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UNIVERSITY
OF

MICHIGAN FLINT

BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN PLAN

Team BENCH GEO 491 Winter2013 |

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strength

safety

community
people

Professor Dr. Greg Rybarczyk

Team BENCH: Calix Martinez, Nina Larsen, Heather DeButts, Erin Johnston, and Brittany Price
“Whenever I see an adult on a bicycle I have hope for the human race” -H.G. Wells

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Located in the heart of Flint, Michigan, a city in the midst of writing its first new master plan in 50 years, The University of Michigan-Flint has a unique opportunity to play a vital role in the renewal and improvement of the downtown area. A major part of the University’s role in improving the downtown has been its efforts to improve bicycle and pedestrian facilities on and around campus. As a result of these ongoing efforts by city and university organizations, U of M – Flint was recently named a Bronze Level Bicycle Friendly University by the League of American Bicyclists. To facilitate further movement toward the eventual goal of Platinum Level Bicycle Friendly University status, a bicycle and pedestrian plan must be developed and approved by the University.

Bicycle transportation is becoming more popular in urban areas and university campus communities. U of M Flint must accommodate this growing trend to remain competitive with other institutions and promote the growth of the campus community, while keeping in mind the importance of facilitating and encouraging an active living lifestyle for the campus and surrounding community.

-Team BENCH

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Table of contents
Contents
Introduction ....................................................... 5 Goals .............................................................. 5 Current Assets ................................................ 5 Challenges and Opportunities........................ 5 Part I. Existing Conditions ............................... 6 Current Levels of Transportation Usage on Campus .......................................................... 8 Current Parking Area Usage .......................... 9 Current Pedestrian Activity.......................... 11 Current Bike Rack Usage and Bicyclist Density ......................................................... 13 Summary ...................................................... 13 Pedestrian and ADA Accessibility ................. 15 Pedestrian and ADA Accessibility Audit..... 15 Intersection of Saginaw St./5th Avenue ........ 16 Intersection of Kearsley St./Saginaw St. ...... 17 Intersection of University Blvd/Saginaw St. 19 Intersection at Kearsley St./Harrison St. ...... 21 Intersection at Chavez Dr./Kearsley St. ....... 23 Area surrounding UAH ................................ 25 Summary ...................................................... 26 Bicycle Accessibility on Campus .................... 27 Bicycle Accessibility Audit ......................... 27 Area 7 ........................................................... 28 Area 2 ........................................................... 29 Area 3 ........................................................... 30 Area 4 and 6 ................................................. 31 Area 5 ........................................................... 33 Summary ...................................................... 33

Current Enforcement ....................................... 34 Encouragement ................................................ 36 Current Education ............................................ 37 Part II. Improvements and Recommendations . 39 Intersection of Saginaw St. and 5th Ave. ...... 41 Intersection of Kearsley St./Saginaw St. ..... 42 Intersection of University Blv./Saginaw St. 43 Intersection at Kearsley St./Harrison St....... 44 Intersection at Chavez Dr./Kearsley St. ....... 45 Area surrounding UAH................................. 46 Funding ............................................................ 49 Implementation Strategy/Time Line ................ 50 References ....................................................... 51

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Introduction
Over the past several years, The University of Michigan-Flint has been working to improve pedestrian and bicycling facilities on and around campus. These ongoing efforts have recently led to achieving Bronze level Bicycle Friendly University (BFU) status by the League of American Bicyclists. Moving forward, it is important to develop a master bicycle and pedestrian plan as a guideline to further planning and implementation. Goals  Improving existing and creating new connections between campus and the downtown area  Reducing vehicle miles traveled to reduce vehicle externalities  Promoting active living and promoting active living  Developing attractive and safe facilities for bicyclists and pedestrians  Contribute to strengthening the downtown network between businesses, campuses, parks, and other desirable locations  Contribute to the creation of a sense of “place” for the City of Flint  Achieve a higher status of BFU by the League of American Bicyclists Current Assets U of M-Flint has a growing, diverse student body, and with that comes a larger diversity of interests and activities.

The campus is centrally located in a diverse, urban downtown district with a growing academic, art, and food & beverage culture. We have an innovative Bicycle Skills Course facility on campus ready to be used for community and campus bicycle safety education. Campus is located at an attractive site on the Flint River with large shade trees and green space. The Flint River Trail already runs right through campus, providing an easy starting point for creating connections between campus and the surrounding community. Challenges and Opportunities Being a largely commuter school, one of the main challenges to creating this plan is the heavy influx of vehicles onto campus every day. The plan must address this, and seek to change driver habits through Education and Encouragement. Encouraging students, faculty and staff who travel shorter distances to walk, bike, or utilize public transportation as their mode of transportation to campus can play a large role in reaching the goal of reducing vehicle miles traveled. With the City of Flint writing their first master plan in 50 years, the University can use that opportunity to work with the city when building new facilities to improve safety throughout the surrounding downtown community. This gives the University an opportunity to play an integral role in building a stronger network of connections throughout the city.

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Part I. Existing Conditions
University of Michigan Flint Campus Area Including Urban Alternatives House

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Map 1 From the “Existing Transportation” map you can see that the major vehicle routes on the campus are Saginaw St, 5th Ave, Crapo St, and Kearsley St.

Map 2 From the “Existing Bicycle Facilities” map it’s evident that the bicycle level of service varies greatly across the campus area, most notable on the Saginaw St. corridor and its intersecting streets. It’s also evident that the bicycle facilities across the campus are not well connected.

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Map 3. From the “Existing and Proposed Pedestrian Routes” map you can see the pedestrian routes are concentrated around the campus area.

Current Levels of Transportation Usage on Campus
Before we could establish a plan or attempt to make any recommendations regarding pedestrian and bicycle accessibility and infrastructure we had to take inventory of existing conditions and measure current traffic volume. By conducting on site observations and measuring traffic volumes we can establish high priority areas for pedestrians and bicyclists. The maps created for this assignment depict current bicycle rack usage, pedestrian activity on campus, and existing parking area usage as well. Using GIS tools, density heat maps were created to interpolate pedestrian and bicycle level counts on campus. We were able to make recommendations based on the predicted levels of pedestrians and bicyclists for key areas on campus.

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Current Parking Area Usage
A parking survey conducted in the fall of 2010, indicated an under-usage of the parking facilities on campus. However, this data may be skewed due to an inclusion of information from weekends, spring and summer semesters. Further analysis should be done, breaking down the usage of parking facilities by semester and weekdays versus weekends. Current levels of transportation on campus indicate a high volume of automobile traffic. The majority of U of MFlint‟s students are commuters driving on average more than 5 miles one way, up to four days per week. The pie chart in Figure 1 shows that 73% of the students and staff commute more than 5 miles. (Gallagher). The highest traffic volume seems to be the Kearsley/Chavez area. This area consists of a traffic light at Kearsley and Chavez, as well as, a three-way stop at

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Kearsley and Mill streets. The traffic behavior here is very erratic. Drivers have been observed running stop signs, not yielding to pedestrians, and speeding.
73% 9% 18%

<1 mile

1-5 mile

>5 mile

Figure 1

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Current Pedestrian Activity
Pedestrian activity is high on campus. Most of the parking facilities are located near the periphery of campus therefore students walk up to 10 minutes to get to class. There are several areas that have a high volume of pedestrian traffic. One area with the largest volume of pedestrian traffic is near the Mill Street parking garage. In the mornings there is a constant stream of students coming to and from the parking structure. Here, the majority of drivers roll through the stop signs causing pedestrians to have to wait for them, when it should be the other way around. Kearsley Street and Wallenberg is also a high density area for pedestrians. This is a three-way stop intersection that drivers also tend to roll through, as well as, fail to yield to the pedestrians. Disobeying the speed limit is also a factor here. A large volume of students cross Kearsley to get to French Hall and Murchie Science Building. A third area that has a high volume of pedestrian traffic is at the Harrison Street

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and Kearsley intersection. Many students use the parking structure here and have to cross the street to get to campus buildings. A large amount of the pedestrian traffic at this crossing, are students going to the

University Pavilion building. In both cases, students have to cross Harrison Street which is a hazard. Many drivers do not obey any speed limits here and do not pay attention to pedestrians in crosswalks.

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Current Bike Rack Usage and Bicyclist Density
Bicycle facilities on campus are extremely underutilized. There are many bicycle racks located around campus that are almost empty at all times. Given the amount of students who live in the area, this could be changed with more education and encouragement, to provide incentive to bike to campus. Also, there are not enough covered bicycle racks where a cyclist can park their bike to protect it from Michigan‟s inclement weather. In the spring/summer when the weather gets warm, a student may want to take a shower to clean up after a long bike ride, so providing access to shower facilities may be something to investigate further. Proper bike lanes leading in to campus will also encourage more people to ride to campus instead of drive. Safety is their biggest concern. Many of the roads leading in to the Flint are high speed and not safe to cyclists who do not have a dedicated road space.

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Summary
Current transportation conditions on University of Michigan-Flint campus indicate a high volume of automobile traffic and a need for traffic law enforcement. Driver education and some minor engineering changes will be pivotal to providing a safer environment for pedestrians and bicyclists and will encourage walking and bicycling. There is a high volume of pedestrian traffic, which shows a need for traffic calming devices and well-designed crosswalks for pedestrians and bicyclists. Bicycle traffic is still low. It is possible education and encouragement could offer incentives to utilize this mode of transportation and alleviate automobile traffic volumes.

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Pedestrian and ADA Accessibility

Pedestrian and ADA Accessibility Audit
Pedestrian and ADA data for multiple intersections were collected on and near the U of M Flint campus. Team Bench observed the conditions and functionality of walkways and intersections in six different locations. An important note is that these observations while made during peak pedestrian travel times on campus were made in the middle of March on extremely cold days. The observations may not accurately describe the typical pedestrian patterns during the warm months.

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Intersection of Saginaw St. and 5th Avenue

Observations were made on 3/14/13 at 2:50pm.The intersection of 5th Avenue and Saginaw Street, just north of downtown Flint, consists of four travel lanes and two turn lanes on Saginaw and four travel lanes and one turn lane on 5th avenue. The land use surrounding the intersection consists of a large amount of parking for the University of Michigan-Flint, a Rally‟s Hamburger restaurant, St. Michaels Roman Catholic Church, New Horizons Rehabilitation Services, and MI Work Employment Services. The area provides social services

to low income residents of the city at New Horizons, MI Work, Career Alliance, and Catholic Charities. On the northwest corner of the intersection is a bus stop which provides transportation to these services to non-automobile owners. The intersection consists mostly of automobile traffic, although while evaluating the intersection two bicyclists and some pedestrians were observed. Visibility for the intersection was clear and unobstructed except for a tree on the northeast corner. The posted speed limit for

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the area is 30 mph. The speed limit seemed appropriate for the amount of traffic that was seen, however there were some observed drivers that were speeding relative to the other vehicles. There were no observations of backed up traffic in the travel or turning lanes and no traffic calming devices seen. The crossing signals for the intersection seemed adequate if traveling at

an average walking speed without disabilities. Traveling across the street from east to west the signal time was clocked at 20.74 seconds and 26.15 seconds when crossing south to north. All four corners of the intersection had texture pads on site to accommodate the disabled but some obstacles were present.

Intersection of Kearsley St. and Saginaw St.

Observations were taken on 3/12/13at 10 am as well as on 3/15/13 at 12 pm. This intersection is located at the west end of the University of Michigan-Flint

campus. This is a high traffic area for vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians. Pedestrian traffic includes campus students, business customers and business

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professionals who work downtown. This is also a historic street paved with bricks that date back over 100 years. Any recommendations for change must be made with care regarding this street. It is a four way intersection with traffic lights, including left turn lights. Right turns are allowed on red. Visibility is good with a clear line of sight all four ways although one concern might be that parked cars have the potential to be a visual obstruction for a disabled individual. At night it is very well lit so there are no concerns in that aspect. Visibility is not hindered by landscaping and street furniture. The speed limit is not posted on either Kearsley or Saginaw within sight at this intersection. Traffic calming implements are not present at this intersection although the bricks themselves are a natural calming device. Cars were observed to be traveling northbound at a high rate of speed. The behavior of vehicular traffic seems to be that vehicles speed up significantly as they proceed north through this intersection, due to the bricks getting slightly more level and ending just a short way up the road. Southbound vehicles on Saginaw tended to slow down coming to the intersection. This is presumably due to the

bricks. The bricks seem to have a dual effect on traffic. In one respect, because they are very uneven and bumpy, most drivers drive slower, thus being safer for pedestrians and cyclists. On the other hand, when the bricks are wet due to precipitation, they become very slippery, making it dangerous if drivers need to stop quickly. Travel lanes on Saginaw are one lane each way and a left turn lane. On street parking are on both sides of Saginaw St. south of Kearsley and only on the west side of the road north of Kearsley. There are bike lanes designated and marked with pavement markings and sharrows on both sides of the street. Travel lanes on Kearsley are also one lane each way with a left turn lane. On street parking is available on the south side of Kearsley, both to the east and west of Saginaw. There are pavement markings and sharrows in the eastbound lane indicating road bike travel is allowed here. The crosswalk signals here average about 35 seconds for all of them. This is a hazard for disabled persons that have physical mobility issues as well as those that utilize mobility aids such as wheelchairs and crutches. 35 seconds is not enough time for the majority of disabled individuals to cross safely. There are no pedestrian push buttons for the crosswalk signal located here.

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The crosswalks themselves are in poor condition crossing Saginaw. The historic bricks that pave it have heaved with the freeze thaw cycles of Michigan weather. Many are also cracked and broken from heavy vehicle traffic over the years. This is a commercial area and as such requires heavy vehicles to traverse it to make deliveries and pick-ups. The pavement markings are heavily weathered and worn. Observation of pedestrian behavior indicates inconsistency,

with some people utilizing the crosswalk and others jaywalking. Sidewalks leading up to crosswalks are in somewhat fair condition. There are some minor issues that should be looked into such as some sidewalk slabs heaved and curb-cut placement. The landings are not as level as they could be. There are textured warning pads for the visually impaired at each crosswalk.

Intersection of University Blvd. and Saginaw St.

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(Intersection of University Blvd. and Saginaw St. cont.)
Observations were taken on 3/12/13 at approximately 12 pm. At the intersection of University Boulevard and Saginaw Street pedestrian safety is a top priority. Along this intersection there is a hotel, an abandoned market, a bus stop, and an absence of parallel parking. There are no pedestrian specific signs other than the traffic lights that are in time with the pedestrian crosswalk signals. At several ends of the crosswalk there is either no ADA texture pad or a faded texture pad that has been worn down and is shown in Figure 3. On the north side crossing Saginaw St. there is a hole in the crosswalk pavement that could be a hazard. The traffic speed is labeled 25 mph on both Saginaw Street and University Boulevard. The sidewalks around the intersection were all in good condition, however the slope of a couple of the corners when approaching the sidewalks from the crosswalk are steep. There were no visibility issues that arose when testing each individual crosswalk. All crosswalks on all four sides of the intersection had pedestrian signals timed at 29 seconds to cross which seems to be plenty of time for the average individual. During the 40 minutes of observation time a couple of pedestrians were jaywalking versus using the crosswalks to get across the street. A man was observed walking across Saginaw Street, a four lane road, from the east side to the west side while using the left turning lane to observe if there was any oncoming traffic. Twenty feet away from where he was crossing the road, there was a crosswalk conveniently available for him to use, however he chose not to. Not only did he cross the road illegally, but he also chose to cross while the traffic light was green with oncoming traffic at a distance. The second pedestrian violating the traffic laws was a female jogger running down the bike lane in University Boulevard. Without pause she continued to jog down the side of the road crossing in the middle of the intersection. There were no cars around at the moment, however she still could have easily used the crosswalk to get across the road safety, but chose not to.

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Intersection at Kearsley St. and Harrison St.

Observations were taken on 3/12/13 at 10:30 am. This intersection is probably the most dangerous of all the intersections observed in this study. The buildings surrounding this intersection are mainly campus parking garages and academic centers as well as a flat parking lot. Kearsley St. is a very busy pedestrian corridor that links U of M Flint campus to downtown

Saginaw St. while Harrison St. is a busy vehicle corridor that allows traffic to bypass Saginaw St. to get around the downtown area. The main problem here is the need for pedestrians to cross a busy road. The speed on both roads is 25mph and seems to not be an issue on Kearsley however speed is a factor on Harrison St.

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Harrison St. south of the intersection it is one way with 2 vehicle travel lanes, parallel parking on the west side of the street and a bike lane on the east side of the street. Just past the intersection heading north it immediately changes to 4 vehicle travel lanes and is shown in Figure 2. The bike lane ended at the intersection as did the on street parking. The entire corridor is nicknamed the autobahn because of the intense speeds that are a major safety concern for pedestrian and bicyclists. Kearsley St. is a two way street with one lane for each direction of traffic and a bike lane on both sides of the street. The sidewalks surrounding the intersections are in good condition. The ADA texture pads are present and functioning. Recently there was a solar powered speed detector and display put in place on Harrison St. just north of the intersection as a speed deterrent although from observation vehicle traffic was still moving at very high speeds. The only visibility issues are poles which may be a visual obstruction on the southeast corner of Harrison St. that may pose to be a concern for drivers and pedestrians on Kearsley St. heading west. There does not seem to be any observed lighting issues on either street. The crosswalk signal was timed on both streets and it was found that the walk signal crossing Harrison St. was 36 seconds and crossing Kearsley it was 22 seconds. They both seemed adequate for the distance that needed to be covered to get across safely. During the observation of this intersection there were multiple instances of jaywalking further down Harrison St. north of the intersection and pedestrians not adhering to the cross walk signal which is a serious concern because of vehicular speeds.
Figure 2

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Intersection at Chavez Dr. and Kearsley St.

Observations were made on 3/16/13 at 3:30 pm. The Chavez Drive and Kearsley Street intersection sits on the eastern border of campus, just before Kearsley St. crosses over I-475 heading east. This intersection has moderate pedestrian traffic. The speed limits for Chavez and Kearsley are 35mph and 25mph respectively. Chavez is one-way at this intersection with three southbound lanes, Kearsley is two-way with one lane each direction. At the intersection, Kearsley has a right turn lane on the eastbound side to turn onto Chavez and a left turn lane on the westbound side. There are bike lanes on

Kearsley up to the intersection that do not continue on the bridge or further east past I475. There are four crosswalks at the intersection; two running north and south across Kearsley, and two running east and west across Chavez. Timing the crosswalk lights showed that the total walk time crossing Kearsley was around 45 seconds. That breaks down to 30 seconds white and 15 seconds flashing red. Crossing Chavez the total walk time was around 35 seconds, 25 seconds white and 10 seconds flashing red. This seemed to be sufficient time to

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cross each way. There are no traffic calming devices at the intersection aside from the stop signs at the crosswalk further back on Kearsley and the traffic lights at the intersection. Visibility is good in all directions. The intersection is well lit with one large street light on each corner. Sidewalk quality is good near this intersection however there was one area of raised, jagged concrete around a manhole cover that could be a tripping hazard. The intersection is fair for ADA standards. The .

main issues are the curb cuts are not all smooth and the timing crossing Chavez may be too short. Driver behavior posed some problems at this intersection. The biggest issue was speeding on Chavez and drivers accelerating through yellow lights. On a green light, a vehicle was witnessed speeding up to turn right onto Kearsley from Chavez in front of a pedestrian who was beginning to cross Kearsley. This is a serious safety concern

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Area surrounding Urban Alternatives House

Observations were made on 3/16/13 at 3 pm. The Urban Alternatives House (UAH) is located at the dead end of Eddy Street, with the side yard backed up against Crapo Street. Eddy St. is a short residential street with no defined lanes and no posted speed limit; however traffic is very slow due to the dead end and vehicles can park on the side of the road. Crapo Street is a two-lane through street with an appropriate speed limit of 30mph. ADA accessibility is limited around the house. The house itself has a ramp that is accessible from the Eddy St. driveway and sidewalk. At the time of observation,

visibility of the sidewalks was limited due to recent snowfall; however it was clear to see that the sidewalks are too narrow for wheelchair accessibility. Additionally, the sidewalks not being cleared from snow due to the residential nature of the streets poses an issue for pedestrian travel around the house during winter months. There is access for bicycles from each street via the driveways and bike racks, but there are no bike lanes along Kearsley street between the UAH and campus, and there are no bike lanes along Crapo St. Visibility is fair on both Crapo and Eddy streets. Lighting on both streets is poor.

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There are streetlights on Crapo and Eddy streets as well as the outside of the UAH, however observing the area at night you can see that it is still dark on the sidewalks. There were no pedestrians to observe at the time of observation. Visual analysis of driver behavior on Crapo Street showed

drivers frequently exceeding the speed limit. There are no traffic calming devices on Crapo St. and the infrequent amount of vehicle travel and street width seem to promote speeding.

Summary
Overall there are many intersections and corridors within and around campus that need to be addressed. It is clear that all 5 e‟s need to be looked at. Education, on how to share the road safely. It will take encouragement to progressively make a cultural shift in driver behavior so that more people will feel safe to walk and bike in the City of Flint and University of Michigan‟s Flint campus.

encouragement and enforcement are at the forefront of what needs to be addressed first. There are many recommendations that do not involve enormous sums of money in order to educate both drivers and pedestrians

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Bicycle Accessibility on Campus

Bicycle Accessibility Audit
Various methods were used to collect bicycle infrastructure data and use that to assess the safety and attractiveness of the transportation environment on and near U of M Flint‟s campus. Direct observations were taken on Thursday April 4, 2013 around 9 a.m. using campus bicycles. The groups traveled by bike on a predetermined route and familiarize themselves on the campus bicycle skills road course and then continued on to different study areas with assessment checklists. The criteria for the audit forms regarding each study area will be further discussed in this assignment as well as recommendations to increase safety and attractiveness. The route and study areas are shown in Figure 1 and each study area is discussed in order as it was observed on the bike route.

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Area 7
At the intersection of Kearsley and Harrison Streets there is a high traffic volume of automobiles. The traffic speed down Harrison Street is posted at 25 miles per hour, however many automobiles will speed to around 35 miles per hour. There is a traffic light with pedestrian signage at all four corners of the intersection, providing access for safe crossing. There is a bike lane on both sides of Kearsley Street, however none down Harrison Street. With Harrison Street being a 4 lane one way, there should be two directional bike lanes added and additional traffic calming devices to help

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slow down this high volume traffic area, such as turning it into a 2 way directional road. All drain gates are adequate for bicyclist safety, except for the drain plate on the south side of the intersection on Harrison Street. This drain plate is placed near the corner of the intersection on the bike route and has a pavement dip surrounding it creating the possibility for a bicyclist to trip their bike wheel while approaching the

intersection. Also, following down the north curb side of Kearsley Street, before and after the intersection, the pavement is broken up and uneven along the right side of the bike lane. This pavement section should be repaired and smoothened so that bicyclist can ride safety without the hazard of tripping their bike on broken pieces of pavement. This is shown below.

Pavement dip at drain plate Cracked pavement along bike lane

Area 2
The intersection of Kearsley and Mill St. is one of the busiest on U of MFlint‟s campus. It is a three-way intersection with stop signs and well defined bike lanes. Kearsley is two lanes west of the intersection and 4 lanes east of it (two coming in to the campus and 2 leaving campus). There is a boulevard at the entrance to the campus on Kearsley at Chavez. The road surface is very smooth and easy for bicyclists to traverse. Visibility is good both to the west and north, but to the east, going towards the Chavez intersection and the bridge that crosses I-475, the visibility is very poor, due to a hill. This creates a hazard for both cyclists riding here and drivers who are

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travelling westbound on Kearsley. It is difficult to see the oncoming traffic while on a bicycle. There are also no signals for cyclists at the intersection of Kearsley and Chavez. Bike lanes proceeding through this intersection are present but are unclear as to how to use them. There are sharrows present on Kearsley, indicating a shared road space; however the meaning of these may be unclear to some. Driver behavior here is extremely hazardous to cyclists. Drivers continuously

failed to make complete stops, constantly rolling through stop signs and did not wait for cyclists or pedestrians. Speeding is also an issue. Campus speed limit is 15 mph, and it was clear many drivers were not obeying the speed limit. Enforcement by U of MFlint police is needed here. Education for drivers on sharing the road with bicycles is necessary so they know how to treat bikes lanes and cyclists, making the road safe for everyone.

Area 3
The crossing of Kearsley and Chavez includes the overpass bridge where Kearsley crosses over I-475. The lanes on the bridge are wide enough to accommodate bicyclists on either side, with adequate time to cross Chavez on both sides of the bridge. The speed limit changes to 35mph and moderate traffic volume seems safe for bicyclists on the bridge. However, Kearsley narrows East of Chavez and the bike lanes do not continue, so the 35mph speed becomes more dangerous because bikes and vehicles must share a lane without sharrows or any type of signage. Crossing the bridge, there were several areas of concern for bicyclists. First, along the entire shoulder of the bridge there is a layer of loose, fine-grained gravel and sand that caused bike tires to slip and skid when applying the brakes, which is a potential danger. Also, there was an area of broken pavement that could be dangerous if driven over by a bike, as well as several grates and holes with jagged edges that are hazardous. There are faint lines where it looked like bike lanes had been painted in the past, however they were largely faded or brushed away due to the loose gravel on the surface. A major suggestion for this area is

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to remove the loose gravel and paint clear bike lanes along the bridge. There is not much room to widen Kearsley East of the bridge for bike lanes, but the addition of

painted sharrows or “share the road” signage could increase safety for bicyclists going toward the Cultural Center and UAH from campus.

Area 4 and 6
Area 4 starts at the corner of Kearsley and Crapo streets and ends just in front of the Urban Alternatives House. This is a culturally rich neighborhood with lots of facilities such as the Planetarium, Public Library, and FIA that would benefit from being better connected with its surrounding neighborhood. This segment of road has a posted speed limit of 25mph and consists of two wide lanes of traffic with rounded curb cuts with a low traffic volume. There is an absence of shoulders or bike lanes, but an abundant amount of space available to accommodate a bike lane going north and southbound. Crapo St. is also lined with trees which reduce traffic speeds, provide shade and cover to pedestrians and bicyclists, and are aesthetically pleasing. The surface conditions of the roads and sidewalks were fair. Sidewalks were uneven and rough in some areas and need to be leveled out. There was also the presence of debris, such as sediment and broken glass. Some of the sediment seems to be coming from the curbs which are degrading; repairing the curbs may help reduce the debris issue. At the corner of Crapo St. and Kearsley St. it is a 4 way intersection with a stop light, but no cross signal. Due to the low traffic volumes and small width of the roads a pedestrian crossing signal is likely not necessary but should be present for safety reasons. Crosswalks are outlined with white lines and are in good condition. Visibility at the intersection was good, with no obstructions. Area 6 consists of the segment of Eddy St. in front of the UAH and the segment of Crapo St. from the UAH to Court St. The posted speed limit is 25mph

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and consists of four traffic lanes, low rounded curb cuts, and a low traffic volume. The school across the street is close d which in turn has decreased the traffic volume that may have been. Four lanes aren‟t necessary anymore for the amount of traffic this area experiences, so two of the lanes, one going north and one going south, should be converted into a bike lane and connect Court St. and Kearsley St. This segment of road would also benefit from finding a use or demolishing Central High School, which is now vacant and a deterrent to pedestrians and bicyclists. The facilities at the school are used by residents of Flint, namely the running track behind the vacant high school. By demolishing the southernmost building, or converting it to a recreational center, and making the track visible and accessible to the public you could change the character for the better on this segment of Crapo St. The area would become more friendly and accessible increasing bicyclist and pedestrian traffic volume. The surface conditions of the roads and sidewalks were similar to area 6 and had some uneven and rough areas which need maintenance. The curbs are also degrading

and contributing to sediment on the road. The sidewalk connecting Eddy St. to Crap St. is in poor condition and needs to be smoothed out and maintained. Visibility for this area is poor and could be increased by cutting back brush. The Crapo St. corridor, which areas 4 and 6 consists primarily of, has the potential to be a grade A bicycle corridor. This is due to the presence of a wide range of services and facilities in the area, low traffic volume of the streets, and the presence of trees along the roads to lower traffic speeds and provide shade for pedestrians and bicyclists

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Area 5
The intersection of Crapo St. and Court St. is a high traffic intersection with a traffic light and pedestrian walk signals. Signal times crossing east to west are brief and need to be extended by 5 more seconds to allow adequate crossing time for pedestrians, bicyclists, and the disabled. Drivers on Court Street were consistently observed running the red light which is a serious concern. This could be rectified by police enforcement. There are no bike lanes on Court St. nor is there any other signage. The speed limit is 25 mph and is rarely observed due to many young drivers attending Mott Community College. Court Street is a busy thoroughfare in general and needs better speed enforcement and signage so that drivers are more aware of the college campus area. This was the only street that we were not able to bike on due to justified safety concerns. The hill on Court west of the intersection creates visibility issues. In order to have better connectivity and a route back to campus it would be appropriate to include a bike lane heading east along court to reconnect with downtown and U of M Flint campus area.

Summary
In summary the five study areas included Harrison/Kearsley, Kearsley/Mill, Kearsley/Chavez, Crapo/Eddy and Crapo/Court Streets. All five study areas have many issues regarding bicycle and pedestrian safety concerns. Speed enforcement, signage, and improved infrastructure are recurring themes in each study area and should be addressed so that more people will feel safe to ride which in turn will improve people‟s perception if they see more bicyclists in and around the U of M Flint campus.

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Current Enforcement

Current Enforcement Strategies
Current enforcement strategies in place by University of Michigan- Flint Public Safety include:  Partners with other local law enforcement agencies in a collaborative effort in crime prevention and enforcing local laws.

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Issuing tickets to vehicles parked in violation of Flint ordinances and university regulations. Parking enforcement is continuous for violators of handicap, fire zones, and prohibited parking areas.

 

Enforces a „straight to jail‟ policy for drivers caught driving on a suspended license. Public safety officers on bicycles patrolling through campus and adjacent areas in downtown Flint have greater mobility and larger police presence than an officer in a car.

     

Patrols in golf carts. Work with walk and bike groups on campus. Implemented „yield to pedestrian‟ signs at most crosswalks. Issuing parking citations and warnings. Over 200 security cameras around campus. Have student patrol program.

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Encouragement
Encouragement is a key to a successful transition to sustainable transportation on campus. There are many ways to encourage active living and healthy transportation modes. Getting people interested in a sustainable transportation lifestyle is a major step towards a more active lifestyle, decreasing their dependence on their vehicles and increasing safety for all on campus.  Marketing Campaign- A full on marketing campaign can serve to promote awareness of the benefits of sustainable transportation. o Send emails o Create flyers with maps       Bicycle Skills Course- Get the word out. Many students don‟t know about the bicycle skills course. One way to do this is to integrate it into the new student orientation. U of M-Flint Walk and Bike Work Group Implementing pay for parking on campus to encourage walking and bicycling and promote off campus parking. Currently cost of parking is included in tuition. Incentive programs Bike Kiosk Program Special event days to promote alternative transportation o Bike to Work/Campus Day

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Current Education

Education Strategies
Current Education strategies that exist on the UM-Flint campus are the Flint River Trail Bicycle class, bicycle skills course, Maize bicycle safety brochures and the campus shuttle bus for pedestrians. To improve the education in the community we need to first focus on improving the programs that already exist by advocating and promoting the awareness of such programs.

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For the advocating of the Flint River Trail Bicycle class emails could be sent out to the UM-Flint students with pictures of the trail and historic information about the trail to encourage the involvement of more students into the program. The bicycle skills course could then be added to this class as a requirement in order to educate the awareness of bicycle etiquette on the road. The bicycle safety brochures could expand through the use of a webpage dedicated towards implementing the education of bicycle and pedestrian awareness. This website could provide current bike and pedestrian routes, locations of showers and lockers and any businesses that would attract bicyclist and pedestrians such as ice cream shops, cafes and coffee shops. A great way to increase the involvement of a more bicyclist and

pedestrian community would be to design a phone app that provides the routes of bike paths, bike lanes, pedestrian sidewalks and the locations of businesses that connect to these routes. Implementing a smartphone app would provide easy access to information regarding sustainable transportation options and supports the changes for connectivity within the city. Additional suggestions outside of current programs would be to add bicycle and pedestrian safety education as a requirement for orientation to new students attending UM-Flint; expanding this idea towards the initiation of enforcement on education for bicycle safety into driver‟s training would be fundamental to the expansion for state sustainable transportation education.

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Part II. Improvements and Recommendations

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Pedestrian and ADA Accessibility Improvements

Most of the audited intersections were in fair conditions but had room for ADA accessibility improvement. The following section contains images and tables for each of the intersection with each improvement ranked in their priority.

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Intersection of Saginaw St. and 5th Ave.
Proposed Improvements Traffic calming devises Road diet (Reduce from 4 to 2 lanes) and install bike lane Widen sidewalk to 60 inches (NW corner) Level incline by ¼ inch Trim vegetation (visibility)

Location Saginaw St. and 5th Ave. Saginaw St. and 5th Ave. Saginaw St. and 5th Ave. Saginaw St. and 5th Ave. Saginaw St. and 5th Ave.

Assessment Logic Traffic frequently exceeds posted speed limit. Traffic calming and increase accessibility. Increases wheelchair accessibility Incline from cross walk is too steep for the disabled. Trimming vegetation would be a low cost fix to improve visibility.

Rank

1

3

4

5

2

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Intersection of Kearsley St. and Saginaw St.

Proposed Improvements Speed limit signs should be posted Level bricks within the crosswalk Pedestrian activated crosswalk Increase crosswalk time

Location Kearsley St.and Saginaw St. Kearsley St.and Saginaw St. Kearsley St.and Saginaw St. Kearsley St.and Saginaw St.

Assessment Logic

Rank

Traffic calming Accessibility Improve traffic circulation and safety Safety

1 2 3 4

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Intersection of University Blvd. and Saginaw St.

Proposed Improvements

Location

Assessment Logic Safety and ADA accessibility Safety

Rank

Replace worn and missing texture pads

University Blvd. and Saginaw St. University Blvd. and Saginaw St.

2

Fix crosswalk signal

1

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Intersection at Kearsley St. and Harrison St.

Proposed Improvements Road diet Law enforcement Continue bike lane Textured sidewalk Sidewalk maintenance Signage

Location Kearsley St. and Harrison St. Kearsley St. and Harrison St. Kearsley St. and Harrison St. Kearsley St. and Harrison St. Kearsley St. and Harrison St. Kearsley St. and Harrison St.

Assessment Logic

Rank

Traffic calming Traffic calming Accessibility Safety Slush and ice build up. Safety

2 1 3 5 4 6

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Intersection at Chavez Dr. and Kearsley St.

Proposed Improvements Sidewalk maintenance Install crosswalk median

Location

Assessment Logic

Rank

Chaves Dr. and Kearsley St. Chaves Dr. and Kearsley St.

Safety and accessibility.

1

Safety

2

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Area surrounding Urban Alternatives House

Proposed Improvements Road diet (reduce to 2 lanes) Install bike lanes Reduce speed limit

Location Urban Alternative House Urban Alternative House Urban Alternative House

Assessment Logic

Rank

Traffic calming Accessibility Traffic calming

2 3 1

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Map 2 shows existing and proposed bicycle facilities and bicycle level of service of local roads

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Map 3 shows existing and proposed pedestrian routes

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Funding
Through the awarding of grants and mini grants a sustainable transportation master plan for the Flint area could be supported and funded. The main organization for the Genesee County Area, which includes the downtown area and the University of Michigan campus in Flint, is SAGE (Safe and Active Genesee for Everyone). SAGE is responsible for the collaborating of several different organizations working together to support safe and active living proposals such as the University of Michigan- Flint‟s sustainable transportation master plan. Grants that are available to look into are the following:

SAGE – Eight $1000 mini grants o Requirements  Proposal Coversheet  Proposal Plan  Letters of Support

Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities o Those Eligible  A local or state public agency  A for-profit organization (however, not allowed to gain profit off of project)  A nationally recognized and accredited University or College

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Implementation Strategy/Time Line
Present and Ongoing Traffic enforcement. Clear debris from sidewalks and streets. o Chavez, Kearsley, Crapo St.  Fix segments of streets and sidewalks that contribute to debris. Short Term 1-2 Years  Improve signage for bicyclists and drivers. o University Blvd and Saginaw St., Kearsley and Chavez, Kearsley St. and Harrison St., Kearsley St. and Saginaw st.  Fix sidewalks near UAH. o This should assist with the debris problem on the sidewalks and streets.  Design student orientation to incorporate bike, pedestrian and drivers education on campus  Trim vegetation to increase visibility. o Saginaw St. and 5th Avenue.  Level bricks within the crosswalk of Kearsley St. and Saginaw St.  Increase crosswalk time o Kearsley St. and Saginaw St,  Fix crosswalk signal at University Blvd. and Saginaw St.  Reduce speed limit around the UAH.  Pedestrian activated crosswalk at Kearsley St. and Saginaw St.  Replace worn and missing texture pads o University Blvd. and Saginaw St., Kearsley St. and Harrison St., Long Term 5-10 Years  Road diet: reduce lanes of traffic from 4 to 2. o Saginaw St., Crapo St.  Install proposed bike lanes and pedestrian facilities in additional space provided from the traffic lane reduction. o Increasing connectivity of existing routes should take priority over the creation of new routes of traffic.  Widen Sidewalk to 60inches at Saginaw St. and 5th Ave.  Level inclines to ¼ inch at Saginaw St. and 5th Ave.  Install Crosswalk median at Chavez Dr. and Kearsley St.  

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References
http://www.activelivingbydesign.org/what-we-do/albd-grant-program http://portal.hud.gov

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