﬁrst term reduces to unity and the second term vanishes. We found that they agree with the simulations for moderate values of the Atwood number and amplitude. SEA.4͒ and ͑2. G. the initial growth rate is deﬁned to be the linear growth rate when kh− o Ӷ 1 and it describes most of the compressible effects.. A. However. However. However. and the ZS model which has a somewhat unphysical dependence on kh− o. Eq. the spike velocity decreases due to the drag from the downstream ﬂuid. ͑2. For small initial amplitude. and J. ¨ and gkh͒ for an impulsive g ϳ U␦͑t͒. As time evolves further. ͑A1͒ is not proportional to ␦͑t͒ and must be integrated across the impulse for a speciﬁed time. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. The FLASH software used in this work was developed in part by the DOE-sponsored ASC/Alliance Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. The MIK model simply makes a transition from the initial to asymptotic growth rates and the bubble and spike asymmetry is captured by the function Fbu/sp. However. namely. For kh− o Ӷ 1. Here. but they are quantitatively accurate only for limited conditions. it breaks down at large A− and kh− o ͑where applications occur͒ because it overestimates both the magnitude and dependence on kh− o of the spike acceleration.org/about/rights_and_permissions . that it transitions in some universal way from the initial growth rate to an asymptotic velocity ϰ / t. SEA. the drag is absent and the spike velocity remains at an elevated stage consistent with the theory of Zhang. 014104 ͑2010͒ with the initial amplitude. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank A. the spike velocity begins at the linear growth rate and then increases as though it is being accelerated.37. this must be reduced by nonlinear effects which we describe by the Padé approximant of VD. the coefﬁcient of this term is found to be Fbu/sp = 1 Ϯ ͉A͉ rather than that calculated by OG ͓Eq. we developed the empirical model described in Sec. At small Atwood number.250. The ZS model is based on Padé approximants of the harmonic analysis and does exhibit the spike acceleration and has an explicit dependence on kh− o .5͒. the asymptotic growth rate is similar. for kh− o ӷ 1. Furthermore. S. unlike the SEA model. To extend to these important applications.

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