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**Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of finite amplitude
**

By P. G . D R A Z I N

University of Bristol

(Received 16 June 1969)

Non-linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, of two parallel horizontal streams of inviscid incompressible fluids under the action of gravity, is studied theoretically. The lower stream is denser and there is surface tension between the streams. Some progressing waves of finite amplitude are found as the development of a slightly unstable wave of infinitesimal amplitude. In particular, the non-linear elevation of the interface between the fluids is calculated. The finite amplitude of the waves does not equilibrate to a constant after a long time, but varies periodically with time. In practice, slight dissipation should lead to equilibration at an amplitude close to a value given by the present theory.

1. Introduction

Recent experiments by Thorpe (1968, 1969) have made it possible to confirm Kelvin’s classical linear theory of instability of shear flow between two horizontal parallel streams of fluids (cf. Chandrasekhar 1961, 3 1 01). These experiments carry on beyond the linear development of instability, so the time seems ripe to develop the non-linear theory. The theoretical problem, both mathematically tractable and a fair model of the experiments, is the instability of the basic flow of inviscid incompressible fluids with velocity, density and pressure

respectively, where z is the height and g the acceleration due to gravity. It is assumed that there is an irrotational perturbation of this flow on each side of the interface with elevation z = [(x, y, t ) , so that the velocity

u = U+Vcjj (j= 1 for x < [,j= 2 for x > [).

(2)

Then it can be shown (cf. Chandrasekhar 1961, chapter XI) that the non-linear instability is governed by the following system : Vz$j

=

0

(j= 1, 2 for z

Vcjj+O

as z - t T c o ;

2 5);

F L M 42

(9). Drazin and reduce the interfacial conditions at z = 5 to those at z theorem. When the non-linear terms are neglected.V(V5)2] [l + (VC)2]-4- vy) +t(l+Q)P$42)z) (2 = 0).)exp(i(ax+by) (15) . where the linear operator and column vector are defined as =0 L * (13) The general solution of this linearized problem (8). (13) for a typical normal mode of wave-numbers a in the x and p in the y direction is the real part of *=(- d-l(s + iaUl)exp {i(ax+by) +Zz} exp {i(ax+ PY)) i?-l(s+iaU. getting V~C$~= 0 ( j= 1. G . 2 for z 2 0). (12) The linearized terms have been put on the left-hand side of equations (8)-(12). = 0 by Maclaurin's V$j-+O as z + Too. (8) (9) = y{[VZC{l+ (V~)2}-+VC. equations (lo)-( 12) can be written as (z = O ) .322 P .

To put the two-dimensional form of the system (8)-( 12) in dimensionless variables in the usual way.U. we now replace Ul by Ul/ V = W say. U2by .W . z ) henceforth. we shall assume two-dimensional waves in the vertical plane of (x. also define E = (pl -p2)/(pl +pz) and make a Galilean transformation so that U2 = .where 2 E + (a2+p2)4. as a case of Squire's theorem. 2. Then it is natural t o choose dimensionless variables by use of the length scale 1 = {7/9(P1. t by Vt/l etc. It can be seen. (17) . and p1(s Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of Jinite amplitude 323 + iaU. Waves stabilized by buoyancy and surface tension If surface tension and gravity are sufficiently strong. x by x/l. that if U2 = U. Thus equations (lo)-( 12) become L+ = N+ (Z = 0). Therefore it might be anticipated that non-linear waves are observed to be two-dimensional. For convenience. Accordingly. A varies with time like est. with pure imaginary roots s given by (16) for all a.)2/oz+p2(s + iaU2)2/Z+g(p1-pJ + di2y = 0. and indeed this is essentially correct. the flow may be stabilized when p1 > p2. u by u/V .l the unstable component of given total wave-number & grows most rapidly when it is parallel to the basic flow (/? = 0).P 2 P and velocity scale V = {gy(p1-p2)/(p1+p2)2}~..

So we shall put E = 0 to get from equations ( 1 7 ) . in particular.W.(a) is 24.. occurring for OL = 1 . . waves moving with the mean velocity of the basic flow. It also simplifies the theory somewhat.Wz)$and is unstable if W > W. O<CZ<m As E + 0 for fixed 1.G.324 P. Then. This non-linear wave can be found by the method of normal mode cascade.) > 0 the linear wave grows exponentially with time at a slow rate. where Lo+ = No+ (2 = 0) (23) and No is similarly N with E = 0. we anticipate that instability will arise as soon as W exceeds 26. The minimum of W.@)}*. due to Stuart (1960) and Watson (1960). So i t is convenient to rearrange equations (23) in the form Do+ = Mo+ ( z = O ) . a wave grows a t the relative rate s = a(W 2. and we seek the subsequent development of the wave with time when non-linearity is important. later equilibrating as some non-linear standing wave motion of the same length. Drazin W > W. it gives symmetry between the upper and lower streams such that we may anticipate the existence of non-linear. For small (W . (25) with all the small linear terms as well as the non-linear terms in the operator iM.+ 0. by linear theory. This is found by perturbing the steady linear solution in the limit as W -+ W. namely with zero velocity. a t first growing exponentially as a wave of length 27r. as well as linear. when W slowly increases from zero. V .(a)= (( 1+ a2)/a}*. Therefore. the case of interfacial waves between streams of nearly equal density is approached. This is a fair approximation t o the experimental conditions of Thorpe (1969)for which E was quite small but W of order one. = (2/( 1.(a) = ( ( 1 +a”/OL(l-E2)}k (21) Therefore the wave is unstable if and only if Therefore the flow is unstable if and only if W > min W.

i n (D+”)~ = . (30) Do+” = (No+)’’ 0). (32) for cPrrcan be solved conveniently with the aid of a suitable scala. for fixed small ( W . So for any pair of real vectors += each representing a flow with period 2m/a in x. (25)gives Dn+ = 0 (Z = 0).A sin ax .. At the same time the form of the disturbance will be modified. A sin ax at z The inhomogeneous linear boundary-value problem (S).)> 0. = For small ( W .) > 0.a2W. 2 ~ .W. (28) By a suitable translation of the x axis. the general real linear solution of (S). the small amplitude A will grow exponentially until non-linearity becomes important and modifies the growth. (9).) A cos ax . suppose + i 1 sinax (Z = (29) where the nth term is O(An)..@ ~ ) Acos ax + a = A sin a x .a( w .W. finding an equation of the form On evaluation this gives (ZI+”)~ + = +’++”++a”+. (32a ) (32b) (32c) (D+”)3= 2a( W . (9).cosaxe-OLZ .define their scalar product iE) $2 > += c:) $2 > . Now we can iterate the solution. ( 2 8 ) can be written as W.~2 sin 2ax. ~ 2 s2ax.) W .a ( .. To find these modifications.W.+ 0.cos ax euz + +‘ = A ( t ) W. = 0.W.r product and an adjoint operator D : of Do.Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of Jinite amplitude 325 I n the first approximation as W + W.

. We need one of the solutions of (8).W.in just as D.)A ( 2 4 W . ~ 2 s i n ~ a x ( z = 0).W. this gives a (W . in which case an arbitrary multiple of the vectors with rows . (An exception occurs when a = 2-4.)W. namely a-1A sin m eaz .p y X . the scalar product can be seen to be the sum of the scalar products of pairs of components varying sinusoidally with pax ( p = 0 . 2 . A .326 P. Drazin By Fourier analysis.sin 2ax eZaz.a-lA sin a ” I n fact this gives the general solution + to order A2. (37) +* ( 1 for (36) +*. Therefore we have . A 2sin 2ax e-2az .taW. 1 . This means that a(W .cos ax) cos a x . .A3(9 cos 3 a s.sin 2ax e--2az. .)A cos a x . where the adjoint of’Do is +. i i 0 1 +‘ +“ +’ 0 1 (38) =i . as will be seen in equation (41). A2sin 2 a x D. llfloc epax and &: @2 cc e . (34) Do+) = ( D I M +). then #I.2a-lA’ . s i n a x We are now ready to take the scalar product o f equations (32) with On use of the adjointness (34) and of Dz = 0 (z = O). But if vary sinusoidally with pax.W. Therefore we may take . + +’. t# = . +If. +* +.W. by .)A = o(A2)and must be treated in the next approximation. It is now easy to find a particular integral o f (8).aAA cos 2ax + &a3K A3(9 cos 3ax:.cos ax) Do+” = (Mo+)”’ (2 = 0) + *a3(3a .W.(Za)when a = 2-4.).W.W.W.a( W . because any complementary function of (37) can be absorbed in by redefinition of A .(a)= W. (37).A 2sin 2 m eza2 x e-az + $aW. (9) and the adjoint equations DZ+“ = 0 (X = 0).a 2 ~ .aAA cos 2 a x + &a3W.G .) A = 0. on integration by parts..A sin a x + aZW. Therefore.+” = A s i n a x . is Do with W. + ($9 It follows that (34) holds for any pair with period 2nla in x. This merely needs replacement of W.) For the next approximation. (9).a(W .5 WE)A3}sina x + 4=a3(3a + 7 WE)A3sin 3az i (39) * (40) .W.cos a x eaz t#* = -Fcosaxe-az . cos Sax may be added to This is because W..

whereby A c c est. The trajectories (43)are drawn in figure 1. with a narrow waist near the origin and with amplitude 24A.&a3( 1 + 4a2)A3. and has maximum amplitude 24A. represented by the origin in the phase plane. I n general this trajectory is an elongated figure of eight.Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of Jinite amplitude The scalar product of c$* and equations (40) gives 327 A’ = 2a2(W .A2-&a3(1+4a2)A4+constant. This equation is similar to that of a particle on a soft spring if W < W.A .FQ2. represented by a trajectory passing near the origin in the phase plane. This can be integrated explicitly in terms of elliptic functions. The period is long.)W. (41) with an error of O(A4). we are interested in the case W > W. I n either case a standing wave of finite amplitude develops. having wavelength 27rla in the x direction.+ O( W ... note that it has ‘energy’ integral (42) Az = 2a2(W-@)W. because the trajectories in the phase plane are closed. It can be seen that the basic flow ( l ) . so (41) agrees with the linear theory. approximately.W. but the essential features of the solutions are seen more easily in the phase plane of A and A. This wave is periodic in time too. However. Any infinitesimal perturbation of the basic state develops into a standing wave. is unstable. being longer the smaller the initial disturbance is. A Note that s2 = 2a2(W . Also steady non-linear waves are possible if A’= A:= 16(W-~)W./0l(l+401~). approximately.)W. and approaching infinity for a trajectory that approaches the origin.W. Exceptionally it is a closed curve like a half of the figure of eight. For a more detailed study of (41). (43) .

but we shall stop here. However.aAA cos 2ax -a ( (W - W.2a2) (45) The solution may be continued further in this way. It gives unsteady standing waves.a2) A3sin3ax+O(A5siii5a. (38) and (45) may be extended to give \ - a2K(17a2.a3(3a + 7 Wz)A3sin 3ax 1 I ( ( W .1 ) { ( W .W .4) A3 cos 3ax e3a2 16(3a2. the viscosity of real fluids.) A + +a2% A3)cos a x . There are various symmetries in this problem with e = 0.16(3a2. we find that (40) becomes Do +'" = Therefore we may take the solution i \ .G.Zaw.w. Drazin & Howard 1966).a2) A3sin 3ax sin 2ax .{(W . for which there is a basic flow with smoothly varying velocity and density and without surface tension.aAA cos 2ax ++"A 3 cos 3ax .)A+ 4a2WcA3} sinax +#a3&A3cos 3ax ( z = 0). Drazin Using relation (41).2).4)A3 cos 3az ec3ae 16(3a2. for example.2a2- 1 A A sin 2ax - a2( 2 . 16(3a2. but these results ( 4 l ) .)A + +a2&43} cos a x .a(( w . the discontinuous basic flow (1) that we have used is well known to successfully model many aspects of the linear instability of a smoothly varying flow (cf. and imperfect cleanliness of their interface may make verification difficult. ) A ++a2&43}cosaxea~-2( 1 .2a2)A A cos 2ax e2ac + 4a2 - a"( 17a2 .1) * A 1 A. equation (41) in fact has an error of O(A5). The unsteadiness of the basic flow in the experiments.W. 3. because the elevation of the interface is one of the least difficult variables to measure.1 ) (46) This result seems as suitable as any to compare with observations.1 ) I II- 5 = A sinax+. (44) + .and equations (29). ) A+&z2W. now that the leading non-linear behaviour has been found. Waves stabilized only by buoyancy Some of Thorpe's (1968) experiments were with smoothly stratified fluid.W . particularly the stability . (46) seem the most susceptible to verification by experiment.328 P.2a2 at(2 .A3}cosaxe-~~- 1 +4a2 AA cos 2ax e-2az 2( 1 .

relation (16) gives P1+ Pz P1+ P2 for two-dimensional waves.vt and therefore a/ax by a/aX and a p t by a/at . Then the dimensionless form of the non-linear problem (8)-( 12) is s=- (47) The marginally stable wave in the linear problem for this case is not steady. but (50).V . but a progressive wave with phase velocity c = is/a = 8. and therefore instability for some (short) waves however strong the buoyancy of the basic flow may be. = . (49) are unchanged in form if now V = (ajax. ( 5 2 ) respectively become . For this case with y = 0. To prepare for this we make a Galilean transformation of the system. so it is desirable to use the basic flow (1)as a model when there is no surface tension.w a p X .U.Kelwin-Helmholtz instability of finite amplitude 329 characteristics of long waves. Again. = .. Thus equations (48). where v = e in the linear approximation. let us suppose that U.) and a length scale 1 = V 2 / gfor the dimensionless variables. Here it is more natural to choose a velocity scale V = $( U.U. (51). So we should look not for a standing non-linear wave but rather for one that is steady with respect to an observer moving horizontally with some speed v in the x direction. . replacing x by X = x . a/&). a t first.

= ---+(v-€. . . (56) I n this transformed system. (59) Also note that there are stable steady linear waves if E ec and v = €T{E2-l+€/a)*.(v. Drazin s = ia(v.(a) = {( 1 + 4 a y . (61) and (fM+).2 ax a4 7 7 ac a$ = ai: .e and w . is a steady wave on the margin between stable and unstable waves. we first write (53)-(55) with the small terms on the right-hand side as D+ where = M# (Z = 0).a€}&. the stability relation (47) becomes If and 6 V = € < €.E.rtheory gives at once D#' mation = 0 (x = 0) and thence the first approxi- (64) . (60) though oiily when E = 6. ) -at ax . G.l)/2a..€2) .E)/E {(1+$)(ec-~)/eC}* .-o.E ) f { a 2 ( 1 . To iterate the slightly unstable solution for small A and small e.& -2+ a2 ax ( I + &) ax ac The linea.330 P . then there are unstable standing waves with relative growth rate Y = ~{(E~--E)(I+~.}* as E+E.E .)2+&-1--(1+&)ac a< a$ at ax az ax - ac a$.

a ( v . ) ~ ~ s i n ~ a ~ A sin ax .E .)S.A2 sin 2aX e-2z2 .)A2 sin 2 a x +:a3( 1.E . (a-1A sin a X . One finds that for all where now ) (65) (66) +.A sin ax + a(v.)Azsin2aX a2e.€ .AZsin 2 a ezaz ~ 9 ' ' = .q)AZsin 2 AsinaX-a(v-s.€ .) (v.az(1+ s. which means that s ..s) .A2cos 2aX a ~ ( z = 0).(w .(w .)A2sin 2aX . ) A ~ c o s ~ Xc-0~ ~( 2~ aX +E. A cos aX}eaz . we need the adjoint D* of D. (72u) .(1-%)= ax a -A\ 2 0 1 (4. Again.s ) . we get 331 09'' = (M+)" (X = 0) .'( 1.) A sin ax + azs. A cos aX}e-az + &. on redefining A by adding which gives the general solution = + 9'' + O(A3) to it a term of order A2. -_ ax a 0 - D* E 0 .& z ~ ( ~ .A2 cos 2 a ~ As in $2.. (D+"r)l= . we find and therefore i 1 (69) + +' = ? p Az c cos 2aX i (70) D+'" (M+)'" (2 = 0).Kelvin-Helmholtz i n ~ ~ u b ofi Jinite ~ i ~ u~pli~ude ~ Next.{a-lA sin ax .s . ) ( ~ + ~ ~ .€.e. we must delay treatment of (e-s. This leaves +* D+" = Therefore one can pick out the particular integral i .(l+e.q = O ( A z )as A --f 0. and so take eae (68) and equations (66) gives E .&l(e ..+) a .)A c o s a ~ + a 2 ( 1 .)A until the next approximation.)- a x " = We shall need two solutions of the adjoint system D*+* the solutions cos a X eaz sin a X 0 ( z = O). +. Taking terms of order A3 in (6l). . ) Acos ax . = 0 to the present Now the scalar product of order of approximation.)AcosaX-az(1+s.)A3cos 3 a X . retaining terms of order A z in (61). ) Acos ax + az(1.) E .2 a ( l + S~. (1 + 2e.+e.A sinaX+a(v-s.)AA -az( 1+ 6.D+) = (D*+.

G .€ ) E ~ ~ A .85.S ~ A3 J cos aXe-aa .AA ) cos 2aXe2az (761 6 = A sin a X + iae.) (v . )A 3 + 2 a (l -s2.a(1+ e. + O(A2) in order to find a co-ordinate frame with respect to which there is a non-1inea.( 1 .er)(1+ 6ec)A3 cos a X P .f+) 2 -1k’ --$ a 3 (5 --2 2 ~ 2 . This means we must put v = E .e. to the present order of approximation the phase velocity of the non-linear wave is E.2 4 1 + EE)€. with equations (64).~ a € ~ .€:)-ye .2a-I( 1 .) (1 + 6ec)A cos aX .4a3( 1 . I n other words.e.332 (Dt$”’)2 = .e.10eE)A3 sin 3aX 1 * (75) + $a€. A 3 ) . A2 cos 2 a X .+a3( I + E.r standing wave. &a2( 1 .4e3A3sin 3 a X + O(A4) as e -+ e.A A sin 2 a X + +a2(1.gives .A A sin 2 a X + +a2( 1 . this steady wave is not the limit of a small unstable disturbance of the basic flow A = 0 after a long time. These results also give i . with respect to the original frame.66.3 ~ . The scalar product of y5* with equations ( 7 2 ) gives ( v .&a€.) A . k’ = “ 2 ( 1 + E 2 . Instead a small disturbance of the basic flow grows into an unsteady standing wave.) . (73) This non-linear ordinary differential equation has the same qualitative behaviour as (41) of $2.0.e.I (1+ 2 E c ) ~ 3 C o 3 s ax \ .) A3cos ax . ( 7 0 ) . We may now neglect the term with (v .€)/as:}. ) { ( E c .€J2 A in equation ( 7 2 c ) for the present approximation.$( 1 . It follows that the scalar product of and equations ( 7 2 ) gives.$a3(1 . . (77) . (72b) P . with an error of order A4.&( 1+ 3eC)AA cos 2 a ~ e . So again there is a stable steady non-linear wave of amplitude +* A . Drazin (I .e.)AA cos 2aX + i a 3 ( i -€.) AA cos 2 a X (D+”)3= { . (74) as e -+ er .6$)A3sin ax + $a3(7 It follows that .) A cos aX + $d3(7 .a2(1.4 a 3 .10e:)A3 sin 3 a X . approximately.a(1 .4 & 4 3 sin 3 a X This.2eC)A3 cos 3aX e-3a. = {2( e.0.1( z .) A2 sin 2 a X + :a3(1 + e.. ( 7 2 c ) at z = 0.) ( 1 .)-l(v-ec)2A}sinaX + 4(1 .( 1+ 2eC)A3 cos 3aX e3ae +a2( 1 + ec)( 1 .eE)-I(v . which has a long period in time and a maximum amplitude of ZSA. However.214 A3 cos 3 a X .e c ) A as zero to the present approximation.

much as the similar term in (46). they give the non-linear deformation of layers of fluid particles of equal density. (73). because the equation governing the linear instability of these flows has a second time derivative. the discontinuous basic flow (1) does model the stability characteristics of a shear layer with smoothly varying velocity and density (cf. Even if the basic flow (1) were realized in an experiment. rather than a first. the centre of a half wavelength has lesser x co-ordinate than the crest of the wave.(x) is essentially where $‘ is the stream function of the two-dimensional perturbation. So the representation of y as a Fourier series would be unable to describe much of the spectral evolution. 4. and so should have marginally unstable finite amplitude waves similar to those we have described above.1))governing the instability of the basic flow U(z)i of inviscid incompressible fluid with density p. $ 2 7 ) the spectrum of disturbances evolves towards turbulence as W increases substantially above W. This difference is due to the presence of a second. However. They are characteristic of the non-linear instability of plane parallel flows with buoyancy. whatever the value of 8. Landau & Lifshitz 1959. This is in accord with one’s intuition that the crest of the wave bends with the stream of the basic flow. because the flow is always unstable to short waves. time derivative in each of (41). should be noted. when A2is increasing with time. However. (73). Thus it is plausible that our results may be used qualitatively but not quantitatively to describe the onset of instability in a shear layer. For example. I n particular. by which time y is no longer a single-valued function of x. Discussion On Landau’s theoretical grounds (cf.A A sin 2aX introduces some asymmetry of the waves about their crests.Kefuin-Helmholtz instability of finite unaplitzlde 333 Here the term . However. the Taylor-Goldstein equation (cf. 1 > 0. Any solution of Landau’s equation equilibrates such that IAI + . Also the differences of the form of (41). Thorpe’s (1968) photographs suggest that the nonlinear wave itself is not unstable until the vortex sheet has rolled up. . and show that instability grows into an unsteady non-linear wave steadily progressing in the direction of the denser fluid.. (73) from that of Landau’s equation. the above finite amplitude disturbances would not be observed. A smoothly varying shear layer can be completely stabilized by buoyancy when the Richardson number is everywhere greater than a quarter. equation (5. Drazin & Howard 1966). this is not so for equations (41).A e = (2s/l)t as t+co if s. Drazin & Howard 1966.

Drazin I n practice a little viscosity would dissipate the energy of the disturbance. for a fluid with infinitesimalviscosity. Indeed. I n particular. the points of equilibrium at A = & A . It was found in $ 3 that u = E to the highest approximation attained. figure 1.-€ (V-€)2 4 A = -[a€.17)with Aozl = 0). Of course the relevance of the model to a turbulent wind is little more than speculation. it gives the non-linear development of the stable linear disturbances when E > E. For v can always be chosen so that one root s of (56)is zero when E > eC. would become stable spiral points. equation (6.eCby direct use of the method of Stuart (1960) and Watson (1960). Finally. whose kind hospitality enabled much of the work to be done. But these idealizations have led to results which we anticipate to be qualitatively applicable to appropriate real flows. It is Contribution no. two-dimensional disturbance-cannot be met in real experiments. It was suggested that this non-linear wave would become steady if the fluid had viscosity. thus a = 1. however small. one might have put v = E at fwst for all E . This would drastically change the form of the trajectories of the phase plane. Thus there is equilibration with wave amplitude A .The non-linear development of such a wave is given by equations (72).0 < W .( Ec ' One may speculate on the relevance of this work to the generation of waves by wind. These results are not expected to apply to the development of a very unstable linear wave. infinitesimal rate of growth of instability. The linear solution for a slightly unstable mode has been iterated to account for non-linear self-interaction. This is qualitatively modelled by the equation of self-interaction for BBnard convection (Palm 1960. The idealizations of the theoretical model-inviscid fluid. unbounded and steady horizontal uniform streams. ..334 P. 22 of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute at ]I*+ This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research N-00014-68- Florida State University. In particular.G . and thereby it was shown that the mode did not break down into turbulence directly and rapidly but rather became a periodic non-linear wave. but should be applied to the wave-number of the most unstable linear disturbance in slightly supercritical conditions. whose physical significance may be obscured by the large amount of algebra and calculus that has been necessary. we summarise this work. in which case non-linear mechanisms deserve consideration. and each trajectory would approach one of these points as t + + 00. there being steady non-linear waves with amplitudes 2 €. the method used above with a Galilean transformation is instructive. Under some circumstances the Kelvin-Helmholtz model may be relevant to ocean waves (Miles 1959). However. albeit slowly.26 < 1 in the problem of § 2. A-0159. clean interface.

Fluid Mech. T. 39. Mech.J. A. J. E. A. 371. 6. E. Fluid Mech. THORPE. London: Pergrtmon. S. J. G.Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of Jinite amplitude REFERENCES 335 CHANDRASEKHAR. DRAZIN. Fluid Mech. Fluid Mech. P. 693. 1966 Advanc. 1960 J . 1960 J . 9 . 1960 J . M. 8. Fluid Mech. 353. 1959 Fluid Mechnics. 9. S. MILES. 1. & LIFSHITZ. Oxford University Press. THORPE. 9. L. 32. N. Appl. L. 183. STUART. 25. 1968 J . PALM. W. 1959 J . 583. 196 1 Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. . S. WATSON. Fluid Mech. LANDAU. &HOWARD. 1969 J.

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UsefulNot usefulPaper describing the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (occurring in a fluid interface experiencing shear). By Drazin, Published 1970 in the journal of fluid mechanics

Paper describing the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (occurring in a fluid interface experiencing shear). By Drazin, Published 1970 in the journal of fluid mechanics

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