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Making a Lawn. Making a Tennis Court. some of the more important features of amateur gardener.GARDEN MAKING BOOKS is of which Making a Fireplace is one. Making a Garden with Hotbed and Coldframe. pictures and diagrams each respective book. will. ITthis the intention of the publishers to make Text. and the means of having. Among the already issued or planned for early publication are the following: Making a Rose Garden. . Making and Furnishing Outdoor Rooms and Porches. Making Builtin Furniture. Making a Garden to Bloom this Year. a complete library of authoritative and well illustrated handbooks dealing with the activities of the home-maker and series of little volumes. Making the Grounds Attractive with Shrubbery. Making a Poultry House. with others to be announced later. titles Making a Water Garden. Making a Bulb Garden. Making a Garage. in a modern country or suburban home.THE HOUSE 4. Making a Garden of Perennials. aim to make perfectly clear the possibility of having. Making Paths and Driveways. Making a Rock Garden.
NEW YORK McBRIDE. SAYLOR AUTHOR OF BUNGALOWS. MAKING A ROSE GARDEN. BTC.MAKING By A FIREPLACE HENRY H. NAST & COMPANY 1913 .
January. NAST & Co. 1913 . by McBuiDE. 1913.$3 Copyright. Published.
. 1 CONSTRUCTION MISCELLANEOUS ODD FORMS . 31 FIREPLACE ACCESSORIES .. 22 FACINGS AND MANTELS 25 MENDING POOR FIREPLACES .... 36 BUILDING THE FIRE 45 256990 .. ...CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION ..
. .THE ILLUSTRATIONS THE FIREPLACE OF LONG AGO Frontispiece PACING PAGE AN ENGLISH BASKET GRATE IN BRASS . 4 22 AN INGLENOOK WITH STONE HEARTH CAEN STONE MANTEL FOR THE FORMAL TYPE 26 AN INFORMAL STONE FIREPLACE IN FIELD SO THE MODERN COLONIAL TYPE WITH BRICK FACING AND WHITE WOOD MANTEL 38 A A CRAFTSMAN TYPE IN BRICK WITH COPPER HOOD RECESSED FIREPLACE IN BRICK AND 46 ROUGH PLASTER 50 . 4 A MODERN ENGLISH FIRE CORNER IN CONTRASTING TILES ...
The open forts that fire. . is There some inexplicable quality in a that exerts almost a hypnotic wood fire influence upon those who eagerly gather about it. unlike most of the comin a we demand modern home.INTRODUCTION no particular need for dwelling at length on the In a book of this kind there is desirability of will having a fireplace. It is to say that in these days a home can scarcely be considered worthy of the if it name does not contain at least one hearth. That enough be taken for granted. The smoldering glow of the induces logs a calm all mood that banishes and introspective the trivialities and distractions of the day's work and gives one an opportunity to replenish his store of energy for the coming day.
it itself. was as a necessity and the development from that to a luxury has been an exceedingly slow one extending over the years down to the present time. there little per- hesitancy in choosing the the fireplace rather than basket grate for coal. however. the gas log. preferably cannel coal. We have.2 Making ' 'd Fireplace has been associated with the race as far back almost as the home of course. . being a subject on which the less said the better. There are two forms of the open fire a possible third one. therefore. a choice between the open fireplace designed for wood and the basket grate in which to burn coal. At first. although in certain cases. This latter fuel is not nearly so well known in this country as England where necessarily makes in the scarcity of coal wood com- the more monly used haps be open fuel. With our own abunwill dance of wood.
Introduction 3 for example an apartment where the flue has been built too small. In that event the addition of a basket grate an old house would be an in- teresting possibility. However desirability fully we may appreciate the of some sort of fireplace. or in a house where an available chimney offers only a small flue area for fireplace use. largely a there seems to be a rather widespread im- pression that the attainment is . the basket grate will prove a welcome solution of the problem. Of course there is no ex- cuse whatever for building a modern home with a chimney too small for the sort of fireplace you want. but where the chimney possibly be found that a has already been built without this provision it may small terra cotta flue lining may be in- serted in the larger flue without seriously damaging the fireplace to latter's power of draft.
disas- trous results. Where the work of building the home has been entrusted to an architect's hands the latter usually appreciates the fact that the building of the fireplaces liable is more than any other part of the if house to be taken into the mason's own hands with. fire's cheerful Too frequently the result has been a disappointment when the first few trials introduced into the room more smoke than heat or cheer. Undoubtedly every mason . that there is The reason for a scientific is this is basis for fire- place building which frequently ignored absolutely by an over-confident and stupid mason.4 matter Making of a Fireplace chance. Too many home- builders have instructed their architects to provide a fireplace or two in the fond hope that the matter was then practically a mere matter of time until they closed might be sitting before the glow. he is not watched.
One of the best forms of the basket grate in brass. Facing and hearth have been worked out in a rather startling contrast of tiles . The splayed sides send out more heat A modern English fire corner.
it In view of this might be well for any man building his own home to give some attention to the matter of his fireplaces. to insist on knowing how they are de- signed and to follow their construction throughout so that there is no chance for a blunder . and this chance is not so slight as might be supposed. but it is almost as general a rule that he feels that his particular method is the only correct one. sible which ordinarily prevent any posmistake of construction on the ma- .Introduction $ would resent most strongly any insinuation as to his lack of knowledge regarding fireplace construction. In a house in which the author had carefully shown every detail of construction in the drawings. it was found when the building was nearly completed that the cast-iron throat flues. Each mason not how a fireplace only thinks that he knows should be built.
6 Making a Fireplace in reversed son's part. as the next chapter aim to show. The matter of a complicated will construction is not at all affair. . it had been put and was necessary to tear down the whole face of the chimney breast in each case to replace them properly.
CONSTRUCTION rilHE chief difficulty in attaining a suc- cessful fireplace design does nqt lie in securing it is an abundant draft. In fact an easy matter to make a fireplace if draw the flue is large enough and the fire opening from the flue chamber into the will unobstructed. that our Colonial ancestors built cavernous openings and generous with the result that the more wood was piled upon the blaze the more they blistered their toes and at the same time chilled their backs. There never be any question of getting a roaring blaze the moment is. For it is evident that when we secure such a strong. unob7 . the type of fireplace great flues. the fire is lighted. This in a way.
of the heat was entirely the chimney. In the fireplace of our Colonial ancestors probably ninety per cent. constant blaze or glow. It is amusing to hear how . Such a fireplace will not necessarily be a large one. The result is a mighty draft that rushes past those unfortunate enough to be sitting about the fire and carries rapidly up the chimney almost all of the heat of combustion. being carried up However. cord wood was then to be had for the cutting. We want a different sort of a fire in will these days one that burn with a steady. conserving most of of the its heat. enough cool air to take up its the chim- place must be drawn into the room through every opening and crevice. lost. fire which the back and sides will reflect chamber out into the room.8 Making a Fireplace structed current of hot air ney.
There no objection whatever to a large a summer camp or informal In fact a small one fireplace in shack of that sort.Construction universally the 9 demand goes up for large It is " fireplaces great big fellows that will burn just full cord wood. would in such a place be ridiculous. unless very poorly built. would not per- mit the in-take of sufficient air for the draft of a big fireplace. Such a room as this." this is. hard to see why It if may is be based on is the assumption that a small fireplace desirable a large one is more so. where the walls of the room are tight and the whole atmosphere quieter and more restrained. whereas in our . but when we come to our year-round livingroom or dining-room or den. This fire- a fallacy that the architect and builder is place find it hard to dispel. a large fireplace would be distinctly a disturbing element.
sents brickwork A .io Making a Fireplace and section through the fireplace The broad cross-hatching reprechimney.
There are two vital principles that should be observed in the design of any fireplace. fair average size for the fireplace opening three feet in width by two and a half feet high." The reason for constructing a fireplace . From such a fireplace it is possible to get a maximum of heat with a minimum of draft. with a depth half the width. room and the size of the flue of the flue A cross-section which inci- dentally should be kept the same through- out its extent should be one-tenth of the area of the opening into the room.Construction slab cabin or log n bungalow the conditions a are quite different. The second vital consideration is the in- troduction of what are known as a " smoke shelf " and a " smoke chamber. is therefore. One of size these is the relation be- tween the of the opening into the itself. For the ordinary room.
but the ac- companying perspective outline sketch will indicate the fact that the throat and the smoke chamber at the bottom must . be- gins to rise through the throat (the open- ing between the fire chamber and the smoke chamber) and at once induces a down-draft of cold air. this downward current of cold air fire would strike directly upon the itself and force smoke out into the room. If the back of the fireplace were on the same continuous plane with the rear side of the chimney flue. which is generated immediately. smoke shelf is The pre- built just where it will vent this action.12 Making a Fireplace will with these two features readily appear more This is by reference to the diagram. drawn to show that when a fire is kindled on the hearth the warm air cur- rent. does not perhaps The sectional diagram clear make quite the shape of this smoke chamber.
Construction extend across the full width of the 13 fire chamber. in rising until it joins the flue at the flue's own The iron sectional diagram indicates a castThis is damper built in the throat. it is necessary to use an iron supporting bar to carry this flat arch. it not necessary. If the damper is not built in. in case the is damper is not used. to the efficiency of the Its one great advantage is that by furnishing the mason with an unalterable form. lost the advantage of being able . Such a damper also forms a support for the flat arch of brick over the open- ing if bricks are used. it forces him to build the throat properly rather than in one of the wrong ways that his own judgment might cast-iron dictate. Then there too. This width in the smoke chamber immediately diminishes area. for contributes nothing fire itself.
showing the shape of the various parts as built without a cast-iron throat damper .Perspective view of the fireplace.
permitting the adjustment of the damper from outside. convenient however. The terra cotta flue lining which is . One or two of these have a knob or handle projecting through the brickwork of the arch. most of them patented and all of them aiming to provide an adjustable opening in the throat in some way. be well to lay an iron plate on the smoke shelf in such a way that it could be drawn forward across the opening to close it. There are other types of dampers. As a general principle. therefore. it is well to choose the simplest possible device that will secure the desired result. which is highly desirable in the summer- time and frequently in the winter when the fireplace is acting too strenuously as If the cast-iron throat it will a ventilator.Construction 15 quite readily to close the throat entirely. is not used.
for provides a flue will with smooth. there is always the danger that the mortar will crumble from a joint and it through which opening would be an easy mat- leave an . Of course no wood should be allowed to come within an inch or two of the brickwork in any of 'event. not so readily as it an ordinary has the ad- Besides that. Fireplace diagram course. but with a single thickness unlined. vantage of permitting a thinner wall for the chimney. it regarding worth. It is dangerous to build a chimney with a single four-inch thickness of brick between the flue and whatever may adjoin the chimney. brick. regular sides that clog nearly brick flue. There its is no question. however.1 6 Making a necessary. is shown in the sectional not abit is solutely of as a rather modern introduction and unnumbered fireplaces have served their purpose without it.
also. eight inches thick. it will be noticeid. its leaving the fire chamber with sloping filled back and sides and the hearth to be in later with a better grade of brick or Frequently. however.Construction ter for sparks or flame to 17 do considerable lin- damage. fire and the brickwork laid inside the chamber to form the hearth and the back. tile will be combined with the brick finish as a hearth or facing. The reason for this separation is that the rough brickwork of the chimney is always laid first as simply as possible. . The introduction of a flue ing. indicates a difference between the main back wall of the chimney. perhaps another kind. provided the joints between sections of flue lining are filled and made smooth with ce- ment mortar. The sectional diagram. into the chimney built in this way makes carefully it entirely safe.
1 8 Making a Fireplace cross-sf-ction showing the construction of a large stone fireplace with slightly arched opening A .
support for the hearth
by bringing what
or " trimmer "
" row-lock " called a
arch between the foundation masonry of
the chimney and a pair of floor joists set
proper distance, depending
of the hearth.
this is the
customary method, ocis
casionally a support
secured in some
other way, such as corbeling out from the
masonry foundation, or by extending two short projections of this masonry from
at either end of the hearth
throwing an arch across between these. Upon a bed of cement the hearth
bricks themselves are laid, usually flush
higher to permit a beveled molding
strip to cover the joint between brick
In some cases the
raised the full thickness
of a brick above the floor, as in one of
the photographic illustrations shown.
The width of
sixteen or eighteen inches be-
yond the face of the opening with the average
twenty inches or even
This width should
with larger ones.
be increased, of course, if the opening
of materials for the hearth and facing
be discussed in the next chapter.
least a foot or
should extend at
two above any nearby roof
should work without any
other device of that
cowl, whirligig or
type on the top.
no great ob-
jection to having the opening a horizontal
one at the top of the chimney, although
in that case if the flue is nearly straight
course, some rain will find
to the hearth in a hard
In most cases there
bend in the
enough and if not
be avoided by covering the top of
the chimney with a stone and having the
openings vertical ones on
just under this.
All of the brickwork throughout chim-
ney and fireplace should be laid in firstclass cement mortar which consists of one
part Portland cement to three parts clean,
Although lime mortar was
brickwork up to recent years,
not durable, particularly in the
cinity of heat.
MISCELLANEOUS ODD FORMS
many unusual forms
which we are not parFor example, one ticularly concerned.
an opening shaped like an inverted heart or like an ace of spades.
fireplace of this
kind work satisfactorily, but
means certain that
complished at the
can be ac-
nor that the
continue to work properly under
safer always to ad-
here to the established type of rectangular
opening, or to depart from this only to
the extent of having the top an arch of
Whenever the top is pervary more than a slight extent
from the horizontal
the danger of
Still another type which is is even more the middle rarely seen the open fire in of a room. such as may be desired occa- sionally in the lounging room of a large . room at There is one other type that deserves is special mention and that the double fire- place.Miscellaneous Odd Forms 23 having the smoke escape into the the top. where two openings in adjacent flue rooms are served by a single them. It is essential in a fireplace of this kind that there be no disturbing draft tending to pass through the opening from one room to the other. The throat will in this case be in the middle of the chimney with the smoke shelf on either side of it. between The only way in which this affects the two vital principles mentioned above is that the cross-section area of the flue should be one-tenth of the combined areas of the openings.
suspended and steadied by chains or bars from the ceiling and surrounding walls. so that the lower edge of the truncated pyramidal form at the bottom would form the upper side of the " at a convenient " opening fireplace height above the hearth of brick. and here also it would be well to provide as fully as possible against the presence of disturbing drafts. stone.24 club. having the flue and hood of wrought iron or copper. . effective It is conceivable that fire- an and thoroughly practical place could be thus devised. Making a Fireplace Such an apparent anomaly could be secured by suspending a metal flue and hood from the roof. tile or concrete. In such a form the same principle of a fixed ratio between opening (here the en- hood multiplied by the distance above the hearth) and crosstire perimeter of the section of flue would have to be observed.
FACINGS AND MANTELS r1 THERE is not a particularly wide choice of materials available for the finish of the hearth and fireplace. we have the variety that we could Stone is suitable only in certain envi- ronments the informal shack it or is log im- cabin chiefly. the association with the fire- Perhaps places that have been built by our fathers and grandfathers. or perhaps it is the inherent worth and fitness of the material 35 . brick. Brick is it is almost never out of place. tile Stone. exhaust the possicombinations although with all of these wish. cement and bilities. though of course possible to make any hard and fast rule in the matter.
for that remains unchanged by not unstained by smoke. on the fire. and tile. Concrete is a newcomer in the field of fireplace facing and as yet it cannot be said to have shown any particular reason why als. have the very closest fire in possible association with the mak- . although there seems to be a vague impression that this might be a real danger. it should displace the other materithe ordinary heat developed in With an open fire of wood there is no likelihood if the of cracking the concrete facing terial ma- has been properly mixed and ap- plied. though Brick.a6 itself Making that a Fireplace it puts forward as a first choice. other hand. The color of concrete gives it it is no one particular recommendation. Undoubtedly the practical consideration that it is easier and more eco- nomical to build has something to do with the matter.
Caen stone or its clever representation in cement serves well for the more formal type of mantel and facing .
in design gives more latitude than any of latitude the others.Facings and Mantels a peculiar ing. noth- ing could be more appropriate and attractive. Since this little volume has for its sub- ject the fireplace rather than the mantel. though there no doubt . which gives them for this purpose. 27 fitness the last of the four materials. sometimes too much we feel. little need be said regarding the latter is outward form. If understandingly used. but tile has been used so carelessly that somehow we have a feeling that the tiled fireplace is for show rather than for is use. In any case. there no question whatever regarding the unfitness of the glazed tiles which have made horrors of thousands of pseudo fireplace openings. It is only the mat-glazed or unglazed tiles that have any right to be used in such a place. Tile.
The modern home along is Colonial lines perhaps the commonest problem.28 Making a Fireplace that a whole book on the subject might profitably be written. and styles recommend that in other the architect be allowed sufficient latitude in design and expense to distin- guish this important feature of hall. for the old models of delicately detailed white-painted wood mantels are so well known and so universally admired that modern reproductions lines along good and reasonable cost are easily obtained. liv- ing-room. and incidentally the easiest. . dining-room or library with the characteristics of the style he has worked out for the house itself. we can probably do no better than to suggest the obvious type of mantel for one or two of the more common architectural styles. To touch upon the subject as lightly as space will permit.
rugged strength.Facings and Mantels For the English house the architect will doubtless 29 plaster or half-timber design a special mantel. A planed to a smooth top surface its . With the very informal type of sum- mer home where a rough stone for facing and chimney is employed. in scale and in harmony with the dark paneling and other architectural woodwork. as so many of the stucco buildings of the day do. the mantel treatment can hardly be kept too simple and unobtrusive in heavy log. tel is Frequently the man- done away with entirely and the chimney breast treated independently as a whole. the mantel treatment offers particularly interesting possibilities. In a house which breaks away from the historic architectural styles. probably with a paneled over-mantel if the cost is not too rig- orously held down.
but this latter should take the form of a slightly better finish of the materials used throughout the room rather than the introduction of more elaborate and costly ones.30 and Making a resting is Fireplace projecting stone on two brackets. left Many simple varia- with the informal brick chimney In gen- breast will occur to everyone. frequently used with good The chimney breast may be stepped back at the shelf height to form a narrow stone ledge. eral. the fireplace is the chief architec- tural feature of the living-room and for that reason will stand a moderate amount of embellishment. . with these summer shacks or bunga- lows. effect. or the breast without any tions shelf.
~ fireplace and chimney breast of field stone. chosen with care and laid 'with more than average skill A .
but that does not go far in helping the man who has a fireplace it is that will not work. trouble to been improperly If one has in mind a clear comprehension of the few elefireplace construc- mentary principles of tion it will usually be an easy matter to the determine reason to draw. sible Frequently pos- without any very great expense and correct a fireplace that has built. because of the narrow throat and the smoke chamber which in 31 . why a fireplace smokes or fails The likely cross-section area of the flue to is prove the most this common diffi- culty. Usually cannot be seen from inside the fireplace.MENDING POOR FIREPLACES FT is well enough to say just how a it fire- place should be built so that will work satisfactorily.
find which flue leads to the fireplace in question. and preferably the slanting back have been fol- lowed out it would be well to determine itself.32 some If. therefore. ably be the inside is This conclusion by no means sure. Making form a Fireplace be may the above the shelf. all Its area at the top will in its probability be area throughout. apparent of essentials such as shape opening. since the chimney may be built with eight-inch walls or it may be simply a four-inch wall with . the area of the flue will To do this it be necessary to reach the top of the chimney and. by lowering a weight on a line. narrow throat across the whole width. however. If the flue happens to be the only one in that particular chimney it may sometimes be determined more easily by counting the bricks in its two horizontal directions in this and way estimating what would probflue.
one of which boards could be drawn down past the other one so that the fireplace open- ing may be decreased anywhere from six to twelve inches in height six-inch boards. in action in this using two By way testing the fireplace it will be readily de- . however. will usually indi- cate the size of the Having determined the of the size of the fire- place opening and the cross-section area flue itself. In order to check up the diag- nosis. latter is too small for the to remedy this The easiest way difficulty naturally would be to decrease the size of the opening in the face of the fireplace. however. it would be well to to fit a pair of thin boards wedge fairly tightly into the opening at the top.Mending Poor the flue lining. it will in many cases be found that the former. the the chimney is way in which up flue. Fireplaces 33 To laid one with a knowledge of bricklaying.
however. The boards then be- ing removed. fire- narrow throat and smoke This too could be constructed in the place without disturbing anything outside. such as the mantel or chimney breast. unless the fireplace not large enough to permit the addition of four inches of is . It is may be fitted permanently possible. well to If it is not. a wrought-iron curtain or decorative projecting hood of wrought iron or copper to the front. that the openflue ing of the fireplace and the area are properly related. it will be examine carefully the thickness of the wall at the back of the fireplace and is if this sufficient. brick at the back.34 Making a Fireplace termined by what amount the opening must be decreased. part of it could be taken away where the slope of the back . in which case it may be found that the trouble of a is due to the lack shelf.
. to make perfectly sure of the result. and the slopfrom there up to form Or. the mantel itself could be re- moved this is usually merely nailed to the plaster and enough of the chimney breast taken down to permit the introduc- tion of a cast-iron throat damper.Mending Poor joins Fireplaces 35 the upright wall about a foot above the hearth surface ing back built in the throat.
for ex- . There are so few things which combine to such a degree the purely utilitarian with the eminently decorative qualities. To begin with the most nearly indispensa- ble appurtenances.FIREPLACE ACCESSORIES TUST " fixin's. if the fuel is to be coal. I have wondered some- times why the philosophers have not hit fit- upon the andiron as a particularly ting subject for pleasurable rumination." as a for turkey its dinner depends the largely success is upon so the fireplace its in itself in- complete without andirons and tools. we must name the and- irons or. Most things which do combine the two in any real measure have been developed on the side of one at the expense of the other quality. then the basket grate. Take man's 36 dress coat.
perhaps a ship's anchor. was designed to permit the gentleman to loop the skirts up its to his waist when he mounted his horse. take the modern lighting fixture with little pan still waiting to catch the drip of the tallow beneath the flame. which ages ago probably through a long evolution were designed to meet a real need in the best possible manner and which still meet that need and combine true beauty with their usefulness. Or. and nothing could well be devised to serve . Some support is needed to raise the fuel so that the air may find it a clear pas- sage under and through to the flames.Fireplace Accessories 37 ample. How things there are. after all. The wrought-iron shoe of a horse occurs to us. a string-bow or an axe helve. with the two buttons at the back. which has long since been displaced by gas few tip or incandescent filament. the cut-away front of which.
surrounding white woodwork the rougher wrought- iron types are so evidently at home in the craftsman fireplace or the rough opening of stonework. the up- per continuation of which serves to hold the burning logs in place. One is not likely to go wrong in making a choice of andirons for any given type of fireplace. The simply turned brass its patterns belong so obviously to the Colonial brick opening with . that misfits are hardly possible. and many of them are still to be found in old cobwebby attics or in the more accessible shop of the dealer in antiques. Fortunately the old brass andirons of Colonial days have proven themselves fit- ted to survive.38 Making a Fireplace the purpose better than the pair of horizontal wrought bars. each with its single rear foot and its steadying front. One of these confided to me his .
11 If .
are of wrought There are two the orways of taking care of them dinary method of using a stand which.Fireplace Accessories 39 way of distinguishing the really old andirons from artificially aged reproductions : the old ones have the turned brass of the front post held in place by a wroughtiron bar that attaches to the horizontal member by a scr.ew thread on the bar itself on the modern examples this upright . if the tools are bought together. Next after the andirons are the tools in importance the three most nearly es- sential ones being the poker. if they are wrought iron if the andirons iron. will prob- . bar is drilled with a threaded hole into which an ordinary short screw engages through a hole in the horizontal member. tongs and no need of saying that these should harmonize with the andirons shovel. is There and preferably be of brass of brass.
in is exceedingly useful sweeping back the ashes and small em- bers. breast is of brick. for with a scientifically built place it should never need to be called into action. fire hardly safe to leave a or even the smoldering embers without some protection against the damage that is so . A with for screen of some sort comes nearer to being classed with the necessities than the it is merely decorative accessories. or in some of the fireplace types where the whole chimney concrete or stone. Then there is the time-honored bellows. A brush for the hearth. although not so frequently seen.40 Making a Fireplace ably come with them. sometimes a combination of three or more hooks is the tools wrought in the same metal as and fixed securely in the chim- ney breast at the side of the opening. now hardly more than an ornafire- ment.
and there are wonderful possibilities for the employment of the combining with plain craftsman's skill in or lightly tinted glass more decorative features in the way of stained glass and leading or in the combination of glass and metals. The design of a fire screen depends. there sort of screen that is is In another coming to be regarded with very high favor and that is the screen made up of glass in combina- tion with other materials. The usual type of screen several the woven wire one in forms. is Probably the most conthat venient type made up of a numwhich fold upon one will ber of flat sections another into a compact mass which not be in the way when not in use. recent years.Fireplace Accessories quickly 41 caused by is sparks. There is the simple French screen of glass panes in a gilded frame. of . however.
intended to desired to secure a screen that will cut off the heat but not the light of the fire. are usually small rectangles on some sort of a pedestal and are not intended to take the place of spark screens. sturdy baskets and the metal are wood baskets which the logs themselves.42 Making If it is a Fireplace it is course. to from which choose brass-bound boxes of many sizes and forms. of course. A wood receptacle of some form is a convenient accessory. the craftsman will work with larger areas of clear glass. as one will avoid the task of carrying fuel lar or in fire is up from the cel- from the woodpile whenever a There is a broad field desired. These. On the other hand. on the purpose serve. it may be felt desirable to make a nearly opaque screen to cut off both light and heat. made for holding There are those who prefer not to en- .
Fireplace Accessories these rather bulky receptacles. is The crane fireit a very picturesque feature in a is place that large enough to hold comfortably. and these are the crane and the trivet. but find it 43 who cumber the vicinity of the fireplace with convenient to have a box built in near by in the form of a window-seat or perhaps as a part of built-in bookcases. Two or three houses that I have known had a very simple rough dumbwaiter running from the cellar up into a windowseat. hoisted into position and locked there until the fuel was needed. but it does seem unfortunate that in a great many fireplaces the crane ing it is dragged in with the idea of mak- a decorative feature but without it any expectation of putting to practi- . This could be loaded with fuel. There are two other ries fireplace accesso- that we must not overlook.
for example elsewhere tation. some form of low stool which stood upon the hearth. is however. Making There a Fireplace are fireplaces in a a summer camp.44 cal use. found in vari- ous ingenious forms. as near as convenient to the fire. to may be keep warm a teakettle or perhaps even a plate of toast. There are some rather interesting an-> tique brass trivets to be found in many of the larger antique shops. most of which show. Used too often merely an affec- The use in trivet is not nearly so well known it as the crane and yet might be put to a modern fireplace much more freIn England it is quently. it is where crane could be put to good use. .
but perhaps you have noticed that while many fires are kindled few burn out. twigs. It is easy bunch of newspaenough pers. to build a might as well seek instruction as to the most approved method of striking a match " But if fire? ! wood We moment I you would say most emphatically that as a matter of fact very few people really do will bear with me for a know how to build a fire.BUILDING THE FIRE T HAVE no doubt that the majority of the readers who have patiently found their way thus far through this little book will feel like closing it with a sigh of impatience at the sight of the chapter " Who doesn't know how heading above. If you are 45 . kindling and logs so that it to assemble a is possible to start a fire.
46 Making a Fireplace seeking for the greatest amount of comfort and enjoyment from your wood fire you will secure it only by sitting at the feet of that greatest of all teachers. fire's While there are those way of who would not for worlds give up the pleasure of tinkering with the tongs and poker while the fire burns. there is the need of hav- . ex- perience. or perhaps perimenting a bit more quickly by exwith one or two of the simple expedients which I shall try to show are based on the wood working. it will perhaps not if detract from this enjoyment the tin- kering is not actually the result of neFire- cessity to keep the logs burning. mending is when it is not imposed upon us by becoming an alternative to having the glowing a delightful recreation only embers become discouraged and give up the fight. First of all.
c ft e II c P .
Building the Fire ing fuel that is 47 is really dry. to serve as starting fuel. brush and smaller pieces. floor or Two long logs are laid on the ground. or else split kindling. In addition to the heavier logs which are cut to fit the fireplace opening. To lay a fire on the hearth. there should be almost an equal quantity of twigs. so as to encourage a circulation of air for drying. in which the cord wood is piled neatly to the roof with sawn ends to the front. at right angles to the firewood. a shed open only to the south. but it it should at least have shelter above sides. New England cal farmhouses offer a practi- and efficient solution Usually you will find these as an exten- sion to the house. and on three The woodsheds of of the problem. select first a heavy log which should be placed close . It not es- sential that the woodpile be kept indoors.
If a big . is the traditional "backlog. Now not a select split a smaller piece log preferably it and lay across the andirons. Stand the andirons with their showing the arrangement of andirons fire (at the left) and a smaller one Section and wood for a large rear ends close up against the backlog." is It serve through several fires and intended mainly as a protection of the back brickwork.48 Making a Fireplace fire against the back of the chamber on This will the hearth and not on the andirons. and if the latter is of the best size its top will be well above the horizontal bars of the andirons.
the forelog pushed back de- against sired. keep this log " log well to the front. The diagrams make clearer this arrange- ment for a small fire or a large one. some of the lighter twigs and small branches. and one. just back of the andiron upright posts. unless a less active is fire is It well to will remember that where not burn. as may the space. leaving plenty of space between backlog and forelog for the main body of the fire. two close one isolated log together probably three will do still will.Building the Fire fire is 49 the " fore- desired. the central portion of the burns keep it. The distance between these two logs size of the fire. and a pyramid of better. two or three logs or be required to will fill split pieces. fire As away. Many fireplaces show a tendency to . govern the In this space put a few will crumpled sheets of newspaper.
there difficulty whatever in telling with a fire glance burned. the hiss of pine. fire is a wood fire.jjo Making a Fireplace . the hot and rapid disintegration of sycamore. whether the logs be of cherry wood. For the wood fire connoisseur. pine. and the . thus starting the proper action of the up and down drafts. and can usually be prevented or made less objection- able by burning a newspaper just under the throat. if is we may no call him by that name. at the just what wood is The crackle and explosive na- ture of hickory. If it is possible for us to choose be- tween various kinds of wood for our open fire fuel there is opened up one of the most interesting phases of the whole subTo most people probably a wood ject. the steady flame from cherry. hickory or anything else. smoke only when first lighted this is probably due to a cold chimney.
A sign in brick and rough raised above the floor simple and exceedingly effective recessed deThe hearth is plaster. .
>. . impossible for anyone fires who has not actually tried both ways to appreciate the immense advantage that a bed of wood ashes gives.Building the. when it is near- ing its end. 5.. Ehe . in variety. Finally. the fascination and fire the weird coloring in a driftwood most spectacular of all but unfortunately denied to most of us.1 steady and thordiigh combustion of soft apple wood soon become familiar characteristics to those who have fire the oppor- tunity to lay the there is. the most important factor of all is in the management of a wood its is fire an ample bed of ashes for It foun- dation. ably doubles the It unquestion- fire's efficiency in throw- ing heat out into the roon it halves the care and attention needed to keep the fire burning. . and it increases beyond measure the beauty of a wood fire. Then of course. . by rekindling itself with the .
. Stop your ears to the importunities of the over-zealous housekeeper and pricks of steel yourself against the the conscience of cleanliness. The accumulation of One of two years is a priceless treasure. Making a Fireplace alive for a embers and keeping long time the quiet. You can scarcely get it too large or too deep. A is white powder peck or two of the then carried out to bring joy to the rose garden. as a red flag to a Peace be to the ashes of the man this easy its who invented method of robbing charm.5?. my own fireplaces has a bank that has to be depleted about twice a year to make room for the fine fire. If need be. fight for the retention of that bed of ashes. To its one who loves a wood fire and knows such a possibilities the mention of is thing as an ash-drop bull. dull red glow. the hearth of half May he be forgiven it.
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