You are on page 1of 3

Roth 10e NCLEX Chapter 8

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The client asks the public health nurse how to preserve the minerals in cooked vegetables. Which of the following responses would be appropriate for the nurse to use? a. Boil all vegetables for at least 10 minutes. c. Steam vegetables to minimize loss of minerals in the cooking water. b. Minerals are not lost in cooking, so any d. Vegetables to not contain minerals, so do cooking method is fine. not be concerned about how to cook them. ANS: C Humans obtain minerals by eating plants grown in mineral-rich soils or by eating animals that have eaten such plants. Most minerals in food occur as salts, which are soluble in water. Therefore, the minerals leave the food and remain in the cooking water. Foods should be cooked in as little water as possible or, preferably, steamed. PTS: 1 REF: Introduction

2. In reviewing the clients chart, the nurse notes that the client was recently found to have hypokalemia. The nurse evaluates the clients food intake to see if the client is eating fruits and vegetables to provide the mineral lacking in those with hypokalemia. What mineral is the nutrient of concern? a. calcium c. Phosphorus b. chloride d. Potassium ANS: D Hypokalemia refers to a low level of potassium in the blood. PTS: 1 REF: Potassium

3. The nurse is discussing with a client ways in which the client can reduce dietary intake of sodium. Which of the following is the primary source of dietary sodium? a. cheese c. soft drinks b. softened water d. table salt ANS: D The primary dietary source of sodium is table salt, which is 40% sodium. Salt is typically added to prepared foods because it enhances flavor and helps preserve some foods by controlling growth of microorganisms. Fruits and vegetables contain little or no sodium. Drinking water contains sodium but in varying amounts. Softened water has a much higher sodium content than hard water. PTS: 1 REF: Sodium

4. The nurse is concerned about a child who has been ill with severe vomiting and diarrhea. The nurse knows that this illness may cause a deficiency in what mineral? a. cobalamin c. potassium b. molybdenum d. sodium ANS: D A deficiency of sodium can occur after severe vomiting, diarrhea, or heavy perspiration. PTS: 1 REF: Sodium

5. The nurse is explaining to a client who consumes a vegan diet that she is not getting any heme iron because animal proteins are not present in the vegan diet. She counsels the client to eat iron rich foods that contain nonheme iron and to be sure to consume foods that contain a vitamin that will enhance absorption of the nonheme iron. What vitamin is the nurse discussing? a. vitamin A c. vitamin D b. vitamin C d. vitamin E ANS: B For iron to be absorbed, it must be chemically changed from ferric to ferrous iron. This change is accomplished by the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Absorption of nonheme iron can be enhanced by consuming a vitamin C rich food and a nonheme iron-rich food at the same time. PTS: 1 REF: Iron

6. The pregnant client tells the nurse that she has completely eliminated salt from her diet in an attempt to reduce the edema in her ankles. The client states that she eats no processed foods or seafood, and adds no salt to her food. The nurse tells the client that table salt and seafood are the primary source of iodine in the diet and if the client consumes insufficient iodine, her child could suffer from what disorder? a. anemia c. hypogonadism b. cretinism d. low blood pressure ANS: B The children of mothers lacking sufficient iodine may suffer from cretinism (retarded physical and mental development). PTS: 1 MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. The nurse tells a client that eating a balanced diet will supply the minerals that help maintain the bodys electrolyte balance. Which of the following minerals will the nurse say are electrolytes? Select all that apply. a. chloride d. manganese b. chromium e. potassium c. iron f. sodium ANS: A, E, F Chloride, sodium, and potassium are the electrolytes. PTS: 1 REF: Potassium; Sodium; and Chloride

2. During assessment of a client, the nurse learns that the client is taking megadoses of many minerals. What general symptoms of mineral toxicity might the nurse expect to find? Select all that apply. a. changes in the blood b. changes in the blood vessels c. changes in bones d. changes in hormones e. changes in muscles f. hair loss

ANS: A, B, C, D, E, F When concentrated forms of minerals are taken on a regular basis, it is more than the body can handle and toxicity occurs. An excess of one mineral can cause a deficiency in another mineral. Excess minerals can also cause hair loss and changes in the blood, hormones, bones, muscles, blood vessels, and nearly all tissues.

PTS: 1 3. The nurse is reviewing a 3 year old childs dietary intake with the parents. The nurse notices that the child drinks soft drinks and juice, but no milk. The nurse knows that milk is a good source of calcium, a very important nutrient. In stressing to the parents the importance of consuming adequate calcium the nurse lists the functions of calcium in the body. Which of the following dietary teaching statements would the nurse make? Select all that apply. a. Calcium is needed for blood clotting. d. Calcium is needed for proper heart function. b. Calcium is needed for normal muscle e. Calcium is needed for strong bones. action. c. Calcium is needed for normal nerve f. Calcium is needed for strong teeth. transmission. ANS: A, B, C, D, E, F Calcium, in combination with phosphorus, is a component of bones and teeth, giving them strength and hardness. Calcium is needed for normal nerve and muscle action, blood clotting, heart function and cell metabolism. PTS: 1 REF: Calcium

4. The nurse tells a client that both calcium and phosphorus are necessary for development of strong bones and teeth. The nurse discusses good sources of calcium, but not phosphorus. This leads the client to ask about food sources of phosphorus. Which of the following statements could the nurse make about phosphorus? Select all that apply. a. Beans, while they do provide protein, do not provide phosphorus. b. Berries are significant source of phosphorus. c. Deficiency of phosphorus is rare because it is found in many foods. ANS: C, D, E, F Because phosphorus is found in so many foods, its deficiency is rare. Although phosphorus is widely distributed in foods, its best sources are protein rich foods such as milk, cheese, meats, poultry, and fish. Cereals, legumes, nuts, and soft drinks also contain substantial amounts of phosphorus. Berries are not a significant source of phosphorus. PTS: 1 REF: Phosphorus d. Nuts contain substantial amounts of phosphorus. e. Protein rich foods such as milk, cheese, meats, poultry and fish are the best food sources of phosphorus. f. Soft drinks contain significant amounts of phosphorus.