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Review for Final Exam First Semester

Take each of the following and create a study guide that provides synthesized information about the significance or characteristics of each topic. You may use appropriate images as well as video inserts that cover certain topics. Plug your information right into this document. Remember; do not write an essay for each topic. Synthesize your information. Completion of this study guide counts as 20 points of your 140 point final exam (70 points multiple choice/50 points essay/20 points study guide). There is no remediation on the final exam. This completed study guide is due to Edmodo.com by 11:59 pm of the day prior to you actual final. Example- if your final is Wednesday, then due Tuesday before 11:59 pm.

Period 1: Technical and Environmental Transformations to c. 600 BCE


1.1 AP Key Concept- Big Geography and Peopling of the Earth Hunting and Gathering societies- kinship groups -foragers lived in small bands; each community had divided responsibilities of food collection and preparation; -were highly mobile; non-permanent homes often in caves; -lots of time spent in the arts, tool making, and social life Paleolithic technology - used plant, animal, and mineral to make clothing, paints, stones for tools, etc.; -used various natural herbs for medicine; -used stone, bone, skin, and wood for tools Use of fire - may have discover as far as 1.5 mil years ago; hard evidence of cooking 12,500 years ago -discovery came accidentally through wildfire -cooking enabled meat and vegetables to become easier to digest 1.2 AP Key Concept- The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Neolithic Revolution -change from food gathering to food productions that increased pop (8000-2000 BCE) -occurred first in the Middle East; learned to cultivate crops by 8000 bce -presence of agriculture tools like stone mortars, stone heads, stone chips helped work the soil

Metallurgy (bronze, iron)

-objects were symbols of status and power; -bronze(2000 BCE) alloy of copper and tin that was harder and more durable; primary metal used for tools and weapons; ---iron- Hittites discovered to use iron in tools and weapons; spread of Iron technology around 1000 BCE

Earliest agricultural settlements- Mesopotamia, Nile River valley, Sub-Saharan Africa, Indus Valley, Yellow River (Huang He valley) Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and Andessimilarities and differences, crops, irrigation -mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Indus Valley, Yellow River, -- depended on rivers to irrigate the land; niles were predictable and eagerly awaited; mesopotami;s were violent; -Crops:Mesopotamiabarley, fish, ---Indus Valleyfood surplus---- mesoamerica &andes- maize, potatos, beans, squash,Yellow River(millet, wheat,rice) -Saharan- millet, teff, yams, rice, sorghum ; had tough rainfall patterns Pottery, woven textiles, plows, wheels and wheeled vehicles impact on agricultural production and trade. -Technologies important in the rise of civilization and trade-relationships -Ox-driven plows used to plow soil; droppings used for fertilized -wheeled vehicles used for overland trade

Social hierarchy and specialization due to agriculture- examples Urbanized civilization led to social division in MesopotamiaLAW OF HAMMURABI-Nature impacted religious beliefs; Agricultural advancement left time for specialization in crafts, architecture, and METALLURGYused for tools and weapons, but mainly decorative and ceremonial objects

Impact of pastoral over grazing and agriculture on environment -overuse of land caused- poor soil quality and relocation to other lands - Bad impacts involved the damaging of the land (the human footprint hurt the environments by disturbing it) -was a common practice of the lands in the Meditteranean

1.3 AP Key Concept- The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Characteristics and comparisons of early Urban Societies such as: Mesopotamia (Sumer, Babylonia) -slavery wasnt as important as in later Creek and Roman times -harsh and unpredictable flooding brought a belief in anthropomorphic -had a lugal king that was chosen by the community to to lead armies in war -Sumerianpeople who domesticated southern Meso. In 3000 bce; created most of the elements of Meso. Culture like irrigation, cuneiform, and religion gods that were feared by the people; the Semites took over

Egypt -religion with the belief that god came down to earth to maintain maat -had boats and cataract technologies

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in India -2 largest cities was in the floodplain of the Indus River; rich in metals -abandoned for unknown reasons in 1900 BCE

Shang dynasty -religion of nature stemmed from wide use of oracle bones; writing evolved to pictographs -ancestor worship

Olmecs -first mesoamerican civilization -polytheistic; gods were blend of human and animalsjaguars, crocodiles, cnakes, etc. -shamens made contact with supernatural powers -made a calendar from the close observation of stars used in ritual life and agriculture-

Chavin -first major urban civilization in South America in the Andes -abundance of fish from Peru coastal area;learned to cultivate corn inland and produce textiles Located at the intersection of trade routes that allowed it to prosper from trade -llamas domesticated

Pastoral vs. Agrarian societies - religion of food gathering put the center on sacred animals, springs, and groves; -religion of farming communities were center on Mother Earth -farmers had longer lives as they had a more diverse and nutritious dieto work hared; died earlier due to less varied diet ,exposure to diseases, contaminated water

New weapons of iron and compound bows- impact - (*Bronze Age Empire- Sumerian, Egypt, Akkad, Babylonians, Hittite, Minoan, Shang, Aryan, Mycenaean) -Hittites spurred use of iron most effectively in weapons; iron replaced bronze by 600 BCE New modes of transportation- horses, chariots, early maritime technology -Meso. Used donkeys mainly for overland trade -chariot technology from western Asia -horses domesticated by nomads in Central Asia; camels from western Asia -base 60 system of Mesopotamia used in time and navagation Examples of monumental (large/significant) architecture and urban (city) planningexamples and features -Mohenjo-Daro and Harrapa had grids of streets, standardization of building materials, large scale construction in urban center -Ramesses II, ruler of New Kingdom Egypt, constructed projects on a large scale -ziggurats- massive pyramids made of mud bricks; used for religious complexes

-Olmecs aligned the cities with the paths of certain stars -Megalithsmade of stone for religious and ceremonial purpose during Neolithic times Art forms and artisanship such as sculpture, paintings, wall decorations, elaborate weaving- examples --frescos (paintings on moist plaster surfaces of walls)covered palaces - Dyes for wall/cave paintings are indications for the existence of the worlds oldest graffiti -Mesopotamia- Gold and Silver were used to create ceremonial objects. -India- Elaborately decorated walls with depictions of god as well as statues of god. The ceilings were painted with elaborate decoration.

Writing systems- cuneiform, hieroglyphics, pictographs, alphabets- features, uses, developers -cuneiform developed in Meso. On clay tablets; used for legal action; first to develop a written language in the West -pictograms developed in Shang China -Hieroglyphics developed in Egypt -Phoenicians developed first Alphabet -Linear Bearly form of greek developed on clay tablets by the Mycenaeans

Religious beliefs- animism, Vedic religion, Hebrew monotheism, Zoroastrianism -Animism- the jaguar man depicted in Chavin culture - Vedic religion- many Hindu scripts arose; new path of salvation was through knowledge -Hebrew monotheistic- Monotheistic religion that was founded by Abraham, use the Hebrew Bible (the old Testament); believe that life is a clash between good and evil; -Zoroastrianism-monotheistic religion w/worship of Ahurzmada; battle of good vs evil Early legal codes- Hammurabis code-Written in 18th century BCE in Babylonia; 3 social divisions---1. Free, landowning class 2. Class of dependent farmers 3. Class of slaves -penalties for the crimes prescribed in the b depended on the class of the offender -death as a punishment

Early forms of literature- Epic of Gilgamesh, Rig Veda, and Book of the Dead- how they reflected cultures that wrote them. -Sumerians wrote the Epic of Gilgamesh- describes how the Mesopotamian societies were able to convince people into converting into their religion. It also shows how ancient it was through the uncivilized man. -Book of the Dead- came from New Kingdom Egypt; religious texts about afterlife - Rig Veda- collections of poems and hymns

Gender inequalities and Patriarchal societies- cause, examples -inequality stemmed from the decrease of importance of women in food production, as most agricultural work required intense labor -In Meso. Women had little value and husband could have multiple wives Development of inter-regional trade- Egypt and Nubia, Mesopotamia and Indus Valley -traded for purposes of obtaining necessary resources and valued goods -Egypt rich in papyrus, animals, stone, clay,copper, turquoise, and gold -

Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, 600 BCE to 600 CE


2.1 AP Key Concept- The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Judaisms development- the Torah, Moses, Israel, diasporic communities due to Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans (causes) -Nebuchadnezzar, the Baylonian ruler, deported the people of Judah and Israel was destroyed by the Assyrians--- Diaspora dispersal people spread from Israel to Mesopotamia -Abraham has a revelation; was Islamic prophet in 2000 BCE -Torah- primary teachings and instructions on how to live -Moses led the exodus from Egypt (unofficial founder of Judaism) -Old Testament had origins, beliefs, practices, and experiences of Israelites; told story of Abraham Development of Hinduism- origins, core beliefs, Vedas, Sanskrit, caste system -originated in 2000 BCE -core beliefs of karma, moksha, and reincarnation

-Vedas-religious text -Sanskrit-was the elite language that developed for religious, intellectual, and literary purposes -Caste system-divided people based on their birth; each caste and its own occupation, duties, and rituals and associated with their the member of their group only Buddhism- origins, core beliefs, Siddhartha Gautama, Ashoka, spread, sects -origin- Siddhartha Gautama got enlightenment under a tree -Beliefs- dont believe in a god, but the life of Buddha; principles of peace, tolerance, moderation, and nonviolence; goal of reaching nirvana; belief in rebirth -Followed the eightfold path right; 4 noble truths, -Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire ruler, converted to Buddhism and spread it during his reign -spread to other China and other Asian countries through travel, etc. around 1 st century CE -split into Theravada (more traditional) and Mahayana(more popular) Buddhism Confucianism- core beliefs, Kongxi, Analects, impact on politics/society, filial piety -originated around 500 BCE IN China under Confucious; -was a political/social philosophy; taught about fulfilling obligations for a harmonious society -Analects- all Confuciuss thoughts and saying were recorded in here -based on improving education and gov; was more logical -filial piety- respects for elders and ancestors; family obligation Daoism- core beliefs, Lao-tzu, impact on development of Chinese culture (medical theories and practices, poetry, metallurgy, architecture) -founded by Lao-tzu, a Chinese philosopher -taught way of nature and cosmos; believed ambition and activism was the root of chaos; practiced magic to influence the spirits -brought formation of small, self-sufficient communities -promoted scientific discovery Christianity- origins, core beliefs, Paul, spread, Council of Nicea, Nicene Creed, Edict of Milan, Constantines support, Ethiopia -originated from Jesus and was spread afterwards by Paul -Constantine declared it the religion of the roman empire around 300 CE;sent missionaries on the Red Sea trade routes to seek converts in Yemen and Ethiopia; Ethiopia began a large Chrisitan community

-edict of Milan- letter signed by Constantine that proclaimed religious tolerance in the Roman Empire; 313 AD - The Council of Nicea helped establish the foundations of Christianity and made the Nicene Creed- the profession of faith for Christians. Nicea was called together by Constantine to "build Christianity: assemble the Bible, set the hierarchy, the Nicene creed.

Ancestor veneration as practiced in Africa, Mediterranean region, East Asia, and Andesfeatures, compared -pyramids devoted to the dead; adorned with valuable goods -Shang Dynasty was first to record ancestor worship -, In Europe/Mediterranean, influential people in the church were canonized In Africa, animistic ancestor worship cult In the Andes, ancestors were worshiped In East Asia, Confucian beliefs in ancestors impacting peoples actions today; worship cult *animistic

Monasticism of Buddhism and Christianity -Buddhist monks and bodhisattvas; In Tang times, 100s of 1000s entered the tax exempt Buddhist institutions; gov eventually crushed them -Christian- originated in Roman Empire; most important in western Europe(monks/nuns living together in communities); came from Benedict of Nursia; each monastery headed by an abbot -rule of Benedictine- governed monks behavior in a way that balanced life of devotion and work with obligations of celibacy, poverty, and obedience; those who followed the rules became the regular clergy; those who lived in society were the secular clergy -provided literacy and learning

Literature and drama- Greek plays, Indian epics

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-Greece began Lytic poetryshort verse that were concerned with intimate matter -generic- Greek dramas/Indian dramas contributed a lot to culture. Greek tragedians Sophicles, Edippus Rex Distinctive architectural features of India, Greece, Roman Empire, Mesoamerica -Romedome-shaped; use of columns and pillars; often made of white stone or marble(ALTHOUGH IT CHANGED TO CONCRETE); was symmetrical; had a base that elevated it -India- building got smaller at the top; made of stone; were symmetrical and often had pillars and columns; had elaborate detail and designs - Greece- Arches, Marble and sculpting on it, arches

-Mesoamerica- Religious temples made of stone, geometric and organized in fixed positions.

2.2 AP Key Concept- The Development of States and Empires Persian Empires- Achaemenid (Cyrus to Darius III), Parthian, Sassanid- characteristics, transitions, administrative institutions -Persian rulers were called Archaemenids - Patriarchal family organization with male head having absolute authority. Society was split into: warriors, priests, peasants. Warriors were dominant. King was the biggest figure, the priests were known as Magi who supervised the performance of sacrifices. -Cyrus overthrew the Median monarch around 550 bce ; merged groups with equal responsibility;son Cambyses succeeded him continuing conquest -Darius abandoned the ways of previous rulers and gave all gov. posts to Persia; extended the empire greatly, -divided into 20 providences under the rule of a governor satrap -used Zorozatrianism to justify the empire and said Ahurazmada gave him the mandate to rule -had a postal system, system of roads, irrigation network, -made the ceremonial ruling capital at Persepolis; ended around 500 BCE -Parthanian empire- Iranian ruling dynasty from about 250 bce- 220 ce that focused energy on Mesopotamia; General Zhang made expeditions and was wrongly credited w/bringing plants and trees to China; strong trade -Sassanid EmpireIranian empire (224BCE)centered in Iraq; ruled by the shah (king); important transportation changes such as domestication of camels; established Zoroastrianism as their official faith Qin and Han Dynasties- characteristics, transitions, administrative institutions -Qin(221-206 BCE): Shi Huangdhi ruled, claiming the dynasty would last 1000 generations; primogeniture (right of eldest son to inherit property); made system of compulsory military and labor; had a code of law w/ equal punishments; blamed Confucians; began construction of the Great Wall to keep the Barbaroi out -Han (202 BCE- 220 CE): Gaozu, the emperor, renounced harsh Qin laws but kept the Legalist style of ruling; Con-fucianism became main ideology as well as Daoism; emperor was ruled with the mandate of heaven; capital of Changan; made the watermill; built lots of roads with a postal system; military conscription broke down and economic troubles caused its fall Mauryan and Gupta Empires- characteristics, transitions, administrative institutions

-Mauryan Empire- Chandragupta Maurya rose and expanded it; Ashoka ruled and practiced Budhism with religious tolerance; publicized his work on inscribed edicts on rocks and pillars; new fearsome war elementelephants; received help from Kautilya who wrote a treatise on government Arthasastra; after Ashokas death, it declined -Gupta (320 -550 CE)- capital at Pataliputra; ruler called himself Chandra gupta; extent of empire was lesser than Mauryan; invented the concept of zero and the Arabic numeral system of place value notation; Hinduism became dominant and the caste system was reinforced; governors ruled outlying areas and aritisans and merchants had administratie roles; collected annual tribute decline of womens rights and emergence of sati ritual Phoenician and Greek colonization- characteristics, transitions -made of polis; TECHNOLOGY- hoplites(heavily armed infantrymen in close formation)and the trireme(greek warship that was fast and complex); change of military ways; democracy of free citizens w/no political rights; lack of arable land led to colonization -Phoenicians created the writing system used for economic purposes, literature, law codes, etc. ; extremely skilled navigators; -both were coastal civilizations that emphasized maritime trade Alexanders Hellenistic Empire- characteristics, transitions (323-30 BCE) -Alexander took over Greece ,which had been weakened in the Peloponnesian war, but ruled his empire with greek ways; -advances in science, medicine, math, and astronomy -Alexandria became the capital city and place of learning as it had the library, museums, etc. Roman Empire- characteristics, transitions, administrative institutions -roman Republic(507-31 bce): Brustus began the republic with an Assembley in which wealthy males citizens voted and counted for more than those of the poorer; officials held office and presided over the Senate and Assembly and commanded the army -inscribed laws on 12 stone tablets -Tribunes, from the non-elite class, could veto actions of government. -They believed in numina, invisible forces; wanted pax decorum (peace with gods); all men were subject to serving in the army; gave rights of citizenship to conquered lands -Inequality and tensions between patricians(elites) and pleabians (lower class); the paterfamilias (oldest living male) had complete authority over family; patron/client relationships -self-sufficient farms changed to large estateslatifundia -Roman Empire(31 bce-476 CE)-Octavian claimed to be princeps first among the equals

-commerce brought pax romana; produced most food; pioneered arches and concrete; built aqueducts based on gravity -third century crisis- frequent change of rulers caused many problems like: increased taxes, interrupted commerce for fighting, barter economy -Constantine reunited the empire (about 300 ce)- and moved the capital to Constantine -Christianity rose Teotihuacan, Maya city-states- characteristics, transitions -Teotihuacan: was the largest city in Mexico (100 bce- 750 ce); power wasnt under one ruler; werent an imperial state controlled by military elite -worshipped many gods; human sacrifice; pyramids dedicated to the gods -used chinampas floating gardens for year round agriculture -Mayan(250-900 ce)- was in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize & Southern Mexico; wasnt unified; many rival kingdoms headed by hereditary rulers -achievements; 3 calendars: ritual calendar (265 days), solar year (365 days), and long count calendar; independently invented concept of zero and place value w/limited notational signs-Believed world was divided into cosmos of 3 vertical layers; earth was an intermediary position between the heavens; had a dark underworld Moche- (Peru---200-700 ce) characteristics, transitions -periodic droughts, earthquakes, and torrential rains; -complex irrigations constant maintenance; impressive urban centers; high quality textiles, ceramics, and metallurgy; devotion to waving and other arts -wool and cotton helped thriving textile production -relied on llamas and alpacas to transport goods -elaborate burials; pyramids built; wealth showed in elaborate clothing and jewelry -pressures from Wari helped cause its fall ****Think Demarest model on the above. Be able to compare. Role of capital cities in imperial administration- Persepolis, Changan, Carthage, Rome, Constantinople, Teotihuachan -Persepolis (Persian ceremonial ruling capital)-Changan (Qin and Han capital city)was surrounded by a wall of pounded earth; was a model for urban planning as cities imitated it; had administrative offices and storehouses of imperial compound

-Carthage(800-300 BCE; North Africa)- was the major commercial center on the Phoenicians; two judges chosen from the upper-class families of served as the heads of state; had a senate to direct affairs; sometimes voted; had a maritime commercial monopoly -Rome- central location in Italy and Mediterranean allowed it to draw on manpower resources of Italy -Constantinople-Roman Empire was focused on this city; -Teotihuacan- werent an imperial state controlled by military elite or ruled under one power; elite controlled the bureaucracy, tax collection, and commerce External issues (nomadic peoples, defense costs/issues) on fall of empires- Gupta, Rome, Han compared -Gupta: collapsed from external pressures from the Huns-- nomadic invaders from Central Asia;defense caused treasury to collapse and empire to fall -Han: around 200 CE, the agriculture began declining, government was corrupt (nobles controlled to much of the land), there was weak leadership, burden of defending the northern border, military conscription broke down -Roman: split between east and west; Rome was to large(overexpansion); capital of Rome had been sacked; Environmental issues caused by empires- deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, silted rivers (examples, impacts) - The Yellow River flooding was the downfall of the Han Empire due to the fact that it lead to economic instability and political turmoil. Mayan city-states collapsed due to environmental problems such as a lack of resources caused by overpopulation. Moche people also experienced a series of natural disasters that led to their downfall. Imperial societies methods to maintain production of food and provide rewards for loyalty of elites- corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities, patriarchal households (examples of these within empires) -corvee- unpaid labor; practiced in Egypt; Qin empire in China; -slavery- people who were in debt and owed money often resorted to slavery -patriarchal house households-feudal lords & vassals- Kings distributed land among vassals who gave them military service in times of need and support ; peasants were almost imprisoned to the land

Imperial social hierarchies- examples -Almost every empire had a type of social hierarchy. In early China, the spread of Confucianism in the Han dynasty gave way to a social structure centered around the family. Where males predominated. A womens position here was based on how high up

on the social importance scale she was. In the Roman Empire, a similar family system existed in which a male paterfamilias ruled and women had little authority. The Gupta and Mauryan empire used the Hindu Caste System where women could marry into wealth, but generally had no authority and priests/warriors were at the top of the social hierarchy whereas peasants were at the bottom. Wealthy families dominated in Teotihuacan.

2.3 AP Key Concept- Emergence of Trans-regional Networks of Communication and Exchange Early Regional Trade systems: features, goods, as transmitters of culture/ideas Silk Roads- China: silk cloth; roads constructed; Han-Silk Road trading increased; Iron Age; modernized army (iron weapons, etc.); paper, accurate sun dials/calendars, use of metals, ox-drawn plow.; spread of Christianity after Byzantines declaration; religion played a big role in politics after Zoroastrian faith official; wheeled vehicles disappeared Trans-Saharan caravan routes- many small traditions; The Trans-Saharan caravan routes connected North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa through the Sahara. Camels made this trade possible. The merchants from the south supplied the sub-Saharan dwellers with salt, and the equatorial forest people traded kola nuts and edible palm oil. The southern border of the Sahara was the Sahel, which had a very important role in the trans-Saharan trading. Very rich trading kingdoms like Ghana and Mali were formed and traded salt and gold. Islam
spread throughout this region through trade.

Indian Ocean maritime trade- took place mainly in South China Seas, East coasts of India to the islands of Southeast Asia and the west coast of India to the Persian gulf and east coast of Africa; story of Hippalus discovering the winds was false; Indonesians migrated to Madagascar; sailors often married women in port cities making a bilingual/cultural family; the vessels use triangular lateen sails with no oars ; Indian Ocean Trade; Mauryans: promoted trade; roads. connected w/ Silk Rd.; Buddhist missionaries sent out; Guptas: Arabic # system, inoculation of smallpox, sterilization during surgery, astronomy. Mediterranean maritime trade- Goods that were traded in the Mediterranean included purple dye, spices, obsidian, copper, turquoise, papyrus, tin and silver, textiles, animal skins, and slaves. The main trading cities and countries were Rome (later Byzantine), Carthage, Greece, the Maritime Republics (Venice, Genoa, Amalfi, Pisa and Republic of Ragusa), and Alexandria (if you include the Red Sea). The Mediterranean was connected with the Indian Ocean trade and African goods because of its central location, so they were able to get spices and incense from Africa as well as silks from China. They used square sails, long banks of oars to maneuver among islands, and nailed their vessels. Even before the Edict of Milan, Christianity spread throughout the Mediterranean, but even more so afterward. Reasons for this could have been that it was helpful in business and that it had similar views of the afterlife to the Greeks. As the merchants traded, they shared ideas about religion (how the Roman gods are

the Greek gods but with different names); art (the use of purple dye for royalty); philosophy (natural philosophy from Greece). Spread of Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism through trade- where, impacts -stuppas in india - Christianity spread through trade in the Mediterranean and the Silk Road into the Middle East and China. Many people in China adopted Christianity. - Buddhism spread from northern India into China and caused some of the governments to adopt Buddhist beliefs into their government.

New trade technologies- yoke, saddles, stirrups (impacts, origins, spread), lateen sail -Kushan people invented the stirrup which helped give support and stability; helped warriors and knights -Lateen sail emerged during Islamic influence in the Roman Empire; spread to the Indian Ocean; allowed travel with the monsoons and tough winds -militarily efficient North Arabian camel saddles allowed them to seize control of caravan trade; (1st few centuries bce) -Han dynasty made the horse collar to pull heavier loads -yoke- wooden beams held between oxen that allowed them to pull together on a load; used in early Middle East, Greece, and Rome before the horse collar

qanat system of agriculture, use of irrigation (examples) -qanat- elaborate tunnel systems used in early first millennium BCE by the Persians , Assyrains, North Africa, etc. to extract water in the dry mountain basin; allowed them to succeed during droughts -aqueducts- began during the Roman Precipitate; was a way to carry water by the force of gravity - The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques .

New domestic pack animals- horses, camels, oxen, llamas (impacts, origin, spread) -horses & camels- domesticated later; camels in Arabia and then later Central Asia -oxen- first domesticated in Mesopotamia; used to pull plows until about 6 th century -Llama-first domesticated in Andean region- Peru; provided meat and wool and decreased amount of labor for transport of goods; used by chavins, spreading in the Americas -pigs- domesticated in Southeast Asia; became common in Egpt; played a more sacred religious role

Spread of disease by trade and effects on Han and Roman empires - In the second century C.E , as Rome and China established trade links across Eurasia, they also encountered the older infectious diseases of the older civilizations in between. As a result, these diseases spread to the eastern and western fringes of Eurasia with very similar results. -Roman Empire- in late 6th century, Europe, Asia, and Africa suffered from the plague, also called the Plague of Justinian in Rome; nearly half the population was killed, bringing in the dark Ages and the fall of the roman empire; people questioned religion, bringing in Christianity -Han population grew considerably, causing overcrowding and the spread of disease; the population dropped considerably; people questioned Chinese beliefs, leading to the rise of Buddhism; caused the fall of Han and the preceding centuries of turmoil until the Sui and Tang Dynasties. - The black plague affected Han on its Silk Road trade and that contributed to part of their internal fall.

Period 3: Regional and Trans-regional Interactions 600 CE to 1450 CE


3.1 AP Key Concept- Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Transformation and evolution of existing trade routes Silk Roads - China controlled east trading zone; traded: silk, porcelain,& paper, military tech, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity; Japan traded:
silver; expeditions by Zheng He; junks; Mongols;

Trans-Saharan caravan routes - Trans-Saharan trade routes; salt, gold, honey, slaves, ivory (exports); copper(important to the coinage), horses, textiles, figs,
iron (imports);

-Ghana was the land of gold, Great Zimbabwe had an economy of farming and cattle and long distance gold trade -Mali was the wealthiest of the tropical states, emerging after Ghana collapsed from berber invasion; Mali had control of gold and copper trade; famous for cotton and leatherworking -slave trade across Sahara to North Africa - Indian Ocean maritime trade - Indian Ocean trade and Trade with Islamic World, China, East Africa and Persia ;
China refocused on Indian Ocean trade in 15th century;

Traded: cotton, silk, elephants, gems, cinnamon, and salt -sailors married local women, bilingual/cultural rose

Mediterranean maritime trade- In Western Europe:

Hanseatic League created a trade monopoly around 1250; begins to trade with Islamic world;; caused the Northern Europe middle class to grow

New Trade routes in Andes and Mesoamerica -trade in Mesoamerican culture: commerce was carried on without money and credit; barter goods remained; -Mayan (250-900 ce)- Trade played a big role at the local level; didnt need to engage in long-distance trade much in the beginning; traded cocoa, salt, ceramics, stone, jade, obsidian, salt; long distance trade with Guatemala gave access to more precious stones for the elite -Teotihuacan- largest trade network in Mesoamerica; dependent on agricultural productivity, using chinampas for maize, squash, beans, -Andean Culture: Incas- centered in the valley of Cuzco; constructed lots of road, but didnt trade too much; traded between the coastal and mountainous regions(vertical integration)
Mesoamerica had far-reaching trade routes that connected itself to the Andes region and to the Mississippian tribes. Evidence that it was connected to both is that maize could be found in all three regions, meaning that they must have traded it. They also traded cotton cloth and cocoa. A specialized class of Aztec merchants took part in long distance trade of lightweight objects (because they didnt have large domesticated animals or wheeled transportation) like feathered clothes, cocoa, cotton cloth, jewels, gold, and animal skins.

Trade cities (location and regional impacts/importance): Novgorod -was the commercial and cultural center of Europe; achieved self-government and independence from Kiev later on ; became important especially during the reign of Alexander Nevskii (the prince of Novgorod) Timbuktu -centered on the Niger River in Mali; founded by the Turag as a seasonal camp; became a major last stop in trans-saharan trade and was a center of islamic learning Swahili city-states -trade expanded on east African coast around 1250 which gave rise to citystated; Kilwa became the most important commercial center of the Swahili State, noting the importance of gold; Great Zimbabwe ,the capital city, peaked in 1400 as a trading center; trade was regional with copper, salt, and local goods and long-distance gold etc. Baghdad

-rose as a place of higher learning in 1200; was the greatest cultural center in the world; constantly sacked by foreign invaders; location on Tigris and Euphrates River; provided a safe place to stop for passing ships and caravans; was a way of obtaining necessary agricultural commodities Malacca -was the port city in South east Asia (Malaysia); founded in 1400 as a trade center on the strait of Malacca; merchants appreciated Malaccas low security and taxes; trade of gold, cloves, nutmeg; at its height, almost 84 languages were spoken among the merchants, so foreign merchant communities (ex: one for Guajarati) were formed Venice -AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, settlers in unhabited islands in the Adriatic Sea organized themselves into this independent cit; became the dominant sea power of the Adriatic; competed with pisa and Genoa for leadership in trade with Muslim ports in North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean; traded SPICES,textile fibers, dye stuffs, paper, cotton, wax, sugar, cloves, etc; b the crusades, Mediterranean trade depended on the ships from Genoa, Venice, and Pisa Cahokia -greatest Mississippian urban center; had largest mound constriction and terraced structure; location on the Missouri, Mississippi, and Illinois Rivers allowed exchange with far coasts to get copper, seashells, mica, etc.; Tenochtitlan -the Aztec capital in Mexico city; the urban center was laid out as a grid where canals and streets intersected to facilitate movement of people and foods Luxury goods trade- silk and cotton textiles, porcelain, spices, precious metals and gems, slaves, exotic animals (origins, spread) -cotton- domesticated first in the Indus Valley; became a popular trade export of India , Mali, Maya, Iran, -silk- domesticated in East Asia and became important in silk road trades, spreading to surrounding regions -porcelain- Ming war, a blue on white style developed during Ming China & spread to India, Southeast Asia, Pacific, Middle East, and East Africa through trade -Precious metals and gems- Came from multiple places but the two most prominent were Africa and India. They spread over the trans-Saharan network and Indian Ocean Maritime System -slaves- from Sahara traded ; many prisoners of war were used -exotic animals

Role of empires on trade- Tang/Song/Yuan dynasties, Byzantine Empire, Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, Mongols -Tang (618)- following the Sui Dynasty, it expanded westward; Mahayana network that connected Inner Asia and China mixed ideas; network of roads, inns, postal stations -Song- (1127-1279)- controlled southern China; initiated an almost agricultural revolution due to advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and maths; gratly produced coal and IRON(used for armos, buildings, etc.); due to trade impacts, the movable type increased literacy which allowed landlords to gain a knowledge of agricultural techniques -Yuan(1271-1368)- Beijing had caravan routes; merchants were a privileges group, so gov posts were often given to them rather than merit; growth of corporations; cities prospered from the trade, reintegrating East Asia in overland Eurasian trade after the fall of the Tang -Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate Caravan organization- caravanserai, camel saddles - caravan serai- roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey
- Camel Saddles- The North Arabian camel saddle was efficient in military tactics. It was

developed around the 3rd century BCE. It allowed the rider to hold onto war equipment instead of the camel.

Impacts of new forms of credit and monetization- bills of exchange, credit, checks, and banking (origins, examples, impacts) -Credit, originating in the Tang period, spread during the song under Flying money; paper was redeemed for coinage; caused more inflation so the gov. withdrew the money -Flying money certificates differed from government-issued paper money, which the Song also made. -The public accepted the practice because credit networks tended to be managed by families.

State practices to assist economic advancement- minting of coins, paper money (origins, examples, impacts) -Song China- flying money ; distributed paper money because the gov. spent too much money on military expenditures; caused more inflation

Trading Organizations- Italian city-states, Hanseatic League, Islamic trade -Italian city states- Genoa, Venia, Florence---- trading monopoly; middle of the Mediterranean

-Haneseatic League- connected most of Europescandanavia, France, etc.bunch of trading cities; had guilds; league created to protect themselves; trading products- WOOL; Baltic city states (BRUGE AND KENT) controlled the north sea; - Islamic trade- Persian rugs Environmental knowledge and technological adaptations in trade: (impacts) Vikings use of long boats to travel open seas, coasts, and rivers o Sought booty and slaves, organized settlement of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland on the northern tip of Newfoundland; built versatile vessels that could survive Northern Atlantic and maneuvering up rivers to attack, attack of Muslim Sicily permanently detached Sicily from the Muslim world

Arabs and Berbers use of camels in Sahara o Camels were used across the Sahara in terms of trade (camel domestication happened during 300-600 CE). Later on during 1200-1500, the western Sahara sustained herds of sheep and camels belonging to the Tuareg, whose intimate knowledge of the desert made them invaluable as guide to caravans .

Central Asian pastoral groups use of horses to travel steppes

Diffusion of Languages due to trade- spread of Turkic and Arabic languages (impacts, where) - Spread of Islam brought the development of a new Persian-influenced language (Urdu) in India -spread of Islam brought literacy to African peoples who first learned Arabic and then used the Arabic script to write their own languages, - Swahili is a bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa Diasporic trade communities: (impacts/influences on local regions and trade) Muslim merchant communities in Indian Ocean basin -Zheng He, being a Muslim eunuch himself, spread Islamic faith to cities, causing many muslim communities to form - They were spread all across the boundaries of the Indian Ocean from western coast of India to the Arabian Peninsula. Their impacts included their religion which definitely spread along the Indian Ocean Maritime System. Their influence on trade was the spread of their culture Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia

- Impacts on local regions included Confucian or Buddhist values being transmitted into some of the Southeast Asian societies.

Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia Jewish communities in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and along Silk Roads - Jewish communities had their biggest effects in the Mediterranean trade system. They impacted the local regions by creating small Jewish communities. They did not have as big of an effect in the Indian Ocean and along the Silk Road.

Impact of interregional travelers- Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Zheng He, Xuanzang Ibn Battuta- He wrote in his books about mostly how Islam had influenced the regions that he traveled to. He did not exactly influence the areas. Marco Polo- Wrote about the marvels of China and how rich it was. This cause many people in Europe to go to China or trade with China. Zheng He- He was an explorer/conquer sent by a prince to expand the scope of China. During his voyage, the Chinese Junks became very prominent. He connected China over maritime trade to areas such as the Arabian Peninsula. He brought home lots of trade products. Xuanzang- Was a Chinese traveler journeyed across Inner Asia to India, making pilgrimage to Buddhist holy places and searching for Sanskrit scriptures to take back to china with him

New foods and agricultural techniques spread due to trade- bananas in Africa, new rice varieties in East Asia, cotton/sugar/citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and Mediterranean basin.

Diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions: Influence of Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism in East Asia Neo-Confucian values were used during the Song Dynasty when Buddhism was banished from the empire. It was used mostly in government and in the structure of families Buddhist values influenced the Tang Dynasty until the very end when the people of the upper class believed that it was causing the eradication of Confucian values. Buddhism was also used in the governance of the Tang Dynasty. The concept of isolating ones self was used in ever day life for Buddhist people in Tang China.

Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia

- Hinduism and Buddhism competed for a crowd in Southeast Asia. At one point, Buddhism had a bigger crowd because it allowed people from all classes to go to Nirvana. There was no caste system in Buddhism -However, Hinduism still had deep roots in India and prevailed over Buddhism. Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Toltec/Mexica (Aztecs) and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America Toltecs: the altepetl, the common political building across the region, directed the collective religious, social, and political obligations of the ethnic group. A group called the Calpolli, each with up to 100 families, served as the foundation of the altepetl, controlling land allocation, taxes, and local religious life. Inca: The cultural attainments of the Inca Empire include astronomical observation, weaving, copper and bronze metallurgy, and gold and silver working. They did not rely on extensive record-keeping but did keep track of bureaucratic records such as tribute with a system of knotted cords called khipu. The Inca did not introduce new technologies but made more efficient use of existing technology to increase the profits gained by the trade among the ecological zones of the Andean region. The key to Inca wealth was their ability to develop a strong military and to use it to broaden and expand the traditional exchange system that had linked the various ecological zones of the Andes region together. The Inca used the mita labor system to form their armies; build their capital city; maintain their religious institutions; and provide for the old, the weak, and the ill.

Movement and impacts of migrating peoples- Bantu in sub-Saharan Africa and Polynesians in Pacifica The main home of the Bantu was in the Nigeria and Congo area of Africa. However, they migrated southward, eastward, and westward into all parts of Africa. Impacts included the fact that since they moved so much, they could not form an agricultural community. So they were hunters and gatherers. Their culture spread into all parts of Africa, especially their language that is called proto-Bantu.

Diffusion of scientific and technological traditions: Influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars -Used a lot of the Greek medical knowledge of anatomy to create some new types of medicines. Using the concept of zero from India to make great innovations in the field of mathematics.

Return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim alAndalus in Iberia (Spain) Spread of gunpowder and printing from East Asia into Islamic empires and Western Europe -gunpowder East Asia to Japan to Portuguese;

Spread of epidemic disease along trade routes including Black Death (impacts, where) ---Black death or bubonic plague spread throughout Europe around 1350; killed millions; Jews murdered as they were a scapegoat Another disease was the Bubonic Plague which started in China and spread along the Silk Road into parts of the Byzantine. But it mostly impacted the Mongols. In fact, they were forced to retreat from Java because of Bubonic Plague in the army.

3.2 AP Key Concept-Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and their Interactions Continuation of traditional sources of power and legitimacy such as: (examples) Patriarchy o The Chinese during the period during and after the Sui, Tang, and Song Empires still had the eldest male or father of the group have the most influence over everyone. This is prevalent since the beginning of the history of mankind. This followed the Confucian traditions in China. It really showed up during the Song Empires when Confucian ideals where accepted more than they were during the Early and Middle era of the Tang Empire. In Mesoamerica, the little evidence that is available suggests that the eldest man of the family still had the most influence.

Religion -Buddhism and Confucianism played a role in the government of the Song and Tang Empires. Buddhism was used during the early and middle Tang Empire while Confucianism was prominent during the late Tang and Song Empires.

Land-owning elites o Constantly had power in China and Europe. In China, the land-owning had more roles in the government. Same with Europe. They had more rights in governmental procedures such as more priority to vote in Europe.

In India, the land-owning elites had more power religiously. They were treated like priests and had more right in religion rather than government.

Innovations of power and legitimacy such as: (examples) new methods of taxation o New methods of taxation included taxation on farming in China as well as tributary systems. In China, when a farmer wanted to sell any crops, the government had to put a tax on the farmer in order to allow him/her to sell that crop.

tributary systems o The Aztecs had the challenge of feeding an urban population of approximately 150,000. So the imposition of a tribute system on conquered people also helped relive some of the pressure of Tenochtitlans growing populations Unlike the tribute system of Tang China, where tribute was more symbolic, one-quarter of the Aztec capitals food requirement was satisfied by tribute payments of maize, beans, and other foods. The Tribute system had a more symbolic character in Tang China. It was used more to show that the king/emperor had all the power and that everyone else below him did not have that power.

adaptation of religious institutions o In the Delhi Sultanate, Muslims dominated the government. Many of the laws and other ordeals followed the laws of the hadith and dogma. Later on, when the Vijayanagar and Bahmani Empire formed, Hinduism was incorporated into the government once again. In China, Confucian ideals were used to keep the order of the family alive with the male being the head of course.

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New forms of governance such as: Islamic states- Abbasids, Muslim Iberia, Delhi Sultanates -Abbasids-were descendant from the Prophet Muhhamads uncle; ruled with more tolerance to non-arabs from Baghdad;ruled through religious law of sharia; decline due to such a vast empire o - Delhi Sultanates- After the fall of the Gupta Empire, India had no system of unification. Invaders from a Turkish dynasty captured the northern

Indian cities of Lahore and Delhi. In this system, the sultans had the most power. The most prominent religion in the Delhi Sultanate was Islam. It was often time incorporated into governmental law making and other ordeals. The translation of Aristotle into Arabic found its way into the theology of the Abbasid court. o Spain and Portugal emerged as strong centralized states through a process of marriage alliances, mergers, warfare, and the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims. Reconquest offered the nobility large landed estates upon which they could grow rich without having to work. On the Iberian Peninsula, Castile and Aragon were united in 1469 and the Muslims driven out of their last Iberian stronghold (Granada) in 1492. Spain then expelled all Jews and Muslims from its territory; Portugal also expelled its Jewish population.

City-states in Italian peninsula, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas o East Africa- The coast on the Eastern coast of Africa contained the Swahilicity states. They were mostly for trading purposes although they did have their own language called Swahili. Prominent religion was Islam Italian Peninsula- Contained the large trading port of Venice which was mainly Christian. A few surrounding city-states in the Mediterranean influenced their decisions Southeast Asia the Indian coast was surrounded with city-states. The organization of the city-states was based around mainly the caste system.

Mongol khanates

- The Mongol Khanates were ruling families who referred to and tolerated many different religions like Buddhism, Islam, or Christianity, but most practiced Shamanism. It was believed that the Khan was the leader of the world and that he was in charge of all cultures. Also, it was believed that through shamans, he could speak to God. However, he did have a council of elders to ratify the decisions made in court.

Feudal systems in Japan and China

Shotoku Taishi- began great missions Kamakura Shoganate, Japans first decentralized military gov, later became known as the samar Dominated by powerful military families(daimyo) and a warlord/doctator(shoguns); had ultimate ruling power;

-samurai owed military service and loyalty to the shoguns

Technological and cultural transfers due to conflicts and contacts between states/empires such as: Tang China and Abbasids

- The Tang dynasty approved of pastoral nomadic life and created pottery of horses and camels with two humps (which were domesticated in Central Asia). For war technology, they used a mixture of infantrymen and the Chinese crossbow with iron stirrups and Abbasid horsemanship. They also adopted Buddhism in their political system. Most people used the Chinese language and writing, but some other Central Asian languages were used as well.

Across Mongol empires o - Technology such as composite bows, metallurgy, and iron tools spread across the Silk Road from one end of the Mongol Empire to the next. Religion such as Buddhism at first and later during the late 15 century Islam was transferred across the empire.

During Crusades o Medical knowledge as well as military organization structures spread from Europe to the Islamic world. Some Islamic ruling influenced Christian ruling in Europe. Other cultural things that were transferred included mathematics.

Synthesis of local and borrowed traditions by states: Persian traditions that influenced Islamic States -In the Iranian states (who practiced Islam), the Persian language was spoken, but it was written with Arabic letters. Also, Zoroastrianism, which was practiced in Persia, influenced Islam as well as the other monotheistic religions in the areas of one good god, good versus equal, and punishment of sins.

Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan o Confucian ideals also influenced Japan. The Mongols were never able to take over Japan. Chinese architecture greatly influenced Japan. They mastered Chinese building techniques so well that Nara and Kyoto, Japans early capitals, provide invaluable evidence of the wooden architecture long since vanished from China.

During the 8th century Japan in some ways surpassed China in Buddhist studies. In 752, dignitaries from all over Mahayana Buddhist Asia gathered at the enormous Todaiji temple to celebrate the opening of the Great Buddha statue.

3.3 AP Key Concept- Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Economic and industrial technologic innovations- Champa rice, chinampas, Waru waru agricultural techniques, terrace farming, horse collar -Champa rice- developed in India and introduced into Champa, it was later sent to China a a tribute gift to the Song court -Chinampas, developed in Teotihuacan, were floating gardens that allowed year round agriculture; was utilized by many other Mesoamerican counterparts - Waru Waru- raised beds with irrigation channels so as to prevent damage due to soil erosion during floods. The technique ensures both collecting of water and subsequent drainage; important in flood-prone areas like Peru -horse collar- was a harnessing method that put the traction from the horses neck on its shoulders; allowed spread of horse drawn plows and vehicles

Chinese, Persian, and Indian textile and porcelain expansion for export, steel expansion in China o As the Tang Empire spread westward, its contacts with India and Central Asia increase. This led to spread of textiles that reflected Persian, Korean, and Vietnamese styles. The prosperity of the Islamic empire allowed for increased trade of cotton and other fine textiles with the textiles having Persian and other influences. Indian textile expansion-Gujaratis exported cotton textiles to the Europe and Middle East through maritime trade. They shipped cotton cloth and carnelian beads to the Swahili Coast, and they made sleeping mats and leather cushions to export to the Middle East. China needed steel to make their weapons for their massive army, so the Song rulers waged wars against their northern neighbors for control of mines in north China. This led to metallurgy becoming mastered by engineers due to their use of enormous bellows to superheat the molten ore.

Decline of urban areas due to multiple factors such as: (examples, impacts) Invasions

Mamluks took over the Abbasid Caliphates government. They constructed a new city, Samarra (north of Baghdad on the Tigris River), but too much money and effort was put into the new city leading decline in the caliphs financial strength and deflected labor. The role that Mamluks played in the decline of the caliph led to them being stereotyped as ferocious, unsophisticated warriors. The Caliphate then later fell to the warriors from Daylam lead by Shiite Buyid family. The caliph remained, but the Buyid princes ruled over it. Damage that was unrepaired from floods, fires, and civil disorder left old Baghdad to ruins. The canal system in Baghdad which the Tigris and Euphrates Valley were dependent upon for agriculture also collapsed. This led to loss of population and geographical importance. Timur sacks and takes control of the Delhi Sultanate. The sack of Delhi, leaves Delhi in ruins and never allows for the Delhi Sultanate to recover.

Disease o The Byzantine Empire was hit hard by the bubonic plague, a.k.a. the plague of Justinian. It led to huge population losses and decline of urban cities and areas. This led to barter replacing money transactions, cities declining in wealth, and the urban elite class shrinking in size. The shrinking of the urban elite class led to increase of importance of the rural landowner and high-ranking aristocrats. Disease like the bubonic plague (or the great pandemic of 1347-1352), typhus, influenza, and smallpox hit China, leading to the decline of cities and population.

Decline of agricultural productivity (famine, land exhaustion) o When Baghdads irrigation and canal system was destroyed it led the decline of the decline of the city. Its agriculture was dependent upon the irrigation and canal system. It led to population loss and loss of geographic importance. Flooding from the Yellow River led to many agricultural crops being destroyed leading to population loss. This led to the decline of the Yuan Empire.

Little ice Age o The little ice age had big impacts on the agriculture of urban areas. It decreased the productivity of agriculture leading to famine in areas such as Europe (the great famine of 1315-1317), and North America. Famines devastated populations and cities with people migrating and those cities turning into a ghost land.

Revival of urban areas due to multiple factors such as: (examples, impacts) End of invasions Availability of safe and reliable transport o The security of Malacca made the merchants very happy. This allowed for increase in trading in that port.

Rise of commerce o Islamic cities saw urban growth through long-distance trading and expansion of consumer market. Independent cities in Italy saw the rebirth of trade. They lacked farmland so they all decided to manufacture and trade. Eventually the economy for the cities became prosperous which led to trading with North Africa and the Middle East. The rise in commerce led to increase of foreign influence, foreign crops and food, and a coinage system.

Warmer temperatures Increased agricultural production and subsequent population growth -- Mayan people used swidden agriculture slash and burn to produce high yields of crops, but it used up the soils nutrients forcing them to use more fertile land; used draining swamps and elevated fields; irrigation in the long, dry seasons, terraced hillsides

Greater availability of labor -slaves

Rise of new cities that played roles as governmental, religious, and commercial centers (examples) o Mecca was a center of Islamic religion, and it had a government and control of trade. Baghdad also became a major center for Islam, government, and commerce. The economic prosperity was centered in this city. Kiev and Novgorod both became centers for Orthodox Christianity, governance, and trade. Teotihuacan became an important center governance, trade, and religion (had their own religion) Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztecs and was their most important center.

Chaco Canyon was a major community than consisted of a large population and number of buildings. It was the largest and wealthiest city of the Anasazis. Cuzco was the capital of the Incas, and it held the royal court, armies, religious cults, and provincial cities with urban trading. The (Old) Sarai was the capital of the Golden Horde, and it had importance on trading, government, and granting privileges to the Orthodox Church. Beijing was the Yuan capital. It became the center of cultural and economic life. It had the caravan routes leading to the city for trade. It held the Forbidden City (government). Delhi became the capital of the Delhi sultanate which became a center of Islam, the government, and trade in the region.

Forms of labor organization: Free peasant agriculture -in Medieval Europe, the peasants were forced to work the land of the vassals, almost being imprisoned Nomadic Pastoralism o Mongols were nomadic people who traveled in Central and East Asia. They would depend upon their animals and trading for food.

Craft production and guild organization After 1200, colleges and universities emerged as new centers of learning. Some were established by students; most were teaching guilds established by professors in order to oversee the training, control the membership, and fight for the interests of the profession

Various forms of coerced and un-free labor- serfdom, mita -serfdom- In Medieval Europe, the agricultural worker was legally bound to the manor and obligated to perform specified services for the lord. Nobles exercised almost unlimited power over them, most of them being unfree until later 10 th11th centuries; caused outright slavery to diminish as peasants became serfs for the lords protection -mita- was the Andean labor rotation labor draft that organized members of the allyus to work the fields and care for the llama and alpaca herds owned b religious establishments, the royal court, and the aristocracy

Labor taxes

-During Song China, they needed revenue to maintain the army, roads, waterworks, etc. so the gov resorted to tax farming, selling the rights to tax collection to private individuals; tax farmers collected max amount and sent an agreed upon smaller sum to the gov; taxable services, like tolls, and tax burdens on the common people emerged o Taxes placed on people working such as tax farming by the Yuan placed on the farmers. This money went towards the government.

Military obligations -Medieval Europe feudalism- kings granted land to the nobles (vassals) in return for military service/loyalty to the king (called a fief) -The Abbasid Caliphate, during its decline, the caliphs purchased Turkic slaves, mamluks, from Central Asia and made them the standing army during 9 th-10th centuries; eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria o People would have to serve a set number of years in the military to become free citizens. This was due to the low number volunteer people fighting in the army;

Free peasants revolt- China and Byzantine Empire, Europe o - In Europe the Black Death created social changes in Europe as laborers wanted more pay of their work. This led the peasants looting castles and killing dozens of high ranking people. English peasants invaded London with them wanting an end to feudalism and serfdoms. Authorities tried to stop it but eventually the peasants won giving them much better conditions like higher pay and freedom.

Impact religions spread had on gender relations and family structure o o o Confucianism gave the man of the house the most influence (talk about confucian family structure) Hinduism undermined women through the caste system Christianity at first made men more powerful but later balanced men and women