# 8. TURBULENCE MODELLING1 8.1 Eddy-viscosity models 8.2 Advanced turbulence models 8.

3 Wall boundary conditions Summary References Examples

SPRING 2013

The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are transport equations for the mean variables in a turbulent flow. These equations contain net fluxes due to turbulent fluctuations. The objective of turbulence modelling is to specify these fluxes.
y

8.1 Eddy-Viscosity Models 8.1.1 The Eddy-Viscosity Hypothesis The mean shear stress has both viscous and turbulent parts. In simple shear: ∂U = − uv (1) 1 2 3 ∂y turbulent 1 2 3
viscous

U(y)

The most popular type of turbulence model is an eddy-viscosity model (EVM) which assumes that turbulent stress is proportional to mean velocity gradient in a manner similar to viscous stress. In simple shear, ∂U − uv = t (2) ∂y µt is called an eddy viscosity or turbulent viscosity. The total mean shear stress is then ∂U = eff ∂y where + t eff = Notes. (1) This is a model! (2) is a physical property of the fluid and can be measured; t is a hypothetical property of the flow and must be modelled. (3) t varies with position. (4) At high Reynolds numbers, t » throughout much of the flow.

(3) (4)

Better, but very mathematical, descriptions of turbulence and its modelling can be found in: Pope, S.B., 2000, “Turbulent flows”, Cambridge University Press. Schlichting, H. and Gersten, K., 1999, Boundary layer theory, 8th English Edition, Springer-Verlag. Wilcox, D.C., 2006, “Turbulence Modelling for CFD”, 3rd Edition, DCW Industries.

1

CFD

8–1

David Apsley

one should exercise caution because: • there is little theoretical foundation in complex flows. stresses. if desired.Eddy-viscosity models are widely used and popular because: • they are easy to implement in existing viscous solvers. − (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 ) = −2 k .3 General Stress-Strain Relationship The stress-strain relationship (2) applies only in simple shear and cannot hold in general because the LHS is symmetric in x and y components but the RHS is not. • extra viscosity aids stability.1. (ii) viscous stress is negligible compared to turbulent stress: ( turb ) = w ≡ u  2 (b) the mean velocity profile is logarithmic: ∂U u ¡ = y ∂y Then the eddy viscosity (turbulent stress ÷ mean velocity gradient) is y ( turb ) ∂U / = ( u ¡2 ) × = ( u ¡ y) t ≡ u¡ ∂y Hence. because in incompressible flow ∂x ∂y ∂z The shear and normal stresses can be expressed. The appropriate generalisation gives representative shear and normal stresses (from which others can be obtained by “pattern-matching”): ∂U ∂V − uv = t ( + ) ∂y ∂x ∂U 2 − k − u2 = 2 t ∂x 3 where k is turbulent kinetic energy. with t = t/ as the kinematic eddy viscosity. t = u¢ y (5) 8. by the single formula ∂U j ∂U 2 ) − k ij − ui u j = t ( i + 3 ∂x j ∂xi CFD 8–2 David Apsley . • they have some theoretical foundation in simple shear flows.2 The Eddy Viscosity in the Log-Law Region In the log-law region of a turbulent boundary layer it is assumed that: (a) (i) total stress is constant (and equal to that at the wall).1. The − 2 3 k part ensures the correct sum of normal ∂U ∂V ∂W + + = 0. However. t and hence at most one 8. • modelling turbulent transport is reduced to a single scalar Reynolds stress can be represented accurately. in the log-law region.

mixing layer) l0 is proportional to the width of the shear layer. or t = velocity (u ¢ ) × length ( y ) For wall-bounded flows a candidate for u0 is the friction velocity u   = w / . However. For greater generality. in the log-law region.and k. which suggests that it be modelled as (8) t = u 0 l0 Physically. wake.1. l0 is proportional to distance from the boundary (e. jet. e. u0 from mean flow gradients. where k is the turbulent kinetic energy. Since the same turbulent eddies are responsible for transporting momentum as other scalars its value is approximately 1. zero-equation models: – constant-eddy-viscosity models. common practice is to solve transport equations for one or more turbulent quantities (usually k + one other) from which t can be derived on dimensional grounds.4 Other Turbulent Fluxes According to Reynolds’ analogy it is common to assume a gradient-diffusion relationship between any turbulent flux and the gradient of the corresponding mean quantity. transport equation to derive u0. The following classification of eddy-viscosity models is based on the number of transport equations. The kinematic eddy viscosity t = t/ has dimensions of [velocity] × [length]. closure of the mean-flow equations now rests solely on the specification of t. the k. t = u ¢ y . u0 should reflect the magnitude of velocity fluctuations and l0 be related to the size of turbulent eddies. – mixing-length models: l0 specified algebraically. two-equation models: – transport equations for quantities from which u0 and l0 can be derived. However.8. l0 = y).models will be described below.g. both of these are geometry-dependent. For example.5 Specifying the Eddy Viscosity With the eddy-viscosity hypothesis. t 8.g.1. For simple wall-bounded flows. For free shear flows (e. Because they are the most representative types of eddy-viscosity model the mixing-length and k. the most popular in general-purpose CFD are two-equation models: in particular. ∂ − vφ = t (6) ∂y The turbulent diffusivity t is proportional to the eddy viscosity: t = t t (7) is called a turbulent Prandtl number. Of these.g. a more appropriate velocity scale in general is k1/2. we need to relate l0 to local turbulence properties. CFD 8–3 David Apsley .models. a property of the turbulent flow. Today. one-equation models: – l0 specified algebraically.

(Any constant of lm proportionality can be absorbed into the definition of lm. Cebeci and Smith (1974) suggest: l m = min( y. However.8. y δ U ∆U David Apsley CFD 8–4 .6 Mixing-Length Models (Prandtl.1. ( turb ) = u ¢2 and ∂U u ¢ = y ∂y Equation (11) then implies that lm = y y General Wall-bounded flows In general.09 ) (12) δ U Free shear flows lm is assumed constant and proportional to the shear-layer width δ. lm is specified algebraically and the velocity scale u0 is then determined from the mean-velocity gradient.) The resulting turbulent shear stress is (assuming positive velocity gradient): ∂U 2  ∂U   = lm = t   ∂y  ∂y   The mixing length lm depends on the type of flow. Wilcox (1998) suggests: (plane wake)  0.180  0. it difficult to specify lm for complex flows. In simple shear: ∂U u0 = lm (10) y ∂y The model is based on the premise that if a turbulent eddy displaces a fluid particle by distance lm its velocity will differ from its surrounds by an amount l m ∂U/∂y . although generalisations of (10) exist for arbitrary velocity fields.098  (round jet)  0. ( turb ) 2 lmdU dy U (11) Log Layer In the log layer.080 Mixing-length models work well in near-equilibrium boundary layers or free-shear flows.071 (mixing layer) lm  = (13) (plane jet)  0. lm is limited to a certain fraction of the boundary-layer height δ. 1925).0. Eddy viscosity: t = t where t = u0lm (9) The mixing length.

however. which will be given below. model constants are: C¡ = 0.09. It is a two-equation eddyviscosity model with the following specification: k2   = . heavily modelled. P(k). is the rate k and are determined by solving transport equations. Others have a slightly different equation.44.( is a frequency). The equation is. For the record (i. C¤2 = 1. is given in simple shear by ∂U ∂U 2 ) = t( (17) P ( k ) = −uv ∂y ∂y CFD 8–5 David Apsley . Although k is a logical choice (because it has a clear physical definition and can be measured). C¤1 = 1.3 (16) Notes.7 The k-ε Model This is probably the most common turbulence model in use today. (1) The k. (£) = + t £ and.models is the SST model of Menter.e. = C (14) t t t C¡ is a constant (with a typical value 0. the k transport equation is that derived from the Navier-Stokes equation. k.models”). A popular hybrid of k. in the standard model (Launder and Spalding. ε = 1. Variants have different coefficients.( is a timescale) or k-l (l is a length) may be encountered. 1994.92.8.and k. (3) Rate of Production of Turbulent Kinetic Energy The source term in the k equation is a balance between production P(k) and dissipation . (In these equations there is an implied summation over the repeated index i . k is the turbulent kinetic energy and of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. k = 1.1. some including dependence on molecular-viscosity effects near boundaries (“low-Reynolds-number k. The rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass). use of as a second scale is not universal and other combinations such as k.model is not a single model but a class of slightly different schemes. 1974).09).) The diffusivities of k and are related to the molecular and turbulent viscosities: (k ) = + t k . you don’t have to learn them!) they are given here in conservative differential form: ∂ ∂ ∂k ( k) + ( − (k ) ) = (P (k ) − ) Uik ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ¢ ∂ ∂ ∂ (15) Ui ( ) + ( ) = (C ¢1 P ( k ) − C ¢ 2 ) − () k ∂xi ∂xi ∂t rate of advection diffusion source change where P(k) is the rate of production of k. (2) Apart from the diffusion term.

(exercise: prove this for a general flow). the mean-velocity gradient is ∂U u   (19) = y ∂y The Reynolds stresses are assumed to be constant and viscous stresses to be negligible. P(k) = .model may be chosen for consistency with the log law. Under the model assumptions. Consistency With the Log Law The constants in the k. P ( k ) = −u i u j A flow for which P(k) = (production equals dissipation) is said to be in local equilibrium. but have values which give better agreement over a wide range of flows. P(k) is invariably positive. shows that C¡ may be determined experimentally from  − uv   C¤ =   k    2 (21) (22) u £4 = 2 k or 1/ 4 1/ 2 u £ = C¤ k (23) equation (15) is (24) The high-Reynolds-number (molecular viscosity negligible) form of the consistent with the log law provided the constants satisfy (C ¦ 2 − C ¦1 ) ¦ C ¥ = 2 In practice. we have already established that the kinematic eddy viscosity is t = u¡ y Equation (17) then gives the rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy as 3 u¢ (k ) P = y With the further assumption of local equilibrium. in general. the kinematic shear stress is − uv = w / = u ¡2 (20) In the log-law region. by comparison with the k.eddy-viscosity formula (14). CFD 8–6 David Apsley . In particular. In this region. equations (21) and (22) give 4 u¢ = t which.or. by ∂U i (18) ∂x j with implied summation over the repeated indices. the standard constants do not quite satisfy this.

• extra viscosity aids stability.4 : 0. the various normal stresses are typically in the ratio u 2 : v 2 : w 2 = 1. U Direct Numerical Simulation Reynolds-Stress Transport Models Non-Linear Eddy-Viscosity Models two-equation Eddy-Viscosity Models one-equation mixing length constant CFD 8–7 David Apsley increasing complexity More advanced types of turbulence model (some of which have a proud history at UMIST and the University of Manchester) are shown right and described below. in the logarithmic region. particularly in respect of the different rates of production of the different Reynolds stresses and the anisotropy that results.2 Advanced Turbulence Models Eddy-viscosity models are popular because: • they are simple to code. however. • they are very effective in many engineering flows.0 : 0. However. set all of these equal (to 2 3 k ).8. • they are supported theoretically in some simple but common types of flow. y v w A classic example occurs in a simple fully-developed boundary-layer where. Large-Eddy Simulation . The eddy-viscosity model fails to represent turbulence physics.6 (25) u An eddy-viscosity model would. the dependence of a turbulence model on a single scalar t is clearly untenable when more than one stress component has an effect on the mean flow.

. Thus. J.E.8. Reece. CFD 8–8 David Apsley . dissipation of energy by viscosity. 68. the rate of production of u 2 per unit mass is: ∂U ∂U ∂U + uv + uw ) P11 = −2(u 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z Assessment. They can be put in the usual canonical form: rate of change + advection + diffusion = source but certain terms have to be modelled. redistribution of energy amongst different stress components. The important point is that.2. Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure. consists of parts that can be identified as: production of energy from the mean flow. Main idea: solve individual transport equations for all stresses. B.J. and Rodi. Against: • Models are very complex. Pij. thus. These equations are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. The most important balance is in the “source” term.. which. 2 The classic reference for this is: Launder. RSTMs should take better account of turbulence physics than eddy-viscosity models. u 2 . both the advection term (turbulence carried by the mean flow) and the production term (creation of turbulence by the mean flow) are exact. For: • Advection and turbulence production terms are exact and not modelled. at this level of modelling.1 Reynolds-Stress Transport Models (RSTM)2 Also known as second-order closure or differential stress models. everything contributing to the energy put into a particular Reynolds-stress component is exact and doesn’t need modelling.. rather than just the turbulent kinetic energy k. 1975. G. 537-566. for u i u j . For example. • Many important terms (notably redistribution and dissipation) require modelling. ij. uv etc. • Models are computationally expensive (6 turbulent transport equations) and tend to be numerically unstable (only the small molecular viscosity contributes to any sort of gradient diffusion). W. Fluid Mech.. ij.

all smaller than the tiniest scales of motion. supercomputers have extended the Reynolds-number range to a few thousand for simple flows and these results have assisted greatly in the understanding of turbulence physics and development of simpler models. 3 For some of the mathematical theory see: Apsley. D.. Int.2. • little theoretical foundation in complex flows. The model for the latter is usually very simple. This is prohibitively expensive at large Reynolds numbers as huge numbers of grid nodes would be needed to resolve all scales of motion.8. 1998. Against: • doesn’t accurately represent the real production and advection processes. as well as a qualitatively-correct response of turbulence to certain other types of flow: e.D. Assessment. Nevertheless. A new low-Reynolds-number nonlinear two-equation turbulence model for complex flows.2.g. Main idea: extend the simple proportionality between Reynolds-stress and mean-velocity gradients: stress ∝ velocity gradient to a non-linear constitutive relation: stress = C1(velocity gradient) + C2(velocity gradient)2 + C3(velocity gradient)3 + … (The actual relationship is tensorial and highly mathematical – see Section 10 – so it has been simplified to words here.2.2 Non-Linear Eddy-Viscosity Models (NLEVM)3 These are a “half-way house” between eddy-viscosity and Reynolds-stress transport models. 8. Experience at this university suggests that a cubic stress-strain relationship is optimal. J.A. and Leschziner.3 Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Resolving a full. curved flows. 19.4 Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) This is not a turbulence model! It is a solution of the complete time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without a turbulence model. time-dependent turbulent flow at large Reynolds number is impractical as it would require huge numbers of control volumes. typically a mixing-length-type model with lm proportional to the mesh size. Large-eddy simulation solves the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the instantaneous (mean + turbulent) velocity that it can resolve on a moderate size of grid and models the subgrid-scale motions that it cannot resolve. For: • produce qualitatively-correct turbulent behaviour in certain important flows. 8.) Models can be constructed so as to reproduce the anisotropy (25) in simple shear flow. M. • only slightly more computationally expensive than linear eddy-viscosity models. Heat Fluid Flow. 209-222 CFD 8–9 David Apsley .

) Then At the risk of self-promotion.rather than smoothwalled boundaries) can be found in: Apsley. 153-175. so that both mean and fluctuating velocities vanish. control volume If the near-wall node lies in the logarithmic region then y u£ UP 1 + + = ln( Ey P = P (26) yP ). near separation or reattachment points) is to estimate an “effective” friction velocity from the relationship that holds in the log-layer: 1/ 4 1/ 2 u0 = C¤ kP and derive the relationship between Up and w by assuming a kinematic eddy viscosity t = u0 y (Compare equations (23) and (21) if the boundary layer were actually in equilibrium. this requires some assumption about what goes on between near-wall node and the surface.3. u£ Subscript P denotes the near-wall node.. D.1 Wall Functions4 The momentum balance for the near-wall cell requires the wall shear stress w ( = u  2 ). Given UP and yP this is solved (iteratively) for uτ and hence the wall stress w. (2) 8. Flow. near-wall node Up assumed velocity profile w (wall shear stress) τ If a transport equation is being solved for k. Wall functions Don’t resolve the near-wall flow completely. CFD calculation of turbulent flow with arbitrary wall roughness. but the theoretical profiles used are really only justified in near-equilibrium boundary layers. There are two main ways of handling this in turbulent flow.3 Wall Boundary Conditions At walls the no-slip boundary condition applies. a better approach when the turbulence can not be assumed in equilibrium (e. an advanced discussion of wall functions (including rough.D. but assume theoretical profiles between the near-wall node and the surface. 4 CFD 8 – 10 David Apsley . (1) Low-Reynolds-number turbulence models Resolve the flow right down to the wall. 2007. At high Reynolds numbers this presents three problems: • there are very large flow gradients.8. This requires a very large number of nodes and special viscosity-dependent modifications to the turbulence model.g. This doesn’t require a large concentration of nodes. Turbulence and Combustion. • viscous and turbulent stresses are of comparable magnitude. • wall-normal fluctuations are selectively damped. Because the near-wall region isn’t resolved. 78.

such that UP w = w yP where ( u0 y P ) 1/ 4 1/ 2 . not at the boundary. determined by integrating across the cell and the value of is specified at the centre of the near-wall cell. the production of turbulence energy is a cell-averaged quantity.) Amendments also have to be made to the turbulence equations. ideally. but means that with wall-function calculations the grid cannot be made arbitrarily fine close to solid boundaries. To use these equilibrium profiles effectively. u0 = C¤ kP w = y Pu0 ln( E ) (If the turbulence were genuinely in equilibrium. based on assumed profiles for k and . + 30 < y P < 150 This has to be relaxed somewhat in practice. it is desirable that the grid spacing be such that the near-wall node lies within the logarithmic layer. then u0 would equal u  and (26) and (27) would give equivalent expressions for Up.∂U ∂y which can be integrated for U and then applied at the centre of the near-wall cell: u 0U P w = y u ln( E P 0 ) w = ( u 0 y) (27) Since the code will discretise the velocity gradient at the boundary as UP/yP this is conveniently implemented via an effective wall viscosity w. CFD 8 – 11 David Apsley . In particular.

e. • • • For the interested a more advanced treatment of turbulence modelling can be found in the notes for the optional Section 10. which assume that the Reynolds stress is proportional to the mean strain. CFD 8 – 12 David Apsley .g. mixing-length models) or by solving additional transport equations.g. The most popular closures are eddy-viscosity models. model sub-grid scales) Wall boundary conditions require special treatment because of large flow gradients and selective damping of wall-normal velocity fluctuations. More advanced turbulence models include: – Reynolds-stress transport models (solve transport equations for all stresses) – non-linear eddy-viscosity models (non-linear stress-strain relationship) – large-eddy simulation (time-dependent calculation.Summary • • A turbulence model is a means of specifying the Reynolds stresses (and any other turbulent fluxes). in simple shear: ∂U ( turb ) ≡ − uv = t ∂y The eddy viscosity µt may be specified geometrically (e. The most popular combination is the kmodel (requiring transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation rate ). The main options are low-Reynolds-number models (fine grids) or wall functions (coarse grids). so closing the mean flow equations.

B. Comp. Schlichting. Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. 26. Launder. Turbulent flows.B.. Int.R.D. A new low-Reynolds-number nonlinear twoequation turbulence model for complex flows. K. 5. 1998.E. D. 32. CFD 8 – 13 David Apsley . DCW Industries. D. Math. S. 2nd ed.. and Spalding. B. SpringerVerlag Wilcox.. and Leschziner. CFD calculation of turbulent flow with arbitrary wall roughness.. 1999. M. 1598-1605. 1998. 78.O. Prandtl. Eng. Turbulence and Combustion. Progress in the development of a Reynoldsstress turbulence closure. Bericht über Untersuchungen zur ausgebildeten Turbulenz. J. 8th English Edition. J. Menter.B. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers. 1974. 1299-1310.. AIAA J. 269-289. A. Boundary layer theory. and Smith. and Gersten. Flow. The numerical computation of turbulent flows..C.. 2007. Meth. Academic Press. 209-222. 153-175. 19. 2000. 1975. 1925.D.E. Fluid Mech. Mech. Mech. W..A.. and Rodi.C.. 68. Cambridge University Press. Heat Fluid Flow. F. 1988. Apsley. T. D. Pope. 1994. 136-139. D. D. Turbulence Modelling for CFD. Cebeci.References Apsley. Z. G.M. Launder. Angew.J.. Wilcox. AIAA J.. Reassessment of the scale-determining equation for advanced turbulence models. Reece. H...... 1974. Appl. 537-566. 3.

Again. Write the velocity profiles in parts (b) and (c) in wall units. show that this leads to a logarithmic velocity profile of the form yu £ U 1 = ln( E ) u  where E is a constant of integration. the mean velocity profile is linear. sufficiently close to a smooth wall. In the lower part of the boundary layer the shear stress is effectively constant and equal to the wall shear stress w. (a) (b) Define the friction velocity u . ∂y and (≈ 0. and the distance from the wall. At larger distances from the wall the viscous stress can be neglected. whilst the turbulent stress can be represented by a mixing-length eddy-viscosity model: ∂U − uv = t ∂y where ∂U l m = y. prove that. and write down an expression for U in terms of w. u0 = lm t = u0 lm . Show that.Examples Q1. (c) (d) (e) CFD 8 – 14 David Apsley . assuming that = w.41) is a constant. In a simple shear flow the rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass is ∂U P ( k ) = −uv ∂y Using the results of (c). 3 u¡ P (k ) = y and explain what is meant by the statement that the turbulence is in local equilibrium. in the logarithmic velocity region. In high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat surface the mean shear stress is made up of viscous and turbulent parts: ∂U = − uv ∂y where is the molecular viscosity. y.

that any expression for t in terms of the other variables must be of the form k t = constant × (b) Q4. C¤1 and C¤2 are constants. show that this implies the following relationship between coefficients: (C ¡ 2 − C ¡1 ) ¡ C ¢ = 2 CFD 8 – 15 David Apsley . . k is turbulent kinetic energy and (kinematic) eddy viscosity is defined by k2   = C t is its dissipation rate. In the log-law region of a turbulent boundary layer. k and a quantity which has dimensions of frequency (i.turbulence model forms an eddy viscosity t from fluid density . Identify suitable velocity and length scales u0 and l0. Show. Write down the basic physical dimensions of t.09. On dimensional grounds.Q2. on dimensional grounds. In the k. the turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass) k and its dissipation rate . P(k) is the rate of production of k and the summation convention is implied by the repeated index i. A where C¡ is a constant. The eddy-viscosity formula for the k. k and in terms of the fundamental dimensions of mass M. an eddy viscosity t can be written as t = u0 l0 where u0 is some representative magnitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations and l0 is a turbulent length scale. T–1).turbulence model.turbulence model forms an eddy viscosity from . that any expression for t in terms of the other variables must be of the form k2 = constant × t The k.turbulence model is k2   = C t where C¡ = 0. 3 u£ −1 / 2 2 P (k ) = = and k = C¤ u£ y where is von Karman’s constant. (a) The k. A modeled scalar-transport equation for is D ∂  t ∂    + (C ¡1 P ( k ) − C ¡ 2 ) =   Dt ∂xi  ¡ ∂xi  k where D/Dt is a derivative following the flow.e. on purely dimensional grounds. ¤. Using the scalar-transport equation for and the eddy-viscosity formulation. Q3. length L and time T and hence show. u  is the friction velocity and y is the distance from the boundary.

w) parts as part of the Reynolds-averaging process. (b) (c) CFD 8 – 16 David Apsley . and summation is implied by the repeated index i. (a) The rate of production of the uu stress component per unit mass is given by ∂U ∂U ∂U + uv + uw ) P11 = −2(uu ∂x ∂y ∂z By inspection/pattern-matching. Show that this implies the following relationship between coefficients in the modeled scalar-transport equation for : ( C£ − )   C£ = 2 Q6. write down an analogous expression for P22. In the analysis of turbulent flows it is common to decompose the velocity field into mean (U. Define the term anisotropy when applied to fluctuating quantities in turbulent flow and give two reasons why.v. In the log-law region of a turbulent boundary layer. whilst ¡.V. the wall-normal velocity variance is smaller than the streamwise variance.Q5. (Computational Hydraulics Exam. A modeled scalar-transport equation for is D ∂  t ∂    + P (k ) − 2 =   Dt ∂xi    ∂xi  t where D/Dt is a derivative following the flow. u  is the friction velocity and y is the distance from the boundary. 3 u¢ (k ) −1 / 2 2 and k = C£ u¢ P = C£ k = y where is von Karman’s constant.W) and fluctuating (u. P(k) is the rate of production of k.model of turbulence the kinematic eddy viscosity is given by k t = and transport equations are solved for turbulent kinetic energy k and specific dissipation rate . and the main differences between (i) eddy-viscosity (ii) Reynolds-stress transport models of turbulence. and are constants. C¡ is a model constant. June 2009 – part) In the k. Here. for turbulent boundary layers along a plane wall y = 0. Describe the main principles of. and give advantages and disadvantages of each type of closure.

V. 22. T is a turbulent time scale and the eddy-viscosity formulation takes the form ¢ ¡   k T t = C where C is a dimensionless constant. and hence deduce the kinematic eddy viscosity t for this flow. Hence. is kinematic viscosity. is von Kármán’s constant and B is a constant. W) the turbulent shear stress component 12 is given. Find the mean-velocity gradient ∂U/∂y from Equation (*). (Computational Hydraulics Exam. deduce the mixing length lm here. y is the distance from the nearest wall. Define the turbulent kinetic energy for a turbulent velocity field. May 2008) The logarithmic mean-velocity profile for a smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer is given by U 1  yu ¢  = ln (*) +B u¢   where U is mean velocity. u  is friction velocity. Use dimensional analysis to find .Q7. In a general incompressible velocity field (U. Write an expression for the eddy viscosity in a mixing-length model for a simple shear flow. using your answer from part (b). (a) (b) Define the friction velocity u  in terms of wall shear stress w and fluid density . 33. 11. In the k-T turbulence model. for an eddy-viscosity turbulence model. (c) (d) (e) (f) CFD 8 – 17 David Apsley . 31. Use patternmatching/index-permutation and the incompressibility condition to write expressions for the other independent stress components: 23. by  ∂U ∂V  12 = t    ∂y + ∂x    where t (= t) is the dynamic eddy viscosity and is density. and .

under the assumption of a constant shear stress. (f) CFD 8 – 18 David Apsley .0.model varies with y.0) k and are related to the friction velocity u  by −1 / 2 2 k = C£ u¢ . with velocity profile (U(y).Q8.) In the standard k. May 2012) (a) Define the Reynolds stresses in a turbulent flow. (Computational Hydraulics Exam. t t (c) is modelled by where C¡ is a constant. the mean-velocity profile in the fullyturbulent region is logarithmic. (b) State. Deduce how the dynamic eddy viscosity in the k. mathematically. Explain (but without mathematical detail) how Reynolds-stress-transport models differ from eddy-viscosity models of turbulence.model the dynamic eddy viscosity k2 £ = C . how the Reynolds stresses are related to the mean-velocity field in an eddy-viscosity model. 3 u¢ . = where (d) (e) Define the friction velocity in terms of the wall shear stress. y is Von Kármán’s constant and y is the distance from the boundary. or typical normal and shear stresses. and show that. (You should give either a general form in index notation. What are the quantities denoted by k and how are they calculated? in this model and In an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer. State their advantages and disadvantages over the eddy-viscosity approach.