ps rep ; ; 10
7
representative value of the fatigue limit of the reinforcement at 10
7
cycles;
ps;n;rep
representative value of the fatigue limit of the reinforcement;
Rsk
(N
*
) stress range at N
*
cycles;
s rep ; ; 10
7
representative value of the fatigue limit of the reinforcement at 10
7
cycles;
s;EC
stress range caused by fatigue load model 3 (according to ENV 19913);
s;equ
equivalent stress range of a constant stress spectrum at N
*
number of cycles
causing same damage as an equal stress spectrum by traffic
s;n;rep
representative value of the fatigue limit of the reinforcement;
Rsk
characteristic fatigue strength at 10
8
cycles;
m
material factor;
Sd
safety coefficient on design values of loading;
s;fat
safety coefficient of fatigue on reinforcement steel;
fat
damage equivalent impact factor controlled by the surface roughness;
s
largest diameter of steel reinforcement;
p
equivalent diameter of prestressing steel;
s correction factor to calculate the damage equivalent stress range from the stress
range causes by
s;EC
;
s;1
value for span;
s;2
value for annual traffic volume;
s;3
value for service life;
s;4
value for multiple lines;
c;max
maximum compressive stress at a fibre under the frequent combinations of ac
tions;
ct;max
maximum tensile stress at a fibre under the frequent combinations of actions;
c;min
minimum compressive stress at the same fibre where
c;max
occurs;
ps;d;max
design value of the tensile stress of the prestressing steel;
ps;d;min
minimal design value of the tensile strength in the prestressing steel;
ps;u
(n) ultimate tensile stress in the prestressing steel at n cycles;
s;d;max
design value of the tensile stress of the reinforcement;
s;d;min
minimal design value of the tensile strength in the reinforcement;
s;u
(n) ultimate tensile stress in the reinforcement at n cycles;
1fat
shear capacity when no shear reinforcement in reinforced or prestressed con
crete is used;
c;d;max
maximum calculated value of the shear stresses;
max
maximum normal shear stress under frequent combination of actions;
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
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min
minimum normal shear stress under frequent combination of actions at the sec
tion where
max
occurs;
sfat
shear capacity of the reinforcement;
u;fat
total ultimate shear capacity for fatigue;
u;fat
maximum shear capacity when shear reinforcement is used;
efficiency factor;
1 adjusted ration to bond strength taking into account the different diameters of
prestressing and reinforcing steel.
ratio of bond strength of prestressing steel and high bond reinforcing steel.
Latin lower case symbols
c total number of variations during life;
f
c;c
characteristic compressive cube strength of concrete at 28 days;
f
cd
design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength;
f
cd;fat
design compressive strength under fatigue;
f
ctd;fat
design tensile strength under fatigue;
f
c;k
characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days;
f
c;max
maximum stress to prevent failure on fatigue;
f
c;rep;fat
representative compressive strength under fatigue;
f
c;t;fat
design tensile strength under fatigue;
f
c;t;k
characteristic axial tensile strength of concrete;
f
c;t;m
mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete;
f
c;u;fat
(n) design value of the tensile strength at n cycles;
k
1
slope of the appropriate SN line to be taken from Table 4 or Table 5;
k
2
slope of the appropriate SN line to be taken from Table 4 or Table 5;
n number of cycles;
n
i
number of cycles at the same stress level;
p number of different stresslevels during life;
Latin upper case symbols
E
cd
normal modulus of elasticity.
E
c;fat
modulus of elasticity under fatigue;
M
s
Miner sum;
N
i
number of cycles at stresslevel when fatigue failure would occur at constant
level cyclic loading;
N
obs
number of lorries per year according to ENV 19913, table 4.5 in million;
N
obs;i
number of lorries expected on lane i per year;
N
obs;1
number of lorries on the slow lane per year;
N
years
design working life of the bridge (to be specified, if different from 100 years);
Q factor for traffic type;
R ratio of minimum and maximum relative stress (R =
c;min
/
c;max
);
S
c;d;max
general fatigue quantity;
S
u
(n) design value of the material strength at fatigue at n cycles;
V
rep;max
maximum representative shear force due to dead load, pretentiousness and
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
16 BE963942 EuroLightCon
maximum of the variable actions;
V
Rd1
design shear resistance according to equation 4.18 in ENV 199211;
V
ref
shear resistance.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
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1. INTRODUCTION
This report on fatigue of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) is meant as a study to come to
a universal test setup. Therefore all kinds of publications on fatigue are studied mainly on nor
mal dense concrete (NDC) but some also on light weight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Also
different codes are studied on regulations on fatigue.
Chapter 1 is this introduction.
Chapter 2 describes some theories about fatigue and methods for counting cycles. Best known
method for fatigue is the Miner hypothesis.
Chapter 3 deals with the results of earlier experimental research. This research is mainly on
NDC, some however also compare the results of tests on LWAC.
In chapter 4 fatigue in some standards is described. Used are Dutch code, Euro Code and FIP
Model Code.
And finally, in chapter 5, is proposed a test setup for tests on fatigue. This set up is based on a
structural behaviour and stress level in the bridge decks made of inverted T beams with struc
tural topping.
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2. THEORIES
Due to fluctuating loading, damages will appear in the material. So it is obvious to link fatigue
behaviour to damage in the material due to random stresses. Theories based on these supposi
tions are called damaging hypothesis.
2.1 Miners hypothesis
In 1945 Miner first introduced his hypothesis, the Miner hypothesis. It is determined on carved
aluminium alloy specimens. Therefore the Miner hypothesis can not be used for concrete without
comment. In practice stresses are random and not as constant as in constant amplitude tests.
Most simple form of the hypothesis is:
1
1
1N
i
i
c
Another oftenused version of the Miner hypothesis is:
n
N
i
i
i
p
1
1
The theory of Miners hypothesis is: each single cycle contributes in damage with size 1/N
i
. Each
single contribution to damage may be summated randomly. If the sum is 1 failure due to fatigue
will occur.
Unfortunately until now it is impossible to give a physical value to 1/N
i
. There is no relation be
tween the amount of cracking and fatigue damage. In Miners hypothesis damage as a result of
not constant amplitude tests are related to the results of constant amplitude tests. As stated
every single cycle contributes to damage with 1/N
i
. These single cycles may be summated in
random order. At a sum of 1 failure caused by fatigue will appear.
Total damage after c cycles is the sum of damage of each single cycle, this sum is called the
Miner sum, M
s
. As formula written as:
M
N N N N N
s
i c
i
c
+ + + +
1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3
1
....
N
i
is a stochastic quantity. So settlements need to be made about how to use the value of the
Miner sum. It is obvious to use the value with a probability of 50%. By definition this is the me
dian, for a logarithmic normallydistributed this is 10
m(logNi)
.
Miners hypothesis than can be written as:
1 1
10
10
1 1 1 med N
M
i
i
c
m N
i
c
m N
i
c
v
i
i
( )
log
log
Left terms are called Miner sum and right term Miner value.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 19
The Miner hypothesis assumes hypothetical damaging units. Therefore verification of the validity
is necessary. For verification variable amplitude tests and tests with programmed loading are
executed. Validity of Miners hypothesis is sufficiently guaranteed. However, some objections to
Miners hypothesis can be raised when used on concrete. Main reason is the simple use. In addi
tion, it has never been proven that the hypothesis would not be valid. [1, p8]
2.2 Other hypothesises of damage development
Some less used hypothesises of damage development are described in CUR report 163 [7]. Most
of these hypothesises are based on crack development. Other hypothesises of damage develop
ment, like Miner, are phenomenological. Some of these hypothesises of damage development
and their backgrounds will be discussed. [7]
2.2.1 Marco and Starkey
By constant amplitude tests on steel Marco and Starkey proved that damage varies within every
cycle. In other words, damage contribution is not linear. Damage D
c+1
at stress level S
c+2
can be
expressed as function of Miner sum, or total damage appearance:
D f M f
N N
c Sc
i
i
c
i
c
x
c
+
_
,
_
,
+
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
( )
Where
x
c+1
depends on stress level s
c+2
.
The sequence of the cycles is important because M
Sc
is based on a not linear damage function.
2.2.2 Manson, Nachtigall and Freche
Manson, Nachtigall and Freche publish a hypothesis of damage development based on modified
results of constant amplitude tests. The authors start from the principle that in a programmed
loading, after a block of constant amplitude stress cycles, the damage in the next block will be
larger than according to Miners hypothesis expected.
2.2.3 Freudenthal and Heller
Freudenthal and Heller introduced interaction ratio w
i
in Miners hypothesis:
M
N
w
s
i
i
i
c
<
1
1
1
Where:
w
i
interaction ratio (> 1).
2.2.4 Haibach
Haibach adjusted Miners hypothesis with n
s
:
M
N n
s
i s
i
c
<
1
1
1
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20 BE963942 EuroLightCon
Where:
n
s
factor dependent on the distribution of the value of the amplitudes at variable amplitude
loading.
2.2.5 Corten and Dolan
Corten and Dolan introduced their hypothesises of damage development, based on crack mecha
nism. The authors related damage D
i
to the number of locations of crack initiation m
i
:
D m r N
i i i i
a
i
Where:
r
i
and a
i
factors dependent on the stress level, they have to be determined by tests.
2.2.6 Shanley
Shanley introduced an empirical expression for crack development:
h a e
c i
Q b n
i
( )
Where:
h dept of the crack;
a,b,c experimentally determined constants.
Failure occurs at a certain dept of the cracks.
2.2.7 Cornelissen and Reinhardt
Cornelissen and Reinhardt introduced a model based on a model for concrete in tension and on a
crack mechanism only valid for constant amplitude tests.
( ) ( ) [ ]
s t f C M t
Where:
s length of the cracks as a function of time;
C a material constant;
M(t) size of damage.
2.3 Methods for counting
Generally, loads occurring in practice, e.g. wind, traffic, wave and earthquake loads develop er
ratically. Such a type of load is called a random load and is described by means of statistical
functions, in particular the probability density function and the energy density spectrum.
Hypothesis of damage development establishes a relationship between the magnitude of a ran
dom stress cycle and the damage caused. A method to count random cycles is required to re
cord the relationship. The following counting methods can be used [7]:
peak count;
mean crossing peak count;
range count;
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
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range mean count;
range pair count;
level crossing count;
fatigue meter count, and;
rainflow count;
TNO's method.
2.3.1 Peak count
This method takes all extreme peak values of the testing into account. A maximum value above
the mean is called a positive peak, a minimum below the mean is called a negative peak. All
other peaks are not taken into account.
2.3.2 Mean crossing peak count
In stead of counting all extremes, only the largest peaks are taken into account. Only when two
consecutive measurements cross the mean value the largest peak is taken into account. Conse
quence is, little fluctuations are not taken into account.
Figure 1: Peak
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22 BE963942 EuroLightCon
2.3.3 Range count
A range is defined as the distance between two consecutive extreme values. In this method
changes in the process are the most important events. A range is positive when going from a
minimum to a maximum value.
2.3.4 Range mean count
In case of a "range mean count", both the size of the range and the position of the mean value is
determined.
Figure 2: Mean crossing peak
Figure 3: Range count
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2.3.5 Range pair count
A range is only taken into account as the positive range is larger than value r and a negative
range follows this value also larger than r.
Figure 4: Range mean count
Figure 5: Range pair counts
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2.3.6 Level crossing count
All values crossing a certain levels are taken into account. Counting can be done with both in
creasing and decreasing values. If the random loading generation has a symmetric probability
density function it is satisfactory to take only values above the mean value into account, also see
Figure 6.
2.3.7 Fatigue meter count
This method is in intention similar to the "level crossing count"method. The difference is that one
additional condition before the cycle counts. Before counting a downward border has to be
crossed. Consequence is, little fluctuations are not taken into account.
Figure 6: Level crossing counts
Figure 7: Fatigue meter count
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2.3.8 Rainflow count
The rainflow countmethod, also known as the "pagoda method", takes complete cycles into
account. Counting means registration of hysteresis loops with constant amplitude.
2.3.9 TNO method for counting cycles
Basic assumptions
not stationary random stresses are divided in periods of somewhat stationary stresses;
per period following calculations are done:
mean stress, [ (t)], is determined;
first crossing of function with [ (t)] is determined, t
1
;
next two crossings, t
2
and t
3
, are determined;
extreme value of (t), extr
1
, between t
2
and t
3
and the moment, t*
1
, when extr
1
occurs.
Then the same way extr
2
, between t
2
and t
3
, and t
*
2
are determined;
the stress (t
1
t
3
) is replaced by half a cosine shaped cycle. Its characteristics are:
+ double amplitude 2A = extr
1
+extr
2
;
+ mean ( ) m
extr extr
1 2
2
+ frequency
1
2
2 1
t t
* *
the stress (t
1
t
2
) is replaced by half a cosine shaped cycle. Its characteristics are:
+ mean is equal to m[(t)];
+ amplitude A;
+ frequency ;
+ half a cycle is rising, or drops depending on original stresses;
this procedure is repeated for the next crossings of (t) through [(t)];
for the final fatigue considerations half cycles may be placed in every desired order.
Figure 8: Rainflow count
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26 BE963942 EuroLightCon
2.3.10 Summary of methods for counting
With exception of the TNOcount method none of these methods is intended for concrete. After
the TNOcount method the "range mean count" method is best, although it does not consider fre
quency. However, this can be compensated by determination of duration time (period), in addi
tion to the range (or amplitude) and the mean value.
A frequently used method for counting in the Netherlands is the TNO method. Research [8] has
shown that a wide band signal is not necessary, even not desired, to take all details of the signal
into account. The signal needs to be reduced.
Same research has shown that TNO method, in combination with the Miner hypothesis, gives
reliable prediction of the life expectancy. Most reliable results are obtained by constant amplitude
tests.
Figure 9: TNO count
Table 1: Summary of suitability of methods for counting for concrete
Method of counting maximum stress Minimum stress frequency
Peak yes No no
Mean crossing peak limited No no
Range mean yes Yes no
Range yes No no
Range pair limited No no
Level crossing limited No no
Fatigue meter limited No no
Rainflow limited No no
TNO yes No no
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3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
3.1 Factors influencing fatigue
Behaviour of the concrete is influenced by a large number of factors. [1, p40] These are:
intern, like composition, curing and age;
extern, like sort of loading;
environmental effects, like humidity and temperature.
3.1.1 Aggregates
To investigate the influence of aggregates in concrete research has been done on concrete with
gravel and a lightweight aggregate.
Cyclic tension gives on both types of concrete about the same results. Tensioncompression on
lightweight gives inferior results compared to "normal concrete. [1, p43]
Research on hard limestone gives equal results to gravel concrete, in both compression and
compression/tension tests. [1, ref. 13]
3.1.2 Concrete strength
Concrete, both NC and LWAC, can be thought of as consisting of aggregate, cement paste and
transition zone at the interface between those two constituents. Each one of the three effects the
properties of concrete although their significance varies to a great extent. In the NC, aggregate
are the strongest and the transition zone the weakest constituent. Strength properties and durabil
ity are alike. NC is practically controlled by the properties of cement paste and the transition
zone, not by the properties of the aggregate. Workability properties are mainly controlled by the
properties of aggregate and cement paste. [4]
The strength of the bond between the aggregate particles and the paste phase is the weak link in
the chain of factors affecting the strength of concrete. A good bond is, however, essential for
making use of the advantages of either of the two components. In perfect condition, where the
contact between the aggregate and the cement paste is full, the bond strength will develop to be
equally high as the paste strength. The bond strength develops, however, later than the full ce
ment pastes strength, and is affected by factors appearing during the setting of concrete. Due to
bleeding, poor vibration and segregation, cracks would be appearing along the interface during
the setting of concrete. Another important source of initial imperfections is the restraint of vol
ume deformations during hardening, induced on the cement paste by aggregate grains. Cracks
perpendicular to the interface surface occur. Selfdesiccation, especially present in high strength
concrete types, causes the formation of cracks in both directions. [2, p56]
Besides affecting the strength of concrete, the quality of the cementaggregate bond affects the
total strain at failure and the strain when cracking first becomes noticeable, the strain at mini
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
28 BE963942 EuroLightCon
mum volume, etc. Bond forces are due to van der Waals forces, but also to several other factors
[2, p57]:
aggregate interlock: interlocking effects between the aggregate grains and the cement paste,
the latter depending on the shape and texture of the aggregate particles;
chemical nature of the aggregate: it is known that some aggregate types are not inert, they
form chemical bonds with cement paste. This is exhibited for some acid siliceous rocks and
for limestone;
cement class: higher cement class gives better bond properties;
aggregate size: large aggregate size gives lower bond strength. Consequently, along the sur
face of the large aggregate grains concrete first cracks.
3.1.2.1 Failure mechanism
Figure 10 describes the stress situation around an aggregate particle. The usual failure sequence,
independent of the character of loading, is the exceeding of:
1. tensile bond strength;
2. shear bond strength;
3. tensile and shear strength of the cement matrix;
4. tensile strength of the aggregate particles.
The difference in the area of the failure surface results in differences in compressive and tensile
properties of both mortar and concrete. The matrix, considered homogeneous at this level, will
vary in mechanical properties as well as in bond characteristics depending on its porosity, i.e.
water cement ratio.[2, p 58]
The stressstrain diagrams of both aggregate and cement paste are almost linear, except at very
Figure 10: Local stresses around an aggregate particle under tensile and com
pressive loading [2, p58]
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
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high relative stress levels, see Figure 11. The stressstrain relationship of concrete, however, has
a curved shape, due to the fact that aggregate and cement paste, having different stiffness char
acteristics, are connected in one bearing system. In concrete types where the stiffness of the
matrix is close to the stiffness of the aggregate, the stressstrain relationship of concrete will also
be close to linear. [2, p58]
Although strain in concrete occurs as crack propagation, normal density normal strength con
crete does not appear to be a brittle material. Considering the specific structure of concrete, its
crack patterns and way they are formed, concrete may be reclassified as "quasibrittle". The
effect alleviates the brittleness of concrete is the consumption of energy in a network of cracks,
instead of in the propagation of one single crack. [2, p 59]
On the mezzo level, crack arresting mechanisms are found in aggregate particles, which direct
cracks around instead of through them. In that way the crack path is significantly increased and
a large part of energy consumed. Air pores also have an arresting effect because they blunt the
tips of cracks reducing in that way stress concentrations.
On micro level, the morphology of hydrated cement paste also suggests that small displacements
are possible, without necessarily resulting in loss of contact or crack propagation. They reduce
stress concentrations existing between the joined surfaces and may be beneficial for the com
posite material. At the tip of a crack, a large number of microcracks develop and the crack tip
acts as a plasticity zone in elastoplastic materials. [2, p 60]
The photoelasticity phenomenon has enabled visual presentation of stress distribution within a
concrete specimen. If the binder is replaces by a photoelastic resin, the trajectories of stress can
be followed, see Figure 12. It is possible to see how ordinary concrete transfers the load from
Figure 11: Typical stressstrain curves for aggregate, cement paste and concrete showing
that the ductility of concrete has its origin in the bond between the two components
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30 BE963942 EuroLightCon
particle to particle, in that way causing tension and shear at parts of the interphase, while light
weight aggregate concrete distributes the loading through the cement paste independently of the
aggregate grains. Therefore the more linear behaviour and lower ductility of lightweight aggre
gate concrete. [2, p 65]
Measurements indicate that the majority of the crack propagation happens in the very beginning
and in the end of the fatigue life, indicating thus the three stages in the damage development.
The transition between the stages is difficult to define more precisely. [2, p67]
After the first stage, however, an increase on the compressive strength is most often measured.
In some cases, even an increase in the modulus of elasticity follows. The strengthening effects
of cyclic loading, similar to strengthening effects of static long term loading, have been assigned
to combinations of the following phenomena [2, p67]:
limited microcracking (some places called a solid body compaction), causing a beneficial re
lease of local stress concentrations;
by movements on the submicroscopic level, causing van increase in interparticle attraction
forces;
by autogenious healing, or forced hydration due to the compaction of the material structure.
A cyclic load acts with each new cycle on a slightly changed material structure. The cracks can
not close during the unloading sequences. Stress concentrations at crack tips are, therefore, a
basis for damage in every new loading cycle. The repeated loading causes further development
of the existing cracks i.e. conjunctions of the isolated crack groups, which finally results in a
rapid development of cracks across the whole specimen section although the overall stress is
lower than the static strength. [2, p 68]
Since the changes of the material structure are volumetric, a complete picture of the changes of
Figure 12: Direction of main stresses as registered by the photoelasticity
method [2, p 66]
Lightweight aggregate concrete Normal density concrete
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 31
concrete properties can be obtained only by following strain development both in the longitudinal
and perpendicular direction. The mutual relationship of these strains may give the most complete
description of damage.
In LWAC the situation is almost the reverse. Aggregate (at least coarse aggregate) is the weak
est constituent, and in that way it has a very significant influence on the strength properties of
LWAC. The influence of strength properties of cement paste increases with increasing density
of aggregate. In addition to strength properties of LWAC, all other properties of LWAC are also
controlled by properties of the aggregate. In LWAC, the transition zone is normally the strongest
component. [4]
Lower strengths (characteristic cube strength = 30 [MPa]) behave less brittle than higher
strengths (characteristic cube strength = 55 [MPa]). It has shown that the more brittle materials
have lower fatigue strength. [1, p42]
3.1.3 Water penetration
Water penetration in cracked concrete can lead to a reduction of fatigue life. This can be caused
by splitting effects of enclosed water, and also by transportation of small particles through the
cracks while opening and closing. Local deformations therefore local stresses will increase.
Tests however have shown that water penetration does not have significant effect on the fatigue
life of concrete under tension. [1, p41]
3.1.4 Frequency
Several researchers test the effect of frequency of loading. General conclusion is:
at the stress ratios of up to 75% of the static strength, frequencies from 1 up to 15 [Hz] influ
ence fatigue strength only a little. At higher stress ratios fatigue strength will decrease with de
creasing frequency. An increase of the moment before fatigue occurs, expressed in time, will
decrease with increasing loading frequency. [1, p24]
Decreasing the frequency with factor 100 results decreases the number of cycles before failure
by factor 100, this means an increase of fatigue life (time) of 100.[8]
Research has shown that lower frequency result in less cycles to failure. A reduction of the fre
quency by a factor 100 results in reduction of the number of cycles by a factor of 10 to 30. [1,
p41]
The influence of frequency can be seen from two sides [2, p14]:
1. The value of frequency affects fatigue results in the same way rate of loading affects static
results. An increase in frequency is, therefore, especially significant for a higher loading level;
2. Loading with lower frequency values acting during a longer period of time reveals creep. This
is also significant on higher loading levels.
3.1.5 Humidity
An important variable factor in the performance of the fatigue experiments is the moisture condi
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32 BE963942 EuroLightCon
tions. Fatigue specimens have in most cases been tested partly dry, meaning at humidity less
than saturated. Moisture effects have been looked upon as an additional factor. Moisture effects
are scale dependent, meaning that a partly dry specimen does not necessarily represent a struc
tural element in air. Although a dry surface will under fatigue loading be affected by initial sur
face cracks, dry specimens have shown to have a longer fatigue life than saturated specimens or
specimens tested in water. Applying results of fatigue tests performed on dry specimens to large
structural elements is, therefore unsafe. [2,p11]
The majority of the experimental works in fatigue have been performed on dry concrete. Humid
ity has been taken as an additional factor influencing the behaviour of dry concrete, and experi
ments performed in fatigue of concrete of various humidity have proved that moisture conditions
influence fatigue performance. The closest comparable phenomenon is the influence of moisture
conditions on creep. All effects that increase creep in concrete will in a similar way affect de
formation characteristics under fatigue loading. [2,p19]
Creep tests have shown that higher humidity leads to an increase of the speed of deformation.
So it can be expected that lifetime decreases with increasing humidity. Statistical research has
shown that moisture content has significant effect on cyclic tension tests.
In cyclic tensioncompression tests no significant effect is shown. [1, p40]
3.1.6 Wave forms
In a test program which included sinusoidal, rectangular and triangular proved that the rectangu
lar form is more damaging than the sinusoidal, and the triangular shape is least damaging of the
three. The same is found in an experiment on lightweight aggregate concrete. [2, p17]
The form of wind and wave loading agrees very well with the sinusoidal wave, and only in some
special cases in practice does the loading wave have a different form. The sinusoidal load wave
is also applied in most of the experimental tests in fatigue. In [2, ref.23] the importance of time
dependent characteristics of concrete are pointed out. An explanation for the rectangular shape
of the loading wave being most damaging was that the material is in this case exposed to high
loading levels a longer time in the loading history. This explanation is supported by the fact that
the rectangular shape proved to be least damaging in the deformation controlled tests. [2, p17]
There are several different stress levels used:
constant amplitude (Figure 13);
programmed loading;
variable amplitude( Figure 17, Figure 16 and Figure 18);
random.
3.1.6.1 Constant amplitude
The amplitude remains constant throughout the test, Figure 13. This means the maximum and
minimum stresses are the same every single cycle.
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Figure 13: constant amplitude loading
Results of constant amplitude tests
Constant amplitude tests have shown some factors of influence on the life of concrete:
value of maximum stress;
value of minimum stress;
frequency.
The results of these tests can be recorded in a Whler diagram. With on one axis the relative
stresses and on the other axis the number of cycles until failure on log scale, also sees Figure 14.
A constant loading frequency implies that the rate of loading is dependent on the load level.
Sparks [2, ref. 10] studied the influence of the rate of loading on the fatigue characteristics of
two types of concrete, a normal density and a lightweight aggregate concrete. Using a large
range of loading rates and studying their effect on both the static and the fatigue strength, the
Figure 14: Example of a Whler diagram using the minimum stress  strength ratio
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
34 BE963942 EuroLightCon
author concluded that a higher rate of loading reduces the fatigue life of concrete only if com
pared to a static strength obtained at a regular staticloading rate. If the comparative static
strength is corrected for the loading rate, no effects of the loading rate on the fatigue perform
ance are noticeable any longer. [2,p14]
3.1.6.2 Programmed loading
In Figure 15 two examples of programmed loading are given. First diagram: blocks of constant
amplitude with different mean stress. Second diagram: several blocks with constant mean stress.
In each block the stress and the numbers of cycles can be varied.
3.1.6.3 Variable amplitude
It is relatively easy to increase the fancifulness (random) of programmed loading, Figure 18. This
can be done by reducing the length of the blocks of loading. Most extreme is a block of half a
cycle. In that case it is not longer called a programmed loading but variable amplitude loading.
The frequency however will remain constant. By varying the amplitude to a minimum (Figure
16) or maximum (Figure 17) stress a continuous change in stress is realised.
Figure 15: examples of programmed loading
Figure 16: variable amplitude loading with minimal reference stress
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 35
Assuming a constant mean stress makes it possible to vary the amplitude whole or half cycles.
Results of variable amplitude tests
In variable amplitude tests as well as in programmed loading it is found that the Miner sum is
logarithmic normal distributed. In general the scatter is about the same level as for constant am
plitude tests. The fact that the variable amplitude stresses are random in time does not influence
the distribution of the results. It is also noticed that, presuming the stresses, the Miner hypothesis
describes damage by variable amplitude stresses sufficient adequate.
Figure 17: Variable amplitude loading with maximum reference stress
Figure 18: Variable amplitude tests with mean as reference stress for whole (a) or half
cycles (b)
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
36 BE963942 EuroLightCon
3.1.6.4 Random loading
In a random loading frequency and amplitude vary. In tests this loading is not often used.
3.1.7 Stress gradients
By introducing loading eccentric on the test specimens it is possible to introduce a stress gradi
ent. Tests by Ople and Hulsbos [7, ref. 23] on concrete, centric and eccentric, under compres
sion have shown an increase of number of cycles until failure with increasing eccentricity.
Also see Figure 20.
3.1.8 Rest periods
Based on the results of a test in flexural fatigue it is concluded that rest periods up to 5 minutes
have favourable effect on fatigue life. Introducing rest periods longer than 5 minutes did not
seem to prolong the fatigue life additionally. [2, p16]
The results of the variable amplitude tests show that effect of a rest period of a certain duration
must be dependent on when in the loading history it occurs, and which loading levels it is acting
in combination with. The influence of rest periods is directly connected to time dependent behav
iour and it will necessarily be dependent on the particular type of concrete. In a test on light
Figure 19: Example of random loading
Figure 20: influence of eccentricity e on number of cycles until failure
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 37
weight aggregate concrete [2, ref. 13] no effects of rest periods on fatigue were registered. [2,
p16]
3.1.9 Two axial loads
Traina and Jaragh [1, ref. 10], do two axial cyclic loading.
Preconditions:
1
with frequency of 0.02 [Hz];
2
constant in another direction;
criterion to failure is defined as the ultimate strain.
Therefore the number of cycles is limited to less than 1000. Important for the interpretation of
the results, 0.02 [Hz] and 1000 cycles means 50.000 [sec] 14 [hours] of testing. Creep and
shrinkage will not very much influence the results.
These tests compared to one axial stress have shown an increase of fatigue strength. With in
creasing
2
the number of cycles also increases. Furthermore, the increase of strength under
cyclic two axial compressive loading is almost equal to two axial static loading. The increase
with two axial static compressive loading is 30% till 40%.
Figure 21: Whler diagram for several values of =
2
/
1
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
38 BE963942 EuroLightCon
3.2 Remnant strength and stiffness
In the case of preloading under fatigue the remnant capacity is not described by the Miner sum.
The Miner sum is to be used to predict the moment of failure of a construction, not to predict the
life under changes in loading during the life.
Tests have shown that preloading, static and tensioncompression cycles, reduces tensile stiff
ness and the tesile strength to a lesser degree. An explanation is the interaction between the ce
ment matrix and the, relative more stiff, aggregate. Due to compressive loading cracks parallel to
the direction of the loading occur in the zone between aggregate and matrix. This simplefies de
formations because of tensile loadings. [1, ref11]
3.3 Deformations
Deformations (elastic/plastic) are a good indicator for the life of concrete. Due to the loading
cycles deformations will increase.
3.3.1 Deformations under cyclic compression
The stressstrain relationship within one loading cycle has been registered to change its shape
from a concave towards the strain axis, to a straight line and finally to a convex form. The de
gree of convexity may be used as an indication of how close to failure the material is to failure.
[2, p30]
Figure 22: Whler diagram for different values of
2
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 39
Figure 23: Change in shape of the stressstrain relationship under cyclic loading [2, ref.
42]
Research [1, ref.] has shown a fast increasing strain with the number of loading cycles. Shows a
reduction of the secant modulus of elasticity with increasing number of loading cycles. The se
cant modulus of elasticity is defined as:
E
s
max min
max min
Fatigue tests under strain longitudinal to loading direction is measured. Total strain is measured at
maximum and minimum stress, also see Figure 23. General it can be stated that total strain in
creases with increasing number of loading.[1, p21]
In Figure 24 three stages can be distinguished (E
s
= E
secant
):
1. a fast increasing strain in the first 10% of total life;
Figure 24: Modulus of elasticity under cyclic loading [2, ref. 40]
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
40 BE963942 EuroLightCon
2. a uniform increasing strain from 10% until 80% of total life;
3. a rapid increasing strain from 80% until failure.
3.3.2 Deformations under cyclic tension
In a test of tensile fatigue almost no changes in form of stressstrain curves were registered.
Dividing the strain in elastic and a residual, the elastic strains remain constant during the whole
test, while the residual strains give increase to the total strain picture. [2, p30]
Tests [2, ref. 40] have shown that the secant modulus of elasticity decreases in a way similar to
the development of the longitudinal strain. In the first 10% and the last 20% of the fatigue life of
a concrete specimen, the decrease in the secant modulus of elasticity is rapid, as shown in Figure
24. In the tests, the reduction of the secant modulus also seems to have a final value, the ultimate
value of the secant modulus was approximately 60% of the initial value. Assuming that the final
value of the secant modulus can be used as a failure criterion, the rate of the decrease could
help estimate the time or the number of cycles to failure. This finding is, however, only valid for
the tested loading combinations. [2, p31]
For the research static tests are executed in which strength and modulus of elasticity are meas
ured. Before testing the test specimens are subjected to cyclic loading with varying duration of
20 to 100% of the calculated fatigue life. It is found that stiffness reduces considerable, espe
cially in tensioncompression tests. The modulus of elasticity reduced to 40 till 80% of the static
value. [5, p11]
A strengthening process and a weakening process is taking place simultaneously during the long
term static or cyclic loading of concrete. The strengthening effect was registered to be higher on
paste than on concrete specimens. This agrees with the fact that the paste specimens exhibited
higher consolidation, while in concrete specimens an increase in volume occurred. The strength
Figure 25: Modulus of elasticity under tensile fatigue loading [2, ref 41]
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 41
ening effect was explained by a reduction in local stress concentrations caused by material com
paction, and by the fact that interparticle, van de Waals', forces increase by a decreasing dis
tance between particles. [2, p43]
3.4 Fatigue under tension
There are three methods to test concrete under tension:
1. bending tension;
2. split tension;
3. centric tension.
Main difference is, with concrete under centric tension the whole section is under maximum
stress. In a bending test there is a stress gradient and in a split tests a two axial stress situation.
These tests all have their own mechanisms of failure.
In the centric tension test the weakest section will fail. In a bending test the weakest section will
not necessarily fail. For one because of the stress gradient and second because of not constant
stresses over the length of the test specimen.
In a four point bending test the strength is about 2 times the centric tensile strength. For a split
test this is about 1.5 times. These ratios are influenced by the size of the test specimens.
Therefore it is very important to know which test method is used. [1, p29]
3.4.1 Results of tests under cyclic tension
Concrete tensile strength has large distribution. The execution of the tests and the stochastic
character of fatigue cause this. Statistically it can be concluded that the distribution is mainly
caused by the variation of the static strength.
3.5 Fatigue under shear
On tests on girders without shear reinforcement next conclusions are made [1, ref. 14]:
the initial pattern of cracks is formed after little loading cycles;
failure is due to cracking over an existing crack by bending;
at the beginning of the test there is a fast increase of deformations and strain. With the in
crease of the number of cycles the increase of deformations and strain decreases.
After the development of critical shear crack it is impossible to predict the number of cycles be
fore failure. This because it is not clear how loading are distributed in the concrete, therefore the
design has to be based on the moment the critical crack occurs.
Fatigue properties of girders with shear reinforcement depend full on the properties of the rein
forcement. This makes it difficult to describe the results of these tests. Some reasons why [1,
ref. 14]:
stresses in the shear reinforcement, even under constant loading, are very complex;
failure mainly occurs in the lower part, curve, of the reinforcement bar. This implies that
bending have a negative influence on fatigue life;
the shear crack crosses the reinforcement under an angle. This causes dowel forces in the
steel.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
42 BE963942 EuroLightCon
3.6 Fatigue of reinforcement
There are only limited reports about fatigue of reinforcement. Most reports on damage say dam
age is result of cracking or crushing of the concrete. There are no reports specific on fatigue of
reinforcement in concrete structures. However, it is assumed that fatigue of the steel will occur
at high numbers of cycles. There are also some cases where the cracking of the concrete leads
to corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore it is necessary to check the fatigue stresses in the
steel.
Reinforcement is used as a bar in one piece or as several bars connected. Connections can be
made in 3 ways:
overlap;
mechanical joints;
welding.
All bars have different fatigue behaviour.
3.7 Test setup in previous tests
3.7.1 Experimental loads [2, p5]
In fatigue experiments idealised cyclic loading histories are used. The usual form is the sinusoidal
form, and the loading is defined by the following parameters:
maximum relative stress, S
max
expressed as a fraction of the static material strength;
minimum relative stress, S
min
also a fraction of the static material strength;
loading frequency, number of loading cycles.
Other, derivative, parameters often used are:
stress range, S = S
max
 S
min
;
mean stress, S
m
= (S
max
+ S
min
)/2;
ratio between minimum and maximum relative stress, R = S
min
/ S
max
.
3.7.2 CUR research
CUR investigations in first place are done to verify Miners hypothesis on not reinforced concrete
under compression. In these tests the maximum compression is varied. The research is limited
to:
one concrete (B45);
one frequency of loading (6 [Hz]);
one hydration condition;
one test condition;
one age of the concrete (28 days).
CURreports:
Frequency (constant amplitude)
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 43
Delft University of Technology, Netherlands = 6 [Hz]
Gent State University, Belgium = 8 [Hz]
Number of load cycles
Maximum is set to 2 million.
Stress levels
S
max
= 0.40 to 0.90 of the static compression strength;
S
min
= 0.10, 0.20 or 0.30 of the static tensile strength; or
S
min
= 0, 0.10, 0.20 or 0.30 of the static compressive strength.
Size of test specimens
Compression/tension tests = diameter of 120 [mm];
Bending tests = 1501803400 [mm] at Gent university.
3.7.3 Research at Trondheim University
Petkovic [2, p74]
Frequency (constant amplitude)
1.0 [Hz] on specimens with diameter of 50 and 100 [mm]
0.5 [Hz] on specimens with diameter of 450 [mm].
Number of loading cycles
to failure
Stress levels
S
max
= 0.65, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.85 of the static compression strength;
S
min
= 0.05, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.60 of the static compression strength.
Size of test specimens
Compression/tension tests = cylinders with diameter of 50, 100 and 450 [mm].
The length of the cylinders is 3 times their diameter.
For remnant properties cubes of 100 [mm] are used.
Also in Trondheim (1986) tests have been done on specimens with compressive strength be
tween 25 and 55 [MPa] with loading frequencies between 3 and 7 [Hz]. [2, p10]
A large part of the cracks propagating under loading exist already before the load is applied.
They are mostly due to effects as:
poor bond around aggregate particles,
due to bleeding or segregation,
cracks formed because of volume changes in the cement paste from drying or temperature
changes.
On the basis of these initial imperfections, a pattern of cracks is formed as the stress level in
creases. [2, p62]
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
44 BE963942 EuroLightCon
4. FATIGUE IN SOME STANDARDS
By the use of a dynamic enlargement ratio in many cases it is possible to transform a dynamic
loading into a quasistatic loading. For bridges there is always dynamic loading. Therefore a
"bump"coefficient is introduced to convert dynamic loading into static one. Despite the conver
sion to static loading for a design it has to be reckoned with response of the construction under
dynamic loading.
In this study 3 different codes are studied. The codes studied are:
Dutch Code. (VBB1995) Concrete bridges. Structural requirements and calculation methods;
Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structres. Part 2: Concrete bridges. 1997;
CEBFIP model code 1990.
4.1 Dutch Code (VBB1995)
For concrete the linear or the nonlinear elastic theory can determine the stresses in the con
struction. For this calculation Bernoulli's hypothesis is valid.
For calculations of fatigue Miner's hypothesis, or methods based on the hypothesis, have to be
used.
4.1.1 Modulus of elasticity of concrete
The modulus of elasticity is reduced to:
E E
c fat cd ;
. 0 6
Where:
( ) E f
c fat c c ; ;
. + 0 6 22250 250
4.1.2 Fatigue of concrete under compression
Fatigue under compression in VBB is only related to characteristic compression strength of con
crete.
In general:
f
f
cdfat
c rep fat
m
;
; ;
'
Where:
m
= 1.2.
For characteristic compressive strength under 30 [MPa]:
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.85 f
c;c
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 45
Where:
0.85 factor for transformation from cube strength to 1 axial strength (also cylinder
strength).
f
cd;fat;<30
= 0.708 f
c;c
Adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the following expression is satisfied:
c;max
0.25 f
cd;fat
.
Substitution of f
cd;fat
gives:
f
c;max
0.177 f
c;c
.
f
c;max
0.209 f
c;k
.
For characteristic compressive cube strength over 30 [MPa]:
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.5 (f
c;k
 0.85 30) + 0.85 30
Where:
f
c;k
= 0.85 f
c;c
;
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.85 (0.5 (f
c;c
 30) + 30 ) / 1.2
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.354 f
c;c
+ 10.63
Adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the following expression is satisfied:
f
c;max
0.25 f
cd;fat
.
Substitution of f
cd;fat
gives:
f
c;max
0.089 f
c;c
+ 2.656. (Cube)
f
c;max
0.104 f
c;k
+ 2.656. (Cylinder)
4.1.2.1 Maximum number of cycles until failure according to VBB
log
;max
;
N
R
f
i
c
c fat
_
,
10
1
1
With:
f
c;fat
= 0.354 f
c;c
+ 10.63
4.1.3 Fatigue of concrete under tension
4.1.3.1 Maximum stress before fatigue will occur
Fatigue under tension in VBB1995 is only related to characteristic compressive strength of the
concrete.
In general:
( )
f
f
c t fat
c rep fat
m
; ;
; ;
. .
+ 100 0 05
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
46 BE963942 EuroLightCon
Where:
m
= 1.4.
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.5 (f
c;k
 0.85 30) + 0.85 30
f
c;rep;fat
= 0.425 f
c;c
+ 12.75
f
c;t;fat
= 0.015 f
c;k
+ 1.17
For reinforcement subjected to tension, adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the fol
lowing expression is satisfied:
f
ct;max
0.25 f
c;t;fat
.
were:
= 1.5 if the reinforcement is according to NEN 6720 articles 8.7.2 and 8.7.3;
= 1.0 in all other cases.
Substitution of f
cd;fat
gives:
f
ct;max
0.0038 f
c;k
+ 0.292.
4.1.3.2 Maximum number of cycles until failure
The maximum number of cycles until failure in VBB is defined as:
log
;max
; ;
N
f
i
c
c t fat
_
,
10 1
4.1.4 Material check concrete
Maximum stresses have to comply with:
( )
S
c,d, u
S n
max
4.1.4.1 Compressive stresses
S
c;d;max
=
c;max
S
u
(n) = f
c;u;fat
(n)
Where:
( )
( ) f (n) = 1 0.1 1 R
c,u,fat
log .
; ;
n f f
c fat c fat
0 25 .
Where:
= 1.0 for the compression zone and 0.9 for prestressed tension zones.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 47
Figure 26: Explanation of the different zones
4.1.4.2 Tensile stresses
S
c;d;max
=
ct;max
S
u
(n) = f
c;u;fat
(n)
Where:
( ) ( ) f (n) = 1 0.1
c,u,fat
log .
; ; ; ;
n f f
c t fat c t fat
0 25 .
Where:
= 1.5 when the calculation complies with the rules for reinforcement;
= 1.0 when less than prescribed reinforcement is used;
4.1.4.3 Shear stresses
S
c;d;max
=
c;d;max
S
u
(n) =
u;fat
=
1f
+
sfat
u;fat
4.1.5 Material check reinforcement
( )
s,d, s u
n
max ;
Where:
( )
s u s d
s n rep
m
n
; ; ;min
; ;
+
;
Where:
s n rep
s rep
m
n
; ;
; ;
10
7
7
10
1
Where:
s rep ; ; 10
7
Representative value of the fatigue limit of the reinforcement at 10
7
cy
Pretentioned compression
zone
Precompressed compres
sion zone
Precompressed tension
zone
Stresses due to loading Stresses due to prestressing
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
48 BE963942 EuroLightCon
cles, from Table 2;
m
= 1.15;
m parameter;
4.1.6 Material check prestressing steel
( )
ps,d, ps u
n
max ;
Where:
( )
ps u ps d
ps n rep
m
n
; ; ;min
; ;
+
;
Where:
ps n rep
ps rep
m
n
; ;
; ;
10
7
7
10
Where:
ps rep ; ; 10
7
from Table 3;
m
= 1.15;
m parameter;
Table 2: Fatigue limit
s rep ; ; 10
7
and parameter m for reinforcement FeB400 and FeB500
Utilisation
s rep ; ; 10
7
[MPa]
m
basic material:
straight k 16 [mm]
k > 16 [mm]
175
135
9
9
salt water environment 70 3.5
basic material:
bending radius D 7.5k
D > 7.5k
105
135
5
9
flash butt weld and cross weld 60 3
half a dish weld and ingot weld 35 3
mechanical joint 60 3
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 49
Column A: is to be used when the tensile bending zone is not cracked;
Column B: is to be used when the tensile bending zone is cracked and for anchorage, joints
and transmission zone have pretension steel.
4.2 Euro Code 2, part 2
Stresses have to be determined by means of the linear elastic theory. When cracks occur stiff
ness has to be reduced.
The article [6, p33] gives a simplified procedure to calculate the damage equivalent stresses for
fatigue verification of superstructures of road and railway concrete bridges on basis of fatigue
load models.
Because this project is focused on road bridges only that part will be discussed.
4.2.1 Fatigue of concrete under compression
Article 4.3.7.4 [6, p16]: Fatigue verification for concrete under compression, shear and punching
shear
For concrete under compression adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if equation, shown
graphically in Figure 27, is satisfied. Otherwise, more refined fatigue verification may be neces
sary.
c
cd
c
cd
f f
;max ;min
. . . + 0 5 0 45 0 9
If
c;min
< 0 (tension) then
c;max
/f
cd
0.5 should be fulfilled.
The increase of the reference compressive strength with the age of the concrete at the time t
0
before the cyclic loading occurs, may be taken into account by applying the factor b
cc
(t
0
) to the
concrete strength f
cd
.
Table 3: fatigue limit
ps rep ; ; 10
7
and parameter for prestressing steel
A B
Utilisation
ps rep ; ; 10
7
[MPa]
m
ps rep ; ; 10
7
[MPa]
M
strands and ribbed or corrugated
wire
145 4 95 4
cold drawn wire 170 7 95 4
flush bar 210 7 130 4
heat treated steel 240 7 95 4
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
50 BE963942 EuroLightCon
For comparison to other codes
c;min
is assumed to be zero.
Also: f
cd
= f
cd;fat
;
f
cd;fat
=
cc
(t)f
ck
/
c
;
Where:
cc
(t) = 1.0;
c
= 1.5.
c
cd
c
cd
f f
;max ;min
. . . + 0 5 0 45 0 9 results in:
max
0.5
cc
(t)f
c;k
/
c
max
0.33 f
c;k
4.2.1.1 Maximum number of cycles until failure
log
;max
;
N
R
f
i
c
cdfat
_
,
14
1
1
Ultimate fatigue stesses under
compression
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
c;min
/f
cd
c
;
m
a
x
/
f
c
d
allowed
region
0.86
Figure 27: Allowable stress variation for concrete under compression without explicit
fatigue verification
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 51
4.2.2 Fatigue of concrete under shear
For compression struts of members subjected to shear the equation for compressive strength is
valid is the reference strength f
cd
is reduced by the effectiveness factor . [6, p17]
c
cd
c
cd
f f
;max ;min
. . .
0 5 0 45 0 9
Where:
0 7
200
0 5 . .
f
ck
In members without shear reinforcement, adequate fatigue resistance of concrete under shear
may be assumed if either one of the equations below mentioned is satisfied.
For
min
max
max min
. . . + 0 0 5 0 45 0 9
1 1 Rd Rd
For
min
max
max min
. < 0 0 5
1 1 Rd Rd
Where:
Rd1
= V
Rd1
/(b
w
d)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
allowable region
min
Rd1
max
Rd1
Figure 28: allowable shear stress variation for members without shear rein
forcement
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
52 BE963942 EuroLightCon
4.2.3 Fatigue verification for reinforcement and prestressing steel
For unwelded reinforcement bars subjected to tension, adequate fatigue resistance may be as
sumed if, under the frequent combination of actions, the stress variation,
s
, does not exceed
70 [MPa].
For reinforcing or prestressing steel and couplers adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed
if the following expression is satisfied:
( )
Sd s equ
Rsk
s fat
N
;
*
;
Where:
Rsk
(N
*
) is taken from Table 4 or Table 5;
s;equ
equivalent stress range
The SN curves generally follow the following equation:
(
Rsk
)
m
N = C(constant)
Where:
m = k
1
if N < N
*
and
m = k
2
if N > N
*
k
1
and k
2
are taken from Table 4 or Table 5.
Table 4: parameters for the SN curves of prestressing steel
SN curve of prestressing steel used for stress
exponent
Rsk
[MPa] at N =
N
*
k
1
k
2
N
*
cycles 210
6
cycles
pretensioning 10
6
5 9 185 170
posttensioning
Single strand in plastic ducts 10
6
5 9 185 170
curved tendons in plastic ducts
and straight tendons
10
6
5 9 160 145
curved tendons in steel ducts 10
6
3 7 120 110
couplers 10
6
3 5 80 70
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 53
= bar diameter
D = diameter of mandrel
3
) Values of
Rsk
are those of the appropriate straight bar. Values for a bar of diameter
with a bend diameter D < 25 should be obtained by multiplying the straight bar values by a
reduction factor = 0.35+0.026D/
For stirrups should be taken as 0.9.
b
) When other SN curves justified by test results.
The effect of different bond behaviour of prestressing steel and reinforcing steel may be ac
counted for by increasing tenconventional steel in the reinforcing steel by the factor:
+
+
A A
A A
s p
s p 1
Where:
1
s
p
Where:
p
= 1.6 A
p
for tendons with several strands or wires;
p
= 1.75
wire
for single strands with 7 wires;
p
= 1.20
wire
for single strands with 7 wires;
In the absence of appropriate data may be taken from
4.2.4 Fatigue of concrete
Euro code 2 part 2 only give fatigue of reinforcement and prestressing steel, nothing is said
about concrete.
Table 5: parameters of SN curves for reinforcing steel (Euro Code)
Type of reinforcement
Rsk
at
N
*
k
1
k
2
N
*
cycles 210
6
cycles
Straight and bent bars
for D 25 [mm] 10
6
5 9 195 180
for D < 25 see
3
)
Welded bars included tack welding
and butt joint
b
)
10
6
3 5 60 100
Couplers
b
)
Table 6: nominal ratio of mean bond stress of prestressing steel and high bond
reinforcement
Type of tendon Pretensioned menders Posttensioned menders
smooth prestressing steel  0.4
7wire strands 0.6 0.5
ribbed prestressing wires 0.8 0.7
ribbed prestressing bars 1.0 0.8
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
54 BE963942 EuroLightCon
4.2.5 Material check prestressing steel
[6,p33] The values given are applicable only to the factored fatigue load model 3 according to
ENV 19913.
For calculation of the damage equivalent stress ranges for steel verification, the axle loads of the
fatigue load model 3 shall be multiplied by factors:
1.75 for verification at the intermediate supports;
1,40 for verification in other areas.
The damage equivalent stress range for steel verification should be calculated according to:
s;equ
=
s;EC
s
Where:
s =
fat
s;1
s;2
s;3
s;4
Where:
fat
= 1.2 for surface of good roughness;
fat
= 1.4 for surface of medium roughness;
s;1
taken from ;
Figure 29:
s;1
value for fatigue verification in the intermediate support area
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 55
s
obs k
Q
N
;
.
2
2 0
2
Where:
N
obs
according to ENV 19913; table 4.5;
k2 taken from Table 4 or Table 5;
Q taken from;
s
Years k
N
;3
100
2
Where:
N
obs
according to ENV 19913; table 4.5;
s
obs i
obs
k
N
N
;
;
;
4
1
2
Where:
N
obs
according to ENV 19913; table 4.5;
According to ENV 19913 Annex B, an additional impact factor should be taken into account to
verify the sections within the distance of 6.0 [m] where m an expansion joint.
Figure 30: ls;1 value for fatigue verification in span and for local elements
Table 7: factors for traffic type Q
Traffic type (see ENV 19913, table 4.7)
Q factor for long distance medium distance local traffic
k
2
= 5 1.0 0.90 0.73
k
2
= 7 1.0 0.92 0.78
k
2
= 9 1.0 0.94 0.82
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
56 BE963942 EuroLightCon
4.3 Model Code 1990
For concrete stresses have to be determined by the linear elastic theory. Parts of sections of
reinforced concrete under tensile stress have to be taken into account as cracked.
Model Code 1990 gives 3 material checks on fatigue of concrete and steel.
1. Verification by means of a simplified method. This method is only valid when constructions
are designed on a limited number of loading cycles, less than 10
8
;
2. Verification by means of one single loading level. This method takes into account the desired
life of the construction. The number of loading cycles is known and is equal to a calculation
based on constant amplitude tests.
3. Verification by means of a loading spectrum. This method takes into account life, loading
spectrum ant the characteristic SN lines (Wohlerdiagram).
The methods are listed with increasing accuracy.
Ad 3) this method takes into account total life, the spectrum of loading during life and fatigue
strength during life. Fatigue damage D is calculated by using the PalmgrenMinder sum:
D
n
N
Si
Ri
i
j
1
Adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the expression D D
lim
is satisfied. By using a
appropriate method for counting, e.g. Rainflow method, in many cases D
lim
= 1 can be used.
4.3.1 Modulus of elasticity of concrete
For the concrete 10% of the modulus of elasticity of steel has to be taken into account.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 57
4.3.2 Fatigue of concrete under compression
Method 1:
Failure due to fatigue will not occur when:
Sd
c;max
c
0.45 f
cd;fat
Where:
Sd
= 1.0
c
c
c
1
15 0 5
1
2
. .
f
t
f
f
f
cd fat
cc
c
ck
c k
c k
; ;
;
;
. ( )
_
,
1
]
1
1
0 85
1
25
0
Where:
cc
(t) = 1.0 [  ];
c
= 1.5 [  ];
f
c;k0
= 10 [MPa].
Method 2:
4.3.2.1 Maximum number of cycles until failure
Concrete adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if number of cycles during life n is less
than number of cycles until failure N:
n < N
For concrete under compression:
0 <
c;min
< 0.8
logN
1
= (12 + 16
c;min
+ 8
2
c;min
) (1 
c;max
)
logN
2
= 0.2 logN
1
(logN
1
 1)
logN
3
= logN
2
(0.3  3/8
c;min
)/(
c;max

c;min
)
If log N
1
6 than: logN = logN
1
;
If logN
1
> 6 and
cd;max
0.3  3/8
cd;min
than logN = logN
2;
If logN
1
> 6 and
cd;max
< 0.3  3/8
cd;min
than logN = logN
3;
c;min
0.8
c;min
= 0.8.
With:
c;max
=
Sd
c;max
c
/ f
cd;fat
;
c;min
=
Sd
c;min
c
/ f
cd;fat
;
c2
c1
300
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
58 BE963942 EuroLightCon
For comparison to other codes the following values are used:
cd
c k
c k
f
f
;max
;
;
.
_
,
0 255 1
250
Where:
fc;k = 0.85 45 [MPa].
cd c k
f
;max ;
. 0 216 .
4.3.3 Fatigue of concrete under tension
Method 1:
Failure due to fatigue will not occur when:
c;max
0.33 f
cd;fat
Where:
f
f
ctd fat
ckt
c fat
;
.
;
0 05
Where:
f
f
f
ckt
ck
ck
0 05
0
2
3
0 95
.
.
_
,
c;fat
= 1.5 [  ];
f
c;k0
= 10 [MPa].
Method 2:
Log N = 12(1x)
Where:
x =
Sd
ct;max
/ f
ctd;fat
.
4.3.4 Fatigue of concrete under shear
4.3.4.1 Sections without shear reinforcement
No failure due to fatigue will occur when the number of loading cycles during life, n, remains less
than the number of cycles until failure, N:
n N.
With:
log
;max
N
V
V
rep
ref
_
,
10 1
4.3.4.2 Sections with shear reinforcement
Stresses in the shear reinforcement are calculated according to the truss analogy. The stresses
are reduced by a reduction of the angle between the concrete compression bars and the line of
the girder.
tg fat = tg.
Using the rules for compressive strength multiplied with a reduction of 0.7 checks the strength of
the compression struts.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 59
4.3.5 Fatigue of reinforcement
Method 1:
For reinforcement subjected to tension, adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the fol
lowing expression is satisfied:
Sd
max
Ss
Rsk
/
s;fat
Where:
Sd
= 1.0;
Rsk
from Table 8;
s;fat
=1.15.
Method 2:
For reinforcement subjected to tension, adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the fol
lowing expression is satisfied:
Sd
max
Ss
Rsk
(n) /
s;fat
Where:
Sd
= 1.0;
Rsk
from Table 8;
s;fat
=1.15.
a) Values of
Rsk
are those of the appropriate straight bar. Values far a bar diameter of
with a bend diameter should be obtained by multiplying the straight bar values a reduction
factor = 0.35+0.026D/
4.3.6 Fatigue of prestressing steel
Method 2:
For prestressing steel subjected to tension, adequate fatigue resistance may be assumed if the
following expression is satisfied:
Sd
max
Ss
Rsk
(n) /
s;fat
Where:
Sd
= 1.0;
Rsk
from Table 9;
s;fat
=1.15.
Table 8: parameters of SN curves for reinforcing steel (Model Code)
Type of reinforcement
Rsk
at
N
*
k
1
k
2
N
*
cycles 10
8
cycles
Straight and bent bars for D 25
for 16 [mm] 10
6
5 9 210 125
for < 16 [mm] 10
6
5 9 160 95
Bent bars for D < 25 10
6
5 9
a)
a)
Welded bars included tack welding
and butt joint
b
)
10
7
3 5 50 30
Seawater environment 10
7
3 5 65 40
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
60 BE963942 EuroLightCon
4.4 Comparison of the codes
In the next section the decried articles in de codes are compared.
4.4.1 Loading and material factors
4.4.1.1 Concrete
The loading factor in all standards is 1.0. This implies that calculations on fatigue have to be
completed on serviceability limit state. Material factors of different codes are given in Table
10.[1, p73]
VBB = Dutch code: Concrete bridges. Structural requirements and calculation methods
(1995);
EC 2/2 = Euro code 2, part 2: Concrete bridges (1996);
MC 1990 = Model Code 1990.
4.4.1.2 Reinforcement
In all standards a material factor for reinforcement of
m
= 1.15 is given.
4.4.2 Modulus of elasticity
In tests it is noticed that under cyclic loading the modulus of elasticity reduces to about 60% of
the initial value.
In VBB 1995 the modulus of elasticity is reduced to 60% of the static modulus.
In EC2/2 as well as in MC1990 a ratio of E
s
/E
b
= 10 is given. (Were E
s
= E
reinforcement
). Also see
Figure 31, were E
static
according to TGB 1990 (Dutch code). [1,p75]
Table 9: parameters for the SN curves of prestressing steel (Model Code)
S_N curve of prestressing steel used for stress
exponent
Rsk
[MPa] at N =
N
*
k
1
k
2
N
*
cycles 10
8
cycles
Pretentioning 10
6
5 9 160 95
posttentioning
Bent strands 10
6
5 9 185 170
Straight tendons 10
6
5 9 160 145
Couplers 10
6
3 5 80 30
Table 10: material factors
VBB 1995 EC2/2 MC1990
Compression 1.2 1.5 1.5
Tension 1.4 1.5 1.5
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 61
4.4.3 Ultimate fatigue compressive stresses
Until now no clear ultimate fatigue level has been found. Codes, however, give ultimate fatigue
stress levels, as given in Figure 32. All values are related to compressive cylinder strength. To
convert it to cubic compression strength it has to be divided by 0.85.
Reduction Emodulus under fatigue
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
B15 B25 B35 B45 B55 B65
characteristic cube compression strength
E

f
a
t
i
g
u
e
/
E

s
t
a
t
i
c
EC2/2 & MC1990
VBB
Figure 31: Reduction of Emodulus under fatigue vs. characteristic compressive cube
strength
Table 11:
c;max
/f
c;k
according to VBB, EC2/2 and MC 1990
f
c;c
f
c;k
VBB
c;max
/f
c;c
EC 2/2
m;max
/f
c;c
MC 1990
c;max
/f
c;c
B15 12.75 0.177 0.33 0.242
B25 21.25 0.177 0.33 0.234
B30 25.50 0.177 0.33 0.229
B35 29.75 0.165 0.33 0.225
B45 38.25 0.148 0.33 0.216
B55 46.75 0.137 0.33 0.208
B65 55.25 0.130 0.33 0.199
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
62 BE963942 EuroLightCon
From Figure 32 it can be concluded that, VBB 1995 gives conservative value of fatigue strength.
At higher compressive strengths fatigue strength of VBB is about half the value of EC2/2.[1,
p74]
4.4.4 Hypothesises of damage development and methods for counting
All codes use Miners hypothesis as hypothesis of damage development, this implies its common
acceptance. Only MC1990 gives a method for counting; rainflow method.
Research has shown that Miners hypothesis gives a good indication of the total life span in com
bination with the TNO method of counting. Therefore it is remarkable the other codes do not
give a method for counting. [1,p75]
4.4.5 Stress gradient
MC1990 and EC2/2 pay attention to stress gradients. VBB does not.
Test however gives only slight favourable influence of stress gradients on the life of a construc
tion. So slight, that it can be neglected. [1,p75]
4.4.6 Frequency
None of the mentioned codes takes into account the influence of frequency on fatigue. Research
has shown that frequency influences the fatigue life of a construction. Total life however is not
influenced by frequency. [1,p75]
Fatigue of concrete under compression
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
B15 B25 B35 B45 B55 B65
characteristic cube compression strength
c
;
m
a
x
/
f
c
d
VBB
EC 2/2
MC 1990
Figure 32: No fatigue of concrete under compression will occur when
c;max
/f
cd
ratio does
not exceed given limits
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 63
4.4.7 Maximum number of cycles under compression
All codes give equations for a Wohlerdiagram. For comparison of the codes the following val
ues of parameters are used:
R = 0.2;
f
c;c
= 45 [MPa]
This results in the diagram of Figure 33.
Euro Code gives positive values, Model Code is most negative.
4.4.8 Diameter of the reinforcement
Larger diameters are more sensitive for fatigue. In all codes an (arbitrary) border is drawn be
tween the diameters. [1,p79]
4.4.9 Couplers of reinforcement
Tests have shown that couplers have negative influence on concrete as well as on prestressing
steel. In all codes these influences are implemented according to the results of the tests. [1,p79]
4.4.10 Bending diameter of reinforcement
As well as the diameter and couplers the bending of bars influences the fatigue life of the rein
forcement steel. All three codes take into account the bending diameter of the bars. [1,p80]
Wohlerdiagram of concrete under
compression
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0 2 4 6 8 10
Log (Ni)
m
a
x
/
f
c
;
c
VBB
EC
MC
Figure 33: Wohlerdiagram according of the codes for concrete under compression
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
64 BE963942 EuroLightCon
5. PROPOSAL FOR TESTS ON LWAC
5.1 Shape and dimensions
The tests should be done on cylinders or prisms edge or diameter is 100 [mm]. To avoid the in
fluence of the testing equipment on the stress distribution and to create a pure tensile or com
pression midzone, the preferred length of the LWAC specimens has to be at least 2.5 times the
diameter respectively edge.
5.2 Storage/testing conditions
The fatigue tests on NDC has shown significant influence of humidity on fatigue life. This con
clusion should be checked on LWAC. The influence of temperature has not been tested jet. It
may be possible that the temperature has some influence on the fatigue life of a structure, espe
cially in combination with extreme humidity.
Considering the annual average weather conditions in the Netherlands the fatigue tests on
LWAC specimens should be done at following humidity and temperature:
Humidity: maximum = 90%, minimum = 65%.
Temperature: maximum = 20C, minimum = 5C.
Proposed is to execute the tests at the mean value and the extremes. Verification tests should be
done on specimen kept under water.
Other countries should adjust these values according own average weather conditions.
5.3 Age of specimens
Because the specific way of building bridges with inverted Tbeams and topping, proposed age
of the LWAC specimens at the moment of testing should be 28 days for the topping and 90 days
for the beams.
5.4 Concrete Quality
Due to the fact that the inverted T girders (made in a factory) and the topping (cast in situ)
mostly have different concrete strength it is useful to test both strengths. The girder has charac
teristic cube strength of 55 [MPa]. The topping has characteristic cube strength of 35 [MPa].
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 65
5.5 Test setup
5.5.1 Type of tests
To approach behaviour of the LWAC under cyclic loading as good as possible, the following
tests should be done:
constant amplitude centric compression tests;
constant amplitude centric compression/tension tests.
Constant amplitude is proposed because previous tests on NDC have shown no significant dif
ference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude tests, also see paragraph 3.1.6.3:
Variable amplitude.
5.5.2 Method for counting
Because constant amplitude tests are recommended the number of counted cycles will be equal
to the number of cycles in the test. Specifying the method of counting is in this case not neces
sary.
5.5.3 Stress gradient
Although stresses in the bridge girders have a stress gradient, the fatigue tests on the LWAC
should be done centric on the specimens.
5.5.4 Frequency
To decrease testing time it is chosen to use a frequency of 5 [Hz]. Assuming 10
7
(10 million)
cycles before failure it takes 25 days before failure will occur.
In long during tests, time dependent characteristics like creep and shrinkage are influencing the
results. This influence should be checked, especially for the modulus of elasticity of the LWAC,
with lower frequency tests (0.5  1.0 [Hz])
5.5.5 Stress levels
The proposed level of the tensile and compressive
stresses in the fatigue tests is obtained from the
bridge calculations.
For compressive stresses minimum stress will be
0.3f
cc
[MPa] and maximum stress should be
0.6f
cc
[MPa]. These stresses are calculated for
the top of the inverted Tbeams, also see the re
port.
For compression/tension tests, compression level
should be 0.10f
cc
and tension 0.424f
ctk
. These
stresses are calculated for the bottom of the in
verted Tbeams.
For the LWAC topping only centric constant amplitude compression tests with same stress lev
Figure 34: cross section of a beam
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
66 BE963942 EuroLightCon
els as for the beams can be used.
5.6 Additional research
Because tests on fatigue last a longer period time dependent characteristics of concrete can be
of influence. Therefore the next additional research is proposed:
creep tests at mean stress level;
shrinkage tests;
development of the modulus of elasticity.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 67
6. REFERENCES
[1] A.Jansen
Research to fatigue behaviour of topping on prefabricated concrete girders.
Master thesis in Dutch at Delft University of Technology, July 1996
[2] Gordana Petkovic
Properties of concrete related to fatigue damage with emphasis on high strength con
crete
Doctoral thesis at Trondheim University of Technology, May 1991
[3] Jouni Punkki
Effect of water absorption by the aggregate on properties of highstrength lightweight
concrete
Doctoral thesis at Trondheim University of Technology, December 1995
[4] Jouni Punkki
Crushed lightweight aggregate in concrete
Helsinki University of Technology may 1992
[5] Fatigue of concrete. Calculation procedures and backgrounds
CUR, report 9313; MaTS, report 18, December 1993
[6] Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. Part 2: Concrete bridges
NNI, Delft, February 1997
[7] Fatigue of concrete. Part 4: Compressive stresses (2)
CUR, report 163; MaTS, report 16, April 1993
[8] Fatigue of concrete. Part 1: Compressive stresses
CUR, report 112; MaTS, report 1, December 1983
[9] Dutch Code, VBB 1995: Concrete bridges. Structural requirements and calculation
methods
NNI, June 1995
[10] Dutch Code, TGB 1990: Regulations for concrete. Structural requirements and
calculation methods
NNI, September 1996
[1,ref7] Holmen, J.O.
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
68 BE963942 EuroLightCon
Fatigue of concrete by constant and variable amplitude loading
Trondheim, 1979
[1,ref10] Triana, L.A.; Jeragh, A.A.
Fatigue of plain concrete subjected to biaxialcyclical lading.
In: Fatigue of concrete structures.
ACI Publications SP75, 1982, p217234
[1, ref. 11] Fatigue of concrete. Part 3: Tension and tensioncompression (2).
IRO/MaTS/CURreport 137, Gouda, 1989
[1, ref. 13] Hordijk, D.A.; Vries, J. de; Wolsink, G.M..
Hard limestone concrete or gravel concrete. A comparison.
In Dutch, Cement nr10, 's Hertogenbosch, 1995
[1, ref. 14] Fatigue of concrete structures.
CEBbulletin 188, Lausanne, 1988
[2, ref. 10] Sparks, P.R.
The influence of rate of loading and material variability on the fatigue characteristics of
concrete.
ACI publication SP75, 1982, p331343
[2, ref. 13] Freitag, W.
Das Verhalten von Konstruktionsleichtbeton bei konstanten und bei veranderlichen
Dauerschwingbeanspruchungen.
Dissertation in German, Die Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, 1973
[2, ref. 23] Tepfers, R;Grlin, J. and Samuelsson, T.
Concrete subjected to pulsating load and pulsating deformation of different pulse wave
forms.
Nordisk Betong, No. 4, 1973, p2736
[2, ref. 40] Holmen, J.O.
Fatigue of concrete by constant and variable amplitude loading
Bulletin No 791, Division of Concrete Structures, NTH  Trondheim, 1979
[2, ref. 41] Saito, M.; Imai,S..
Direct tensile fatigue of concrete by the use of friction grips.
ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 80 No. 5, 1983, p431  438
[2, ref. 42] Jinawath, P.
Cumulative fatigue damage of plain concrete in compression
PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, 1974
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
BE963942 EuroLightCon 69
[7, ref. 23] Ople, F.S. and Hulsbos, C.L.
Probable fatigue life of plain concrete with stress gradient.
Journal of the ACI, Proceedings 63/1966
Fatigue of normal weight and lightweight concrete
70 BE963942 EuroLightCon
7. NOMENCLATURE
LWA Lightweight aggregate
LWAC Lightweight aggregate concrete
NDA Normal density aggregate
NDC Normal density concrete
w/b water binder ratio
w/c water cement ratio
CEB Comit Eurointernational du Bton
CEN Comit Europen de Normalisation
CTR Cost Time Resources (form)
EN European Standard
FIB Fderation Internationale du Bton
FIP Fderation Internationale de la Prcontrainte
MG Management Group
TC Technical Committee (CEN)
TG Task Group
TLG Task Leaders Group