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This document is copyright 1997 by Pressure Vessels Inc., and may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission. It is intended for single user use. Information about site licenses and network use may be obtained by contacting: Pressure Vessels Incorporated P.O. Box 35365 Tulsa, OK 74153 USA www.pressure-vessel.com

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withforeword by

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Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma

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PRESSURE VESSEL PUBLISHING, INC.
P.O. Box 35365 “ Tulsa, OK 74153

FOREWORD

Engineers who design equipment for the chemical process industry are sooner or later confronted with the design of pressure vessels and mounting requirements for them. This is very often a frustrating experience for anyone who has not kept up with current literature in the field of code requirements and design equations. First he must familiarize himself with the latest version of the applicable code. Then he must search the literature for techniques used in design to meet these codes. Finally he must select material properties and dimensional data from various handbooks and company catalogs for use in the design equations. Mr. Megyesy has recognized this problem. For several years he

has been accumulating data on code requirements and calculational methods. He has been presenting this information first in the form of his “Calculation Form Sheets” and now has put it all together in one place in the Pressure Vessel Handbook. I believe that this fills a real need in the pressure vessel industry and that readers will find it extremely useful.

Paul Buthod

PREFACE This reference book is prepared for the purpose of making formulas, technicaldata, designand construction methods readily available for the designer, detailer, Iayoutmen and others dealing with pressure vessels. Practical men in this industry often have difficulty finding the required data and solutions, these being scattered throughout extensive literature or advanced studies. The author’s aim was to bring together all of the above material under one cover and present it in a convenient form. The design procedures and formulas of the ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII Division I have been utilized as well as those generally accepted sources which are not covered by this Code. From among the alternative construction methods described by the Code the author has selected those which are most frequently used in practice. In order to provide the greatest serviceability with this Handbook, rarely occurring loadings, special construction methods or materials have been excluded from its scope. Due to the same reason this Handbook deals only with vessels constructed from ferrous material by welding, since the vast majority of the pressure vessels are in this category. A large part of this book was taken from the works of others, with some of the material placed in different arrangement, and some unchanged. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor S4ndor Kalinszky, J&os Bodor, Lasz16F61egyhiizyand J6zsef Gyorii for their material and valuable suggestions, to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and to the publishers, who generously permitted the author to include material from their publications.

The authorwishesalso to thank all those who helpedto improvethis
new edition by their suggestions and corrections. Suggestions and criticism concerning some errors which may remain in spite of all precautions shall be greatly appreciated. They contribute to the further improvement of this Handbook. Eugene F. Megyesy

......9 CONTENTS PART I Design and Construction of Pressure Vessels ....... 447 PARTV Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................. 11 PART II Geometry and Layout of Pressure Vessels ... 321 PART IV Design of Steel Structures ....... 465 ......................................................................... 25’7 PART III Measures and Weights .............................................................................

................. Design of Anchor Bolts (approximate method).... Weight of Vessel... Extension of Openings. Pressureof Fluid........... Specifications ...................... Openings without Reinforcing Pad......................... Stresses in Vessels on Leg Support.. 159 Welding of Pressure Vessels .CarbonSteelPipe Flanges.....Formulas............ Design ofTall Towers ................. Anchor Bolt Chair for Tall Towers............. Definitions.... 194 11.. 52 4....... 153 Reinforcement at the Junction of Cone to Cylinder ....PART L DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE VESSEL 1............... 8............. Vessels Under External Pressure ............. Welded Tanks .......................... Vibration.......... Eccentric Load........ Materials of Foreign Countries ......... Reinforcement of Openings. 181 Code Rules Related to Various Services............... Joining Openings to Vessels........... Deflection........ Properties of Materials. Specification for The Design and Fabrication of Pressure Vessels. 86 5............... Wind Load....... 7............... But Welded Joint of Plates of Unequal Thicknesses... Seismic Load.. Design of Base Ring (approximate method).....~~~~ti~ti~~~~..... Length of Couplings and Pipes for Openings... Opening with Reinforcing Pad.. VesselsUnderinternalPressure_~__~~_~~~~~~~................. 122 Inspection Openings........... Pressure-TemperatureRatings of American Standard .... Stresses in Vessels Due to Lug support...... Stresses in Large Horizontal Vessels Supported by Two Saddles............ Strength of Attachments.... Tanks and Vessels Containing Flammable and Combustible Liquids.............. Elastic Stability....... Fabrication Tolerances......... 10.................................. Design of Skirt Support...........ChafiforDeteminingThicknessofCylindrical and SphericalVesselsunderExternal PressurewhenConstructedof Carbon Steel........... Openings .... Nozzle Loads ....... Code Rules Related to Various Plate Thicknesses of Vessel.. 170 Welded Joints........... 2... 6........................................ 31 3......... Description of Materials.............................. 15 StressesinCylindricalShel~Definitions........................ Vessel Suppotis . Design of Anchor Bold and Base Ring.. Formulas.................. Application of Welding Symbols......... Minimum Required TicknessofCylindricalSheH................................................... 204 .............................. 9................. Regulations... Combination of Stresses.............................~ ..

..o..~ 232 15. Lengthof Stud Bolts................. Fabricating Capacities.....~.... ...... CommonErrors.u....... ......u....o......o........... Pipe and Tube Bending. 247 1NREFERENCESTHROUGHOUTTHISBOOK"CODE"sTANDSF0RASME O O C MI E EC H T AEYNN I GC I F AN BL E O E AR I S ) L (AMERICAN S N E R P R E VS S E CU S R S S O EE E V C D RL T II F U EO C O L N I N SO E T R I US C T IR O N O P R E VS ES S U D SR I F EE V1— LI A S SA .......~.V...... ...... Pipe Engagemerit. Bend Allowances..O....~.. Miscellaneous ..u............... . Painting Steel Surfaces .....~.............. Drill Sizes for Pipe Taps..... 16.... Corrosion .u..... D 1 E ................... ....... Preferred Locations.................mv... U....... Pressure Vessel Detailing. ..... Transportation ofVessels...~.o. Rectangular Tanks . .....~. I M O E N SR T I A C N A N D NA R D .. SafeLoadsforRopesand Chains.......LiRingAttachments.......... 212 14.. 221 ti.~...mv...a.......~....13...

Seismic force and wind pressure need not be considered to act simultaneously. or the value of factor B determined by the procedure described in Code UG 23 (b) (2) c. except as provided in d. b. for high alloy steel Code Table UHA-23. Static reactions from attached equipment. Impact reactions due to fluid shock g“ Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Code UG-23) a. Longitudinal compressive stress STRESS Sa The smaller of S. (See properties of materials page 180.= Maximum allowable stress in tension for carbon and low alloy steel Code Table UCS-23. Weight of the vessel and contents c.. supports d. internals. insulation. The category and intensity of stresses are the function of the nature of loadings. below. d. lining. LOADINGS (Code UG-22) a. This rule applicable to stresses exerted by internal or external pressure or axial compressive load on a cylinder. piping. S. which exert stresses of different intensities in the vessel components. Internal or external pressure b. Wind pressure and seismic forces f.) ..) S 1. the geometry and construction of the vessel components. Tensile stress b. or c. General primary membrane stress induced by any combination of loadings.5 Sa 1.2 times the stress permitted in a. General primary membrane stress induced by combination of earthquake or wind pressure with other loadings (See definitions pages beginn-ing473.184. psi. Primary membrane stress plus primary bending stress induced by combination of loadings.S P V Pressure vessels are subject to various loadings. Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations e..

3 . . etc. STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL Uniforminternalorexternalpressureinducesinthelongitudinal seamtwotimeslargerunit stress than in the circumferentialseam becauseof the geometryof the cylinder.R ~ D= P= s. ) are not Tn C l factors. s i Longitudinal stress.d i e od d h t e e ts h m s o tie rdg ee q h n u f e i’ r We i om o t e hl ns t t o . inches EXAMPLE . ‘/ . e n ot e e x r pt n r e a ep r s l n s a ur l r s e . . earthquake. psi 1 Circumferential (hoop) stress. must be designed to resist the circumferential buckling o p r o t m v o hy .25 h ae a t d i wd ib c c d ghao e u I y ae : p 8 l hmi v p t 8s cr e e h s iw on n p e t d r er a er re wss nl s r a t i un cl o r r h en i o rc v v b ea ep s p rera o s n b x t is fm a o nt re e h dm H=% 3 w Hh= C 2 e t t i ei f o c er h i r o ( ga w l h e t t r f .iven D = P= f = 96 inches 15 psi 0. C I R C U M F E R E N T I A LL O N G I T U D I N A L J O I N JT O I N ‘ $ D s./ . + . when other forces (wind. = ~ 15 X 96 = ~ = 1440 psi s* = $ F s s t gt i o u = 15 X 96 = 2 2 X 0. these combined loadings m g oa a h v e ep a n rw yv l be n ir a i e e d qr t u l e i r l e t t p h wl a h wh a s a n i t t i esac t f er a c hte t c os isrr y c ui m h fs b e r ou et n o ct ie a k l nl i ln gy T s c o m p sh r edt s t se r i x e v e petu r e s a e r t ss n e s s ea o n u d n tl trs i r e in p e lt u d r es e e r s s n se a o u l r b d h e t ae b tr lf m o i n lr em e h d u l ay s e : F O R M U L A S T t .25 inches PD s. corrosion allowance excluded. = s* = [ = M I N O T A T I O N d ie ao vm a eei ts n e s c r e hl f .$ s~ = ~ S2 ‘ s. A vessel under external pressure. psi Thickness of shell. a a eh d e i n n r rg s present.

DESIGN PRESSURE The pressure used in the design ofa vessel. at which the vessel is normally operated. openings. If the stress value of the vessel material at the design temperature is less than at the test temperature. 4. See tables on page 28 for maximum allowable pressure for flanges. The term. the hydrostatic test pressure should be increased proportionally.) which are additive to the internal pressure. See tables on page 142 for maximum allowable pressure for pipes. H y d r t o ss t be ah ct o i cn as a d a u l ftc a t l b le r e hd il b e c act r oi e a m ol n p le e ts e n d . The pressure of the fluid and other contents of the vessel should also be taken into consideration. See tables on page 29 for pressure of fluid. A common practice followed by many users and manufacturers of pressure vessels is to limit the maximum allowable working pressure by the head or shell. external pressure. when the vessel: (a) is not corroded (new) n (b) t i h t ( te and the other conditions (c and d above) also need not to be taken into consideration. It means the pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point. . HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE O and one-halfntimes the maximum e allowable working pressure or the design pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine the maximum allowable working pressure. the design pressure may be used as the maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) code 3-2. served by the vessel. 2. etc. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point. maximum allowable pressure. A design pressure higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent.I 1. It is recommended to design a vessel and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. When calculations are not made. 3. new and cold. hydrostatic pressure. whichever is the greater. OPERATING PRESSURE P N R The pressure which is required for the process. etc. will satis@this requirement. is used very oflen. not by small elements as flanges. when the vessel is assumed to be: (a) in corroded condition (b) under the effect ofa designated temperature (c) in normal operating position at the top (d) undertheeffectof otherloadings(wind load.

l s ct g s e 6. a l l x xo 5 w. t se r S i e m r av r i yc le mw o uw e o m a p r br k l e l e i si n b s m tg u i r te l sei h t s e dt u o ra t e w hb nl n e e : e + 900 lb eh d H y d rto o s m t u e a l t t ii cs v c h ea m Cs t b s U e f r eo ( G l s d. JOINT EFFICIENCY The efficiency of different types of welded joints are given in table on page 172.4t Seenotation on page 22.v o ~o g eh si t T e s t t T s f a t s f f fg en o g t e ru am t s ic us n lo at m esr p e uq d w h tu o e i a r ee ld x h s a li l mdw o uw eo m a p r br kl ef ei st n sm g u or h oe ar ay e ph h eT ed e fn s l oa r f o h c lm dy d l u i.I t 1 V f P c t h at pressure s i e hshall en be: s s . e . e t StressValueS Temperature )( M A .d d1 0 n e1 . n e r e l i t t h rg se i w h s eg e r s o iot na e w v hl n te mch ir r l lc u n m e h f je y r en n o t ie a il ii l c it e o e n ch n y te s l.s o o e n r sh a t r hr ai t i eg s t ss i i e ph s n er g o s t nau eq i h n per ium o na nd oe r c eh ah l s f it t h lr o ne g i h ss t eu s e d i n na ea l m .Press. StressValueS At Design Temperature (Or Design Press. s ln a e d a h r s i c e a f lr l u s n ed i ur n i a ea s tl n ug m a oh c . T f o l p h l o c aw o i t h i ac k t nm e a ns f r e q u u t e n so y s t l g f i t l .ao h s n sga h in j lt u fe d o f i f n eiia ocl w i ne n c h t y . MAXIMUMALLOWABLESTRESS VALUES The maximuma a g i it t b u i t l o n g ic t C p U o l l to e ws a n v tb s l a p r ie e l el r f m u esd i i est f m ts fo e ae d t r e e r nr i t a r ova p 1 eb eaT n l m 8 ng ae x a9 hn l ie l m co . . . o u w m e a m p s rb e l ts es ri v e sd e o c e hy s ol ei s dn g d nsh er u i n eb ct a jl f l le o c lt at p s ed rh d i o n do a g u ou m d p i sn r e a itl s ts r i s v se h b hsh d ee s t a e ln a re c l ml c i t o ln r ee d i n abC cd & d -r e 2 . reaction of a d cd a l l eu or n s sg ) ii bt u n e ed o g i n tn d a e l i nT s n r i g ef o ih a n ir .4P P= 2SEt R – 0.: e9 e 9 ) A Pneumatic test may be used in lieu of a hydrostatic test per Code UG-100 P s a t s tr t eo e s so t ma t a f b lxa s i li so l mh w o uw o m p ar b r k le w e i s t ns h g u r eh e n ro ae p n g o t ta n vh e c r fh s ayb c t s n o fe nm ew l p o s ua t i tt i e se f dt a c t oh r y s o us r a a p f rn e ce s i eC c t rU yi f o b G . . The efficiency of seamless heads is tabulated on page 176. W.v l ee l i ry n s . 5.) e w s tsh me e al x h a sr li l sa b n h t g e ae aa p ss r l . besides the internal pressure additional loadings(wind load. 3 . o r f htm g u s l io a eh c s erc o r t rda e i nh g m l y : t PR = 24SE+ 0. .

2 W [ w h t h aieh e c x ok.ei a p x l l i 2e 1. F e l l ih p o m a ii o n 4 ( b I P= -Dy. r s oe m i s a s g l aul n o rR= w ex I a b rr . . B SPHERE HEMISPHERICAL HEAD PR ‘= 2SE–0. t hce i .I NOTATION P = D P N R FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSJDEDIMENSIONS w S= S p e o p vt E = J e o f f ip i c 1i e nan c t y 7 g.2t R -1 -– f w e ia os a t t o t h t s ej h hi o t s i e [ hh a 2 W t w h t h aie h e 0 S . e C = C o rA a rl o l o is w i .n a o nn c c e h . l c n n ee s l e 3x s d R o. t f 6 o gE r I s b ah p a p3 1. e P 6 hm i ti u C 5 lv A .e t f e s 3 o dr gE r 8h sm i i u5 t C A po h 1 p s e d b nah d e p . de ei c ) . .2P r 1- p= 2SE t R +0.jt “ /1 = 1>/4 0 a 1 s w e o ti a hr d ra do l e ta sm h r t . 6 c 5s e e en d n n d e ei . l a n se i d i n i dc u eh s e . e s s s e 2 s A CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( t L S E O A N M G ) R e PR f= SE– O. s l h s i e f lv. lh c n n o ete is la e n s nd r o a P e d x0 i cS u . e n e c t ha c i f {e s n c .2P 1. a eh i je o o n x t t 2 1 os h i h C d rA e a s po espr e nd n : . 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD PD ‘= 2SE– O. rr p ke i s s n ug s r i i s ai m D = eI nd i n e d tc e e h r . e o rm a e a p l t p s e u ss r a f t l g h i . a epo h s ep l li . ae s e l de . U gi m ne g s .6P P SE t = m-m s t su ia t t ll h r sl e i y og h s e o ev S n s e ar n en p r ep c e a d i g n g e . e l d e . F h Ih r d lo u a r t ai s ue g n ft fhg si i ol a e t f it e ee ld hfno f l s i e m h fa e s d n e c x 0k.i c e k n n ec s h tie = a i s .

c a ym i n ef d c .A.3I25 + IOJ p~i SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE Dctcrrninethe requiredthicknessot’a SCJMICSS ellipsoidal head 100 X 96. i .2 x (). + C.= SEE DESIGN[).E D P = X NA : E = 1 ED S AI G T S= 1 5 E = 0 j s p d p e r s p 7s vt5 o 1 p @ 56 l . 01” o shell .0. p . o e 5 s i s o nn c e a l l o w u o i 5t e ..275 in.2 x 0. n m tc l y e s f h e a d s n i r n c ah s d i e i8 d su e s * e is sg u i R n= r4 i e = s9 i e n if A d n c i h sa mi e e 6 d st e e r * rs S a0 e l 0 s D i u t” e w q [ u h ia i ir c k en ln d ec s lh s .6 x 100 + C. fJse: (). seamless head \!’heni! is in corroded condition. P for 0.3 I25 W + 0. HEAD . P = 17500 x ().o crd o i r o ng o d d vi e n t ad i ot n e r e He t t nm sl e i f l * s d a w t c i o r a rh lt ol s o i h w oe a nn c e l l SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE I)c[crmincIhc rcquird lhicknms.n e x .0 X 0. 2 X – — = 0. 17500 X 1.2 x 100 0.85 -. () 125 in.N”f’A AIK)VE fhwrmine the maximum:Ill(nv.16? in. thick.Il i. n c A 1 o c r 2 r h . P I’or(). f f oi 8 s cp o os i a h h n h e j .25 ‘ 2 x 17500 x 1.287 in.1?5 I7500 x 0. HEAD SEE DESIGNL)A’rA ABOVE Determine IIw maximumallowuhlcvrn-kingpressure.2 x I00 + C. e 5 a 7 0 t0 e= r I F C = 0 .A. in.125 in. /= ]00 x 48. P I’br(). in IICW currditi(m.0 SEE DESIGNDA’I’A ABOVE Determinethe maximumdlmv:iblc U[wkingprcwurc.275 96.50() in.0.275 in.3125 in MIN.5(M) . pkrfc —. = (). Izfi 2 x I7500 x 0.154psi 48 + x I(K) x 48. THK.125 in. 0.? x I7500 x 0. MIN. Detcrrnirrethe required thickness. e o f 0f oi is c0 ei n e a .X5x 0. 0.275— = 10(1psi Use: o 437s in.A.Ible If(whingpressure.?5 + 0. Use: (). = (). e . when it is in IICNctmdili(m . in.X5 x (). 0.85 -.5()() in thi~k kh{.325 in.3125 in [hi(k head. SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE The head furnishedwithmrtslraigh[ Ilwrge..11 wtlrn Ihc tIS<. I d’ ii hemispherical head.

885PL f= SE– o.885 L+0.r = W rn ai s d n i i d c u h es e . J r 1 M * : L = D + 2t 3 1 2 q .= C d n i s ai m i n e d tc e e hr . t e 0 at ‘D W i g h rt e 3 e s na h pa .l e d n eg g l r e e .2t s a a o ‘ c a (SE– = O. E = J R = I = p e r s oe m i s a s g l aul n o r aw e x Oa o p rr p ke s i sn u g s r ea L Sv to m a r a . 0 ca i (see note 2 on f p a .lt P When Vr l t 1e h s a s n PLM ‘= 2SE– O.p l t ps e u ss r a i e= I a i f r = I e o f f ip i c 1 i e nan c t y g 7. 1 ‘ ~ < \ P= SEt 0.t an ee 0 ia rac s re l i q n y a u .I NOTATION P = D P D = I N FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSIDE DIMENS1ONS w S= .2P V . so r a r l o 1 CONE CONICAL SECTION 2SEt c ‘= 2D + 1.e s i r n o a s de d ii i d in su e c sh lg .t e l e 3f o ea x h . k n n sr u a i i c dd nk i e c l u e hs te h 2 a i i c k n ln ec s l s h .6P) o A % ~ 2 1 T h a a ah a p nn g l g r e .s ( AC p 1 po e.0 A O L F 50 U A 0 “E C S T 2SEt ‘= LM+oo2t O MF R ” ‘ M 1 3 1. e l o is w i na o n n c c e h . e hb o t i a n n u pf d fe (c lhI a e r .d n 5 d (e i ex ) ) E A F S L A M D N G I HE N ES D H E ( T O R I S P H HE R I E C A LA W ‘ = h 1 6 e/ 2 n ED A D fr 0.

plate =0.0-0. 0. Use0.6875 in. 100x96.125X 1.500 in.efficiency ofspot-examined joints E = 1.486 in.481 Use0.866= 133psi 96+ 1. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition.75 from table Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.500in. r of a cone 100x 96. thick seamless head.1x 100 +C.plate SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE L/r = 16$ Determine the required thickness.125X1.21 E DESIGN DATA: P = lOOpsi design pressure S = 17500 psistressvalueof SA515-70 plate@650°F E = 0. 0.125in.A.d c te a oi o h n l ) o ay tir eh e% md +u l k L l y ae ( l / : = r 3 ) u . inches ~ = required L = 30°0nehalfofthe apexangle t = Resuiredwallthickness inches C.2 xO.481 = 100psi 96.6875 17500x 0. 2x (17500 X ‘2X 0.625in. Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.25 X R = 48inchesinsideradius* D = 96inches inside diameter* wallthickness. when the vessel is in new condition. p.866 Determine the required thickness.A.2XOo500Xo.A = 0. p= 2 x 17500X1.625in.r n3 C s tn o tr uv . L/r= ~= 1. P for a 0.jointefficiency ofsearnless SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Cos30° = 0. 100 2 x 17500 +C.125in. 0.481 in.75 t= ‘0.0xO.1 x0. t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head. thick cone.125inchescon-osionallowance * incorrodedcondition greaterwith thecorrosion allowance SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.866 +C. P for 0. 1.min.885X100x96.00.500 x0. L/r= ~ = 16 A4= 1.75 from table.611in.885x96+ 0. P for 0.A.6875 = 141psi SEEDESIGNDATA ABOVE Knuckle radius r = 6 in.481 in.0x0.125in. 0.85.85 xO. xO.500in. when the vessel is in new condition. f= 0.I25 17500x 1.thickhead o L a i g t rt NOTE: When the r A b4 c a ml b c tu a fl i / e 1 an ho to6f n r eca s o. ~= 61 (j SEEDESIGNDATA ABOVE % Knuckle radius r = 6 in.866 SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. 0.75+0.606in. 0. Use0.

.lo u a r t as i ue g n ft fhgsi t hce t s e j h hi i o i la e t fi te l e e d h n f o fl is t hc a f i e t hh a e m h f ae s d n e .~ y. e 1-3. .A: = Comosionallowance. l t einches = s i d e rr p ke s i sn u g s r: eO d ti as i mi n e d e hr ui = tc e o rm a a e p l t p s e u ss r ai e = W a i f tl g h a i .4t .e i y ogh s e o ev s n S e ar n en p 1 a g e 4 W t w h t h aie h e c xo k.4P ~ 1 U 2 P = R y. lh c nn o ee t is la e ns nd r o a P e d x 0i c S u.8P + u h = D14 P=D~l— .shallbe applied.8P @ d’ R P . et fse 3 o dr gE r 8sh im v u 5 t C A po h 1 p se d b nah d ep . e A CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( + R L S E O A N PR * = SE + 0. c 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD PD h ‘= 2S45+1.n d n4 .a he i j m a ii o tn x t2 s o h C h i :A r ep as o e1p s 1r e .inches .ei a p x l l i 2e g s lh s e l B SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD PR f = 2SE + 0. . b G3) s t su ia tt lh r sl . - 1 F e l l h i p o w e s ot a ih r d . 8 9 C. od r at e al m s h a rt . R P t E h . B* f 1 F h o t h o t s S w e ia os a t t f h r d . i c e k n ln ec s l s h .page 1 r s oe m i s a s gl au l n o r w e xOa u b r radius.22 I NOTATION P=D w S= S 1 p e op vt P N FORMULAS IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS 7 E = Joint efficiency.

. P for 0. ip.273 = 100psi 0.4375in.min.273 in. P= 17500xO. P for 0.0X 8 p. 0. 100x96 2 x 17500 X 1 1 +C.A.thickplate SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Head furnished without straight flange.447in.A. Use:0.min.jointefficiency ofseamless SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the required thickness.125in.500 in.8&efliciencyofspot-examined joints ofshellandhemis. when it is in new condition.= 0.500 = 155psi 48-0. P for 0. t of a shell 100X48 ‘= 17500x0.8 x0.8 xO.500 Use: 0.4x 100 ‘0”322 ‘n” +C.3125 48-0.125inchescorosionallowance SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.398in.500in. = 194psi 0.23 E DESIGN DATA: P = IOOpsidesignpressure S = 17500 psistressva1ueof SA515-70plate@650°F E= O. i A . when the vessel is in new condition.286in. + 2X 96-1.OOjointefficiency ofseamlessheads l? =48inchesoutsideriidius D= 96 inchesoutsidediameter t =Requiredwallthickness. 1.85xO. 0 x 17500x1. inches C. thick head.headtoshell E = 1.3215in.3125 in.A. 0.8x100 + C SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.t0.00. thick shell when the vessel is in new condition. . 0.85x().125in. Determine the required thickness. Use0.thickhead SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ellipsoidal head. t= SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.4 x0. t of a hemispherical head. X E = 1. 2x 17500xO. ‘0-161 ‘r0. thick head. t= 2x17500 %.3125 n 2 5 .85-0.thickhead .

2) 4 .s “ ( AC p 1 po e. 2 5 4 .8t PD ‘=2 Cos CY (SE+ O. 2 5 6 .inches ~ = one half of the included(apex) P = Designpressureor max.4P) d @L 1 T h a a a h ap nn g g l re . 5 0 5. e o l o is w i na o n nc c e h s r a rl o CONE CONICAL SECTION p= 2bsEf Cos CY a D –0.d n 5 d ( e i ex ) ) E A F sL A M D N G I HE N ES D H E ( T O R I S P HHE R I E C A LA W h = 1 e n 6 L 2 / r / ED D 0. . 00 .2)’ VALUES OF FACTOR M ‘ M 1 1 / 1. 2SEt ‘= ML –t(ikf-O.885PL 2=SE + 0. 50 3.0 0 50 3 . 1. e 0a t 2 W i h g rt e 3 e sna h p .C . 3.a0 ta n e ea sc r °e l i qny a i ra u .0 0 16 0 % ‘ 7 q : L-t = D 2 .0 5 .0 6.7 5 2.e s e suc sh k n n sr u a i i c dd nk i e l c u eh te h 2 a i ic k n ln ec s l s h . = W C. 7 5 5.r 2 2.I N ~ A T I O N P N FORMULAS IN TERMSOF OUTSIDEDIMENSIONS Outsidediameter.A: = t a i s d ni i d c u eh s e .t e l e 3o f ea x h t .885L– O.8t h 6s n a2 s f . allowable d n eg g l r e e w o p r r psi ke s i s n ug r ea L u r t . 2 1.8P P= SEt 0. 0 2 . i W Lh T e e1 PL M f= 2SE+P(M– O.o a d s in S= S v & o m a e a p l ts p e u ss r a i e= O a f i lg e dii i d E = J R=O ) e o f ur r = I f ip i c 1 i e nan c t y g 7.

85+Oc4X 100) = =0.5()()X().75-0.00. 2x 17500x1. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition. 0. Use:0.500 in.85.478 .866X(l\50. 2X17500x1. 0. +-CA.625 in.125in. P for 0.75 t= =0.thickhead s.0x 100(1.625 P= 0.125in.866 Determine the required thickness.min. 17500x 1.8x 100 +C. 0.efficiency ofspot-examinedjoints E = 1. t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head. t of a cone 00 96 ‘=2 x0. X0. SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. 0.h (o n t f or ea 6 cn s or -n s C nt t o r u :v dc e t a oi o h n l ) NOTE: W Mm ca a e tA r eh% md + u~ l ly ae ( : = 3 ) .885 0.0xO.jointefficiency ofseamlessheads R = 48inches outside radius SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE :0s 30° = 0.2)=100ps* Use0.372 in.483 in.125in. ‘= 17500x1. thick seamless head.75 from table.500in.866) 0.125inchescomosionallowmce SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.2) +-CA.500xO.75X96-0478(1.(0. Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.866= 134psi 96. 6e 2 : % 5 SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE ~ =1 Knuckle radius r= 6 i M M 1.OX(). l yb c tu f bl o a SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE K r p= 6 in.75 from table.thickplate SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE L/r = 16$ Determine the required thickness.625in. U 0 X D = 96inchesoutside dimeter ~ = 3@onehalfofthe apexmgle L = 96inchesoutside radiusofdish t = Requiredwallthickness.608in.thickhead t r h o L a ie hg t r t n i / e 1 ea .85X (). L/r= ~ =16 ~= 1. P for a 0. P for 0.603in.min.478 in. in.A.885x 100x96 =0.25 E 3ESIGN DATA: P = IOOpsi designpressure S = 17500 psistressvalueof SA 515-70 plate@650°F E = 0. when the vessel is in corroded condition.8xO. Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. ~= 2X 17500X C). 100X96X 1. ‘= 1.497in. 0.478 in. thick cone.75-0. inches C.A = 0.0+0.

psi t = Minimum required thickness of head. . tr = Minimumrequired thicknessof seamless shell for pressure. exclusive of corrosion allowance. S =Maximumaflowable stiessvalue ofmaterial. in. in. t~ = Actual thickness of head exclusive of corrosion allowance.&u Y I F NOTATION E P E=joint efficiency P = Internal or external design pressure psi d =Inside diameter ofshell. t~ = Actual thickness of shell. in. exclusive of corrosion allowance. in. in.

33 — = 24 0.13x300/15. . t = d = Use 1. Use l.57 in. .13 PISE = 24 ~ 0. t t=d ~ 0. plate Using thicker plate for shell.000 x 1 = 1. DETERMINE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS. alesser thickness wfil be satisfactory for the head t~ = 0. “ .3125 in. shell for pressure. from the J inside face of the head 2 m = 6 in” .33 .33 — = 0..625 in.27 I E E P DESIGNDATA P = 300 psi design pressure E=joint d =24in. head t~ Checking the limitationof — d = 1. Use 1. . t~ =0.223 in.26 x 300/1 ~.375 = 24 J 0. n ..000 x 1 == 1.000 x 1 = 1. Theratio ofhead thickness to the diameter of the shell is satisfactory SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE c = 0. .250 — 24 = 0. actual thickness ofshell.243 i required thickness n of seamless . inside diameter ofshell s efficiency =15.731 in.052.243 = 0.243 0. c = 0.214 0.0001psi maximum allowable stress value of SA-515-60 plate tr =0. ..33 + t= d & 0. plate The shell thickness shall be maintained along a distance 2 dt.375 i s = 0.75 in..250in.214 x 300/15..3125 = 0. .26 0.

28 PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE RATINGS F S T P O FLANGES E I E AND R P FLANGED L E FITTINGS American National Standard ANSI B16. F MAXIMUMALLOWABLENON-SHOCKpRESSURE PSIG. -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 285 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 740 675 655 635 600 550 535 535 505 410 270 170 105 50 990 900 875 845 800 730 715 710 670 550 355 230 140 70 1480 1350 1315 1270 1200 1095 1075 1065 1010 325 535 345 205 105 2220 2025 1970 1900 1795 1640 1610 1600 1510 1235 805 515 310 155 3705 3375 3280 3170 2995 2735 2685 2665 2520 2060 1340 860 515 260 6170 5625 5470 5280 4990 4560 4475 4440 4200 3430 2230 1430 860 430 Ratings apply to materials: SA-1051’2 SA-515-702 SA-516-702 SA-537-C1. the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite.13 SA-216-WCB2 SA-181-70]’2 SA-350-LF2 NOTES: 1. 300 l HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE. at the tabulated temperatures and may be interpolated between temperatures shown. 25b 0 l b 50 450 1125 1500 2225 3350 5575 9275 TEMPERATURE. For service temperatures above 850 F it is recommended that killed steels containing not less than 0. h c m ot s ne m ah te aa st i t en f r e e id a l . PSIG 4 l 6 b lb. 2. 0 900 b l 0 .10070 residual silicon be used. Temperatures are those on the inside of the pressure-containing shell of the f l I g a en i ni g t e se r a .5shall not be used for higher ratings exceptwhereit is justified by the design methods of the Code. T m Flangesof ANSIB16.1 0l . Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800 F.5-1981 150lb. Ratings are maximum allowable non-shock working pressures expressedas gage pressure. a t a lho n t. a s t h ne hb r u i ai e at o sh ll i a cl e k 21/2 b t n ie e do s n s v n e 3.

h e l 4 ye a 3 e t d 3 y . The intensity of the pressure when the fluid is at rest is equal in all directions on the sides or t t h u e o t hif s g a e l oh tb e u p t o iof h ev d i bottom of the vessel and i d a w T v T w T t f a s P H F 0 t h p s e t a t h t s a b t h wa s ri ie c hc so n st h sui d re e e r e ds .v e e e h bb h m u l l a e w t i tl sp s li l p i g ee h d t rc o ti a fh f v i e ic l co h tn s uy i d ei r f a e t di r ie P s a o sp u Su . H o eW a i aF d Cto e r sr ee s f tper o C n n d e P it nr r g te a s si o un r i P op S u q n I eu d nn a s r rc e h 0 w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 i t . h pi r f e h nas os o u d fo t ren l t eh w u hr et a i y v td raa l i rn g es hi t u . 3t r qI ne 4 e fud Dn n asi 5 fr Hr f o c e e o eW r he a n ar 6 7 8 t d t 9 se e o e 1 d e2 b a a F at h e r e e .q n r p h u et 4 po ia r t p e lu 3 s ssi q n s 3 uu e nd r a e c T f t p i r pe s hns q s i o u fd e u are n fae h r o cn r en e g e ih t i e r ta o y va ta d bh e bt o n m u t l f t h i b ep . e er h s eo p l ed ti s s ne o u t n i re e a t ph p i a es l e l . l t r c i eb c h ad a b nt a d lt e d d l o g eu n h s r eg hb se e lr h e e o lsb oh a w e t t it wpo w r n e ea e s hh e s .2 - P F STATIC HEAD The fluid in the vessel exerts pressure on the vessel wall.

17 — 11730 12750 13800 14875 15000 17500 — 0.4780 in. whenspotradiographed.4426 inches and the weight of the vessel 12600 lbs.67 1. E.08 — 0.85 0.08= 13608 lb.49 1.92 0.27 1. 2.28 1.86 Table A shows the stress value of the most frequently used shell and head materials. Foravesselusing SA 5 15-70 plate.09 1.79 14875 1. A Stress values at tem~. E.78 0.18 1. therequiredthickness 0.73 13800 1.79 0. 0.09 — 0. 11730 13800 12750 15000 14875 17500 B Ratios of Stress Values 11730 12750 1.01 — 0. 12600 X 1. In case 2.08 = 0.85 0.18 1. using SA 285-C plate and fill radiographic examination: In case 1.99 “ 0.18 17500 1. .27 1. -20 to 650° F.85 15000 1.30 T f q c u o om i po r a cr e i r q ps k o ut n lh i ir aace weight fk d t n forevarious ne s smaterialsdand at different degree of radiographic examination.4426 x 1.17 1.92 0.37 1. EXAMPLE: 1. 100Yo J. . In this proportion will be increased the required plate thickness and the weight of the vessel. S A C S 5 2 S 5 8 S 5 3 1 5 1 5 6 A B S 5 6 A 1 0 5 S 5 6 A 1 0 6 85V0J.08.08 — 0.92 0. Table B shows the ratios of these stress values. The stress value of the material 14875 The stress value of the material 13800 The ratio of the two stress values tlom Table B = 1. What plate thickness will be required and what will the weight of the vessel be.93 0.86 0.

G 9 ) E d i P T V t i m ay c it o t t y hs e b e p hm r a as a ea p f lr t n ed l ls et s e u1 eo 1t r h t e s t i a t/ m s i f f b e er e nt n w o c a ee tr meo m s p n par h e e al r s t i s cm u in r n d h e i e md s u e n a t e b p r s rn o eU a l s -u l s ( t u e r e9 .d w s ea sl sf l e i v gl a n so oc e p du a v ru ar to m c i s n u a rb hlul s u b tj aei c nt h te ye d d rr to n o so an tw a e l t a ih h cys d r t eo t si tr n a n e t p r a c t a i pc n a be l t ue m . ila m g ln a oee xa d l i x p t e r e r o 1S n s p s ao u 2 l pr ce s m f ete o r n h 5 a rr x ta ti m p h x pt r e e w r sh n s i aiucs l r h m ee Ca.eo . r 4 . lC ia t s U n ei u tr 2 o -t h G e ( sp N d: 8 ) c y eg l i ov n G de 8 jr is ) a cn sac l e k e w s l s ji e o U o2 ( d P re e s s s S i n g vl e e . 2 f e lg r e e s s tn i a gi n c l m o r uw e m i o s n su e G 8 ) A v e w s i hd s e i s a e ic clo g nh n s n te t s C r d u r c e to q d e u di f r dei m no e n et to es p r a e w s si h ru n er i q te b u c d d i e r hs f e ai s e d g x n pt o oee e do r 1 s n r e p r sa n ul r o l n ne be d se e o s t r Ci s g rd no f t ue te e dd l x op toe her e c e rs o s n rn s a ed u li tr H o w n e e xv p te r er re r. v l L e lro ( e r s d J. s na m sao bt u sl r i w ha e nt o y t ohtea un m d hp e C gi s w i l C re e o q u i s fr de e m xse p n e t tor es a e r ms n C sa r u U le r r o ( G e nt d. g ta e he s e x c nr f se r C ho di e s .31 E D V w r e e e P rs e is g s un r e P X e i sn s t f es e ne l ud s r o ee n v dx i w d t c ero e p e r r rn k re o a si1 l s pn o u a h t b is tr c w a th m C ip e s oe e oh y t dd m e dhn c b oe o mo et pwi l fo e x l tp o ee r er s ssn s rh u ba d l r e a e sf . . f G 9 ) n d e tu m C e a U t -s oi c t 1d : 0e G 0 e d o os E s r2 p r u t7 e m h se o t it f g o he l p n olh ocd a w o i t ng nA n e f g e C oS f s r Pom M r e S s e V s c De t I 1 l iT I Is c o n Io h V p h a. 4 at . U e-a ( t s o i c t 9 f . f2 et T s 2 F a U V C T nh h b a a i p i o tpl v s l li ei o t h espe d e a s a tr e e f ae m tlp be e s r dm a e t u itlr e n t d e p n rhs ie d0i se dt sg e eu b rnt rmC ei U n eo shd ( ( d C o y C6 e ce 2 o S ( t H a 5t v b n eA o co 1 h i e i ) s m o ts d i p e t e y a s c f tt .

c ra t be ( el h r e p i a aa 4 3 a t v o4 a A M h7 l v ) e o ur tt t et iev c fa a p p t he c m a p le b r li a et n u r e * 5 F t ir n t e orh m s e h. jacket closure 4. . 1~ t. in. Maxunumallowableworking pressure.= L = External design pressure. stiffening rings 3. value O g a n5 w t L/Dpheis greater r e t 0 of L/DO.g42) .32 E N O T A T I O N PRESSURE X FORMULAS P= P = d. See pages 49-511) n d Determine L/DQ a b oI 2 E Fn U G t i O ( e . B A u z 2 ~ F O t pr / o o oh t ie . cm o zan ov n t a o to r i ie r t ve o a B h a l d u e e f . t A ! — D. Pa.2 n s8 d ( n Ch e) l i e de ./l equal to or greater than 10 the maximum allowable pressure: 4B Pa = 3(D0It ) T value of B h shall be determined e by the following procedure: 1. tube sheets (see pa e 39) t = Minimum requiredwa fi thickness. the design procedure must be repeated increasing the vessel thickness or decreasing L b s t i rf f ei n * a c v p p b c t F ao A l f o u a t t l er l l s o i t e fn h g t l ei m c p a leb r lt a ie v t u n r ae h el of PO a l ab c t u fl a o t n r ee hm d u l y a e ~ A s W S TI I 1 !-$? 2 F R FTE 1 W t g b a N II H N G Np p h v Pa = 3 /t) ( D 0 oaD eh il l n o tu e 1 e / e th fs t i i t Cv U e G o h . psig. A i m z CYLINDRICAL SHELL Seamless or with Longitudinal Butt Joints When D. C o tm m p a u a xh t l i e l m wo u w o ep a m r b kr l s r e . the length. and at 0. M .2 P rat8 the. Assume a value for t. E than 50. psig. is l e 0. in. a . rm m e o it n s ne v c tt i e o o a f i h na A t l t dc e a t t el v r l m y ol e c u te 4 E t n a pt p l h me i ac . h oo r i z t v o t n tl a e rl e l i p y h r e s ne o 3. in.05.u u z t E M Lal L F A If the maximum allowable working pressure is smaller than the design pressure. G . m 2 A. ofvessel section between: 1. 2. Outside diameter. 5. circumferential line on a head at one-third the depth of the head-tangent line.05 when L/D. cone-toqdinderjunction or knuckle-to-cylinderjunction of a toriconicalhead or section.

UCS-28.56 psi. a e? 0 i r ce eek d ni e s l s . =4x ‘k * GG ‘. e 0 9 g .(length of shell 192 in. l ps : 4s 5 n a eL = 592 n in.2 (page 43). L = 200 in.i Ce a p 2 l ll f 8 T e m p 5 e r F a t0u r e 0 E = M o of d elasticity u o l m u a s t2 e 7 o p 4 ) a g n e D A L e t te rr e m q i s hnut eh h i l la ° . is satisfactory.000/3x 192= 6. and one third of the depth of n . Length of one vessel section. is greater than the design pressure P. Pa = o 4B/3(DOlr) Q 3000/3 x 192= 20. .000. (length g t of shell h 576 in.00007 from chart (page 42)determined by the procedure described on the facing page. .33 E D E DATA S I G N X P = IS e x dt ee pressure r sn a i l g n D. is smaller than the design pressure Using 2 stiffening rings equally spaced between the tangent lines of the heads.17 Do/t = 96/0.8 psi.) L/DO= * a s = = = = from chart (page 3000 f ‘ ‘ q c r( h 4 po a a rm 3 g t e e ) G : + “ d f e t ap e b r t m p i r n oe dh c d ee 0 c a i g n eg sd o cu y re r ie b .5= 192 A=O. e e ) sa s s t h u h i m ce t =k0e n l i e ( s. P* = 2A E/3( DOlt) = 2 x 0. i *Z “00 Since the maximum allowable pressure P. Since tlie maximum allowable pressure P stiffening rings shall be provided. ) heads 16 i L/DO= 592/96 = 6. = 96 in. r 3 0i p 0a @05 l f . Since the value of A is falling to the left of the applicable temperature-line in Fig. the assumed thickness of shell using two stiffening rings. plus one third of depth of head 8 in. outside diatmeter of the shell f e ths ra sl n t e fo tg e i a lel n m n 4n i g f t O ie n= e5 n oie tt Length o t v H 2 e e l a l i :pd s o s i d 1 a M a ots e S r h . See page 40 for design of stiffening rings.“ s 0 ( 0 c0 i0 s J h A 5 t e n : 7 8 .00007x 27.

From the intersection move horizontally and read R. t ar e ( b hel r p 4e i a a 3 a a l rg o a A. computed by the formula above. inches. RO = Outside radius of sphere or hemispherical head. = Modulus of elasticity of material. R. and B to be determined as for sphere.9 00. ( + ( T O R I S P H HE R I E C A LA D f. t- DO - *For values of A falling to the left of the applicable temperature line. W . (1) The thickness as computed by the formulas given for internal pressure using a design pressure 1. (page 43) SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD B The maximum ‘“ = (RO/t) allowable pressure: The value of B shall be determined by the followingprocedure: 1. Assume the value for t and calculate the value of o r m u / ( l) (see a page49) : A using the f 2 E t t v t n a p tp m lh e i a cc .00. DO FLANGED AND DISHED HEAD ASME R. P Pa = Maximum allowable working pressure psig.0625V~R0/ t ): If the maximum allowable working pressure f’.. in.34 EXTERNAL PRESSURE FORMULAS NOTATION = External design pressure psig.9D0 for ellipsoidal heads. a greater value for [ must be selected and the design procedure repeated. (2) The thickness proofed by formula Fa=BARo/1) where&=O. inside crown radius of flanged and dished heads. psi. in. 0. t +% The required thickness shall be the greater of the following thicknesses. 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD I R. is smaller than the design pressure. The required thickness and maximum allowable pressure shall be computed by the procedures given for ellipsoidal heads. the value of POcan be cal~~–•°à–•Tá–•Xæ–• culated by the formula:Pc = 0.* 3. h Move l vertically u e to e f the applicable temperature line. . (See above)ROmaximum=D.67 times the external pressure and joint efficiency E= 1. t v o a B h l u e e f . = Minimum required wall thickness. DO = Outside diameter of the head.

Pa = B/( RO\r)I= 6100/276= 22. t e p e r h as s re is n s g e SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE. A sah s t u he i m cf = k0 a en Procedure(2. RO=.) Assume a head thickness: t = 0. RO= 4 A = 0 .s 2 i 7 . 1 8 7.4/0. . Since the maximum allowable pressure Pa i g P t a s r t e t adh t s hh u i i m cs ak e t en i s def a s cst o r y s .) e .00045 B = 6100 from chart (page 43 ). S t i m a n x a h cl i l m w e o u w o e pa m r r b k Pa l e is i esexceedingly ns u g greater r e than the design pressure f’. 0 0 /=0 0 . t e p a e r h as r e is n s g e . A = 0. For a second trial. 5 in.3125)= 0. .0004 f 2 c r ( h 0 4 p o Pa a = 0aB/( 3 rm RO/t) g t= ) 5200/307 e .1875 in.p245 ) .2 psi. r 4m = 3 6700/256 t ) . is satisfactory.n . e r A = 0 .3 d 2 e g5 t ) ee br0 t m B p i r n 0 oe h c d d e s o ct r f i b ap e hc da i g n n e eg . assume a head thickness: t = 0.3125 in.= 0 0 / 0 .35 E DESIGN DATA: P = 15psigexternal design pressure Do= 96 inches outside diameter of head Material of the head SA-285C plate 500°F design temperature X Determine the required head thickness.93 psi. = 16.1875 in. Pa = 8 5 0 0 / ( 4 8 . B a5 Since the m ~ t a s a x a li l m po ru w P ea mi s b g l s r e tu e r t ad eh t s hh u i i m cs ak e t en i s def a s cst o r y s .=0. i 8 .1 psi.g 42 pm 8 = 8 a. 0 =0 4 / 0 . SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE. i s d 3s = :n 1 x 2 = . n0 0 . The assumed thickness: t = 0. = 26.DO= 96 in.. A = 0.25 i R = 4 n i 8 .1 25/(86.125/(96/0. a lesser thickness would be satisfactory. SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE Assume a head thickness: t. 5 ) 0 0 0 5 B = 6 f 7 c ( r 0 hp a 0 Pa oag = B/(RJt) e . 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 . Procedure (2.3125)= 0. 2 5 0) 0 0 6 5 F F r U Ci o S( . e ~ d u y . 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 .

e d s s ip e g r hs o n must ci . psi t = minimumrequired t te = The thicknessof the conesshallbe the sameas f n h e ol t se s the required t h i f c a k e sn s d .Pa. 4. From the intersection move horizontally and read the value of B.(L/’2)(l+D~/Df) external design pressure. o a A f ol at ut l l e o l rt s ia e h n fp g cable line. 5 C4 o l i . mc e h q t il u a c o a rh fu h lg t e o t h e nr ef e . the value of P can be calculated by the formula: Pa = 2A E/3(D. P c i o w o a t. l ew m o t m m p2 a u ax h t o w u e arm 4 7 ) c lh l I e u Pa fd is s f e e mdt at dl h l e pf e rh as etr si s n ( a a g xl r d )e e e t . = t Cos a r a o d ve r eiq i d u no fa te o ctr y j l u i nSn cp d t 1 e u ar e e . be e repeated gd e u n r Dl = outside diameter at the increasing the thickness or decreasing L b pressure. Enter chart UGO-28(page42) at the wdue E a 5 wn L/Dl t h e of LJDI (. in.) For cones havingD A ratio smallerthan 10./t. > 10 a ax l i l pm o r w u e am s bs l u e r The m . using of stiffeningrings. Enter the applicable material chart at the value of A* and move verticallyto the line of applicable temperature. (see page 39) equivalent length of conicalsection./f. c o e i nn h . r and mthe i ratios . see Code UG-33(~(b) W H I G ER E T N A 6aT H E S R A 0 Pa = flbum allowable workingpressure. in.UGO-21L0 (page .L/Dl e and .. in. g 5 h i ic k n effective thickness.. e u e The valuesof B s b determined h a by thel following procedure: 2 D e t t eL. From the point of intersection move vefically to determine factor A. in. B = fhctordetermined from 3 charts (pages 4 D1/te 3.) “ s l% te s a v s for au thickness.. a I L a DI ‘1 NOTATION A = factordeterminedfrom fig. n q F v d . n . .L/D&)( h o or0 i t z tov n t is greater than 5 M line representing~it. 1 A 4 ‘ = 3(D. a = o h o t ian n p d n eeg D s= E = L = Le = P = large end.. m l ~. outside diameter at the small e i n modulusof elasticityof material (page 43) length of cone.36 E P FORMULAS CONE A L X CONICAL N SE(XION D ‘a AX D L WHEN a IS EQUAL TOORLESSTHAN60< and Dl\r.

pa = 4B = 3 X (144/0. =( D1/2)hncx=48/. 6 7 / 1 4 4 = 0 . 6 . g .00065 (from chart. 7 ~ X( O ) . the assumed plate thickness is satisfactory. 0o a r m t g 3 . =96 in. 3 n7 .3125 x . ea m is s b ls e u r d e greater than the e p rs e i s s g u P.. 3 2 4 4 = 3. i 45 a 7 17 s 4n . . 3(333) Since the maximum allowable pressure is greater than the design pressure. = 25.200 = 20.8 p a n x ah cl i l m pe o r u w e P. f 2p h r 04 a . t. t t e r r em tqi h n u i eic L n= [ (gD r D t J )h / 2=]. t Length..288. 2 4 1 D1/te= 1 4 4 / 4 0 . 3 2 4 7 4 . /~. O e e 5 s Determine the required thickness.37 E DESIGN DATA F’ = 15 psi external design pressure Material of the cone SA 285-C plate 500 F design temperature CONICAL HEAD D( = 9 i X a =2 n d e 2 6 g. =L/2 ( L. o a0 r m t 3 g 2 1 4 4 94 6 4 X8 6 2 5.00037 ( 4 ~ 5 p. 4B 3(D.6 . O 0 i . D.3125 in.324) 4 4 3(DJr J s i .6\2 X $ ’ 6 = /3 1 4 4 4. / 2 t a n 4a =/ 2 t =tC . fe = t cosa=O.288 = 333 cf p h r 4a o a r m t 2 g . A =0. = r. A =0. D L e e D. EXAMPLES & .c f 6p h r 0 4 a. = = (5 c. / )l= 1 X + D( 1 + 0/96) 6 D = 58 1/ L.8 psi. 3.6 L). Assume a head thickness.8 3 6 =5 0 . ) 6 Le/D[ = 3 4 . Ite = 96/. 0 m 1 Le=(L/2)(1 I w + 9 L + D~\Dl)=41.4142= 115. the assumed thickness is satisfactory.8. =58/96 =0. page42J 1 S t i m 4 B= 8( . L (1 A7 2 1 w e e ) ) 4 X 5./t@) = CONICAL SECTION (See design data above) DI = 144 in. a =30 d r k n ee e d s e s . 2. 0.say 116in 1. f.9239 = 0.

.

7 H Use L in calculationas shownwhen the strength of joints of cone to cylinder meets the requirements described on pages 163-169 r L.39 E P FORMULAS X 7 L J o T L R Use L in calculation as shown when the strength of joints of cone to cylinder does not meet the requirements described on pages 163-169 It will result the thickness for the cone not less than the minimumrequired thickness for the joining qdindrical shell. 1 -a .

in. or the number of rings shall be increased. sq. = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring about its neutral axis parallel to the axis of the shell. = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring combined with the shell section which is taken as contributing to the moment of inertia.40 E NOTATION P RINGS X DESIGN OF STIFFENING A : Factor determined from the chart (page 42) for the material used in the stiffening ring. (2) to the head line at junction.10 @ in. or (4) to cone-to-cylinder P = External design pressure. L.9 The value of A shall be determined by the following procedure: 1.4. 4. = The sum ofone-halfofthe distances on both sides of the stiffening ring from the center line of the ring to the (1) next stiffening ring. The available moment of inertia ofa circumferential stiffening ring shall not be less than determined by one of the following formulas: D02L. From the intersection point move vertically tothebottom of the chart andreadthe value of A. depth. in. t = Minimum required wall thickness of shell.4. the stiffening of the sheH is satisfactory. DO= Outside Diameter of shell. Select the type of stiffening ring and determine its cross sectional area A II. Enter the applicable material chart (pages 43 -47) at the value of B and move horizontally to the curve of design temperature.. The width of the shell section 1. E = Modulus of elasticity of material (see chart on page 43) 1.(t+A]L)A {. Calculate factor B using the formula: “’[*J 2. Otherwise stiffening ring with larger moment of inertia must be selected. IV. Stiffening ring for jacketed vessel: Code UG-29 (f) . 111.. (3) to a jacket connection. If the moment of inertia of the ring or the ring combined with the shell section is greater than the required moment of inertia.Calculate the moment of inertia of the selected ring or the moment of inertia of the ring combined with the shell section (see page 95). in. or head line at % of its depth and determine dimension. I. Calculate the required moment of inertia using the formulas above. in. L. = Do’L. = Cross sectional area of the stiffening ring.= ~ .s 10. When the value of B is less than 2500. Assume the required number of rings and distribute them equally between jacketed section. psi.(t+A~L)A ~. f’. A. A can be calculated by the formula: A = 2B/E. in. cone-to-shell junction. 3.

000. e5n l e /e 0 q n .000= 0. = 14 S m e S t i a S p I 962X 196X (0. a e I A a z = o n6 x 4 g s3 i 4 . us d t d t ir te im q h o un oo ni i m r n o e ee d rn t t i a f . U s o h 2 s s t ii fr f n e i ngq i n n u g ag p b ea o t c n wet e -d e td e eh ni hp r ( e f ia s g d u1 e in.= 1 9 L H M T E= M o 1 = 0 xs dt ee p i r r s5 ne . T selected angle: 11. ht e ehe r l fl e .s 0 ( 0 c 0 i0 s h p 4 a 3 g n e ) i .\Q4] .5+ 3. im fn t 9a a t l7 h l ” e a h s o o im n o e te ns r et t a l h i ef( n a 1 c i t fg ) e te v d l. eo t nv gf e ths ra h st n t e fo tg e i a lel n m n 4n i g f t O ie n = e5 n oi e t 2 e e l a l i :p d s os i d 1a l a o t t es tr i i r f h af S e l. i ld s ed . II.00015 IV.3 cf 1 t . Lj = r t e 1 t m o oh m i ne o e tn e III. a s i s l g u rn e . t h 5 i o cs n 0k n h 0 e se . = 2 X 2095/27. ne i ae h s 1 4 s ” d e q s u t a i tf e f el n y e d . a g fe e s~ t 9 i 5 r f -c o f9 a e e l7 i c n ui l nar n t g i o ng s . i 3f 1.i n if n e ng 3 g A 6 e m p 5 e r Fa t 0 u r e 0 ° o o d e l u a ols m t u a i sc t2 ie 7 t. e u e e h 5 a 0 0 n .41 E D E DATA: S p .03 ~1961 = 2095 2 S t 2 t i v no a B hi c l l . -s l. e A = 2BiE. i o u nd t i sao. s l f l n : 7 .5 + 3.00015 = g 97 in ~ = = . rf s e e ) 9.e I G N X P= D. t m i s 6d e . The required moment of inertia: [1102L$(r+ A. i r f fm e i b ns in unt algbg a b j s u te c y T e c ke s r tl h ia b c on lo g n i .03/ 196)X 0. . 14 t i r en q mhc u o io e im r e ne e ( de n i 9 r ) it ts . T v o a F ha lc t uo e r = B= 3/4[PDOjct 3/4 ~5 X 96/(0. .4in. r f y0i p 0a@05l f . ‘ .

4 2 Cacml owl 001 A . 0 1 THE VALUES OF FACTOR U I F S O REM F U V DL E AN O U SS A E N R S A S L S N EE X R D L T SP EE R R U .

- e Uolwj .

I I I I n r I I I i z .

I w I I 1 I I \ \ w 8 E Pa .45 II 111111 l I # .

t I 1 I Y-RI I\] u) . E . \ I 1 I I I I 1 .. t 1 1 1 .. \ I \ .46 e Ho13vd . . Ua I t 1 I I I I ! 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I ! . I I .

4 .

W c h o re a r l or l si o t i e b w op a nr n o c t ve s i t di r f e sh o fd e a se e . u’ e 2 r e 9 . v n s ae t n h td e l ie h mr ee e o i t mc r fa i b c o o t pu u i l s he a ct T tt s ti f ee o cc e n hbt snf . s o a a n tu c s it hrln cs ue m i ff e d er ee o t v e sh s e fle . tr te “ l . f g n/ e .lan eo b t o e a l rh1% t i t ed noitn e a hm m a ct e do e a tc e t ti h se a l rh t io s f tf s o e f c t d e o hr n s cd tF ei tt ii s A e o g n s s u .30.ASME.) M S p a 1 tf i n 8t f e x a rt rt c x oe o1e i ri ri n . x a h o i s m rl u h reu m n e e s u pbl c pf e f o l o r ct g te a i ds ut oei Ug G g d. is a f ef e WELDING According to the ASME Code (UG 30): Stiffener rings may be attached “to the shell by continuous or intermittent welding. The total length of intermittent welding on each side of the stiffener ring shall be: 1 f r o it o o n u nt ghl. CONSTRUCTION I i p r e f t u e r p a i l b tc l ss o ae n st t a rc oe o u em cp st o is i nnt g e s s et c ti r i of n f i e r a t ut hs hs t easa i tnr r n du s n ac hg tr T u ad r r p ae f l e th a sl n s. bin a h i tn n tg t the shell with continuous fillet o or seal weld. n2 n a lc g g a rn l ar n l 4 1 F E T t X f t h A F iA g u r e x 3 Il Sf D % w i M R P LO : T 1 G I E UN S E ? G x2 f 4wE i R II NN S I l S D iB g u r e d d o lg 6 e c l” o l g 6 e c l” te ”l .48 E CONSTRUCTION P X OF STIFFENING RINGS LOCATION Stiffening rings may be placed on the inside or outside of a vessel. tr i w t l h ee i s g ben hl esl ti ta d zt e o s e lh m o ls at h a e fl t o l s l e n1 se w t l hio io c v h k w e n o es s e ta s sia t f e jlf f le o n l hie r r n tt e . h o o o i ei n i n oe t d i f f o i h r c u o lh t l i e se el ts ri au s ncf hv tg b u aa r yp eel uo sc s o ba l t n. 2 f r o it o i n n o t ghs . g e s rt s ee m a x p e i r m o i uo s rsm i o b uul c ne r d n e i e at 1 as –f 2 si u g l b n n t e tn a c w t s a ht h r e T n i c lh ben he l l i d g ai m i e ti . n r r a DRAIN AND VENT S b d a F r i r f pf i o f d t r i a h m a t d n a on t m s iC ao F n t e li nt n aei r gc n o he hs so rd i is z n dh h o e ne ah et aa o f lg l oa l tv s l ae c t h i pt c o r aa 3 i l y ln t a o o ia t nm t a n f gr v eh Po e rd oa n toe .. Code (UG. s t n a c tii s r nr h c e f e o t r v e e n sh c s e e f le . r e . s r t i s o d en o h e h e t. e 2 .i col a i n e a nsu o r s mn t ot e ee l a t b u ht n t t w eo e ig ld pd e n e ltd h a e c r e n .a u e t s h c s t a i t d r j t t t u ich yus o r n ot v ht ase t g F h u o l re he e d a li o a vf r l eme t .v r e s in n l sh d et s e o e e ot f h le o h . SHAPEOF RINGS T r m i b ho n r e ac g t o ea a n s o g y u s let e a fn rc h t i e ro y n r s .

000 p i n s i v .o i n sI i . r d a1 a9 f l a a od n ih g n s e t r ih da sd n s . FLANGED AND DISHED HEADS c l u i s (Specified yield strength 30.o n .49 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED T U T C F V t s c ih t a hn r wr d igt i i a se f a f. h as i s d i . . a. r hr o R 3 M v eo r t t t ie v c fm . in. l se t tr s s h e uih nc m c k t nb e ea d s vs aeo s i d c h bh a d ree a v t i ee a e s l c oc s p ow ne r td d d ai n e m cn eh tse o Ait h g h S e n o S o e V dc D tI e i i 1 v I . ~“ 1 30 0 “ 40 50 2 60 70 ” 80 090 100 110 120 130140 150 160170 180 190200 SPHERICAL. l dx D s 0 n cedd hsr d rs a i i.o RmW=Do dd e w i e u nn s . ELLIPSOIDAL.000 to 38. . . aet th vh e a .ap . i d e u n es . = Outside diameter of the head.lle e lr4 y a M i t u h nr o o oe r i e za ovr n. D. tt a . e ) T f t r i e h q hnu t hi e o i rd 1 c D ek e aed n t e Res2 dr E s m : t inc n . ele nl y a I t R = R = F F F e q h ut i h e ir c ie ka dn e h e m i so ph h e e tr i i c a ra n l r d 2 e l l o i h:p s 0 o e i.

70. 3a Q. a -Q5 Qo. 502 475 5m. 30. a 30. 5 67*9 2 3 * 5 0 7 a o . 475. 2a m.. C Y L I N DS R I C H A LE ( S facing page f L L e xe p l a o e n a t i o n r ) . 27s. 27s Zm. 525. a r?s.. Ice. la 3 d m 6a e a 375 350. 5 3 2 m n). (5a 123. L I D ! l 1 1 . a m m. 225 2ca 175 Isa 1= Im !Ea 14 Isa laa I la Ioa m m.50 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM 323. 225 2m. !0. 1. m 2Z-3. 37s 35a s 3m. I 90.

.05 . o r raD vh t l eo u t e / e f t o or i z t oc v n t D.25 .Q . -Q5 -QO.noh e t ieg h ne n p eo n e hte t a l o ths d nf u ei o e s hrs h r a i n u e ni s r g o e sn de t .90 . .s5 ICC.55 . 0n L L v .C ” A N o v 1 ep 2 m 9 b 6 e 7r 5 6 .sS . A s C e S e.n p p l .2s .95 !.m . y7 6 .35 .d .= t = . .10 X 7 ’ 5 .a u e l l r y v o e e o r dt i v ac r oa .51 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM 525” Soo.75 . c eo h fn es tti m i he rf e r tf r te h isnf t e i n t an eh g n o i thirdl of t n h n u d ee ie h s e p l t n e hd .65 . eo r tt t i e v c m a p lle l r y a ti u ro e n e o or i z a ov rn t D .90 . . 492. 15 . do d M .nC wd e FE h n V e d aTe a h RO BC O E 5 NS N S 5 IM N 1G .t s en a wt c ke s ne j e tw a i n rf c fi e i ye n o n n ti n g ng i f s ht t c a r n o e t. o g l ne l ho ss e w t e t t att nw a !c e . .g d 8t0 p h i . .(M ..i P . 2?s ?3a 2ZS 290.a e l en l yo a /d d t n a h t a bt a e v o..s0 .m . 325 o ~.03 . 17S Isa !25 . o e A r daVe c H seh s D s ueeo H s r s Yeie D a gR l nO d. ma ITS.Xl . v n bs i pe s g a g T P J “ B o H Y D R O C P A R L P o J “ g S ia C o p y r i g e i n r s i ” c dsk t n es e N a .m —’2EQ. it p f .e ) 0 s c 0 l 0u oi s 0i T f 1 E 2 M M 4 M 5 E 6 M 7 M r i e s q h nu t h hi o i rdce e k e d nl e s l s : n c o t ( h wf e p a. 3n 330. C Y L I N DS R I H C A LE ( S p y e t l h v h c h v c s i i tf ir 3e e e d 0tn l 3 . . .m . . m A . 415 441 45.542 . 4?5. \ 325 10 Is . e ar a c t rv r i g on ta L e h g l ) u t e e o or i z t oc v n tu r. . -no.. A .55 . p o 2 9a 5 1 7 .63 . 3T5 330.00 S5 X0. lt e l v e w y n o a t h a n l d du e e f t = = L = L e o t 1 D i t 2 T g 3 T d l p h o s ih e ln l f .% .20 .50 . 125 ICo.r .70 75 .5s . h t e d . oe g v hs t s e eh s s t c e fas tea t l il e o kr a ol n t re h f. r d e i h ab s t et a e a t .32 .4 .3. . n 2 2?5. a ee l p rl ry ev Ds e e n ot si n g .

suburban areas. Importance factor. Y Velocity Pressure p 0. q 70 13 80 17 90 100 110 120 130 21 26 31 37 44 . The basic wind speed shall be taken from the map on the following page.& K. (1~2 IESIGN WIND ‘ R E Sl S m projected U R k E b . ft. VELOCITY PRESSURE. Exposure C. sq. When records and experience indicates that the wind speeds are higher than those reflected in the map. a o t I I Wind speed. q Basic wind speed.00256 V2. The minimum design wind pressure shall be not less than 10 lb. 0.00256 K. represent low hazard to human life in event of failure). C & D (Table 6) *See tables below for values of q and for combined values of Gh. mph. = @x H) Shape factor = 0. ft. Exposure B. in Hawaii and 95 mph.52 D WIND T T LOAD The computationof wind load is based on Standard ANSIiASCE7-93.hq. F=qz G CjA~ (Table 4) ANSI/ASCE 7-93 STANDARD (References made to the tables of this standard) Projected area of tower. in flat. the higher values of wind speed shall be applied. mph. approved 1994. in open terrain with scattered obstruction. unobstructed areas. in Puerto Rico. (Table 8) = Velocity pressure. The wind pressureon the projected area of a cylindrical tower shall be calculated by the following formula. The basic wind speed is 80 mph.8 for cylindrical tower (Table 12) Gust response factor = (G~& GZ)* When the tower located: in urban. 1.0 (structures that . G. Exposure D. Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient* Exposures B.

1 1.0 1.8 1.9 f c w E C EXPOSURED 1.2 1. by locating the ladder 90 degrees from the vapor line.0 2. ft. D 6 vessel height.5 1. fl.6 1. A = DH = 6 x 80 = 480 sq.8 Area.3 1.9 1.4 1.0 2. 6 ft. Area of Users of vessels usually specifi for manufacturers the wind pressure without reference to the height zones or map areas. H Diameter of tower.6 0.8X 0. . With good arrangement of the equipment the exposed area of the wind can be reduced considerably. 80 ft.1 1. ft. . il. H The tower located in flat. EXAMPLE: Determine the wind load.7 1.9 2. D Height of the tower.9 2. Il. This specified pressure shall be considered to be uniform on the whole vessel.8 Shape factor = 0. The total wind pressure on a tower is the product of the unit pressure and the projected area ofthetower. The wind load.8xA qf t r a = psf ob l 2m e G from table = 1.6 1.2 1. exposure = = = . 0-15 20 40 60 80 100 140 200 300 500 EXPOSUREB 0.8 0. F =26X 1.971 Ibs. per lineal il.2 2.7 0. F DESIGN DATA: t w b v d s D V = 1 = m 6 fi~ 80 ft. as 1 sq. For example. F=q x G x (9. unobstructed area. For example: 30 lb.5 1.8X 480= 17.3 The area of caged ladder maybe approximated platform 8 sq.4 1.53 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS WIND LOAD (Continue~ COEFFICIENT G (Gust r Abo?eE~~~~d.1 2.7 1. per sq.6 1.4 1.4 EXPOSUREC 1.

— -/ ‘&—— .=“r ~-i_. ~ A I L A ‘ S K ’.. . .. .-—---. A i .\kl 2 .’ i---- (q 90 i j----- u --m .. my ... _..MAP W S (miles per hour) . . . — r-v i i ---.. . ..T‘-.

ia h l n i0 l t y 2 f . W l h r o eo e t c ce i r o nr h.s a e ea ud s g rs r on e o rc y i w a a i pn r ono b t0 au b . d aRu d i n9 i e m or ii r s 0 p td c r o h o s5 .e m s gi e be l fr e ed l oo x c s pu va to o Ca 3 tn . L i in t n e br peeo wl t a sa t.. u od b n m d e cs y et o te ad aw a o et ee l nc in n t s nn it e a h n or l en e a t ds o e . C a i t u o w t s i hc o isp o . a rd e r 5 id i la 0 w cg s is-a rhn p t yi see e b u h e a rn h d r s ae sd e. in m n en on t e u o e rn e f tu deo aA d ri g ns oi ud n os v n i la a s i sk s e f W s f iH p ia 8en a fw o Pe . l W s m ip b a s en t bs a c e. M W S (miles per hour) NOTES:1 V 2 3 4 5 6 a a f a l s ts u e ra sp3 e t t -a. c w iri p oo e n i an ec n t cn o ee pu d t d ra b s l es .

g t o ee hmq edu n t h it ep m x ep f hn e o a o t rw c e b ihr e an c a do f neu s d i cd F e n ee r ea d xb l a by o r t l . rn ihe e s f s pv n s a au he r ro de sh z i s io ao u g r nr a pe ts s f n b 0 e .This e d d d a rn d Computationof w b b s s o u l ti e s u s tic e oa lo ef t o m ldc d r on e n u ee n i t s rg di n e s standardis o T t T a w m t p o t ri h f h a e 3 sf n l s e ua d e r gt b e v r f o tte o0 U v . d w v t iieo se n ar tc bs r tl s eeh a h i v8 o n d p e ro s i5 c sr a le l . ul n S oe n h it i d s ta aa p hc a e i p g n n e eg . T t wo h p t ri e o a s tn e s li o u t d r p we r o o eh tn d u r p u sr c n e h e e n at s t is f u p r o a j oe t cr t t e oW e d hg w ai e a r or f r aet no . t o g 3e n fh he n 2t s l o3g t r 4 nh f e n 3t o l l i to n d to r ivc hw ra a sl e e bl h m su u r a l ee b t s i ls p f lh l i a e 6 0 ee a td c t . o h re te v su . .i v r e.1-1955. W C P E SR I l R I E Ep S W N S TU H H DR O ER E I H Z O wqN N T E A L O SC Q TSO IU R S EO C A T N A R N*G E U L R A R G H M AT R A E A P S 2 3 3 4 4 o 5 5 0 5 0 2 2 0 5 o H 5 0 30 to 49 I 25 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 50 I 55 I 60 [ 50 to 99 100 to 499 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 55 I 60 I 70 I 75 I I I 20 EXAMPLE F T a I I F w t t c p t v m h h y w i p ri n h P e fs nd sm eur d r a e o w p m . lo y )l U e s o sv ee u s s rss u pe sf a elml f ac s nl ui f y o aft c t w y u rp e r rri hs w e s in rs t e u h d re o F et ae e x eTb : e q h t0 ls r t t e h n ez c h i oo emg a no h e r s a a3 o r m p p p . p c ri h m e h s n ss n e 0 ae h a t d w rai p .x Vwz= 0 2 p0 o p 2e r s u q 5u a r n e f o od tp or 5 n e ts h su e rpe r o j e oc f t e a dc a y r e l a i n d r a eah s o e 3s f i e a g g l e b hr t o o te uf v0 nt ed . d oe b a hg e b t i lw l e p vo r e i h eew f sv n ss au he r o de e a i s i ogb g u rhf o s to t i rn d b e it cm a a t s ea h d p y e . .56 D WIND T LOAD T l a i a o l tm n e ae r b d n to a d s h ts t e s ASA a o n A58.p t h y o ri ie d s n i s f z uf d r e wo r e b 1 e na in n 1 t e l lp ssn f l r b ee s e 5p q de tc 8 t . . i h d n 9 d e f g t rvr e l a e o 0 h i sp n mo e e r . r r . t 0 .m o p tc l l a e a.is givenby the formula: Pw= 0. .0025 X VW* E W v X o A M P L w P h = we Vw = w E p v r i l e pe s s n f s W u b dr e e i ml o n c i p dt qe t y Pw= 0 1i m v n e0 e l pdo x a p c f 0 e ri e ht r s y st u s r e : . . I m e q a u i a p na m t e f tn t y t rta st c h i oi e a h e f a ( a cc ct t o B rr o do u ir wn t n 0g e f l c . ie i h n s tt s o e r a 3 Ir t e k m e z e z h li hfi en p e i dO l e ekr s d l aw a h t o io h ie tm w ian .s l f r p ep c r i s ef s ib he c s o du n a r st eibl d u e l n r oe e i td f w o v o hr h ee m o s l ee sn Relationbetweenwindpressureand windvelocitywhenthe horizontalcrosssection is circular.q t 5 pe s m t f 0b oe 9 q .

57 M W P .

3 5 8 f l ’ ’ m .5 xs 100 e = 1 l 9 .880 9 f l 78 . 0 1 e r 3. R =M vt o m ra ae o lat s e s cu rs p t ti e r au f s l e a =S s v =T s olh te ab rl . H n= 100ft.tE X = A “ EF l M CP O L M EO L S B I O NP R EA 6 D A D 6 E G t X 6 II ~ ‘ <0 s !‘ . f =R e dt q h ui c ci o kr r en e r x e d o c s i sl . ft. > 4 I z = ~ ! ‘ O - A ”M P L E : i D1 =v 3 ft. 4 4 L a 3 xd 9 l d f e i= r2 t= n. h=) ~ =.X 4 0= 6 .960 o Xn78 = 308. 9 – 2 4( . h. : Oin. = 6 6 9 82 T o t a V = 1 l I g M oa t m b e o t a n h t l ntt go i t e m nn f t I e g 5 k = M – hT (V f – 0 PwD. . 6ein.iu od ne n = = = = D2 t Y~ I I 1 E G D L S U S T M X e i A tt = v4 = 4 M = HI + (HZ12) = 78’-0” Pw X D X H = V X h = M = H1[2= 28’-0” e w P L E : ” = e ’= n . HI MT = M – o 3 cX 4 p e 30 ’cX 3 o o a t bm – 4 e r 6 o X 2n = 7 1 08 2 8 6 . = F o 3 M . 4. T J_ - N O T A T I O N W o ti v w de i h n st s i e suh f l e tf ta e t l i c h ot E E f f o it c w i je e no h l c iy d n e f t e d s L a ef rv e tm r . D i f s bt t r a s n aeu cocc eo ns tn s m ii df d e o e roea n H. . k 4 u z % 5 ’ P 2 1 ~l D.HIHZ= L o ev noe v g s s e te sfs ch e s t f il e o t r ln M =M a mx o ( i t m b m u f e la m a h n s t t be t MT =M o a h mhe f el i n g ~t t h b t t . = M Pw x D] X H = 0X 5 . . S.: = 0 ’= p0 s” rm m ioih n m e n e e nd t w X t 5 i = p X t 44 i = t v = to e – 0 - e D] i h2 h. hT = 4 ft. Oin. 5 X X4 X = t ! :) 1 3 x . V X h. 58 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S WIND LOAD ~ = v= hr(V- P.4 6 a ah lt n n t t gi o te e mnn t e = . 04 = 81 2 x 9 = 24 3 Platform 30 x 8 lin.J ’ . . 0 0 1 0 l M.= 5 5 2 0 5 V e 30 x s 3.~ = r o e av dei a s i s un e n s l f . 1 1 – 3 0 0 X.D.) t=R2nSE r t ~z h. N a f 4 o = r pm s f D e tt e w r m m io ih n m e n e e nd t = H12= 50 f Oi t n .. 3 0 X 6 3 8 .

tw l c .u s + 6 o t 2 w 9 e o i h i . T A E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 w r es w e hb i h c g a la h c f e u t lt l v a l at c o eero h d ni tw l c .59 D E O S T IT A GO NWL EF L R S WEIGHT OF THE VESSEL The weight of the vessel results compressive stress only when eccentricity does not t ia i d o et xs h tv e U ih sh s e t s u s e a f le l exist and the resultant force c o i wn c c o m p d r et st s wi o u e n i i h ni s i gg e a n oh i ie fni t c c a on n s n tt o r o l l d i sn t g . : h e 1r e B O 1 v 2 t 3 o C T 1 v 2 t T e weight.which r a t i includesthe n .u n g m r g s u f s go h g s d h d et m o u f s 8g 1 d h r y . s s k i r .n p l a 5t f o r. s p ef r a i t qi n u . yt s i n s r u l ai t i n o . i W= w o e v i a e g t sb s h s e o u t e ch c fv n otl n si e i d dl o ee re na t i ro c = c i r c u m o s f e o r s e h n oc te ke m i l ie f hr li m r t ae nt e e d a t = t h io t c sk n o she hi s k es i l f r en l t r . lt r e k t s ur p p a o r . n g s o p e n i n g .u e o dt h hi e d o oti r ttu ei s o ao fn h s ow l l ef oe c e wt i i i g h on . 1t tg % h f e h1 er f t m o o v e ro w t e p i g a l hw hat e at n i b f ed e t w e l h d i n ge s E r p w e c e tt i si g o i hn h t 1u tt sg h h e e t f : E q u i p m e n t s : 1 1 1 1 1 1 i n s u 3 l a t i o. g i d o n w w e w i ie e sr e a i g h s n hc ti .d il i o tn ni r a y .d il i o tn ni ts e. f i r e p4 r o o f i . l h e a d . p i 7 p i n . e g a nr c ih o n. r g a nl 0 c uh o . T w e o d h ii fv g f e e he r l s te ea n g s m f t e i e it n rl b a t v es b g eo i l pe n n 3 en na i s n g g 7 . hnc ti s h e l . l a 6 d d e . t r hi bs i c o m p hs r e d ts st rit ev we u e g s g e v oh e y e t n : = w where Ct S = u s tp n r e i ss st . u e o dt h hi e o sg h n h e e t f : c e s oc e n t . g weight of the: ie e sr c e s oc e n t . . m i s c e 8 l l a n e o .g r s m i s c e 1 l l a n e o . t b r a i s n . s i n pt e w l r n ao a .

. i o h io s c ak t kn b e i isa s h r s fn t e t e s olh ts e b p a6 ra . . g i o x n 1 = ~~ S 0 e 0 1440 X 32. 2 ’ ’ ’ ( $ z =j e = ‘ “ ’ . o e v ni e n g s c s t l f sku h d e i if l n rt g t f p s2 s q tea . .e r d a. e oe t ilo gw h eb t r f . ii b oh r e s hb l o i sm u li li tn a d ena pd e rt c e . o u v g r e ri i b e aco r ll a d t t fs i na a i i n e aa of f t g l T a l l po h w e h a b r b c el i oeea m of p d e t um r t s ane p x o d h e i r mm d ie us ef sm l i eb c T s c h a h a l r v lm i b e o ei r n o n d a d i ti c is i oc ot n u H s ah s s ne t dd t i b s s i t o n no r a u s a u p a a p t l l s l h isu n y ep e p dr t o ie a d r v rrt o e ts ih n p s rt h i o ne b i gl e F P e o V ri bi T r sec. 8 ~ z M a o V i A x li l m Po w u e am rb b r a s t i o e nf . e f . l i e c R M U L A S T= o . V a . oe t i p o f go h wh oele te i o fg r h b r tt E X A M P L E G D i = 3 v f Oi . ao t id o O nf . N D H = O = L O O g t v w w = 3 = T = T = W = W ud ti o asv m i ef ed s t e s e e rt l f . .60 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S V I B RAT I ON A a r e o w s t ut i l o s a d ntw e vl v fei d b e r rT l l a s po t i p eoo t hnr v. 1 . g . t .l e . e c2 7‘ o ~5 b4 0 b o r a n td i i nt n n = d e a r a cmm ih t an a u x en l ila e o m lw u d a mb ir b ir a o t i d o fn . e t P ri . n . f l l p t2 . .2 “ “ T a a l v c i ht d b r n u ea o tatx ei lv oi w b a r a b t l i e lo c oe n e h se o n t d R e f e F r re C nE e cVee i : s b o e r . T A T I d =0 ( D )F T r ~ N . . e uc c a ec 2r l e. r o t: V en i sc e A sa f sP ul S rs1 a e e M p9 l . 4 c e e H g t v w = 1 f Oi = 3 = 0 = 1 = i o w = D : e tt p oe v 1 t 2n 5 0 t n 0 l s. .

.) x (2H/3)] 4 H13 V— = Z[c ~ v— IWX= [F. determined from the following formula: F.need not exceed 0.07 TV (F. NOTATION C = Numericalcoefficient = (need not exceed 2. lb. ft. (a) and (b). x H + (V – F. X X + (V -~j X (X – H/3)] for X > H13 S a h se ae r 4 S eL T are shown in Fig.=NumeticalcOef ficient ‘:””: = Efficiencyof weldedjoints = (b)Seismic Shear Diagram BaseS h e F. x X for X S ‘is x H B T b t b t s Rw MX = [F. including the top.61 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS S LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) The loading condition of a tower under seismic forces is similar to that of a cantilever beam when the load increases uniformly toward the free end.25V) = O. FORMULAS SHEAR F~~ t 4 1 MOMENT &l = [F. = Total horizontal seismic force at top of the vessel. O v e r t Mu r on i m n g e n t ‘ s a ih h t t e sh oo e h a r es it zre os a s in e at s hl a m l e i o a t ah o T t swr i ee a lh e nr o fg p au . = 0.7 H = Length of vessel includingskirt. A portion Ft of total i o D s a i m d a hi i g o cn rr s i ga z e of m in V ts o is a assumed m l r ito becappliedeat the top of the tower. The remainder of the base shear is distributed throughout the length of the tower. 1991 (UBC). a lad eat ir t n e oh t th a s o d p hh w e i due ea e to e that fg e a r ar m loading The overturning moment at any level is the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces above that level.75) 1 7?/3 Outside diameterof vessel ft . The design method below is based on Uniform Building Code. a r . for T <0.

in.3 for zone 3. TR2Sr E IV = Total seismic shear at base.S = A soilprofile containing morethan40 feetof softclay. ft-lb. h A soilprofilewithdenseor stiffsoilconditions. . lb. MX= Moment at distance X. Distance from top tangent line to the level under consideration.62 D E O S T IT A GO NWL EF L R S SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) NOTATION = Occupancy importance coefficient (use 1. seconds = c. 0.15 for zone 2A.2 for zone 2B. (b)Stiffor densesoilcondition wherethesoildepthis lessthan200feet. psi T = Fundamental period of vibration.0 i L.S = 1 t s depthexceeds o 200feet.0 for vessels) M = Maximum moment (at the base).2 A soilprofile 40 feetor morein depthandcontaining morethan20feetofsoftto medium stiffclaybutn~ morethan40feetof softclay. in.. X t = Required corroded vessel thickness. 0. ft. R =Meanradius S =Sitecoefficient of vessel. ft-lb. lb. = 12 M T R2Sr E or 12 M.500feetper second or byothersuitable meansof classification. L H St = Allowable tensile stress of vessel plate material. 0. for soil characteristics Rw = Numerical coefficient (use 4 for vessels) I r x -0 Asoilprofilewitheither: (a) A rock-like material characterized bya sheu-wave velocity greater than2.075 for zone 1. 0.4 for zone 4. Seismic zone factor.S = 2. (see map on the following pages for zoning) W = Total weight of tower. s = 1. 0.

s = 1. lb.1213 = = 1.5 1. 4 ~. M = [EH + (V .75 = Rw 0. = 3. Determine: The overturning moment due to earthquake at the base and at a distance X from top tangent line First.400 lb.2 X 1 X 1.5 in.. O in.240)(2X 100/3)]= 216. z = 0.625ft.035X 1003/4= 1.125 ft. W = 35. . O in. and I = 1. Xf13/4 = 0.07 X 1.2 X = 96 ft.F’t)(2H/3) ] = =[240 X 100 + 3115.07 TV= 0.76 <2. H = 100 ft. fundamental period of vibration shall be calculated T = C.63 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) EXAMPLE‘ Given: Seismiczone: 2B D = 37.= 0.1 X 3115 = 2401b.25S T213 ZIC c v= = Xw 1.25 X 1.400 = 3115 lb.100/3)]= 205.1 sec.5 1. x> H — 3 thus + (v– F) (X – H/3)] = M = [Rx = [240X 100+ 3115.125ft.76 X 35. Rw = 4. -lb.240) (96 .

64 SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES .

.

e O m: n = 15 in. = 0 l 0 = 1 : Determinemoment. r o e av dei a s i s un e n s l f . = 2 p 3 X 1 . and stress. d er e x b seh s r ee e tq s u ea ai d ap v dm y d ey ti rn tt b ti o e ns n e aht l d r r e ie s on se u sgl ro s i e ol i n o s m m d a i r c d . = M o o e m c lc e e f lo n n t ta r it f b c d . r ai e r n e e nxs ec c ss lo su ea r d lr l li f o i .ons wg i ao = T h io vc k = E c lc e l on t a r ib c d . . . E G i e R t X A M P L E t 7 w v = 4 ft. n e t e M c 5 M= F O M ES O R NT M T R U L A S R E Q U I T E H IS C S K N 1 We t =R z n SE 2 ~= 1 1 * nR 2t ‘ — I e \ * -P w . = M = S vt o m ra a e o t la e s bc u r si e st a e n tp l uf d.66 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S ECCENTRIC LOAD Towersand their i a a l m s f a t o o t w qe u r a i np u ams lse u yrn m a t m ale t lre rt iyv o c a e u l r hn t tx t whni e o th ui s v dg s e s u h h sec e o t s m pfe sr e t e lo ts s s E ri n v pq e u l is p y tt ta vc ho e te h s od s u c o th ec e s lu an i s a ny de um e md esi t s n r ti ec r oa i t lb u t i d a t td w i u e n a rh gi i e gb e n so e h es u nt t T dl d r ui n te s n h yn sm g m sa ie r t. r ri c s aa s e e m q nu a i p p tm a l i ef o nl p pt e .M. R s t w N O T A T I O N = E c c e t n dt r i i f cs i t htt t y ra. .X 0 1 5. n 2 1 b W I = 0 ~ f l 5 . S.mn e nb n i s en g ag db l s et cb t ye e ud enh . i . 4 2 2 W t t at h i hm tee o o rk e s io h u a n el re h n c r ec l a nes e tn o m tn r a o ei sm c h d be h s u n . M o Mm = Wee= 1000 n Xt 4 = . mate m sa l r i c tg a cl n el o n t t ar f il d c s . a o nt c c h oe x w oe m n e e c lc e f o n t a r it c d . . 12 x 4J = 2 e 0_ x 1000 . = E f f o iw c jie e o ln ic d y n e t f d s .

= 0 . h nh y( e go E sb l uf s u ec e e k l l e l i nr g ) B l b o u cc k . n 2 5 . u 1 . s :1 = ’ 5~ : ’ 0 0 0 = tx= t = 0. 0 .25 4 ‘y = t + 24 1 8 = 0 + 0 . 0 5 2 4 9 R S e f eW r ah C e o ei W nl Mc as e N : o e n. 1 — 1= . x 00 0 0 .k r o h Te C n . n u v e l s oe t o i s g a t i l s a t aa s b@ t i iil t i c r H t e a yh n d e e b in v o bn e o W slk o .l a t s e s i n r sh a l i d bd oi u e e uc m c ” sko a l ) a ic a a u ln l cg l n u t o y t er i r h a t e h s t q a d u as i c f a a o uti wl s u voh eh re T oes o s olf r ee h o e luu on . its stiffening effect shall be calculated with the restrictions outlined i t C U oh( C d. S a. 2 . 0 0 2 1 . M t T n. 2 . .c e2 e ) 9 . . m b cer or n a s sa i a) d s e ly t r i e ea f dsf g e b a n u oe i c rs n k s ls c l s o p s L ao e n c g l i e f s ty t ud d i ii f . t d sen ie ta hv sf h s e e i g n f i f ai i tc c a r net t s i o hu n sl r t t a Tin b e n f i lg o i tr f h y m a i. 2 2P . 5 x 0 f =0 1 . l a i y ln g t h i n v . d r t .y g h : l ie t nhd i lEl u E l m S n s n Ux s s Itg. 0 0 0 ~ x 00 =. Ay = 1 sq. dy = 2 i o nw m e pas r b e (t l e s s e r i v ee S n D : e n t t e a r I 8m l .67 Design of Tall Towers ELASTIC A tower u 1 2 I t t s e E s i an STABILITY c x od m pi em r e f asr i s ti l oa a wn b iw a e oy ci nl y a s n tu oa b s s i e l i B b u o c t k w l i v . . s = 1 R S93 r . v5l l. 9 . E G Given: i R t X A M P L E s 8 8 is = 1 ie v = 0 i n 4 . l 3 5 .wea ( ls l tw e s n td e hh li o h ce st k s n n ie h l e s ht s e o e n h lf e eos . 0 5 0 = 2 0 p . nb p 2 ila. 3 .25 in. ia p N e l d e s w n omy a n l e o m t ev n ewt h ss ah s p i f r ee i u r c m ] af hr s o i elp t y eo u h r( p d et o r s rr u p d p o ow r n bt c s moa . n f na el t c n rr e ie r of s g a the h is tower d e more i te y effectively than circumferential stiffeners. in. w N n. If the rings are not continuous around the shell.c i oh . 5 0 0 . D e t t e a r l m l c i oh o nw m ep a s r b e (tle sus e r i vs ee S s t i r f f i e n n e r g s L o n g s i t t u id if n f a e l n e r i n u t s o h e e d s tn .

. SC 1e anM 9 . T f m 4 axh l i l d m oe w u f e6lai meb n c if o p l t1e c o h hn e ee 0 48 X 6 n 8 8 . . t f : . h l t o is n i r . . i o. L e o v n e i gs n = sc ts lf e h u l id f . 31 i 31 t i s g r h0 . Oin. e ts h i i o g tc ns k ein e k de m s e it i d t s . ( R>lot) w h e n =M r ea o t td a o ii h w u n s e n r f R = T h i o c s k i k n e i s s r n t f .i 3 30 f x 2.e c h t kt n n i e on e sh c sw A m e f ct a h l c d ou o e l fa d l twei c n r t tg t h i h o n h my e ob f “u C ter a 6rh lt c T ou o t8 l D a d o te i f w n r l. AM= PJI. 0 1 n 2 5 .H (12H)3 8EI I = 1 . = ~ = 30 p = 1 i = 0 e t D n e :t t em r a m dx i he n i f e lA me n . O t “ ev . t wind p r e p s s u r s e . 8= ~ ’ o . er k H = R t m o o 3 i m n f e t e c n n r y . Pw = n ) ohn td t f dia hr e f . gA e s g t b a i S Sn Tv . e ne s e f l d h e t c t t wi u e ol n m ih b o ce n a o la ae c b d u ld t a s y ft ee oi df r h n m fl o oc r am a n lbtd y i le e e d va e r m ” M F O R M U L A A N O T A T I O N S AM = M D1 = W =M E a dx e i f ( m l te t u c it m o ia o h np o ti t dwo i t hn w s i h u e le f f at e t t ri o o e d l ua p sl t u i cs i t s yf . 0x 0 1 0 xM 3 .5 x 48 (12 X 48)3 s n 2 ‘ = 8 x 3 0 . E G i = 2 f X A M P L E c u e t m i o n : v E H I R t 6i = 30. 0x 0 02. n H y d r oP c r a or k c b o e n s s i n g . = 2 ( i ) r . . .000. ” a t d ih e S t ia d c n e htf cdl ue n ec e a ot e x it l ol o c e n s a t i s f a c t o r y . .000 = 48 ft.68 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S 1 D rowers s r m d i hb d o e u s t di l e g n dn m f el te d e 6 oi h c o np tr 100 c afeet o h e of height.

g a e c hh e so nt s s en q fte u e e ln c t o rn d ae i a t s d i o i s l rf n B f s ee s r d s e e inu o ed t r. 2.d t d t s t t t e rw ri rw w i a r td d e u is s n e p e un r s e s t se ee u si sg eh d e e r a e r) w s n . – Stress due to weight T s t r e s s Condition At leeward side – Stress due to wind – Stress due to ext. C o m b o i n w a l t i i (o n eo a nr t v e sh s e le : A w + S + S – S i d t d t d t ns d w t r w e t r i p e t r w ee i a rt d ui s s n u rn s e s s t u si s g Stress Condition Ae l e — oSd es + o S. press. o s r s y been ns . press.69 D E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S COMBINATION OF STRESSES T s t ir h n e bsd t s up e r c e s ev d h id e os u l cyso rel shallbe aiy b d investigatedin ei dn g s ta o l h f d qo i u dn a a pressure t k r d ee and r ) weight n .i n ts m i g ta o n n t ie n u s i s n noe otd e le x er s p t t n re r ae r l s n s au r lr e . 3.s ae ou l n ir e o os o C o m b o i n w a l t i i ( o n eo a n r t v e sh s e le : S A windward side t ta o l h f dqo e ud xa a p tk r + Stress due to wind – Stress due to ext. s g p r e ir a n . 4 T s At the bottom of the tower At the joint of the skirt to the head A t A c t D D D b oh h o ad ht t t t es o tj eha m ho e d i lo en l n i ao g . t ig o tn d h di f c e ef o en s rr d t ie w e t ni t oeo n t h s i v. 2 3 U s v F H rr o e i d ci n s t mi ga o n r ei n. t m eh t e is ot c t ekf v rn ee s hrs s tn l t n i nr g t s fe e l n ii n t n ei g o fr u h er ue ut u o t s hs se b re h e m so x ra a e i tm l f i o n l l c el e h od on w d 1. eh — oS t e d t .tt m h rhas u e e m applied. I i a t t g r B r T e e s tn nl h tqd o u d n a o da k e s c i d mo u l c ts a n o e ot u s rh tu g d iw n oto ee e d i ha r et r n l h rq w uh o d ai k ir c ea h e t : sn td c i ra b n eu c g c ss e ns s e t rb dih sc u i y ta m y m wla rt i l siz s f u wl rto e i ia n or g t l nh m q ou d a a kr e d . a n a o tl a n td m b u d r rl o i t r u i y s zt i r oh rn et g nt g a oe t w h vn l e a fl seab od oa o x s hk i . t sr h b e h c s a sla c a e tu sl fl a o l tl lee lh odo c wa it t n i e o g n s dr t h e 1. – Stress due to weight p o ss h i d i t et i g e v n a e n ot sn ts e i n es g oh a dn i t ecid g o v n m e p enor T e s t s s ie u m o m t a s t ti io r hne w ds is h f tce ee a es t o t nch eo s m e ip r ir oge o sn sv i e or r n s so e ts w u h a m e i et a s a d r h h bw d o e e u s e f ie rl a t e r . a of l combinationto establishthe governingstresses.r e e o sid c . .

3 . 3 0 . o a o gd iu r X s hn tn ot tr tw a oh l nn o w gm iw i e e tt nh pn t ht h i ii ce c h cn k a n hl i nt p t oe e r e r s a ds n t is ar s au lf atr cr etl o e tr w y s i ih s s u r e . P L= 0 E :i . 0 0.= lmH n 4 X 1 3= 43 df 0 z 5 g b 5 E Q Q x 1 R b a t 0 . . 2 9 .1 1 (.51 0.5 0 m 1 .33 0. 5 0 . * 1 1 6 .50 0. t = T r e tq h u i f i w cw r k pee n rd ieoae t s s sn s o d b h ur h tr e e = j t s o ih i e n l n tl o .44 0.48 0. 1 2 . 3 2 . 1 1 . A aa F b i B aln gc oe u n va r de t n e f i i te e d n i td i d s h nt f s a oot n d r ce w e o t t o f o wh wa h c po e ef i t e rh r c it i c raa h kd i n e n e q su sa t e s . g t e d e .43 e ab X . S T O F R S t f w d l p t i c i r i n F i f fa r e = x A \ x H t E X A M l o n g h is ct u d t d eti rin e an el pu t sre ier s o sn h e sa o o u l an r c u m h f se r e t o n t rh ie a e o l t sa r n s e w q . 2n i . F T rm = a 0 o m = 0.37 ()<35 0.53 0.l h t u e h i afi r c f e ek pt or e i er a sn v saa rt ur i l l r te ae b b s el s fi e nh o d s o t oi t r n T nr A a u d o fb s . a m lc m i c b f e n t t.32 T A A V BA OL LF U E A m EC . r = 0 k = 100 ft. 3 .70 C The b t T t O S (cont. 4 6 . 4 8 . H x m tp = T r e t q h u i f i ci r kn ee n p t deroe se r s s n s a r u l r ( TH e i o n s oi on p n ) . . 4 W = 4 .39 (). m 0.46 0. 1 1 2 .) O e mn o d d im t w n e ig d un i e c t r f ne e ta b o s r d i on t s to g ht t o t tm o h e om ot t w p h e t l h r hui ca. 1 ) . 3 4 . 2 8. 1 9 . 0 3 . = 63 n.42 0. 2 .41 (). 1 F B i oa p tt l h i i ar c o ek t q n af t e u e si s r e h d o ( t + tt t t r o t h m/w i rc e 2 k q n e ) u s o i sr c o n s h h i e d ei t r e g e dh t .2 . .c a k sb t n d e el e ae s c a s rc s e c oa nr s o d e i e nd g l y .

Requiredthickness: MT t = R T S T F F = 1 x 3 8 7 x 12 . lb. + 0 7 . . e e no l c d y i en E = 0. r r . i p r no e s 0 ts i u . x 25 = 8 2 0 . ~ A : o “ v II D E C O S N I D I G T I NO N S D = 2 ft.. insidediameterof vessel D1 = 2 ft.2 ett =0 86 5 6 f 0l 8 . h e f r i f ts n tt b a r t nt .4P = 2 X 1 R e tq h u if i c l rok n e ng d be io t seu dsd nti w nd ra p li ru i neM s g o n sa t u em r d e b o (e t 0 4 b 0 . eo sm h t et hT = 4 f O i d h t s ej h oa e i d l n o l t P m= 2 p i n p5t rse e r s n 0 s a i u l r e Pw = 3 p w p ri s e s n s 0 uf dr e R = 1 i i r n a o n s v d i e i d 2 s. t 3X 0 .s n m be2 u h s ns9 sa 3 el . 6 in.600 x 12 = 871.538 = SE – 0. 1 e n2 8 . 4 4 = 2SE + 0. = 72.85 e f f oi wc i j H d : 4 o z : o * -e m I . 5 5 0 0 21 3 n 6 r e tq h h u i c i ca r k l w e c n e u td e l ss i a t s t or e t he td b n o g gh sh tt e i ht e r o f ae tm m h w p ri o e s0 n s i .71 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS EXAMPLE .a M h n . = \ f dt s = 4 f Oi l e o tt n o g 8 .wt .260 i 11.85 – 0. 1= 2 5 7 4. 3 55 .5 x 4) = 86. lb.5 Pw D.5 x 30 X 2. x . .200in.4(3.750 X 0. T i g h r t et t i ah h t i c s c e h aa sk lr w c n un e ls e ia s t T O T0 A.600 ft. u e s s e f l = 1 p 3s v 7 t o r s S a 5 2 e C l 0 s iu s 8 e f A s I m a a t2 e t 0 re m i 0 pa e l r ” a t t u F r e s o l h t e a b a l r .u r dr 1 e n6 5 . h=j= 86. 2 3 nn gg sih t e t L s t 9 or t h le o i tn f e ae a l f ho rm t uh hde e r m i tn h i i0 m c i ku .A Required thicknessof cylindricalshell under internal pressureand wind load. 2 8 0 7 0 1 23x 0E .6 x 250 Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressureconsideringthe strengthof the girthseams: 3. width of towerwith insulation.400. to . . m 04 ) oa t m b ~ o t ae m = MT = M – IIT(V – 0.000 PR 250 X 12 =0.~..600 – 0. Oin. 0 7 t _ s PW x D1 X H = v X h] = M 3 M x 2 x 4 e o s = 3 n ( h t .128 in.etc.800 = 72.400 – 13. b a co h . ~.6P = 13. =T v N a l l f o c wo ar n r o oc o se i o n r . g n s M i r n e itq m h u i fu i c i m rk n e p nt d r eoe cs er o ssnn s st ai rsu dl te r orre t ih 1 en go e h teah n m n t PR 250 X 12 3000 ==0. 2 1 . 4 2 5 = 8080 7 i .

= . 150 X 18 PR 0 i . – 0 .680 M = 55 2O 5 O . v 2e s e a e a l :m i s c a l H dl il p : e t s1 ms f e o rt he mn cd e e i eh a i l m f a el tn n e e cm = C i r c u ’o ( c o a r l r ln o o rs w e i o q a nn uo c i r e e dt ) Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressurec o n st i s d te orr t i hle n o g nn gg ih tt e s o shdi. oa t b m = 692.r ea d s i 8 u . D ED S I G TN A A 3 f Oi i dn t i s na m i e .940 t nX 0 49 Totalshear V= 13. 55 4 0 t = — B + 0 .2 x 150 = dv x h] = 0. . .85 – 0. 1 f Oi l 0 o ett n n o g 0 w . t = R2 = SE = i p f X X X . s l 3 n 2 a.100 – 4 ( 1 X 6 3 2 8 1 M.hJ = 1 – 03 X ( 3 Xj 3 692.ll h e a lf t to f i l wo ha n D] p ie p it n gc . 60 – 0 l t l n ac o o oh t F i p r no e w u. h e f r = 1 p i n p o t5 r s e e r s n s0 a i u l r e P p r e s s u r e P. + 0 P I M I = i r n e i tq m h u iu f i ch m r k en ed eo s sa r d PD t = BE – 0. c h o . au s . t 30 f r m d 3 x d9 l e f r 150 X 36 = 2 X 13. = 0 e f .x 1 = 8 . ft. 1 e s0 ts s E i n .5 P#. 52 t 2 ) b 7 .f o iw c 8 i se e l ne 5 c dya e m f d s E i f s t t n t b rat t n b a .100f l m b a s T m ) I M oa t m b e o h s n h t (ett eJo t a e ’ ma l d MT = M – h~ (V – 0.231 i n = 1 = i= 0X5 . 1 .0 0 .6P = 13. 1 p 3 s o vt 7 o S ra s 5 Ae m l 0 s a a2u 2 i t s 8e e 05 r f iC0 s t e m po e r a t u r e . 55 6 0 t = SE – 0.5 x e 100 l x 8o lin. ss e f l R .I D L E O S T IT AGO N WL EF L R S EXAMPLE B R w — e t q h u i o icc y r k l en is d ne u d sh rc s i n oce a m l fd l o b l oa i ei o e t i o g w h e t r f . T s o l hI te ab rl . ee r t = f 3 fo 6 i r w m o vit w ne di n s si t .t . ln dn p re i t rd ne e w gr s a sn s iu a fr P / l a ‘ ‘ m ‘ m I < .h o e t ss h t m e teh e h~ = 4 f Oi d j o i n t . 0 0 4 = 4 2 3 . U 0 2 i pn 3 .750 X 0.u r r . 1 n1 ‘ 2 X 3X 7 . i n s i Q d o n v e . x 15 80 .2P W V P L L e l a a i PW o X D. . 6 5 8 . 2 X9 2.d t . 0 0 6 4 = 144. e r e r s e e r .X 8 4 = 0 6 . 1 . —2 2 2 – . 3 5f 8 l 0 . 1 4 0 E. . 6 4 .060 8 . n XH a d s 30 x s 3. e a m f 150 X 18 PR 0 i .750 X 0 M i t s r n e itq m h u i fu i c i m rk n p ent r d eoe c e s r o ssnn s s t ai s rud l t e r or r te i h c eni g n r c gu h m te o is e h a a e ll m l f .

5 8h f w 2 ic o ) i ct 5u kd r f s . e s t ( 0 t .e4 f 7 4n cm r e eu 0q h n u n F d r i Ba P o g 7 r a a b fm g t oa . m 5 . P T E R WEIGHT: A A T L I 36. o : 0 .75 in. 0 0 0 b b0 0 0 0 . n a se e t r ll u e o.000 N G lb. 2/3 3 = 2 t/ 0 t .8 e k 0 0 + 6 1 p p a o r yt1 s 1 0 1 l ia t in o n2g s 2 0 S a 2 l n i n g9 0 0 4 I 7n s 5 u l a9 t i o n 1 9 1 m P l a t f 4 o r 1 1% 8 L a d d e2 r 2 l 0 3i . 9 3 1 a ot t r . TOTAL TEST WEIGHT: 75.73 EXAMPLE B (CONT. 0 o F t di ~ i h ( s n ft i at dnr A X ac P s e7ob a ) l m g e o t =w 0 .e n 8 o t1 3 2 . f r m : ( 0 t .e np o r2 n t r a e t s wl i l st ih so a c ot n e od r ae td a i d s td a io n f t tr oh m p e . s nu g to n 3 6 2i 3 T0 S :b 0 0 0 0 1 a . 42.F e c o n o 4 h x 9 3 X 1 2 x 2 H t 0 e b 0 I p wnl T s ur I n s ru O p e + 6 S S 9960 T T O +E T C E YR r el r r O O W e I E W’ C a a i c y t qi t i E T A 3I L O G 3 l N H. - : ~ ~ ~ : o b t “ m ~ o : 1 o t - u d i ~ f p s f t e lh r i e ca a e n k vn t t ea h s r se ee o i st i o g u h t t o w e r . y ) 8 2 6 2 plate is required. Test water + Erection Wt. while at the top the wind load is not factor and for internal pressure(hoop tension) only 0.4 8h f w 5 ic o ) i ct 0u 3 kd r f s .to withstandthe windload and internal pressure. 2 1 0 0 0 ( W t e g g s 8 % 1 9 0 6 1 8 4 . pX 6 =40 h . see rage 416 .3 8h f w 7 ic o ) i ct 5u 2 kd r f s . — For weight of water content. t h i a c l. 0 l y 0 p d l . P 9 i b4 p n1 g a y.000 lb. . e s t m T o t a l # E O I T T G H O H TW F E E R S b a e b g o e ipl n 3 e n e ai s n 7 g g 4 n e l 0 x 195 7 3l 87Skirt 4 8 0 9 6 2 B r 4 a i 0 s n7 e 25 9 7 4 n r5 c i6 h o 2n r 0 4A .000 lb.4 x H =.25 plate r o em i ia i a c s ra d lo v t i n s sa is satisfactory.n o 3 a o1 d1 2 m p 5 A . : o . e s t ( 0 t e . 33.k ne o e t n ns i n s gt e r thd sm h es dh e i f a c e te t e i U 8 sf w m i p il n t av g dt s e eh b .sh e c s os . 3l 4 0 .6 nl c uh0 o 1g r .) A 4 : o “m “ N & The preliminary calculation of the required wall thickness shows that at the bottom approximately 0.000 lb. T t h i rh c ek f qn h u e et s i sro e o( e n d i o 0 s s i r.

Stress o d6 due to 4 weight 0 3 – + 1 1 . x 7 . x . = Mx PW x D] e it t ‘o -m e I * 1 ! i ‘ ‘ m Shell P L s ‘ ‘ b v T S ( 3 x 3 x 7 = 7 .74 E B( Checkingthe stresseswith the preliminarycalculatedplate thicknesses: Stress in the shellat the bottomhead to shelljoint: P S S S i e i o t i 0 ac i k t. 0 il 5 h ue c i t p h i nsl ia t ia c s f . . x X = V x . 0 s8 5 –i 8 p. x . 2 s8 2 i– 9 su e ts r ru oe ri c . n 1e o s 4x t a2 o e c l l ei s o s h ew 1 tt a d 1 r bp . 0 0 0 3 5 s = p 5 ! . DD C O M B I N OA ST IT O R N E S S E F S D S W AI R D D LE E ES W AI R I E M ( E R P E C C T T O NI N YO DN I ) T I O N t 4 t rw 0 e u is– 9 s n . 1 e s nh 1 t s r 1p i ie .e + 1 1p .68 = f0 1 t . x . 6 3 x 0 7 . 8 c a l p c Ar u e l v a i t o e s u ds l y ) 1 T o1 0 p t . X 0 2z . a l T c a l ch ou s l a t tar it ee o b ns o sh h et hf ss t e o th t ea t a mo s h t dw or th sae n s w i ns d i o w i p a e rc r d o a n tg d i e io n a n t gt v i e o e nf on tr hfw n e e i id h c i e n tg n i fT i h c e w a r ne i f tf t .le o p e 0 s es c8 sr o a 5 n to d it i i n ng wo i a v n re wn t g i i no shd l so h w f t t a rp b ele m e l o as h wta s 0 e j tr r i ei e .3 = T M o o MX t m ae nl 3 t 6 f 1 t . p o n w t m l h e ie 0ac pr i kf t.=0 f 1 7 t 0 .3 0 . S dt t w r e iu s n s de o . 1 x1 0 r c e o c n t d i i ot n n i o n 3 4 w = s=—= p ec ro an t d i i n tn g i o n 1 xm 1 0 C W I N lh p .at k c t o e r ys . 9 2 8 0 1 M 2 = = R v t 1 8 X 3 . 7 5 5 .8 d 1s t se. 2 2 0 = = 9 p . 4 7 7 1 0 . e o 6 d u i s+ 9 s n e .n. 6 ao 3 t x f . e S o 6 d d 3 Stress – – 3 5 due to weight 8 p. 1 2 7 4 . + 9 p. e u i s+ 9 s n .o u hc r ra o e l t cu i u hc tl b e a s t r i t o at e n t h e s e t nn ha t e s 1 0p d . 0 0 0 3 p 9 s 5 . e le T 6 e 8 tss s7h s e. 8 l o io r n=m240 .D 8 70 3 s 5 3 8 . 0 Ia 0 3d X 7 d l mie = n 2 r . 5 . 7 5 5 t. – 3 9 S d t t ri pe 2 un r s+ 1 es t s os 8 . st p h ee 7 a nd lt i b a5c o o . S t.n e e s n 7 s P 1 5 X 3 . 1 X 3 6 1 r . t3 rw e 7 u is – 9 s n . e t n i og n ) S d t t rw e Stress due to weight ( i p r n Nd e o 6 d 9 S S d t d t t ri t rw pe e Stress due to weight I T T T S A A t a t l I O P E R CA OT N I D N N I G T I O N un r s+ e o s . thk t v te ie sot a he st m i s s f afe sr 1 a e7 h f h sd e sf o ln t t e t r l o wt t 2oho. 12 ‘ ’ 5 4 3 dt t ir n e p tu rse e r s s n e s a ou l r e . 3 =0 5 2 57 6 2 2 0 . . 65 dt t ir n ep tu r s e eS rs =s ~ n e s=a ou l r e = 1 4 x X 6 s sn e o d dt t w r e ui s Rz n t = 1 8 x 3 . =5 8 . e oa f t f l ii 8 1c hi 1 n ep 5 6n t c8 sh e 0 l u h ei t c . 3 1 w = — dt t w r ee u i s g s s h e t= o .

ooe i o h m w s a t i s N f a f c u t c o ra yl t . 2 0 0 p .) Stressin the shellat 40 ft. 6 f X 4 t . 3 1 M = = 5 RI n t = 1 8 x . Platethickness0.h ph 2 n f l i se a 5 c h4 o . down from the top of the tower. 1 dt t ir n ep tu r se e r s s n e s a ou l r e c a l pc Ar u e l v a i t o e su ds l y ) 1 T o 7 l 4 .c i u h r l ee aot o q r it uos n i r r ae e h ms d ea m n as n t e i bo e o n on .5 X 40 l = 4. . . p t .200 l X 20 = 8 a ?0t x f o ft. PW x D1 X X = v X : = Mx S P L s S ( 8 h 30 x e 3. = nl 1 ft 1 1 x 1 1 24 .75 EXAMPLE B (CONT. 5 . 240 x 36 = 2 30 x 19 = a d x 38 d lint ft. 8 a 1 T 0 i t . f t kd e ie l s f r t t tl a r o tn t 0 tc . 3 2 4 p . S dt t w r e iu s n s de o . 3 1 x 0 2 .140 r T M o ol t m v a e . r = m 8 lin. . 6 0 1 . e = 1.25 in.

E“ = 0. f A L 6 ka e c o i ” t kr 0 0 6 e t F W w ef = o i g h r t D X 3 x SE= .60 for butt joint 3 f 8 l . MT = 6 R = 18.5 in. . . 0 b 0 0 . S = 18. . W = 3 1 l 2 t 2b 0 * s t D F w e t t e r r e m sq i ht u n h ke i i rc i k e e ndr e r =1 d 1 x 6 23 8 8)5 0 8 x 3 . F i A ga u B s r t en h m s c oo h o dt m w os sm y e t ok th pna i t e t a er cI fh a tm e o c a l c ou t l r a te i q o w hnu s i t e ri v f ee l z a o d j h l e edo u . G t is vv E X A M P L E ac e h eo sn mi n s E s i edxee e B a r l em d p l n e . . 0 2 i 2 0 6 = . . 0 = . X 17 .1 5 0 40 . 3 U ‘ 3 1 .76 DESIGN OF SKIRT SUPPORT A skirt is the most frequently u v s e I si a s o t iw a ts m s e na o th i ss d f sa u d cf ep t v ot p re y o r o tr t e tb l c a s o c .75 in. e ig e c s t c y f f bi n i te fn v C ( o 1 m U bd u ’2 a s e We ) y d e .8 X 0 T ( Y t i i ! p s h f4 s l i l 6 R E F E R TE N h Ce E rS : m 8 2 . D = 37. 1 = i o 1 MT n R2 ~ SE . X 1 3 7 X 1 4 .000*stress value of SA-285-Cplate . 0 00 0i . = 0 i .n h t w iet s n e d tu lt o hd u y s ai ue nh s g t u a n r oe a e ql d h uld e h dz l e tdi e e t i r tfm ns hi g i no h ce t k ss n ke e s hi s r ft e . n4 ( n2 n6 r .12 0 40 . p F m uc r to u p ro a r s l e s ts .

Bolt Bolt * Size RootAreas i Y 5 3 x 1 l l 1 l 1 1 1 2 z 2 2 3 * F b 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 3 8 . To hold this minimum spacing.77 I DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT V s r e vr et s s i o o k s t t i n c s ta e at a l o c m s nw . An approximate method which may be satisfactory in a number of cases. 5 1 M a a l l x S 5 p e c i f iD c a i o mn i t ai e t ne r 4 p t r se . in the case of small diameter vessel the enlarging of the bolt circle may be necessary by using conical skirt or wider base ring with gussets. 3 7 1 5 1 8 . /I 2 21 1 t 1 0 2 82 o 6 / 6 1 . 3 6 . ? TABLE B 13 12 NUMBER OF ANCHOR BOLTS TABLE A I Diameter of Q Minimum Maximum Bolt circle in. B 78 O v t ei r n 2 oY c 2 l 0 3 SA / .32 / 7 1 44. Diameter of anchor bolts. For corrosion allowance one eighth of an inch should be added to the calculated diameter of anchor bolts. 1 6 . 1 8 -1 9x 3 0 /1 XA L L M8 O US W M A B T R FL E ES S E O 3 31 A 7 . .. 1 . 1 3 . 1 q n1 . 2 3 -2 0 1 S 03 % 1 . 0 -1 5 O U/ A L 2S S A TN E BC HD O O S R L % .1% 8 193 5 c %. 72 0 -1 4A 9 /7 lA 1 e5 t 5 e rl.1 1 0A 21 / 3 t 1 8 20 4 3 2 24 o 4 1 5 / 1 / / 8 1 6 1 -1 3 % 8 2/ .M 4 /A 8/ I .. o a s e r sd i The number of anchor bolts. Computing the required size of bolts the area within the root of the threads only can be taken into consideration. d 0 n n d8 % e / 1 B 74 / 2 a 4 u . A method which offers closer investigation when the loading conditions and other circumstances make it necessary.b k f u es a r st d s the t s ce n t fe e d i r hu f c d b e tr m u r rr a o a e al m a n b e cn a oy t h s b l o ( fn b t r ah e g . t 5 2 8o 4 1 o 8 1 6 t 7 0 5 22 / / 8 8 .2 2 1 9 4B 1 5 A 1 5 / 8 2 1 / 8 . 9v n3 o26 l 7 8 t 1 ie A r1 / 7 B 8 /O .4 N 3 u 1 / 4m b e Sr 8 38/ ./ 1 : 6. The strength of too closely spaced anchor bolts is not fully developed in concrete foundation. Dimension in. Spacing of anchor bolts. 1 6 -1 9 13 /1 4 AC 4/T B L E . 2 0 -2 2 3 .S 1 1 4 w o s o t li a t n h t t rd r se a hr a d d s . It is advisable to set the anchor bolts not closer than about 18 inches.SA 0 193 % . 7 1 68 t 1 41 o 2 2 3 08 / 1 4 0 . d 0 2 a u n n d % e S 1 B 9 1 A 3 6 . 24 to 36 4 4 . 2. For anchor bolts and base design on the following pages are described: 1. s 0 / 2 A d2 i a m . The root areas of bolts are shown below in Table A. The anchor bolts m b inumultiple of s four and t for tall towers it is preferred to use minimum eight bolts. 3 6 -2 2 5.

9 0 7 f 6l 4 t 0b 0 7 . o w= xg9 n 4 . 8 . . N T t I . FORMULAS Maximum Tension lb.324p SB= 2 x . . . i 1 n n use: 2g 5 ./lin.= . e be i nd e o b a o s a t i l s rf a t c t f s o r e y .4 3 0 S t im a n ax h l ci l s m o e iw tu e a m r b e l 1 5 p t . The required area of bolts shall be calculated for empty condition of tower. M-= 8 6 l d 0 u e r b 0 r e ci t 01n i . 1 6 6 . m b 2 eb ir 2 os . . s se 0 n l 0 heu ia 0 cs m t . . uo re nm Dl t e e t . Required Area of One Bolt Sq. . N= (See TableB on the A d 0 id .196 sq.402X 94 – 14. b i . i l3 q“0 n t s 0 . ~ SB = 1 9 a l l s o vw t a o r ab e l le s u s e f Pt t a r a l m og ce h r . . forcorrosion. N w r ti b t c e h is oh iri a c n l l q e ne t AB = A o f b e cr e n i io c e r lc n f l C* = C i r c u m M oa t m b de t a w n h o te usia rt et f e n h l M= N uo a m n b b c o e h r l o f tr N= a ax l i l s m o v w tu a om rb ab m e l le a os p t SB = M W o e t v i d g e h u e h s r r t s el cie f e t nli w= q e s u s e ls re i f a t i l obg n . n :i h n a n b c o hl o t rs 0 q n n u i e e d A~ = 7 7 X. . S B it Anchor r p o s e l T ~= —. u e = m 2. N ~ A TC8 sg -— . 1 l .+ s i s t n .in. in. in.4 i . E G b i c s i X A M P L E qbe . C h s e ci t a k r in b ne c g o s h 0 ls o s nt 1.ob 4 n uof bolts. .D ( O A M B A A simple method for the design of anchor bolts is to assume the bolts replaced by a continuous ring whose diameter is equal to the bolt circle.t e s n r 0a m ze v = io 3 i r e t l c n nh e . 4 02 00 – — =. e O t a n b mh c a oh t F e o rT l e i r rA aa l 7. 0 2 4 -4 p 5 t m 0s a 0 xh B i i= 0 =m .— 12iu w A8 Ce B.b. CB = 9 i T= 4 Preceding Page) (4)2Y’” bolts. u o dk t e rb . e O .

operating A O T l . n e l: 13= Dimensions.n c . k g e .t f . 0e b 0 2 s 0 . 6r.as shownon sketch above. l e eg . A. a td e e t y C. .( s – 7 nD D f8 se i g5z Z 4 q i O n ) . TableE Page 80 1 n b o s Pc = 12 x 86. m i d n i i m f m e l = n u s m i oo . = 500 psi from n 4 X A M i g o s P nb L t E r . / 1 1 in i n . N ~ A T I O N r = a 0 i . sg s S = s i t52 AR = Areao b As = A w . f n T 5 r A ua p. whicheveris greater. . r ti s t s k e ih hi i a r q n nt e . = C i r c u m o fO e ro es n . = Cantileverinsideor outside. . A p p r 1oW x i o m i B Ring in. T t h i oh c t kb n r e se as h rs i h te s bfn a s e e e s li n h g it d sl n r i tb d w n ee u o g s ci s e e a r t h q u a k e . / 2 l i n7 . h s e tc r k e i s n s g e s : = 2. n f 2 t 5 . a s ue s m s ~ i .32 x 5 = 1. D: e t t e m r im w n i h na i iet m h d ui e c n mtk b r0 f a o. = S b ea l a o c rfo os i np nc eS a rg T s e Ed to a e P n ei . F O R M U L A S m 1 - 7 M l a C x oim m p r b i . 5 7 a t r C . 2 f M P h t* Is 12 “t t8 = _Di Approximate Thickness of Base Ring in.2 k 4 i D i. .79 D O B R b l e a n t r do i g su t e r ge i h b l u n o i of t o a c r om d f nl h oy c u r na e dn t ate nt e i t he n o n xt o u a c l d le s o h e tw o b e l a o t r o fi o n u an g hd a d t i f o en . ci k e iD rn n . t2 = 4 i b .500lb. W = W o e v i d e g u o s h p rs eot trie a l f nl e t E G .p ec s ro n a nf e t d ii g t nr ig o to 0b n h e n .400 4 + 7. . tl m 1 = 5(3(3 ( co 2 h il ot 4 r !s n : ) A .273 X 77 = 305 psi S – 3 x 305 X 52 = 10. 75ob t a. .500 7 7 = 2 W = 7. . 1. . r~ = 0. . + 9 D B 3 x s.o1 n . 2V4 m.t 2 i a f 1 y = n n o A .b . i .in.b h . B e S a e oS n p t r p td ri i r ne ne sg s &s . n n As = h 4 s i e 7 q 6 . i v e = 8 6 f l . U 1 i t b s h r n i a i e c% ns . 7 6 C S 1 7 5 8 l t . u 6 i w ’b s ri n/a i d e 2 ns C = 7 i n $ 7 . (For minimumdimensionssee Table A on page77) M = Momentat the base due t w o e a i r t f hn l q u oa d k t erb .167 psi e s n5 t d ri 2 ne B e s ri 4 n e g s1 s B. ~ i .60 in. .

. 1 1 13 1 32 B L s 0 0 I I I 8 E 0 0 I I 1 I 0 0 1000 c Ii 1 fb n . 3 2 . : 6 0 f X Y .O . O::s: s . k nbs he a c e o s h l u n d a t i o n d e vb hi e a t tt a i w fl o e l ean o h e w na cs tt a r u te la s sa rlr e o e rt s p g e a l c u l a t i o n a lt c b u r lt aa h i ti ec s kn n e ee g s g u p s sl a a s nt c e e c h t o sh a .1 0.b e l e d e e Sa th s te i r t h c e a s.0558f.bz 0 . -10 0 .1245 0 b 0.123fcb2 0 f. M e 1 M : : 0 1 / b x 0.i – 0 . therefore. on the windwardside tensional stressarisesin the steel and on the oppositesidecompressive stressin the concrete foundation. 2 0. 1 D C a D 4 C f I a c C U c s t t ev lt c r n b S c o e t t ei o t e a r u p r omk a i h n l. It is obviousthen that the area of the boltingand the areaof the base ring are related.b 0.80 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING When a tower is under wind or earthquakeload.000 1 2 3 0 T 2 f p 8 E A 2 0 I I s 1 1 . e e l s qah a u t n e ii hl 7 T o ta e B a r s nm i h s n e i u e e r u o ee nzm d g .0 0 . 0 . Ii o. b 0 .o . o o m p r r ie i s i isn i eo c nf n e g af ot b s es d t i s r t ir tei b u sr t o i sa so h i n k s n n F k I 1 T D A B L E V oa C o l n u s te a sn t f s a F u no K c t i o n s s z a U 0 .500 0. b0 0 7 8 4 .. .0293&b’ –0 . 3 f.b 0 -1 00 b 3. b2 5 0 -0. b2 0 f.131 0 0 J .0972f. me strength Ofthe steel and the concrete is different. . As the anchor bolt area increased.b2 O. the neutral axis does not coincide with the centerlineof the skirt. the minimumrequiredanchorbolt area for a practical size of base ring can be found.000 s o 2 / . With the designmethod givenhere.667 1.the base ring area can be decreased.

o w h ii c g hr S ee T v ra eF o ta r te ep b r rs . .81 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING F * —— 1 4 O R k M U 9 L A S /(.‘ . e p l c h e e ae d i n g ne g o m a o o t e d l iu a o s ls o t u a i ftc s c o i eE tn f y n cS s e T r f / elE a E td ee cb a o b d c iii o r u c ls l n f e t . t i = w o ti n4 b d r iah t . o n . f tB = il ~ E 1 ~B p r t ah i iw c g s kn u i n tl i a t B ne N O T A T e e sg s t ss .i . I Lb 1 ‘f. . T T el es o n a s o n bi ni t a s r n bi a Fc l oa l ehl ~o d t. . . i o a a m n b e ct c e i io h r r o c l f rl n e t . t te p s b . W CirCk.. . M nb r s ( so ts a n r s eS l c o p e s hl b B -. . s s TtC a D o n a . e s n it a s r n i b . o nS sT t Dao a t ne pt b r. e p l c he ee a d i n g ne g e . . i .r e p l c he e e a d i n g ne g e . . . z:::/ . a ax l i l s m o v w tu a om rb a b pe l lep als u as s e t fe e i . i o a a m n be ct c e if o h r r o c l f rl t et . @. measuredon arc of bolt circle in. . t . o ns s T t D ao a tne p tb r. = T : j 1 M M =C C = D = D = C = C = C = 1– = M = n : s w z = R = R = T = M = W = C a or e rt f q a ua e n b i s l ro c i ea o hd o q lr n r t . t “b= (/4 + . I O N eh B t = b C d = The distancebetweengusset plates.= ~ 1+ I 9 Bt - 1 & ‘~b~ +I i v t I . =e ~ Fc. o e t ti ago t bh h wl ta h e f se rb e t e . oa t m b de t a w n h o t e usia rt et f e l n h q e uo d a t kb r e . . . e p l c he e a e d i n g ne g e . el p co es hl s ot n rs i . o m p s r e i t st s cr i v o e e an t h s o c re s ue o n h t te d b t e r e pg t ah e i r n se s o m p s r e it st s cr i v o e ean t h s b c c r s ei p on ht e r e cs l lt e e t i .) t B S n . h ns n f e g e . t h t.

7 3 1 sa n b i tc o nr hl e g rqo t h a2 u rs f io o r.640 0 0 . Tensileload on the anchorbolts 3 0 z.4 43 0 s 0 .r b e eo d oe on = .125 X 3 x 2 = ~d 2 3 = = 3. o e 0t b ti 0 o g 0 h w h . a l 2l c o s 0o w s at m 0o br lp ie e n r g . 7. 3 09 n = . L U T I O N : s8 i s w bu r i m n a a aeci d o m s . 2kd * 1 R e aq 1 1 1 18 1 x 1 T T = 0. 3 x . = 2 3 0 =0 00 .s ls ot u i ft s c i Tet fwy e l di c ns o (n n c T E Pr a 8e t b d a e l 0 ge o b . u v o fCb= a B. r A 1 a i dob ?i T b al mw n m 4 ee b oo sta 8 e tu . S. / 1 9 2n 5 8 . 0 + 0j z cc t c h o nf h s e t Da a b r l = 1.35 X 60d ‘ 2 x 0. 0 x . jd “ l ao f t r s M 9 – 2 3 d ) x 1 0x “w 0! ~2 068 2 4 = 2 s 3i X.82 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING EXAMPLE DESIGNDATA: D d = 5 f Oi d t i o a an .c = in. = 57 5 7 es ~:. 1 5 i 0. e ) 1 5 p a . 1 o a tt 0b m b 0 e a n h .x 0 8 . n i t t s ar i = n b el h c es o hs l o n e tr = . uo nm z anchor bolts. ) . 6 0 3 0 7 08 t al r e t 3 . 1 8 3x 0 . .1 . te f r e .l t e e t 1 1 + Sa ‘ ‘fctj . fc —2 c . 1 xz 6 2 C. diameteranchorbolts.150 7+ 1 . n = 1 a =1 c = 1 r = 1 = 3 = 6 r c f= s w M S A O a i t fh h n tk o m a 0 o o t e d l u i a o .s t e t e .150 0. 9 f 2 l m.3 7 x 1 1 5 = 2 . 6 l w . 6x 1 M– W D = 6 = 9 0 X. diameterof anchor bolt circle. l l0 s os v 0 w t a o0 rb ab e l i l e as u s s e f e i n g .35 X 60 X = 8 1 . . = 2 n U 2 F ou a i r n b r e c eod h – W = ~ 2 . h rr oT c l fs r l a en t i h.i l rb s f ti of u ec y o al a t cd %d dr i to g r nr o use (12) -2 in. i1. e r ) ai p . l l0 t o s e0 w s n a0 it b s l ri o i e el l e s t s s n .14 x 60 C o m pl r e o t s o sc i o v n ea Lh c= 1r– ted = t8 n’ e e – 0: n57 F.35 . DETERMINE: e io . 0 50 = 10 4 ~ 0 l 2 9 – 2 . 8 p a . 7 = 0 .Ooo c s lpsi.n pns e r ee at s t gsb r id cv ee if. 4 ra nn e e 3 8 2 f ~ 2N k 2 x b 0. t h f 11 = 6)1 o (n c T E Pr a8e b ta e l 0 ge .oh = sr 1. d p 5 0 6 s 6 3 .m n be c t. T i i shu f af i igc m 0w t e 0 a i s 8 n s ht u 1 l p .5 7 8 3 jD T s. = r = ( 193. 280 0 i 157. i 5 7 p 3 0 s .

nw u c es e h e se e n t se .DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING EXAMPLE (CONT.406 i 1 5 .2 1 X. . ~ = — = 0. fcb = FC (14 + n fsjr CC= ( 193.85” .000psiand S. : 0 i t n 7 sb h M6 p n i al . rs 0 : i p 5 0 1 ) 9 s 8 0 4 C o m p s r e i t st s ar i v n b ee h co s S = n = 1 x f 5 = 5. 1 fC1.000 X 0 = x 5 1 5 7 X. r~rCf = 0 5 p 65 2 6 8 0 s 2 3 4 + W = 157. = M – jD 692.t k 0 ee .~= 1.i U5 I = ob 0i l 6 5n 8 b e ac” s . . 0 T d e tc t r h ei o a c th b k so r n e eua h is e g s p u ns ls fs e g a es t . 3 X 2 1 .19 X 60 ss n t q h u i oi b c rk r en f ade= i6s i f en g 0 n 0 . .196 x 89 Y x & 6= 5 1 e . p.000 Thentheconstants from k= 1 I + ‘ 1 1 S x = 0.000 = 193. .85 f T r F a = M = 0 m ~ l m e : .3 7 X1 1 hs l o n t e 0 s 66 = 5 5 2. . 1 1 b 9 i Sa = = F. .19 17 _ .100 – 36.461 b r . = 1 .192 7+ 1 . = 18. ~d 6 b= — = 7.192lb. 9 b C o m p s r e i t st s cr i o v ee an t h s c o res u eon h tt e d b te r = 8 p e t g ae h i r 0 ne s s f e g e 5 fc = fcb x 2 :M+ 1= 596 X R e 2 X 0.19 X 60 + 8 2 X 0.) Checking valueof k whichwascalculated withassumed values of~.192 + 36.2= 0.X 0 8 9 . 1 6 l e e 8c 8.764 24 b 7. 5 9 = 1 . e ee t s U ( s g i2 p u l ts n d 4 a s i gt bs ee ) he t tts at g . tB = 11~ = 6 d 3 X 805 = 2. . 4 5 l 6 7 . ‘fCb T Da a = 1 c 9 + 6 0 = 2 c j z = = 0.

84 ANCHOR BOLT CHAIR FOR TALL TOWERS The chairsare designedfor the maximumload whichthe bolt can transmitto them. 1 u num 9 e r n6 . 3e . c to a t h l tn i R r e noe lg J gf e i. st o . s z l bt h ca s ea d la t c ae d u l ee l as l ot c t e e r fd i b o e h s The anchor b s a o b i p l an g A c l s po o n o t a i g n e g s . t e la o c dt t p i gnl s l g eh ba h w s t ea wf e e c l lo s d in t l fe i n et wid u oT l u eh s l ’ l ie f w i z s hl g b e lh o e hfe la e o t an lt d h l n e i fn r nk n j li he o p t n l hf e e ii a c g t - DIMENSIONS inches hchor 1 dim bolt 1 1 1 1 2 A B c D E 1 F G 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 2 1 3 1 1 1 { ls/~ 13/4 2 2 2 3 23f~ 2 2 3 4 5 3 3 3 518 5fa 1 3 e 1 1 1 1 11/4 11/4 1 13/4 1lj~ 2 2 21/8 / / 2 14 2 3 3 3 ! 3lj~ 3 5 s5 6 3 / 3 4 4 5 5 11 / 13 2 2 2 / 2z 21 3 3 3 12 / 3 4 6 7 7 . T B a R tb S a h i at o iP z e s fb av e S k le r c hA e e e o Ssi n .m C hm a t A n D ou n B r .

.

The API Standard 2510 also refers to the anaIysis of Zick. (Pressure Vessel and Piping. Design and Analysis. ASME.” 5. P. External Pressure. vesselvary accordingto the angleincludedby the saddles. LOADINGS: 1. Internal Pressure. about one half of the actually used plate thickness is available to resist the load of the weight. Wind load< Long vesselswith very small t/r values are subject to distortion from wind pressure. The British Standard 1515 adopted this method with slight modification and further refinement. Zick’s work has also been used in different studies published in books and various technical periodicals. The ASME published Zick’s work (Pressure Vessel and Piping Design) as recommended practice. Zick’s analysis presented in 1951. a a 2. external pressure can successfullyresist external loads encounteredin normaIservice. 3. . 2. The load due to the weight of the vessel is combined with other loads. If the vessel is not designed for full vacuum because vacuum occurs incidentally only.86 STRESSESIN LARGE H V SUPPORTED BY SADDLES The design methods of supports for horizontal vessels are based on L. According to Zick “experience indicates that a vessel designedto 1 psi. 1972) A horizontalvesselon saddle support acts as a beamwith the followingdeviations: 1. The loadingconditionsare different for a full or partiallyfilledvessel. The design method of this Handbook is based on the revised analysis mentioned above. a vacuum relief valve should be provided especially when the vessel outlet is connected to a pump. Since the longitudinal stress in the vessel is only one half of the circumferential stress. 4. 3.

This point varies with the contact angle of the saddles. For unstiffened cylinders under external pressure the contact angle is mandatorily limited to 120° by the ASME Code. except for very small vessels. Thin walled vessels with a large diameter are best supported near the heads.87 LOCATION OF SADDLES. If this is not the case. etc. Tangential shear stress 3. this is true even if the use of stiffener rings is necessary. (L) Contact Angle O The minimum contact angle suggested by the ASME Code is 120°.. sumps. Long thick wa!led vessels are best supported where the maximal longitudinal bending stress at the saddles is nearly equal to the stress at the midspan. Longitudinal bending stress 2. Vessels supported by saddles are subject to: 1. Circumferential stress . (UG-29). The distance between the head tangent line and the saddle shall in no case be more than 0. (Code Appendix G-6). so as to utilize the stiffening effect of the heads. then the saddles can be placed at the statically optimal point. in the bottom of the vessel. The location of the saddles is sometimes determined by the location of openings. The use of only two saddles is preferred both statically and economicallyover the multiple support system.2 times the length of the vessel.

J IN HEAD ADDlTIONAL STRESS [N HEAD =— Ilth S3. 1 A oa n o sn t d a a g ce d lt Max. S3 plus stress SHELL IN S* -— K4 – ~ts n < w Q . = 0 *Q ~ti q I/l! u< m UJ A n a -$ M . Allow.56@@ F . = ~ K4Q r n i o n g K5Q 3K6Q Q -— &=-~t~(b+l .=0 .Stress I i e :4 ~d S1 p n xt pt t s l dt t n hru r e ( e r Ps n sR s a n/u lh 2r a c l l es oh ew t adr b uJ~ YYo Am Au ~ L ~ Z * v (Tensio~at ihe Bottom Compression the n o Sf ]+2~ AT MIDSPAN QL —4 * o p a $ l & e c t a ie 4A en g n g e S1 4H . ~ i2&QR —— Lt$ 5 ( ‘j 3 “L~ BOTTOM . a or a lm vb e el e s s a l .= SHELL L 3 : Et AT ~ b + s ) ma K7Q s5=– ts(b+1.1 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES R o ~ A Q m t~ = = C .= O .T 1 ‘zr z: () 0 R2ts e a t d l l s o e r v w t i x0 t c t ie .5@s) ?(: w 2 S4 timesthe z Q AT HORN SA%LE s4=– !3 g Q 4 1 t .

for factor K the values of K8 shall be used. t o ahn si ot c hm k r b n5 t e r te s a a s If wear plate is u k s o t s u a h w h ue mt e n lh lf i e c a pl k r d nt o t re w vs e s i o . provided the wear plate extends R/10 inches above the horn of the saddle near the head and extends between the saddle and an adjacent stiffener ring. for factor K the values of K1 shall be used. When the shell is stiffened. the tangential shear stress can cause an additional stress (S3) in the heads. s s5 t t6 I t s i nh sh t e i tf o lm ff e e an l s x eh s tdi o t . The combined circumferentialstress at the top edge of the wear plate should alsobe checked. The compression stress is not factor in a steel vessel where t/R SO.89 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES ~ YY JJ NOTES: positive Values denote I $ 4 ~ t e stresses n and s negative i l values e denote compression. b = width of saddle O = centralangleof the wearplate but not more than the includedangleof the saddleplus 12° i sf o e rf m S d f u t l. Computing the tension stress in the formula for S1. provided the wear plate extends R]l Oinchesabovethe horn of the saddle . ca u t e e ce m a qu u h r a st e o A ~ ~ ~ & a L ~ Q ~ ~ Q I w p e i u l i a sf o f e t rfr m Se df u the s l. tt e h e e o rd n o ae l I a s t i s f tf h e m n aene x rhd i n li g . This n pu t r e e r s n se au o lr stress shall be added to the stress in the heads d t i W s t h i r f ae f i ue n tnns e m r rga e x s hs d i o e h m . and A< It12. oicknessts a n so may r r the be 4 taken !? maybe”takenthe shellthicksum of the shelland wearplate thicknessand for ts ness squared plus the wear plate thickness squared.14 in the formula for S1. & $ m m $ G z w u ~ e If wear plate is used.id t hw e d p d e th l e h e q a l u b +e 1 a al. Computing the compression stress in the formula for S1. When the head stiffness is utilized by locating the saddle close to the heads. E z Modulus of elasticity of shell or stiffener ring materidpound per square inch D ~ ~ z w m ~ 4 ~ n ~ ~ u z ~ The maximum bending stress S1 may be either tension or compression. the value of factor K = 3. in formulas for S2 for the thickness ts may be taken the sum of the shell and wear plate thickness.005 and the vesselis designed to be fully stressed under internal pressure. m c ra u e s t os r s t ec h m ou h a s r dh t d e T s ih t n br t ia e o td s ts i s d n s preSSUK4reSS.m c lo m ue pi rm ae t s s i bo n o o h st ht s o e t U s t ir s f i ft e i c in r e ce u n m r h f b e r ge e n sft ne i ae td l xir t c ne g as e xh sd i s m m e a l l so w t ar b e l s e s . In Unstiffened shell the maximum shear occurs at the horn of the saddle. . Whencheckingat this point: ts = shellthickness. Use stiffener ring if stress S1 exceeds the maximum allowable stress.

760 0.616 0.455 0.272 See chart on facing page 0.116 1.627 0.369 0.603 0.480 0.740 0.683 0.350 0.682 0.271 0.813 0.340 0.614 0.420 0.726 0.466 0 4 0.505 0.780 0.301 0.589 0.641 0.398 0.183 .577 0 0.739 0.650 0.640 0.90 STRESSES IN LARGEHORIZONTAL VESSELSSUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES VALUESOF CONSTANT K (Interpolate for IntermediateValues) ‘K.913 0.544 5 0.796 0.678 0.322 0.413 i 0.518 0.640 0.430 6 8 0.818 0.751 0.669 0.013 1.377 0.720 0.624 0.702 0.158 1.667 0.296 0.601 0.718 0 0.635 0.531 5 0.971 0.705 0.295 0.569 For 0.526 Con0.355 0.722 0.697 0.309 0.722 0.813 0.261 0.642 0.632 0.746 0.923 0.687 0.137 1.448 0.799 0.283 0.692 0.220 0.240 0.618 0.996 0.14 if the shellis stiffened by ring or head (A < R/2) .492 0.335 0.698 0.: 0:657 0.759 0.355 0.547 Any 0.654 0.853 0.079 1.108 1.409 0.362 0.022 0.334 0.230 0.467 0.708 0..314 0.235 0. 0.139 1.651 0.401.876 0.637 0.954 1 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 0 0.763 0.327 0.260 0 0.599 0.894 0.557 5 1.225 0.753 0.900 0. = 3.345 0.320 0.654 0.880 0.387 0.673 0.033 1.171 1.245 0.846 0.050 1.672 0.714 0.319 0.432 0.585 0.643 0.634 0.380 0.289 .366 0.278 0.746 0.732 0.946 0.443 0.216 0 0.0..879 0.347 0.ONTACT ANGLE 0 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 1 1 1 K2 K3 K5 K(5 K7 0.376 0.393 0.627 0.668 0.781 0.592 0.687 0.336 0.694 0.933 0.256 0.858 0.250 0.308 0..689 0.613 0.831 0.283 0.647 0.097 1.627 0.078 1.729 0.669 .994 1.385 0.365 0.837 0.781 0.657 0.485 0.054 1.702 0.505 Tact Angles 0.629 0.

01 0 : 0 0 : R 5 A T I O uA .91 STRESSES IN LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES VALUESOF CONSTANT K6 0.

1-:jj:)3m. Joint Efficiency: 0. w o is ad d t d h l 21 in. thicknessof shell = 120deg. 2X1 4959+ ir o e 75(XI n s m = a s f12.85 I = o 6“ LONGITUDINAL BENDINGSTRESS (S.-tan.psi = = nRzt.1 material: SA515-70plate Allowablestress value 17. 3.t 1f m 0 e5 p h 4 It d n e o t C o m ps r e i t ns f sri s o a en t o ci sO t /s n 1.contact angle SheI.92 STRESSES IN LARGEHORIZONTAL VESSEIS SUPPORTED BY‘IWO SADDLES EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS L DesignData s 48 in. ae = . = 250psi. 8 0 8 10 s 5 7 7 .. depth of dish of head 960in.000 psi.459 le s psi : 2t~ 5 p : S 0 s 0 o 0 i 0: . distancefrom tangentline of head to the center of saddle 24 in. lengthof vesseltan.2-%)3m*qxw(::~%)=4. .. Yieldpoint 38.000 lb. e 5> 60 . outsideradiusof shell 1.j~~)=522psi K1R2t. Stress at midspan = x 602x I ~:%(+:~j.A(.14 x 602 x 1 S dt t i r 2 xd PR n p e t u r es e— r s s= n s —e u a o r l= 7e Thes o t e n su s t x s c oe v t eo h rta s e g et sl d i s 1 e h u s rx 7 .) Stress at the saddles ~. internaldesignpressure 300.00in. load on one saddle 60 in.500 psi. os =0 0 tc R r/ 0 .mx4(_l-~::.

000x0.000 psi .000psi.5 = 19. A(48) > R/2 (60/2).=%L*H)= doesnot exceedthe s = 14.000 4 X 1 (24 + 1. 1“’’.) TANGENTIALSHEARSTRESS(S. 17.56 d-) S4 does not exceed the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1. . Q Ss =— 1 ~ . K = 0.5. 17. 38.—3K6Q t 3 X0.279 psi – 2t A/R =48160 = 0.”:?*OOO t v ( :::3”.93 STRESSES IN LARGEHORIZONTAL VESSELSSUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS (cont.000 1(24 + 1.8.500x 0.000 = –18. the applicable formula: s4=- 4 Q .56 <~’) % doesnot exceedthe compression yieldpoint multipliedby 0.036 (from chart) s.8.500 x 1.the applicableformula: ‘.5.036X 300.250 psi Stress at bottom of shell (Ss) K.) SinceA (48)>IV2(60/2).4:1 )=’$’mPsi of r a shellmaterialmultipliedby e l s us e 0. ‘– 300. r~ + S =– 5 5=–6.5 =26.8 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS Stress at the horn of saddle (S4) Since L (960)> 8R(480).319 psi 6 x 300.

1 . K9Q Stress at the S ~ 6 . - “ U w .K ’ :j ~ R : e < m“ and Ring + . - + - d S R ! + h I j ! ~ t ni ~ e s ~ 3 l n i d K S .r 3 d ~ O u tn s i dK ge K . K C o m p r e s s S i o ~ n 6K ~ a t S h h e l t e Il G 1 ov e r n s =9 Q – / . K. A = C s re a c ot i r so 1 = K = n s ae l ( 2 8@ L Q R = R = @ = s o o o o a d aI i ad n = db u dl s ne A S ~ R I ni s n i d g e . a sh l g e .. 5 sm Q .– 1 t r Q .~ 9 S at t r e s h s ~ s ~ ~t e = S h e l l % R O ui t s n i d ge .K # . tq K ~ – e I 9 w G “ $ Q 6 T Q / = ‘ c ! 3 $ ~ : s 6 = . ~QR = o t h f l/d e & 5 Q + Es “: ~ – . ~ 5 + < c ~ Saddle and Ring .94 STIFFENER RING FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY SADDLES / II II II l! N O T A T I O N .

If the governing combined stress is tensional.. Determine the width of shell that is effective to resist the circumferential . 3.K (Interpolate for Intermediate Values) Contact Angle e 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 K9 . including the area of shell section within the effective width.053 . 4.037 . In figures & fmrnulas A-F positive signs denote tensile stresses and negative signs denote compression. 8. Calculate the moment of inertia Ig of each rectan~es Ig =~. Determine the distances (h) from the neutral axis to the center of gravity of each rectangle of the stiffener. the stress due to internal PR shall be added.95 STIFFENER RING FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY SADDLES VALUES OF CONSTANT. The effective width = 1. Determine the neutral axis of the stiffener ring.25 K1o .045 . The first part of the formulas for S6 gives the direct stress and the second part givesthe circumferential bending stress. 6.the distance (C) from the shell to the neutral axis c = Amy 5. .026 . 2. 2.017 NOTES: 1.022 . See example calculations on the following pages. Multiply the areas (a) with the distances (Y) from the shell to the center of gravity of the rectangles.27 . Add the areas (a) total area = A.where b = the width and d = the depth of the rectangles.34 .33 .30 .032 . 0. Summarize the results and denote it AY.32 . pressure. The sum of AH2 and Z I gives the moment of inertia of the stiffener ring and the effective area of the & en.78 ~~ bending moment.29 . Divide the stiffener ring into rectangles and adculate the areas (a) of each rectangles. Multiply the square of distances (h2) by the areas (a) and summarize the results to obtain AI-IZ b d3 7. — $ CALCULATION OF MOMENTOF INERTIA (1) 1. 3.56 ~~ on both sides of the stiffener ring.

Y R a E I I b I 1 5 3 = 4 2 1 3 .1 2 2.oo in.A – — A O =— ” 1= lY = 2 – + s + = 4 .96 M O O MINERTIA(I) E N OF TSTIFFENER~NGS F EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS A R=7 D I M E L I N I S IN O L N C S H O U RT A SO I SD D 2 I HE U E E N S S L F L 1= 0. 4 b. I S . 9 1 h I A 0 .56 ~~ = = h. - 5 .d.78~x 11 = X ~ = X 1 A R I 1 E - i A @ b2d: = 1 0. = 9.5 x 63 = ~. 1 I= 2 + = + = i 4 n A ‘\ * q ““”251-F%-’2’””25 x 1=1. 3 7 0. 77- X = in4 = 12 1 MARK I AREA I a o @ A= – ‘ – Y h b a X h2 = ‘ ~ – .10 .86 + MARK I ‘AREA I i 0 @ A= ~ A — – = = d .

= A= 4 3 + 90 2 4 7 g0 .23 — = 2S4 1 = = 9 .MOMENTOF INERTIA (I) OF STIFFENER RINGS EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS ALLD1MENS1ONS ININCHES R = 72 in.78 J72 X0. .H i 9 6 . I = AH 2 + Ig = 6 9 3 + 94l z 7 . 3 n 7 3 = 5 .78 ~~ m A 0.68 RI 12 E o “ =g “ A “ ~ ‘ @ b.a 7 / ~ = A 2 — 8 ~ 2 =2 . I I * 1 = 0. i 3 4 0 . 4 . d: ~ * = x 12 4x0 — 12 = 12 a 1 2 3 A= ~ ‘—= =0 b — . 5 Y h 2 - = - AY A 25.5 = 4. 3 n 1 . ” I 9 2 + 7I = 3 5 . OUTSIDE RADIUS OF SHELL CJ $ .

h e w l m e ce e r t t u s e t ieh ts o s r ni f ih z s ( too T nt e t r~e af l f c h e) c e o o tc s t s at i r h o sd te n d l s il f hoei o te s o i o h s e ra s e d t at n v i r d h s(R).000 lbs.250 = lb..279 170° .318 EXAMPLE: Diameter of vessel= 8’.25 in.250/4. To resist this force the effective area of web plate= lU3 x 0.000 lbs. . The base plate and wear plate should be thick enough to resist longitudinal bending over the web.25 = 9. The thickness of the web plate is satisfactory for horizontal force (F). Contact angle = 120° Kl.500= 38. The allowable stress = ?4 x 30..204 g 130° l . 2.259 160° .000= 20. sd e f i F=K1lQ.6“ Weight of vessel= 375. = 0 f t a R =5 =1 i F F = K.Where Q= the load on one saddle.298 180° . The web plate should be stiffened with ribs against the buckling. lbs.241 150° .2 38..25= 4.(See examplebelow. x 0.25 in. 3. per square inch. Q= 187.“ D S M A A R X E 1 T c s s r aa t hd l o d s .222 140° e .000 psi. K. Saddle material: SA 285 C Web plate thickness = 0.204 x Q 187. Theaveragestressshallnot exceedtwothirdsofthe compressionyieldpoint ofthe material.l A Intact Kll 120° n .) VALUES OF CONSTANT K.500 Ibs. = constantas tabulated.

When the vessel is supported by concrete saddles. one of the saddles.7 1/ ./8 -7 / 8 0 0 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 0 0 1/8 1/8 1/4 1/4 1/2 0 1/4 3/8 3/8 1/4 3/8 5/8 3/4 1 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 3/8 5/8 3/8 3/4 1-1/8 1-1/2 1-7/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/4 1/2 1 5/8 1-1/4 1-5/8 12-1/8 2-3/4 3 1 / s 3 1 / f 1-3/4 7/8 t 1 1 [ 5/8 1-1/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 1 1 o a el t 1 3 a m e .1 4 5 1 / 7 / 8 2/ .99 E X O A P A AN C S O I N O T NNR A C T I DO N E L S H O R I Z V O N E T SF A L S B 4 9 ~ ~ BOLTS – ~B O R I L 2 T S QS A D ~ D 2 L E S * - “ + + EXPANDING VESSEL CONTRACTING VESSEL For thermal expansion and contraction.12 .58 / 5 . Dimension “a” calculated for the linear expansion of carbon steel material between 700F and the indicated temperature. must be allowed to move.7 84 .3 2 4/ 3 4 1 / 84 .5 / 86 . preferably the one on the opposite side of the pipe connections. When the change in the distance between the saddles is more than 3/8” inch long.1 / 84 5 / 5 4 3. The table below shows the minimum length of the slot. The coefficient of linear expansion for carbon steel per unit length and per degree F = 0. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 u 8 800 3/4 1-1/4 1-5/8 2-3/8 3 3-5/8 900 3/4 1-3/8 2 2-1/2 3-3/8 4-1/8 .0 / 2 ./ 2 . MINIMUM LENGTH OF SLOT (DIM. a slide (bearing) plate should be used.1 2 / 8 8/ 4 2 2-3/8 3-1/4 4 21 -0 4-5/8 5-3/8 6 3 . an elastic.0000067. “a”) a H @ z : ~ ‘u ~ $ ~ & le width of h s h d n l e o i bc + y q l DISTANCE FOR TEMPERATURE oF BETWEEN SAD-DLEs -50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Ft.1 / 8 6 1 / 8 . waterproof sheet at least 1/4” thick is to be applied between the shell and the saddle. 90 5[8 ho o l r318 5 33 0 4 1 * 12 3. The length of the slots shall be determined by the expected magnitude of the movement. In this saddle for the anchor bolts slots are to be used instead of holes.

S FOR SUPPORT OF HORIZONTAL VESSELS r B H O j’” ] H i L ‘“. the maximum allowable stress is % of the compression yield point: % of 30. 4. Drill and tap %“ weep holes in wear plate. 5. SEE FACING PAGE FOR DIMENS1OIW . the minimum contact angle of shell and saddle 120°.000 = 20. toresisthorizontal force (“)duetothemaximumo peratingweightofvessel as tabulated.000 psi. Weld: %“ continuous fillet weld all contacting plate edges. E I G Ii k ~ MH E E T \ &D- H I I “ & Q ‘: SU B E P A . the vessel supported by two saddles 2.~ L A : -L SC Y E - C: C ‘: J L The design based on: 1. the maximum allowable load on concrete foundation 500 psi. At the sliding saddle the nuts of the anchor bolts shall be hand-tight and secured by tack welding. 3.

000 7-o 6-1 7-6 6-6 8-O 6-1I Y2 8-6 7-4% 9-o 7-9% 9-6 8-3% 1o-o 8-8 1 1 4-9 5-o 5-3 5-6 5-9 6-3 9 9 9 9 9 9 18 18 18 24 24 2-8 2-10 3-O 3-2 3-4 1 1 1 1 1% 1% IK 1% 1% 10-6 11-0 9-1% 9-6!A 1o-o 10-5 6-O 9 6-6 6-9 24 24 3-6 3-8 3-lo 4-o 11-6 12-O 9 9 24 24 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 21 31 31 3/4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Yl Y’ Y2 3/8 3/8 ‘/2 % ‘/2 ‘h 3/4 3/4 !L? ‘/2 ‘/2 Y2 896.000 % ‘A ?4 Y2 % % 986.000 252.000 62.101 SADDLE {OMN.000 940.000 806.076.000 76.000 312.000 70.000 852.000 .000 134.000 128.000 8 % % l/2 !4 3/4 % !4 Y2 % % ‘A % % ‘/4 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-6 3-o 3 6 6 6 6 6 6- 11 11 11 1-0 1-1 1-2 1-4 1-6 -1 11 11 1 3A % % ‘h 4% % 5 !4 % % % 3/4 % ‘/4 ‘h ‘A 3/8 3/8 3/8 1 8 3/8 4-9!4 3-6 6 11 1-1o % 1 % 6-O 6-6 5-25 5-8 3-9 4-o 4-3 4-6 9 9 9 9 18 18 18 18 2 2-2 2-4 2-6 % 3/4 1 1 % 3/4 ‘ ‘/2 3/8 436.030.000 344.000 470.000 536.000 90.000 / 402.000 112.000 1.000 50.000 210.000 56.000 84.000 1.000 98.000 282.U lwAMEITR )F\EY$EL OF MAXIMUM G H K c D E F 0 4 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 I-6 1-7 1-8 4 o-3~z !/Z Y? Yl % V2 % K !4 ‘/2 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 3- 1-2 1-4 1-6 1-8 1-1o 2-o 2-2 2-4 l-x 1-2 1-3!L 1-5!4 1-7 1-9 1-1OY2 2-2Y2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2-6 2-8 2-1o 3-o 3-2 3-4 3-6 4-o 4-6 5-o 5-6 2“2 2-4 2-5 2-6% 2-9 2-11 3-!4 3-6 3-11 4 1-9 4 1-1o 4 1-11 6 2-o 6 0-4 4 0-5 4 0-6 4 O-6YZ 6 0-7 6 0-7% 6 0-8 6 0-8% 6 0-9 6 0-9!4 11 0-1o 11 0-11 4 % ‘h % N % % % % ‘/2 ‘% % % % % % % ‘/4 % ‘A ‘% 42.000 760.000 502.000 144.000 104.000 220.

82S f Rt E n LONGITUDINALSTRESS: Q [ C K (Kl + 6 O K2) + .PIUS internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable tensile stress value of head material.. K.102 r S V LEG SUPPORT w. respectively. and K8 denote negative factors. in D=1. K5 and K. K2. K4. 4 . pound per sq. Ibs. inch K = Factors. in formulas for S1 and S2. the tensilestressdue to ~ The maximum tensile stresses S1 and S2.see charts C = inch C = radius of circular wear plate. inch t = wall thicknessof head. K3. Computing the maximum tensile stresses. K3. KG. denote negative factors and K2. in formulas for SI and S2. KGand K8 denote positive factors.. Computing the maximum compression stresses.) 1 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS: + 6 KG)+ KH Q [ NOTES: cos a ( Rf f (K7 +5 6 K8) ] Positive values denote tensile stresses and negative values denote compression. Kq. f R ~ S(K3 + 6 K. n = number of legs Q = ~ Load on one leg.plus the tensile due to internalpressure shall not exceedthe allowablecompressionstressvalueof head material. 2A. inch. The maximum compression stresses S1 and S2. K. K. respectively. R = Radius of head. NOTATION: W = Weight of vessel. K5. inch * @lI’ o Q El H = Leverarmof load. lbs. 2B = Dimensionsof wear plate S = Stress.

6 0.81.01.2 1.0 3 4 .5 2.2 1.0 D VALUE OF Kz 8LKG .40608101.2OAO. D & K5 020.5 2.0 4.103 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 0.

4060.0.STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 0.81.5 2.81.012 1.0 4.10 020.30 0.20 ~ k O 0 0 . 0.0 3.0 VALUE OF K3 8ZK.01.2040.20 0.50 k!? -0.60 0.0 D 4.0 D VALUE OF Kz 8ZKg .40 Q? 0.60.2 1 2 3.

000 1 [ 5 0. rr. weight of vessel n = 4.500 psi Joint Efficiency: 0. Factors K (see charts): c= ~ = == 15 inch K1 = 0.8 = + 2778 psi The sum of tensional stresses: 7. 8 2 100 (-0.800 (–0.85 = 14. Kg = 0.065 + 6 X 0.800 P = 100 SA — 515–70 Allowable stress value: 17.105 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS DESIGN DATA 800. dimensionsof wear plate ? = 1.) Maximumtensile stress: S1 = 200.412 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.025) 100 — 1. K5 = 0. leverarmof load 2A = 30 inch.8 = + 7.065 + 6 x 0.025.000 lb.diusof head H= 5 inch.634 + 2. LONGITUDINAL STRESS: 1.85 Yield point: 38.020.065. K.634 psi 1 The stress due to internal pressure: PR —— 100 x 100 2t – 2 X 1.8 inch thicknessof head Cos~ = 0. = 0.875 psi .500 x 0.010.030) + — r .022.010.778 = 10. 2B = 30 inch.000 Q d = 200. Kz = 0. K6 0. load on one leg R = 100 inch.030. numberof legs w 800.000 psi.065. K3 = 0. Kq = 0.000 lb.

) Maximum tensile stress: Q =~ [ 1.778 = – 14.875 psi 2.849 psi 2t = + 2778 psi The sum of tensile stresses: 2. V 0.022 + 6 X 0.85 = 14.800 ( –0.065 R T( – K3 – 6KQ) 1 = – 17. – 6KZ) + g V [ R 1.044 + 2.010) + — v 100 (–0.778 = 5.106 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 2.800 ( –0.020 R ~ (–K7 + 15K8) 1 100 = S2 = 200.025) 100 G 1 = + 2778 psi 2t – 2 x 1.000 5 – 6 X 0.0:44 psi 200.266 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.82 [ 0.000 [ 5 + 6 X 0.8 1 =+ 2.875 psi C i r c u m f es r e tn t ir a l e s s : The stress due to internal pressure: PR 100 x 100 —— 1.849 + 2.500 x 0.8 The sum of stresses: – 17.010) The stress due to internal pressure: PR —= 100 x 100 2 X 1.82 cos ~ ( –K5 + 6K6) + .85 = 14.065 – 6 X 0.627 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.) Maximum compressional stress: S1 = ~ S1 = Q cos ~ ( – K.030) + — r 100 ( –0.) Maximum compressional stress: Q =~ [ cos m ( – K5 – 6 K6) + ~ R r R 7( –K7 – 6K8) 1 .500 x 0.

837 psi The due to internal pressure: PR —— 100 x 100 = + 2778 psi 2t – 2 X 1.010) — 100 1.022 -6 x 0.STRESSESIN VESSELSON LEG SUPPORT S2 = 200.875 psi .000 1.800 ( –0.8Z [ 0.500 x 0.059 psi.8 The sum of stresses: – 5837 + 2778 = – 3.010) + — v 100 (–0.8 1 = -5.020 5 – 6 X 0. It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.85 = 14.

— .LE S E L G H A T m A SIZE 3 X3 X3 I ° 0 ” / 0 . & ~“1 ‘ 8 + * A ‘ “!!!! 1 SECTION A-A I X f 5 84“ 5/ / / 7 ’ 1 ’ 5 6 ° 8 2 7 “ 1‘ “ 8 “ ” ” ” 0 ”a “ V D E S V S EE H I E M I S L ANG. x 2’-6” ” 10’-0” ~ X3 x . - LEG SUPPORT Notch out angles \ to clear seam I I I I \ I ! I I I I I I f. x x1 x5 x 1 6 X6 X5 21 ” o .3 ..

see table Factors. 109 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO L S U N S T I F F E N E D S T S H E L LS I F H F E E N L E D L N W = Weight of vessel.. Load on one lug.17 + B/A) ‘~A c2t ) e S p nE t s s l i: d t o tn h i ru n n ep 1tu s r se eP e r s sn s R es a n ou h el / r x ae2 o c l t e e m l h as t etue s e t i ee rl f im ff lao i hg cle i s ei s n e cer y a t f m CIRCUMFEREN ST I T AL R E S S : QH ‘2 = * DR2f Kd R C3K3+ 6 — ( c4t ) NOTE: In tension S2 plus the stress due to internal pressure PR/t shall not exceed the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1. in 2A.d — 3 B A R r LONGITUDINAL STRESS: .. .. lb n = Number of lugs ~=:. 2B = Dimensions of wear plate O S = Stress.— .5. N ~ E D R2t I t~ t s K2R CIK1 + 6 — + ( v t oh ra s D 2 (1. see charts K= ~. . in t = Wall thickness of shell. lb R = Radius of shell. in shape factor. in H = Lever arm of load.. pound per sq.

10 0 n 0 0 VALUE OF K] .110 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 8 6 4 2 0 0 0 0.

111 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 0 VALUE OF Kz .

112 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 10 5 0 0 0 0 VALUE OF Kj 0 0 D 0 .

07 0.79 1 1 0.04 1.64 0.10 0.79 300 50 100 2 200 300 .05 1.15 1.32 1.10 1.05 0.98 0.97 1.15 ( C3 0.80 0.07 1.85 1.STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.92 0.81 0.02 1.60 1 1 C2 1.68 0.02 1 1 C’4 1.89 0.50 1 1 1.72 0.06 1.90 VALUE OF C 1 1 0.04 1 1 1 1 0.03 1.85 0. 0.10 1 1 0 C 0 VALUE OF K4 BIA R/t 50 100 1/2 200 300 50 100 1 200 c.95 0.84 0.02 1.

85 Shape factors C.000 psi Joint Efficiency:0.17 + 15/15) Stress due to internal pressure: PR = z 100 x 90 2 x 1.5 – 11. W = 1.0 The factors K.025 x 90 1 x 1.025.114 STRESSES IN VESSELS EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS D E D S IA G T N A DUE TO LUG SUPPORT —. leverarrn of load 2A = 30 in. dimensions of wear plate t = 1. ~ C.5 in.000lb.000 = 300. thickness of shell p = 100 psi internal pressure Shell material:SA -515-70 Allowablestress value 17. (see table): RI.200.5 = 3000 psi The sum of tensional stresses: 11.875 psi .795psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.500 x 0. X228+ 1 0.200. w= s . weight of vessel n = 4 number of lugs Q = : = 1.167 x 5 x 15 ) 2 (1. radius of shell H = 5 in. = & UR “ ( + 2 (1. load on one lug 4 R = 90 in.5 ( + ~ 0.0 c1 = C2 = CJ = C4 = 1.795 psi – + 902 0.K1 + 6 2 “ ’ = % = 6 0 K3 = 6.~ D _ ) ~ = 300.500psi Yield point 38. K2 = 0.8.8 s Kd = 0.021 : L o n g i St u t d i r n ae l . = $ = 60.85 = 14.795 + 3000 = 14. (see charts) K1 = 2.000 x 5 .17 + B/A) ‘x ~A . B/A = 15/15) = 1.167 x 902 x 1. 2Z? = 30 in.000 lb.

616 + 6000 = 16.616psi It does not exceedthe stress value of shell materialmultipliedby 1.500 x 1.5 ( 100 x 90 1 X 6.250 .115 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT C i r c u m f S e r e t n t ri a le s s : s~ = & s~ = QH DR2t ( C3K3 + 6 KJ? c~i ) 0.5 = 6000”psi The sum of tensional stresses: 10.000 x 5 0.5 = 26.5 ) = 10.8 + 6 1 x 1.021 x 90 300.167 X 902 X 1.5: 17.616psi Stress due to internal pressure: PR —= t 1.

000 22Y4 18!/2 19k 31 lti 18 388 482 140.000 12y* 13y4 llfi 14Y414% 1 10Y2 ~8 1l!A % % 3/8 3/8 58 72 12V4 17 17Y8 1 15y2 13 1374 lg% 1878 90.116 L S FOR INSULATEDVESSELS r !1 L u’ Lb. 1 m o 1.& t 6(Y t ug 3 T } _ _ _ V o e L i un 4 L L a Ax l i l o One o L u wu a m b lD eI M E N S I O N S W ~ a ~ ~ d ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ “O L w F bI g s 1 .d h T hl h I J [- --l. Use wear plate if necessary I .000 14.000 25% 2072 21Y23478 3578 2 20 All dimensionsare in inches Stressesin vessel shall be checked.600 5. .000 22.600 6!/2 5 5% 3Y4 6 5 4 5% 7 9y8 ~8 5% % ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 1/4 7 9 16 24 674 5VZ 5/8 5% Y4 6?4 1 8Y2 8~4 63/4 7y4 6Y4 10Y4 83A 9Y4 9% 9.200 3.400 2.

200 3.600 5.000 22. .000 56.117 L S FOR UNINSULATEDVESSELS Jl t T hl j h l ‘L– — T w ~ ~ L L l m l o uw o Oo ~ a ~n L u b1 g A i a m bD lI M E N S I O N S W ~ d ~ n e~ ~ ~ ~ O L w F s I .600 9.000 90. I 4 60° 2 o e L i un g b 1. .000 140.400 2!4 2 2% 4 4?46 YJ4 1% %6 full full 1/4 %6 %6 3/8 ‘/2 y16 5/8 5/8 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 1 2 4 9 21 28 45 80 148 218 260 2.000 14.000 A S U 3!4 2Y2 3 5% 5?46 4 3y4 3?4 6~4 (jl~b 53/4 5y4 6y4 974 7Y4 7 9y~ 8~z 9y4 10 12 15 10 1 1 774 14~ 14%6 2Y?2 %6 full 4 5% 6ti 7 9 17 17%6 1 18y8 lti 22Y2 1% 9y’ 10M 18 11!4 2Y2 22 15 6V4 28H 29 !46 1Y2 12 161/2 1574 7 31 y? 32yg 174 13 18 17% 8Y4 34Y2 3578 2 14 d i m e al n i si i o n r n l c s h e n s t ir v e e s s bs h c e sh s a ee n c ll k el de w p i es n l e a c a ee s t rs a e r f y .000 36.

x = 45° “maximum b. Direction of force is in the plane of lugs. c.& J VESSEL WEIGHT (LBS) 12.000 D (IN) 1 1% 1% 1% 2% 2Y? 3 4 4% 4fi (1:) ~/~ 3/4 1 1% 1 172 11/4 2 2 21/! R (IN) 1v? 2 2Y8 2YI 3Y2 4Y2 5 6 6Yz 7 H (IN) 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 L (IN) 10 10 10 12 12 16 16 18 18 20 WELD (Min) c o _ .000 psi.= gL &s 25 . — — — I .-&J~ ~.000 250. The design is based on conditions: a.000 300.000 70. Minimumtensile strengthof lug material 70. s necessary to eliminate e buckling due to normal or sudden 3.000 200.000 150.L : L a I . .000 30.000 50.5 ~ %b= EL as =5 ~ “~ Notes: 1.000 100.000 20. U wear plate if loading. All dimensionsare in inches 2. .

6 / / 0 i m ei l n i s ni oc n l hs e s n . .22 1.3 Y j 2 . 282(-)I SIR 63’75 11300 13400 21A I -I I 11 I ] / u / . 710 1060 1600 -%/ I I 1 /. .75 1.8 .. .d cut B Arm of Mo~ent I .47 1 cc ‘ 718 1 1-118 ‘m I 1-1/4 1-1/2 ‘“’A a . 3 .94 A I I I Rdl.6 .12 1-1/4 IQ 1-2 A u 1L - 1.8 .U2 1. .-” .5 . I .OL 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 -1” 1 . J- Sheared Edge H .6 Q .. — 5-7/.4 .U4 .0 2 0 0 3-1.72 L I 4-1\+ L 2 16500 1-3[8 20000 1-1/2 23750 1-518 32350 2 4 5 6 8 . A d 82 .28 2.Y4 J ../.44 .90 1 1/0 8 1-1/8 I : 7/8 7/$? 1-1/8 1-1/4 1 la . 22 42 72 3 1 3 “ 506 0 - 1-1/2 1-5/8 1 9 1A 1-d/+ 1. .[> cl? .>-l/ 1 -1 .f ‘:” I ‘8 : l I 2-5/8 2-7/8 A .48 2 / 1A 1 2 7.2 / 2 01 .<” 1 .62 2 II4.45 / . 1.d q Sh~~kle HoIe Diam.3 / 2 . 4 88 . m Lug D1 5/16 3/8 7/16 I l .75 : 2. 117 .:. Di~m. 3 85 . 2 1 4 5 34 / 5 -9 2 3 6 -3 1 35 / 3 1 66 . -1..06 Z. 4 89 .LIFTINGATTACHMENTS f-h MINIMUM DIMENSIONS OF LIFTINGLUGSUSINGSHACKLE ~~.06 —.0 2 / 2 01 .69 L . 1-3175 1--‘!LB 13. . I I ‘ 3.0 2 2 0 / .2 4 .6 39 /1 1 5.13 I I 1.88 1 3 5 7 2.3 / 4 1.I 1 ./ u-l / .4U Al .

Moore:Designing Lifting Attachments. P = load. March 18.storage.’ WELD: When fillet welds are used. V. load in tension(direction x) can carryonly 4960x 0. load if it acts in directiony.120 LIFTINGATTACHMENTS (cont. EYE . handling. and length of the lifting lug shall be determined by calculation. Theseare expressed as percentage of the rating in the axialdirection. All possible directionsof loadingshould be considered(during shipment. To design the lugs the entire load should be assumed to act on one lug.) RECOMMENDED MATERIAL: A 515-70.33 = 1637lb. q Assuming shear load only thru the minimum section. in. . S = allowable shear stress. erection. the following ratings are recommended. Ibs. it is recommended that throat areas be at least 50 per cent greater than the cross sectional area of the lug. the required thickneas may be calculated by the formula: R I P t = 2S (R-DIP) where t = required thickness of lug. 1965.BOLT Threaded fasteners smaller than 5/8” diameter should not be used for lifting because of the danger of overtorquingduringassembly. 100%0 Y = 33% 20% w = 10% z= r w EXAMPLE: An eyeboit of 1 in. The abovedimensionsandrecommendations are takenfromC. A 302 or equivalent.) When two or more lugs are used for multileg sling. 6 see page for designofweldand lengthofW. psi. For loadingsother than along the axis of the eyebolt.Machine Design. The thickness. Commercial eyebolts are supplied with a rated breaking strength in the X direction. diameter which is good for 4960 lb. the am gle between each leg of the slingand the horizontal should be assumedto be 30 degrees.

Forthetwo-rope sling the total allowable load 2 times 4000 = 8000 lb. The table shows the load-bearing capacity of ropes and chains in different positions. Thus the maximum allowable safe load shall be reduced proportionally to the increased stress. A A A & 1(-JO 0. = 8000/2 = 40001b. FACTORS TO CALCULATE SAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS L . the product will indicate the allowable load in inclined position.34 .17 Angle of Inclination On One End On Two Ends 9(30 1.00 0. If the ailowable load for a single vertical rope is divided by the cosecant of the angle between one side of the rope and the horizontal.00 – 600 0. the result will indicate the allowable load on one side of the inclined sling.70 1.50 1. in this position the allowable load on one side will be 8000/cosecant 30 deg. Example: The allowable load for a rope in vertical position is 8000 lb.85 450 0. Multiplying with the factors shovm in the table the allowable load for a certain rope or chain.70 300 0. If the rope applied to an angle of 30 degrees.40 1.121 SAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS The stress in ropes and chains under load is increasing with the reduction of the angle between the sling and the horizontal.

etc.) SIZEOF OPENINGS: Properlyreinforcedopeningsare not limitedas to size. whenthe openingin the head of a cylindershell is largerthan one half the inside diameterof the head. flangedconnections (d) the first sealingsurface for proprietaryconnectionsor fittings CodeU-l(e)(1) SHAPEOF OPENINGS: P Openingsin pressure vessels shall preferablybe circular. it is recommendedto use in place of heads. (2) forotherthan accessandinspection openingsshallnotbe lessthanrequired for the applicableloadingsand not less than the smallestof the following: (a) the thickness of the shell or head (to which the opening is attached). Theopeningmadeby apipeor acircularnozzle.).reaction of piping.An obroundopeningis onewhichis formedby twoparallelsidesand semicircularends.5percent allowabletolerance(see page 140). (See CodeUG-36.122 O externalpiping is connectedto the vessel.the scope of the Code includes: (a) the weldingend comection for the first circumferential joint for welded connections (b) the first threadedjoint for screwedconnections (c) the face of the first flangefor bolted. Openingsmaybe of shapesotherthan the above. I 1 — .1OM)is the nominal thicknessless 12. cs tle s rt ad e 1e c o l r a r ou l s li ih l s /n s oae n 1s n i tn h h i i o m cs k u t e na w m en p s d r lf lrd a p (b) t m p sa a ci o r l ou l l s o ew i s o a The minimumthicknessof a pipe (ANSI/AB36. plus corrosionallowance.but. p a b nf w c evu e o le i nd . shell reducer sectionsas shownin the Code FigureUG-36. required for internal pressure (assuming E = 1).ellipticalor obround.theaxisofwhichisnotperpendicular tothevesselwallorhead. NOZZLENECK THICKNESS(CodeUG-45) For vesselsunder internalpressurethe wallthicknessof openingnecks shall not be less than: (1) the thickness computedfor the applicableloadingsin UG-22 on the neck (pressure.maybeconsideredanellipticalopeningfordesignpurposes.

if there are at least two removable connections not less than 1% in.) complying over 12 in. handhole.1% in. provided it is of such size and location as to afford at least an equal view of the interior. pipe size. 15 in. which are subject only to corrosion and are not in compressedair service. less than 18 in. to 36 in. The preferablelocation of smallinspectionopeningsis in each head or near each head. for vessels over 12 in.D. inside diameter under air pressure which also contain other substances which will prevent corrosion. two . pipe size threaded opening 18 in. pipe size removable connections. min. pipe size threaded opening over 36 in. for vessels(not over 36 in. INSIDE DIAMETER OFVESSEL 1NSPECTION OPENING REQUIRED INSPECTION OPENINGS ARENOTREQUIRED: 1. erosion or mechanical abrasion. I. for vessels 12 in.D. 3. inside diameter. manhole or two -2 in. UG-46(C). I. The manufacturer’s Data Report shall include a statement “for non-corrosive service” and Code paragraph number when inspectionopeningsare not provided. manhole or I. 2. providing the vessel nontains suitable openings through which inspection can be made conveniently. min. UG-46(b). but less than 16 in.123 I O All pressure vessels for use with compressed air and those subject to internal corrosion. 4. shall be provided with suitable manhole. 15 in. . for vessels over 12 in. I. inclusive I. that are to be installed so that they must be disconnected from an assembly to permit inspection. two -6 in. UG46. NOZZLENECKTHICKNESS The wall thickness of a nozzle neck or other connection used as access or inspection opening only shall not be less than the thicknesscomputed for the applicableloadingsplus corrosion allowance.D. per 10 sq.D. ft. In place of two smaller openingsa singleopening may be used. UG46(e). pipe sizenozzle withthe provisions of the CodeUG-25. The required inspection openings shown in the table below are selected from the alternatives allowed by the Code.D. or other inspection openings for examination and cleaning. as they are considered to be the most economical. or less inside diameter if there are at least two minimum % in. Compressed air as used here is not intended to include ~ which has had moisture removed to the degree that it has an atmospheric dew point of -50 F or less.D. I. and providing such openings are equivalent in size and number to the requirement of the table.) which are provided with teltale holes (one hole min.

I. For other O W R P typessee Code.1 . Fig. . Below the most commonly used types of welded attachments are shown. 2 - 4 . UW-16.

125 B the e O l o W w R .

p l f h n 0l e . c k w e n le s ac s s os e lr ae r l f lo lls o is w . m 5 e. t. r b= no minimum sizerequirement c = the smallest d=t t h 1 n e w c s ei i 6 sa f r 2 . tl e l ct sa o s ie r a nrl l fo lg so is w i l a os nn cn e T w s d ehi e h f zla ti e em e nd i es r rn e h d qi u i m e r eu m e e mn t s .t i s 1 mm o / a t h t lo e 4 1 li r = the smallest of t. . 1EP LE D D R E R N O T A T I O N i3i t c 7 sh . t= t h i o v t =n o t m h i io f c n ki wan. a=~ t o ( + = 1 ) w . .i a o s nn cn e . .THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS T F I B GH U S E RTL E H E M S OC O O O HW M UM W S T O EN SO T YL W YE P E C O N N E C S T CI O F N S O U E. or 0.h o . r v i a. S N O ~ E F A P E C E I A S N N GG E .Y . o to 1 i io c S h k 1 p n t f . W I F D-~ G 1 E T E6H O .375in. e = the smallest of t o 3/4 in. . . h e l s e se rl t e n s ns e t . .

ai t o as p m + i 3 e xid i t e e . and for openings: 3 in. C and E.or fittingsandboltingpads maybeattachedtothevesselsby filletwelddepositedfiomthe outsideonlywithcertain limitations(CodeUW-16 (f) (2) and (3)) such as: 1. A. in thickness.G E T 1T E O 6Y . pipe size fittingsattachedto vessel walls of 3/8 in. 2. Theweldthroatshall bethe greateroftheminimumnozzleneckthicknessrequired by the CodeUG-45(a)or that necessaryto satisfythe requirementsof UW 18for the applicableloadingsof UG 22. t t 7: %+ s d Dm = o ud — . 5. I1 W F D O. (Code UG36(c)(3)). 3. The maximumvesselthickness:3/8 in.H . . or less in thickness.2 in. z ne FITTINGS NOT EXCEEDING 3 IN. 4. In somecasestheweldsare exemptfromsizerequirements. P E R E R S SEENOTATIONON FACINGPAGE: GJ I a I 318in. Themaximumsizeofthe openingis limitedtothe outsidediameterof the attached pipe plus 3A in. Strengthcalculationof attachmentsis not requiredfor attachmentsshownin Figs. pr/ - n f e 4 3i i . pipe size fittings attached to vessel walls over 3/8 in. min.THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS T F I B GH U $ E RTL H E E M S OC O O O HW M UM W S T O EN SO T YL W YE P E LE D D S E C O N N E C S T CI O F N S O U E . Theweldingmayeffectthe threadsof couplings. PIPE SIZE.It is advisabletokeep the threads aboveweldingwith a minimumY’in. or cut the threads after welding.

OUTSIDE PROJECTION. INCHESUSINGWELDING NECKFLANGE NOM. When insulation or thick reinforcing pad are used it may be necessary to increase these 1 dimensions.S f d n -lc E xu s tf me n in s n io f o o rn it m e tn ir e o e uM o i sue n tx h t r p e o f a tupt h c u e r tv ho ew t eu o rle o e d o o i p n t r u g h . INCHESUSINGSLIPONFLANGE PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB NOM. PIPE 1500 2500 900 600 300 150 SIZE 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 INSIDE EXTENSION a & P c a t ti c 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 10 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 1 10 10 10 1 10 10 12 1 12 12 12 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 8 8 10 12 12 12 12 8 10 10 12 12 14 1 . PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB PIPE 900 I 1500 2500 300 600 150 SIZE 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 8 8 8 10 12 14 16 16 16 18 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 OUTSIDE PROJECTION.128 SUGGESTED MINIMUM EXTENSION OF OPENINGS The tables give the approximate minimum outside projection of openings.

indiameter andless:%thevesseldiameter. butnotto exceed40 in.This practice results in oversized reinforcement.From this area subtractedthe excessareaswithinthe limit(Ai. The areaof reinforcementmustbe proportionallyincreasedif its stressvalueis lowerthan that of the vessel wall.@). andareintended toapplyprimarily toopenings not exceeding thefollowing: Forvessels 60in. 4.UG-26 throughUG-44. Fig. The area requiredfor reinforcementmust be satisfiedfor all planesthroughthe center of opening and normalto vessel surface. 2 inch pipe size in vessel wall over 3/8 in. The reinforcementmust be within a certain limit. welded openings not subject to rapid fluctuationin pressure do not require reinforcing if they are not larger than: 3 inch pipe size . the opening is adequately reinforced.The excessin the vesselwall (Al) and nozzlewall (AJ serve as reinforcements. (Fig. The plate actually used and nozzle neck usually are thicker than would be required accordingto calculation.needs further refinementsas follows: 1. This requiredthicknessof the vessel at the openingsis usually less than at other points of the shell or head.A Hereisgivena briefoutlineofreinforcement designforbetterunderstanding oftheprocedure described in thefollowing pages. 5. Otherwise t difference must h be supplied by e reinforcingpad (AJ).indiameter: %thevesseldiameter. 3. Forvessels over60in. (Code UG-36 (c) (3). Largeropeningshouldbegivenspecialattentionas described in CodeAppendix 1-7.) is equalor greaterthan the area to be replaced. Thebasicrequirement is thataroundtheopening thevesselmustbereinforced withanequal amount ofmetalwhichhasbeencutout for the opening.4zAj AJ). A.Likewisethe insideextensionofthe opening(Aj) andthe areaof the weld metal (AJ) can also be taken into considerationas reinforcement.in vessel wall 3/8 in. butnot > to exceed20 in. If the sumof the areasavailable for reinforcement(AJ+A?+Aj +A. f 2.but only the amount which is requiredto resist the internalpressure. . Larger vesselopenings thantheaboveshallbereinforced. however. or less. Somemanufacturersfollowa simplepracticeusingreinforcingpadswith a cross-sectionalarea which is equal to the metal area actually removed for the opening.129 R D F I O P E Single. The required cross sectionalarea of the reinforcementshall then be: . (A).The reinforcementmaybe an integral part of the vessel and nozzle or may bean additionalreinforcingpad. butwiththeelimination of calculationstheyfind it moreeconomical. (A). It is not necessaryto replacethe actuallyremovedamountof metal.) This simple rule. The required area for the sell or head to resist the internalpressure. Therules for reinforcement of openingsare takenfromthe Code.

) (t. If the stress value of the opening’smaterial is less than that of the vesselmaterial.use — the smaller value. Whenopeningpasses throughanyotherweldedjoint.)5t or Areaof excessthicknessinthenozzlewall (’t. square inches..E = 0. = the requiredthicknessof shell or head computedby the applicableformulasusingE = 1. area AI shall be decreased.130 REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN 1.-@2h.8 times the head diameter. t.) h. IfthesumofA.80 for type No..t.D measuredwhere the nozzle axis intersectswith the wall of the cone.85 for type No. d u Area of welds. is the thickness required by the applicable formulas usingAl= 1.A the differencemustbe suppliedby reinforcingpad.0whenthe openingis in solidplateor in a categoryBjoint.. t.) 5t.. t. AVAILABLEAREASOF REINFORCEMENT i the vessel wall (t—t. (See next page for examples. A2AJandA~ is less thanthe area forreinforcementrequired. .. When the opening is in a vessel which is radiographicallynot examined.8D . inches. E= the efilciencyof that joint. Area ofinside extension ofnozzle square inches (t. FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE 1 (continue@j AREA OF REINFORCEMENT u d D I-Q--l E ~ 0.. 2 joint.. square inches. If the stress value of the opening% material is less than that of the vessel material.(See next page for examples.) 2.is the thicknessrequiredfor seamlesssphere of radius 0.— (L-t. Whentheopeningis ina cone. When the opening and its reinforcement are entirely withinthe sphericalportionof a flangedanddishedhead.square inches. + ~2 f f NC!?@ r use the largervalue.the required area A shall be increased. is the thicknessrequired for a seamlesscone of diameter.9 times the diameterof the head. where d= the insidediameterof openingin its corrodedcondition. 1joint and E = 0. Whentheopeninganditsreinforcementare ina2: 1ellipsoidal head and are located entirelywithin a circle the centerof whichcoincideswiththe centerof the head and the diameter of which is equal to 0.)d or ’ Area of excessthicknessin ) (t–t. For vesselsunder internalpressurethe total cross-sectional area required for reinforcementof openingsshall not be — less than: A = d XI.

The stress value of nozzle material: 15. If the strengthof materialsin AI Az Aj AJ and A5 or the t. shallbe consideredas equivalentto the weakermaterialof the tm= requiredthickness joint.00square inches..167= 14. use larger value. the requiredarea for reinforcementis 12 square inches.inches. STRENGTHOF REINFORCEMENT inches. ) f“ Im TF \ ------I I tr I b.000psi. REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (continued) G xx 3. + Rn= insideradius of nozzle in corrodedcondition.= nominalthickness material. the stress value of the nozzle material= 15.see the precedingpage. .857 To the required area. .857) + 2tM H r fn(f-1. the limit. inches. EXAMPLES: inches. h= dist~nce riozzle projects beyond the No credit shall be taken for additional strengthof reinforceinnersurface ofthe ment havinghigher stress value than that of the vessel wall. Yto be d measuredfromthe outsidesurfaceof the reinforcingpad.Thestrengthofthe depositedweldmetal allowance.500/1 5.500psi.000psi. c = corrosion allowThe stress value of shell material: 17. d= seeprecedingpage.5t.000= 1.857) —2t.500 psi. 1.. a. 4. + t.167 Inthisproportionshallbe increasedtheareaofreinforcing pad: 12x 1. NOTATION: t= thicknessoftheves. A in inverse formles~co~osion proportionincreased. troy When additional reinforcing pad is used. = seepreceedingpage materialofthe reinforcingpad are lowerthanthat of the vessel 1.5 tor 2. —. ratio 17.:sno=’e It is advisableto useforreinforcingpadmaterialidenticalwith the vesselmaterial.131 . Usingidenticalmaterialforthevessel andreinforcingpad. t Y The limit measured parallel to the nozzle wall Y= 2. . Ratio 15. A shalI be added: X (1Q 0. R n k trn The limitmeasuredparallelto the vesselwall~= dor R.. LIMITSOF REINFORCEMENT Themetal usedas reinforcementmustbe located within the limits.For other notations.5000 = 0. Of. use smallervalue. 2. + t. x t. R 1.fy:. ance.inches. selwalllesscorrosion allowance. P t. vessel walllesscorrosion allowance. If the stress value of vessel material= 17. From the area AI shall be subtracted: (1— 0.their area consideredas reinforcementshall be proof nozzlewallirrespective ofproduct portionately decreased and the required area.000/17.

CodeUG-37(d) (l). The reinforcement required for openings in single-walled vessels subject to external isthewall pressure need be only 50 percent ofthat required for internal pressure where t. 1. The cross-sectionalarea (A)of reinforcementrequiredfor openingsin vesselssubject to externalpressure: where ii= Diameter in the givenplane of the openingin its corrodedcondition. thicknessrequiredbytherulesforvesselsunderextemalpressure.inches.132 REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (continued DESIGN FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE.inches. REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGSFOR EXTERNALPRESSURE.= The wall thicknessrequired for externalpressure. F = Factor for computation of the required reinforcement area on different planes (as the pressure-stress varies) when the opening is in cylindrical shell or cone and integrally reinforced. For all other configurations the value of F = 1 /4= dxt ~ — .

432 x 2 x 1. 3.048 in. in. Designpressure:250 psi at 200°F.) Larger of following: (t–tr)d = (0.066Sq.0-0.additionalreinforcementis not needed. 13.440 in. h = 2. in.) Smallerof following: (tn–tm)5t = (0.08= 0.375 in.432 in. Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1.= (Excess in shell.in. Az = (Excessin nozzle neck.000 psi.440)x (0.) (.432+ 0.t ‘SE —.5t~= 2. 0. Wall thicknessrequired: for shell. 6P = 250 X24 = 0. x 2h = 0.625)x2= 1.1-JJ REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1.6X 250 2.625 = 1. 0.= (Area of fillet weld) 0. The vessel is spot radiographed t No allowancefor corrosion Nozzle material:SA-53-B S=15.800 psi = t= 0.0-0..432 = (No credit for additionalstrengthof nozzlematerialhaving higherstress valuethan that of the vesselwall.)t.5 in.= dt.88 = = 0. size: 6 in.048) X5 X0.432 = 1. in.265 in. t“ tr ~ I tr T * + h w d P? I I “ Rn DESIGNDATA: Insidediameterof shell: 48 in.432—0.625-0. tm=~*p AREAOF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED A. 0.432-0.048)x 5 x 0.6X 250 X 2. 0.) Aj = (Insideprojection.108 sq.140 Sq.in. = 5..in.08in. k.200 s i (tn–tm)5tn= (0.000X 1.761 x 0. for nozzle.5 x 0. Fillet weld size: 0.3752 Aj = (Areaof fillet weld inside)0. tn=0.800X 1.440) x 5. Nozzle nom. A. ShellMaterial: SA-285-C n S 13.761 or (t-t.3752 TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Sincethis area is greaterthan the area required for reinforcement. .829 sq.535 sq.391 sq. in.440= AREA OF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE A. The nozzle does not pass through seams.140 Sq. q n . . 15.625-0. .+ ~ 2 = (0.933 sq.

6X300 300 X 2.432-0. .)Largerof the following: (1.43= (Insideprojection. 2.500)x 2 ‘O.) Smallerof following: (t.t.500= 0.808 Area reduced: 0. in. -2 x 0.5 in.6252x 0. the required area for reinforcement shall be proportionally increased and the areas available for reinforcement proportionally reduced.448 sa. (t-t.t. 0.0. ~ = dt. 15.857)= 0. a decreased area shall be taken into consideration.214 sa.857 x 0.500.808 = 0.800 sq.010 sq.500 = 0.484 s i o q n . in.933 Area decreased0. t.)2=(0. Designpressure: P = 300 psi at 200° F.474 sq.500psi The vessel is spot examined There is no allowancefor corrosion Nozzle nominal size: 6 in. in.500 in.5 x . AJ ‘(Area of fillet weld)2 x 0.6P sap ‘R = -. t. Ratio of stress values: 15. SA-516-70plate. in.857 = TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Additionalreinforcementnot required.000 psi.857. n S = 17.6 X 300 Area increased:+2tnxt.051 sq.416 (1-0. t“ tr I tr ~ DESIGN DATA: Inside radius of shell: R =24 in.334 sq.416 in. t.761 X 0. 0.)tn x 2A= 0. 15.t.692 sq. .808 = .000X 1.08‘0.857 X 0. in. A2=(Excess in nozzleneck. 300 X 24 = 0.500-0.058 in.432 in. = 5.397 sq. J ! h T Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1. 0.0.432= 0.857 Wall thickness required: Shell.(1-15. 2. in. 0.000/17.n)5t= (0.500-0.= 0. AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE Al = (Excess in shell. 17.857= ~j ‘(Area of fillet weld inside)2 x 0. Shellmaterial: t= 0.5002x 0.) (t.500 in. + t.432 x 2 x 1. in. .) (1-0.857 = .058)5X 0. Nozzle material: SA-53 B S = 15.761= 0.156 sq.432x 0.500) = 2 x 0.n)5tn= (0.000/17.432 + 0.432x (0.857)= -0.0-0.625 in..416)(1-0.432-0.5 x .935 (t.857)= Area reduced:-2 x t. in. in.500= 0.134 REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 2.88 = = 0.000/17.500X 1-0.)d= (0. (t-t. in.416= = Nozzle. Fillet weld size inside:0.= SE . Since the strength of the nozzle is lower than that of the shell. Since the strength of the nozzle material is lower than that of the vessel material. 0.933 x 0.416) x (0. Fillet weld size outside: 0. 0.514 SCI.. in.416)x 5.058)5 X 0.692 sq. AREA OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 2. in.

375 in.8125 = 0.) 300 X 24 = 0.5= 1. Nozzle.069 13. = AREAOF RE~FORCEMENT REQUIRED A = dx [. + t) 2 = (0.000X ].500 sq.625= or (t .500-o.500 .069in. 0.805=1.077 in. t.6 X300 3.= ‘R SE– O.)L x 2h = 0.625 X 0.805 SQ. itmaybeheaviernozzle nec~ kirgerextensiono fthenozzle insideofthevesselor reinforcing pad.)5t = (0. The vesselfidlyradiographed.058sq.5 = 0. in.500 in.)5t.486= AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE AI = (Excess in shell..therefore thedifference shallbe provided byreinforcingelement.500 x 2 x 0.077)5x 0. TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Thisareais lessthantherequiredarea.= 7.Usingreinforcing pad.486)(0. (tn–tr. of fiilet welds 0. SA-516-60plate.077)5X0.058or 1.625 widthof reinforcing pad: 5.in.500) 2 ‘0.)Largerof the following: 0.901sq. Wall thicknessrequired: Shell t.) Smallerof following: @-t.694in.106 sq. .in.. = (0.706 sq.141 sa.058 0. Shellmaterial:0.therequiredareaof pad:3. Az =(Excess in nozzle neck. wall Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 0. Nozzie material:SA-53B.5 = 1.SA-516-60plate forreinforcing padthe widthofthe pad 1.706–1. in.500-0.E = 1 There is no allowancefor corrosion Nozzlenominalsize: 8 in.375=5. Designpressure:300 psi at 200° F. Theoutsidediameterof reinforcing pad: Outsidediameterof pipe: 8. in.375 in. in.6X300 300 X3. 15.486 in.500 in.6P = SAP —. in.500-0. = 15.901/0. (t -t. UsingO.486) 7.500+ 0.028 sq.5 in. t“ t rn tr t r # h d u + t DESIGNDATA: Insidediameterof shell:48 in. The nozzledoes not pass throughthe main seams.0. A3= (Insideprojection. )d= (0. AJ ‘ o f w 0 (The area of pad to shell weld disregarded) 1. in.000X 1-0. (Reinforcement pad to nozde neck.0–0. ) (t.135 REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 3.[.

wall thicknessof vessel 0. Through@and@ 2. T h r a o u ng h @ lengthon each side of the plane of reinforcementarea. Fillet-weldshear 0.50()X” 12950=67382lb. Through@ @ and@ The strengthof thejoints shallbe consideredfor its entire d @ 3. 1.49 Possible pathsoffailure The allowablestressvalueof nozzleneck in shear is 0. Both pathsarestronger thantherequired strength33478lb.“% a dttr= 6. Loadto be carriedby welds (A-AI)S = 2. failure may occur through the welds or nozzle neck in the combinations shown in figures A and B. a.484 x 17. ~heckthe strengthof attachmentof nozzle load to be carriedby welds. The allowablestressvalueof the weldsis the stressvalue of the weakermaterialconnectedby the weldsmultiplied by the followingfactors: .70 x 15000= 10500psi. mean diameterof nozzle 8 S = 17.or o p s o sfa i a bt i l elementof lh e u s reinforcementbeing r f e h r a o un g 2 T 2. fillet weld leg. X10500=9. The strength of the welds and the nozzle neck in those combinations shall be at least equal to the smaller of: 1.60 0.375 x8575 =33463lb. 1. AI = 0.Through a.500= 33.500psi allowablestressvalue of vesselmaterial S.74 0.@ @ ) strengthin tensionofthe excessinthe vesselwall @j. POSSIBLE PATH OFFAILURES: 33463+44090= 77553lb.70 times the allowablestressvalue of nozzle material. dm c ‘* t = 0. in. Thestrength intensionofthecross-sectionalareaofthe a b P c P 1.Through a. a i & e b c Groove-weldtension Groove-weldshear Fillet-weldshear 0. EXAMPLE3 A = 2. in. STRESSVALUEOF WELDS: 0..andc.andb. b.= 15.478 lb. 2.72x0.000psi allowablestressvalue of nozzle material Ft A G= 0. . Stressvalueof nozzlewall shear STRENGTHOF WELDSANDNOZZLENECK: ~ xweldIegx8575= 10.432 X10500 = 44090lb. joining openings to the vessel. outside diameterof nozzle .397-0. xweidleg x 12950-10.625 in. 33463+ 67382=100845 lb.432 in. h The strengthin tensionofareaxf (A = ~ f less the d . considered. Xt. wall thicknessof nozzle.397 sq.= 6.4065 xO.193 in.. Fillet-weld shear ~.136 STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL At the attachments.weldtensi~n~. b d.484 sq.49 x 17500= 8575 psi.500 in.4065X().Nozzle-wall shear c Gr~ove.74 x 17500= 12950psi. Groove-weldtension 0.375 in.

w i n 5e d l 0 el .500= 18.in. S = 1 7 p a . tf e oe r ra c i nf g d 8. 8 i .55 x 0.500‘66. Througha. .n 0ez a s . = 0 n t k ag o cn t h oh m e z n zt l e f .172—0.70 x 15.25x 12.000= 10.l o f 2 .76X0. arestrongerthanthetotalstrengthof 44.996lb.F0. Grooveweldte~ion @ x weldlegx12.5OO = 12. X 17. is strongerthanthe strengthof 21.260 = 130.500= 8. c.105 lb.18X0.25X8. t =0 i . zs l l f l e .575= 20. wi d sl e t l 43. in. 2. n is t greater g d than t h the reinforcing pad strength of The outerf (dP-do) t.t h 5i o v cn 0 k w e n 0es a s .950psi 44.575psi 0.990 lb. Throughb andd 66. Filletweldshear ~ x weldlegx 8.500= LOADTO BE CARRIEDBY WELDSa.575= 43.260 = 110. Path3. eg l f t d 0 i .outsidediameter of nozzle.A.575= 43. b.l o f 3 .weld shear Groove.375X8.500psi STRENGTHOF WEL~S ANDNOZZLENECK: a.w i n 7e a l 5 el .000= STRESSVALUEOF WELDS: Fillet .950= 13.950=43. 3.950=87.176lb.641) 17. Nozzlewallshem ~ x tnX10.55X0. Grooveweldtension ~ weldlegx 12.500x 12.)S = (3..7361b. d.293lb.907sq. c.and2.l l5 s os v 0 w t ao0 rv ab leim e le a ss u t s s e e re S 1 5 p a.736+ 43.868= 175. e.736+ 43. c ande Paths 1.500X 10.500) 15. STRESSVALUEOF NOZZLEWALLSHEAR: 0. Filetweldshear Z#2Xweld1egx 8.055x 17. t h 5i o c n n 0k w o. r s a c i nf g d t. nz e rl e f . t h 2i o r cne 5k i nn p0e f os . 0 i .74 x 17.950-13.463lb.500= 1.172sq.907 + 2 x 0.500= 12.49 x 17. e gl f t d i .260lb.55X0. ThOU@c and d 87. 43. s s l e f l l .105lb. POSSIBLE PATHOFFAILURE: 1.l l0 s os v 0 w t= a o0 rn ab l eio mle s a z ut s z e e rl t =0 i .127 / STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL EXAMPLE4 DESIGNDATA A= 3. . 21.in.868lb. = 1 2 i o .=0.293 lb.A.m d 1 i e no a2 n m a o 5e z t .572 + 87.990+ 43.641sq.625in. e: (A2+21“ OS= (0.250lb.575= 13.500x 0.572lb.weldtension 0. u d 8 ti n 4 o s a r m e i5 i e dn p . W D R IE O E EL D D SY : C L h s the T OB t e of r a c et C A R B (A–A.260 r e e llb..

LENGTH OF COUPLINGS AND PIPE FOR OPENINGS .12R .

139 LENGTH OF COUPLING AND P FOR OPENINGS .

0. 0. handholes) IN VESSELS UNDER INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL PRESSURE. Corrosion Allowance: 0. THE REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR ACCESS AND INSPECTION OPENINGS (manways. but in no case less than the minimum for shells and heads specified in UG-16 (b). see table “Maximum Allowable Internal Working Pressure for Pipes” on the following pages. 60. 1. Min. Wall= Sch. The minimum thickness of standard wall pipe plus corrosion allowance. For selection of required pipe under internal pressure.125” Vessel Wall Thickness: 0. 10.750” Sch. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 140 psig.125” The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: 2. Corrosion Allowance: 0. E = 1. 10.250” Wall 0. The thickness required for the vessel for internal pressure (assuming joint efficiency. EXAMPLES for using the table: 1.125” The Vessel Wall Thickness: 0. not less than the smaller of the following: 2. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 150 psig. Corrosion Allowance: 0.375” Wall 3.0).125” Corr. 40 Pipe .328” + 0.250” Wall The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Std.750” Wall 0. 0. Allow. = 0. 60.3 125” The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Sch.140 N N T FOR NOZZLE NECKS IN VESSELS PRESSURE (Code UG-45) THE REQUIRED THICKNESS UNDER INTERNAL 1 T t c f t a l i U p c h but for other than access and inspection openings. Wt. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 800 psig. Sch.453.750” Wall Sch. 0. The thickness computed for the applicable load plus corrosion allowance (there is no other requirement). Wt. 3. Std.

.018 in. Shell thickness: t= 0.328 in. The requiredticknessfor 14 O.000-9 “ “ t =SE . is 0.3125 in.05 in.incompressedair. The minimumthicknessof standard wall pipe: 0. MaterialSA 516-60. D. 2. To withstand15psi externalpressureapproximately0.plus corrosionallowance.but the thicknessshall not be less than the smallerof. S= 15.D.forunfiredsteam boilers). Do = 36 in.0625 in.n “ 3. wallrequired. Externaldesignpressure: P = 15 psi. long nozzleneck: 1. nom.000 Outsidediameterof cylindricalshell: Do= 96 in.0.110 in. Externaldesignpressure: P = 35 psi.328 in.) The smallerof 2. S= 15.but k no case less than the minimumthicknessspecifiedfor material in UG-16(b)(1/16 in. EXAMPLE2..%in. internalpressure PR = 15x 17. for shells and heads.but the thicknessshallnot be less than the smallerof the following: 2..375 in.0. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe plus corrosionallowance.141 THE REQUIRED NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS FOR VESSELS UNDER EXTERNALPRESSURE(Code UG-45) 1. and 3.02 in. . (0. Material SA 516-60. wallrequired.0.but the thicknessof the nozzleneck shall in no case be lessthan 0.375 in. The requiredthicknessfor a 14 in. Thethicknessrequiredforthe shellunder35 psi internalpressure(as equivalent externalpressure) = 35x 47 = O~lo in PR ‘= SE .3/32in.) The smallerof 2. 12 in. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe: 0.steamandwaterservice. Thethicknessforthe applicableload t s m o t ah f l o ll l h eo e w r i nf e g : less t h 2.6P 15. EXAMPLE1. for wall thicknessof nozzleneck is satisfactory.000. and 3. Shellthickness:t = 1 in.O.000 Outside diameter of cylindrical shell. UG-45 (a) (2). long nozzleneck: 1. nom. (0.6P 3. The thicknessrequiredfor the shell under 15psi. To withstand25 psi externalpressureapproximately0. 12 in.6875 = o 0~8 in 15. 3. The thicknessof head or shell required for internalp r u e s t s sexternal u i r hen designpressureas an equivalentinternalpressure.

0. 0.246 4333 3139 2013 0.257 12153 I 8526 0. 0. NOM.133 X-STG.135 1786 938 852 44 1696 0. The figuresunderlinedare the maximumallowablepressurein corrodedcondition for the pipe of which wall thicknessis minimumthe standard wall plus corrosion allowance. STD. 0.343 XX-STG. CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN.145 0.116 2847 1261 744 I 0.167 3282 1988 774 0.160 XX-STG.334 7194 G 31 0.psig. For highertemperature see notes at the end of the tables. 0.142 I M W A P P= F 23Et D+ 1.308 STD.218 SCH.095 0.160 0.200 SCH.160 0. X-STG.350 6481 I 5164 3924 2754 126 0.160 0. t = Minimumpipe wall thickness. in.382 0.3099 0. 0.135 4299 2192 100 1985 0.436 0.154 SCH. where The Calculations Basedon the Formula: P = The max. 0.the stressvalueof the most commonlyusedmaterialsfor pipe (A53B. 0.179 SCH.154 X-STG.123 2362 1126 0.:”:g 5392 I 2658 0.154 3959 2287 732 0.164 ~‘.358 STD.099 1072 I I I 288 0.250 XX-STG. I 0. 0.allowableworkingpressure.294 STD.A106B)at temperature-20 to 650°F.in.875 times the nominal thickness). ~ MIN. T=E 3/4 I 1 xX-STG.191 G 0.300 4215 I 3260 I 2348 1477 2629 0.191 0.400 STD.313 8820 7423 4842 — . S = 15.140 1-1/4 X 1-1/2 2 I SCH.0joint efficiencyof seamlesspipe D = Insidediameterof pipe. 0.250 0. I 0. DESIG‘IPE NATION UZE PIPE WALL THICKNESS NOM.270 9712 7041 %7 0.113 X-STG.218 XX-STG.175 2982 1864 947 0.191 6386 4069 2515 0. (.382 5537 X2 G — 1’4 252 580 I I I 1494 I 1582 I I I I 1648 642 1744 . 0.127 2118 1046 806 0.2t P . E= 1.281 XX-STG.219 4424 I 3059 ! 1779 ] 578 ! 2848 0.129 0.219 5764 3946 2274 0.000psig.160 0.

531 0.278 G 0.432 0.3 .375 0.258 0.562 0.438 0.71$ o.547 0 0 12 556 1116 658 1801 1221 1754 2964 2350 — 3134 4432 3773 78 555 1044 691 1689 1183 2992 3546 4115 — — 137 561 995 730 1616 1168 1802 1350 2= —— I 2890 1.PressurePsig. STD.383 2739 0.30 2% l I 3 .Allow.237 0.465 I 3379 0.500 0.120 0.160 XX-STG.1OO SCH. SCH-160 XX-STG.300 0.143 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE (cent) NOM.2412 I 1946 3880 902 1488 2140 2808 6 39 2 81 111 1175 — 2515 211 1937 280 908 1490 2412 425 1042 1673 4394 1259 G 2520 3201 . SCH. SCH. X-STG.552 0.438 0.27t CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN.628 3077 0.242 861 1485 G 2748 3427 552 634 1181 G 2425 3093 329 411 882 1431 =6 2764 113 190 58~ 112[ F 2440 8 X-STG.525 0.492 2368 0.263 0.718 0.383 0.226 0. STD.593 0.160 XX-STG.438 1587 1353 1121 892 665 0.280 0.636 0.86f 0.483 0.216 0.20 SCH. SCH.590 0.25( 0. PIPE SIZE PIPEWALL THICKNESS NOM. X-STG.295 2075 0.438 0.75C 0. XX-STG. 0. SCH.674 0. 3/16 o I 1/16 I 1/8 I 1/4 Max.628 1896 2319 1658 2075 E 1835 1189 = 959 u .318 0.160 XX-STG.375 0.120 SCH.557 4701 0. 561 1245 577 2707 1971 1261 I 831 1525 2245 2991 3766 2599 3359 — — 5822 4969 Z DESIGNATION STD.203 0.189 0. X-STG.519 0.600 0. 3 ~ 2398 3597 5113 4 0. 160 XX-STG. X-STG.337 0. X-STG. SCH.328 0.276 0. STD. MIN.226 0. X-STG.1 3379 552 1127 1767 2X 2890 208 773 1401 2044 5 30 5 3 40 6 2 1 96 2 7 0 9 5 6 4 5 45 4 2 3 5 6 0. STD.756 3767 0.219 777 0.242 I 0. STD.500 0.378 1793 0.625 0.120 SCH.120 SCH.198 1546 0.328 0. SCH.208 ~ 0.

125 0.593 0. SCH.100 SCH.82( 1.500 0.20 SCH.000 0.375 0.843 0.875 1.100 SCH.40 X-STG.51$ 0.492 0.628 0.20 STD.438 0.250 1.43t 0.711 0. SCH.562 0. 2647 2400 2155 1913 1675 2977 2725 2476 2231 1988 2868 2617 2370 2126 1885 90 264 441 621 228 50 406 585 766 370 193 549 729 ~ 712 532 1263 l= 894 948 ~ 1506 1318 1132 1838 1647 1458 1270 1085 2179 1984 1792 1601 1413 2611 2413 2216 1986 1829 2963 2760 2560 2362 2166 371 222 76 522 540 389 692 91 240 635 483 ~7 333 184 701 549 248 854 398 904 751 486 1059 598 1194 1038 ~ 730 578 ~ 1469 1311 1154 ~ 1820 1659 1500 1341 1184 10 81 54 1530 2178 2 1690 23 10 31 1810 2467 2 1972 2s72 2910 2 2 2 69 202 475 338 49 184 319 456 594 167 303 440 716 577 287 423 561 839 699 407 544 682 962 ~ 585 pJ 863 1146 004 ~ 1173 1031 1460 316 1550 1406 1262 1843 696 2166 2017 1869 1722 1576 2500 2348 2198 2048 1900 S 8 10 12 1 I .438 0.80 SCH.984 0.519 0.500 0. SCH.375 0.75G 0.312 0.140 PIPEWALL THICKNESS NOM. X-STG.812 0.60 SCH.312 1.328 0.30 STD.365 ~0.906 0.738 1. SCH.500 4 o.289 0.140 SCH.Allow.250 0.80 SCH.843 0.120 SCH.406 0.140 SCH.PressurePsig.95( 1.738 1. 0.160 SCH.355 0. SCH.601 0.984 1.273 0.269 0.250 0.120 SCH.160 XX-STG.438 0.100 SCH. MIN.80 SCH.000 0.875 1.10 SCH.148 0.937 0.328 0. SCH.094 CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN o I 1/16 I 1/8 I 3/16 i“”.793 0.120 SCH.60 SCH.687 0.144 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE(con~ NOM.219 0307 0.093 0. PIPE DESIGNATION SCH.65{ 0.766 0.40 X-STG.30 STD.219 0.319 0.20 SCH.383 0.875 0.140 SCH.593 0.250 z 0.160 SCH./4 Max.718 0.330 0.125 0.

312 0.60 SCH.500 0.100 SCH.20 SCH.375 0.394 2809 368 0.438 0.218 1.10 SCH.012 1766 1.375 1.40X-STG.519 795 0.492 0.160 SCH.500 0.066 2111 1.40 SCH. STD.558 2789 T B m 4~ 0.750 0.140 ISCH. 1.203 2118 1.120 SCH. SCH.120 SCH.250 0.80 SCH.60 16 SCH.375 0. SCH.140 SCH.219 m 518 0.593 1.531 2446 1.230 2834 0.843 0.738 1436 1.031 0.438 1.383 744 0.80 SCH.140 SCH.30.120 SCH.438 0.100 SCH.312 0.All :P s i x E ~ 5 166 43 6 1 398 279 146 6 2 504 384 355 7 4 717 596 617 3 7 C4 861 937 0 1310 1185 1 1263 3 8 1643 1515 1 1595 7 2 1980 1851 1 1990 1 2 2384 2251 2 2275 4 0 2674 2540 2 5 262 157 38 4 1 354 248 130 3 2 447 341 222 2 3 541 434 315 2 4 636 529 407 1 5 729 621 689 7 1015 ~6 974 0 8 1306 1195 1 4 2 1314 1652 1539 1 18 78 77 1658 2002 1 21 09 70 2308 2 1958 2314 25 45 30 2669 2 4 m x 2 3 0 117 1 402 3 7 4 7 284 ~ 5 0 6 0 407 697 ~ 8 0 900 998 1004 1 1 0 1303 1202 1353 1 4 5 1657 1555 1665 1 7 6 1974 1870 2025 2 1 2 2340 2234 2346 2 4 5 2666 2558 .313 2078 1.30 X-STG.593 0.258 2517 1.500 1.145 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE(cont.20 STD.328 & 0. MIN. SCH.328 649 0.562 1.10 SCH.781 1.281 1.438 668 0.40 18 SCH.20 STD.406 1. 1/4 1/8 3/16 1/16 [ax.812 0.273 625 0.968 1.160 SCH.60 20 SCH.156 1.375 0.367 2425 1.273 554 0.562 0.121 1760 1.711 1097 1.722 2774 ROSIONALLOWANCE IN.10 SCH.100 SCH.656 1129 0.574 1108 0.250 G 460 0. SCH.328 0.820 1418 1.30 X-STC SCH.902 1771 1.438 838 0.031 0. DESIGPIPE NATION SIZE 14 SCH. SCH.160 PLPE WALL o THICI iESS gOM.160 SCH.902 1403 1.937 0.80 SCH.750 1.) NOM.500 0.656 0.

375 0.328 0.492 SCH.656 0. PIPE SIZE PIPEWALL THICI JESS MIN.438 214 289 365 440 519 G 672 750 827 196 334 475 5Z 685 1006 1297 1667 2006 2311 2660 181 244 308 372 438 502 567 633 697 211 267 379 I 128 116 202 31 192 278 106 267 136 353 344 431 258 419 332 507 409 496 584 486 G 661 z 649 738 40 117 97 176 255 236 315 395 304 464 384 443 524 6X G 842 924 1214 1131 1048 1582 1498 1413 1919 1833 1747 2223 2135 2048 2571 2482 2393 37 4 5 108 98 7 26 1 171 162 2 90 8 235 225 6 152 4 298 291 2 218 1 364 354 6 281 7 428 419 1 345 4 493 F4 7 410 0 558 548 2 474 7 622 148 204 315 85 141 252 23 78 188 T 30 275 330 443 .340 SCH.218 1.687 0.40 0.968 0.146 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE(cont.656 SCH.586 SCH.050 DESIG NATION 0.60 0.312 0.547 0.100 1.) NOM.500 0.343 2. 0.066 SCH.250 0.80 1.219 0.500 0.492 0.812 1.562 0.375 0.437 0. N 0.500 0. 0.273 0.750 0.437 22 24 376 452 G 606 681 761 839 916 275 414 z 625 766 1089 1381 1753 2093 2399 2750 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 26 0.547 0.602 0.250 0.062 1.20 STD.120 1.438 0.438 SCH.10 0.273 0.492 0.500 0.625 0.312 0.847 SCH.160 2.375 0.382 0.375 0.625 0.328 0.601 SCH.328 0.219 0.562 0.602 0.562 0.312 0.750 0.438 0.531 1.250 0.804 SCH.328 X-STG.273 0.382 0.688 0.140 2.688 0.30 0.219 SCH.

2660 0.e b 10 . Example to find max.E.280 0. ( v G &e o rU e i e r( lG ad e mr bs 1 8 r n e i ht a m h u iu fei cn m rk o n en d eo z se z s l cr e 2 .213 NOM.250 J. 0 ) 0 .3125 0.245 0.Pressure ~Wo x 1181 = 1023psi. 06 0 .000 0.3125 0.018 J. ALLOWABLE PRESSUREGIVENIN THETABLESBYTHE FACTORS IN THISTABLE: TEMPERATURE NOTEXCEEDING DEGREEOF 900 950 750 850 1000 650 700 800 – – A 53 B Stress 15000 14350 12950 10800 8650 6500 6500 4500 2500 12950 : 15000 s ’ 14350 + : s 10800 8650 A 106B ‘ 1. DUETO HIGHERTEMPERATURE.147 NOTE: IF THESTRESSVALUEOF PIPELESSTHAN15.00 0. 05 2 .213 0.4333 0.250 0. pressure for any stress values: The Max.1181x 0.E.1181Psig.9566 0.Allow.7200 0.Press. MULTIPLY THEMAX.Press. MIN. 0. Std.245 3 6 in. 3 1 .280 0.Allow.)0 0 0 .3000 0..280 0.Allow. For ThisPipeThe Max. 0. 0 5 2 0 0 0 .1666 FACTOR Example: The MaximumAllowancePressurefor 6“ x Stg.rc 0 6 0. 6 09 ) .From Tables The StressValue 13000psi.at Temperature800°F The Max.93 3 08 st i W s e en Sd a ra e U m tr . NOZZLEEN~CMKpTT~CKNESS I 2 Vessel Wall C O R R O S I O N w I o 0 1 Requiredfor Loadings(UG-22) 0. Pipe Minimumf 4 I C F * U m o m nS T i S & hH p A rS e f o B ti o e U e l (G al r s d b1 s .PipeWitha Corrosion Allowance of 1/8” From Table= 1181psi.8633 0. allow.72= 850 psig.245 0 6 i 0 .5766 0.C 0 kI 0 .000PSIG.250$ 0. 1. 2 6 0 5 2 .85 0.

The”minimum thickness of the pipe wall equals the nominal thickness times . psig. Selecting pipe. For the determination of the required pipe wall thickness in piping systems the various piping codes shall be applied.148 R U W I T P F P The required wall thickness for pipes. in.t s vt o hr a t m e l c s o eo u h sm u m e s m o f asen tfor t l epipe. P = internal pressure. . tabulated on the following pages.the 12.000psig. has been computed with the following formula: PR ‘= SE– O.5% tolerance in wall thickness shall be taken into consideration. in.875. The thicknesses given in the tables do not include aIlowance for corrosion.6P t = the required minimum wall thickness of pipe. where S = 15. For the inside diameter of the pipe round figures are shown. ye r i a dl A 53 B and A 106 B @temperature –20 to 650°F. . With interpolation the required thickness can be determined with satisfactory accuracy. E = Joint efficiency of seamless pipe R = inside radius of the pipe.

1 . 6 . 1 .0 0 .0 7 4 0 . 3 2 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 2 1 2 0 .0 7 2 0 . 0 . 6 2 1 . 3 0 1 4 . 0 0 8 1 . 1 0 1 . 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 7 1 4 . 0 1 . 9 5 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 6 0 9 . 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 5 . 0 3 . 3 0 . 2 3 3 .0 0 . 2 0 0 . 6 4 . 2 8 . . 1 0 . 7 1 0 . 4 0 . 9 2 6 . 0 3 5 .6 0 2 .0 3 0 . 0 7 2 .s. 6 . 0 . 4 9 1 0 . 0 5 .0 0 0 . 1 1 0 .9 3 0 . 1 . 4 5 0 4 0 . 0 . 11AM. 8 1 0 1 . 0 0 6 . 0 2 . 0 0 0 . 3 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 0 4 6 0 0 7 0 0 0 0. . 0 0 . . 3 8 0 . 0 1 6 . 2 0 4 . 0 . 1 o . 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 8 0 . 0 1 3 .0 0 1 . 1 0 2 . 1 9 3 .0 0 1 . 0 . 8 3 . 7 .149 REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE 1. 4 8 0 7 8 0 0 9 0 4 9 0 7 0 0 00 4 1 0 7 1 0 0 2 0 4 2 0 7 3 0 0 3 0 40 7 4 0 0 5 0 350 0 5 0 0 .5 4 0 . 1 . 9 . 0 1 4 . 0 . 5 2 0 1 . 8 ~ 0 0 . 5 0 7 0 . 0 . 2 0 3 . 7 5 0 0 . 9 0 1 . 6 0 . 4 4 0 0 . 0 3 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 7 1 0 . 1 4 0 . 4 1 0 .2 0 7 0 . 4 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 1 . 0 0 8 7 . 0 0 0 .04 25 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 . 0 .01 2 0 . 0 . 7 1 0 . 0 0 .0 3 0 .0 0 1 0 . . 6 2 0 2 7 .7 4 0 . 8 5 0 8 .0 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 2 0 .4 0 4 .0 0 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 1 . 1 0 5 . 2 2 0 . 0 0 . 5 0 8 . 7 3 .0 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 500 0 1 . 3 0 2 . 7 4 . 1 0 5 0 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 9 . 400 0 .0 0 1 .7 3 0 .0 0 4 0 .9 5 1 . 0 2 .00 0 1 . 6 . 1 . 1 0 . 0 . 0 0 7 5 0 . 0 200 0 0 . 0 4 . 0 9 7 . 7 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 5 1 0 . 1 2 9 . 0 . 0 3 . 3 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 4 0 6 0 . 0 9 . 0 0 2 7 . 0 5 0 6 0 . 0 7 0 0 8 .02 0 2 .0 0 2 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 100 . 0 0 . 6 . 0 3 4 0 4 . 0 0 . 7 1 0 .8 4 0 . 0 . ( 2 1 2 .0 250 2 0 . 0 0 6 1 0 . 1 0 .0 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 . 2 1 6 . 0 1 3 . 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PRESSURE PSIG. 0 1 5 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 7 0 .0 3 2 0 . 6 0 . S 3 .3 4 0 . 0 5 0 3 0 . 6 . . 0 0 4 . 0 . 0 7 3 0 0 . 0 0 .8 3 0 .1 3 0 . 0 3 .6 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 150 0 . 1 3 . 5 0 5 5 7 0 s 8 0 6 0 2 6 0 3 6 1 5 7 1 7 1 8 7 1 0 8 1 8 2 1 4 8 1 5 9 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 0 1 7 300 3 0 . 3 1 8 . 1 0 2 . 0 0 3 . 2 .0 1 0 . 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 450 . 3 0 3 . 0 0 2 .2 3 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 0 . 7 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 .03 2 0 . 0 . 0 3 . 0 7 . 0 0 .0 0 0 . 4 3 5 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 0 0 5 3 . 9 3 . 0 1 6 9 .

0 3 8 5 . . 0 5 . 8 . 0 4 2 . 6 7 . 0 7 1 .694 6 0. 0 5 2 . 1 2. 0 7 9 0 . 7 0 6 4 . . 0 4 1 . 0 6 4 . 0 3 . 0.311~ 8 2 5 2 7 .0. 0 2 0 4 . 0 .0 0 2 . 0 8 2 .06 0 5 . 0 1 .156 9 1 2 1 3 . 2 0 2 . 0 . 0 7 0 8 0. 0 4 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 7 3 0 5 . 1 0 6 800 0 .0 8 3 0 .187 5 1 5 1 6 . 5 3 1 8.218 0 2 8 1 9 . 0 9 . 3 . 0 . 2 8 .04 6 5 . 4 5 . 0 7 . 5 0 S 0 1 5 0 4 4 . 0 3 0 4 0 4 . 1 . 9 3 . 1 2 5 . . 0 . 3 6 2 . 0 4 . 0 0 1 3 . 0 7 . 5 0 6 5 . .01 1 . 4 9 5 . 0 . 0 5 . 0 5 2 5. 0 .08 4 5 . 0 0 4 .7 3 . 0 8 .0. s 0 3 .0.280I 2 3 2 4 . 0 4 0 . 0 . 6 7 . 0 . 0 . 6 3 .249 6 2 0 2 .0 0 6 4 .9 7 4 .2 4 2 .4 8 3 . 0 8 9 . 5 1 . 7 6 3 .0.0 2 .6 1 3 .02 3 4 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 700 0 1 3 0 5 0 0 7 9 1 .150 REQUIRED PIPEWALLTHICKNESS FORINTERNAL PRESSURE (cent) 1 IAM. 0 2 . 0 6 .0 1 4 3 4 . 0 5 0 5 0. 6 30 .09 6 . 8 5 . 0 5 4 .062 2 . 0 4 . 5 6 3 .0 3 . 4 . 0 1 1 . 1 . 0 6 8 . 0 . 0 6 1 . 0 6 4 . . 0 . . 3 4 0. 0 5 . 0 2 1 . 0 . 7 0 5 0 9 . 6 0 2 . 0 2 2 . 9 7 . 0 650 0 . 0 .031 6 . 8 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 5 4 3 4 3 7 2 0 1 3 1 6 0 9 2 9 6 8 9 7 2 7 5 6 8 5 1 5 4 7 3 0 3 4 2 7 1 0 1 3 0 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 9 8 . 6 850 0 0. 0 3 .03 5 4 . C 7 0 . 0 .0. 0 2 .07 2 5 . 0 4 7 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 0 3 5 . 3 0 4 . 0 . 4 8 6 4. 0 4 . 6 5 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 7 4. 0 0 .0. 3 1 . 0 1 . D 3 .729 1 6 4 7 7 0 7 3 8 6 8 9 8 2 1 9 5 0. 3 0 8 5 .00 750 9 2 0 7 4 0 6 0 8 5 0 4 0 1 2 1 0 4 1 0 0 6 1 0 9 8 2 0 7 0 2 0 6 2 0 5 4 2 0 4 6 2 0 2 8 3 0 1 0 0 3 0 2 3 0 9 4 0 3 7 6 4 0 6 8 0 4 5 1 . 0 9 . 0 7 3 . 0 . 1 0 5 . 7 8 3 . 0 8 . 0 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 6 0 4 . 1 2 3 4 5 PRESSURE PSIG. 8 2 . 0 3 . 0 3 0 3 . 9 0 6 1 . 0 . . 0 . .1 2 . 0 5 9 . 9 6 0 2 .3 6 2 . 0 . 0 .00 9 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 2 0 2 0. 0 . 1 6 . 0 4 . 0 . 6 1 .124 3 . 0 . 0 5 2 .093 7 . 2 6 4 4 7 5 . 0 1 1 . 9 3 .05 8 5 . 550 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600 ) . 0 4 7 . 0 . 00 . 0 0 5 0 7 2 0 5 9 5 0 5 2 7 6 0 4 0 6 0 2 6 0 8 4 6 0 1 7 7 0 3 9 5 7 0 2 7 0 I 900 950 1 2 8 5 8 3 1 0 4 8 7 5 0 3 3 0 6 8 9 5 2 3 3 5 1 4 8 4 4 6 4 3 4 6 1 5 8 9 5 6 2 5 3 6 1 8 0. 0 8 0 4 . 0 3 1 . 5 7 .8 5 3 .0 4 .

6 3 9 0 . 0 .s. 1 0 .4 0 6 8 . 1 9 8 1 . 7 9 4 . 1 1 7 . 2 6 4 3 5 . 1 0 0 . 0 2 7 0 3 . 5 9 . 6 0 . 0 . 2 5 8 0 . 1 8 0 . 0 5 . 1 5 5 . 1 . 7 0 . 32 1 .1 1 . 3 0 . 3 0 7 1 0 8 9 8 8 .1 2 0 5 . 8 2 5 . 8 2 . 7 0 . 9 1 0 6 4 .4 1 7 9 . 0 . 6 8 4 . 1 . 7 1 9 1 6 . 0 1 4 8 3 1 . 0 . )IAM. 0 1 2 .1 3 7 . 7 4 . 0 4 9 1 . 6 5 5 . 6 0 . 1 6 1 .0 4 1 . 2 0 . 3 1 1 . 0 . 07 7 9 . 0 7 3 9 . 3 1 3 . 8 .6 0 2 4 . 0 .0 9 4 3 . 9 0 . 8 0 3 . 5 1 9 5 1 .1 5 0 3 . 1 3 9 9 1 . 1600 0 4 . 8 8 9 6 . 4 2 . 1 8 9 . 9 8 1 . 1 1 2 8 7 .1 1 1. 3 6 6 1 .7 0 7 3 . 3 8 6 .1 8 5 3 1 . 3 0 5 . 1 . 0 . 4 I4 9 . 0 6 . 2 4 0 .1 0 6 2 8 .8 1 9 1 1 . 6 1 . 2 . 9 4 7 . 1 8 3 . 0 4 4 1 . 4 1 8 0 . 7 . 5 7 . 4 0 3 4 . 0 . 5 3 0 4 6 . 6 0 . 0 . 1 0 7 2 . 6 7 0 4 . 0 . 4 1 3 4 1 . 1 1 . 4 1 6 4 . 1 . 01 4 6 02 . 4 2 1 0 . 2000 0 . 3 1 1900 0 5 3 . 9 1 5 . 0 . 3 8 00 . 0 9 4 1 0 . 4 0 1 7 . 4 2 4 . 1 1 2 . 1 9 4 8 5 . 3 4 0 . 5 7 0 . 2 1 8 7 . 1 5 .1 4 1 2 . 1 . 9 0 1 8 6 . 6 1 4 3 . 1 . 09 7 6 . 9 5 0 1 0 . 0 . 1 0 2 2 1 0 6 1 0 . 0 .1 0 .11 8 2 4. 8 2 8 . 3 0 9 2 4 . 7 2 7 0 . 4 0 3 6 3 .1 9 1 . 1 0 8 0 . 3 1 4 . 08 7 2 . 3 6 . 0 9 5 7 . 2 2 .7 2 . 8 4 9 7 . 4 0 . 0 6 7 6 0 . 0 . 3 6 . 6 0 0 . 2 6 0 . 5 3 1 6 . 8 4 2 .1 0 4 . 2 0 .1 8 2 1 . 4 2 . 4 5 0 0 . 1 9 4 2 1 . 2 5 1 . 3 0 .1 9 8 .1 9 . 5 3 7 .0 1 6 1 . 5 1 9 8 4 . 8 0 2 9 1 . 6 8 1 5 3 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 0 . 9 0 5 8 . 5 2 . 4 0 . 3 9 1 0 6 1 .1 8 6 1 6 .1 8 .151 REQUIRED PIPEWALLTHICKNESS FOR INTERNALPRESSURE (cont. 2 2 9 0 . 5 3 04 .0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 .7 1 7 1 . 2 9 2 .1 5 0 . 7 1 0 . 5 3 1 2 0 . 5 0 4 7 0 . 2 0 . 0 . 3 5 3 . 5 0 3 2 0 . 9 .6 0 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 1 9 0 0 . 2 0 0 . 7 0 .1 1 9 1 6 . 6 8 . 8 0 . 9 0 3 9 . 5 5 .7 0 1 3 .0 2 9 4 . 5 0 . 2 3 4 1 . 9 .0 7 0 1 .1 1 . 0 7 2 . 1 9 . 2 1 . 4 . 0 7 .1 1 3 3 . 0 .1 9 0 0 0 .1 4 7 0 1700 0 4 .0 5 4 0 9 . 9 . 2 3 0 . 3 4 0 . 2 0 8 9 . 5 1 8 1800 0 . 1 0 .1 1400 0 .1 6 2 . 0 6 1 8 .8 0 6 2 . 0 9 4 6 .0 2 1500 . 6 2 0 . 9 1 9 3 . 8 1 1 6 . 06 6 5 . 2 7 1 2 . 7 0 0 .1 4 2 8 . 0 8 5 . 7 7 1 3 .1 0 . 5 0 . 1100 1200 0 .1 5 6 1 . 6 7 0 0 .5 01 91 . 6 4 8 0 8 . 8 0 4 2 0 . 4 1 5 9 .5 0 5 7 5 . 4 0 7 . 0 8 1 8 1 . 0 . 0 1 2 3 0 1 . 1 0 9 1 4 .0 2 7 0 6 .0 . 2 3 6 . 3 4 1 . 6 8 5 6 0 . 1 9 2 .0 6 5 0 4 . 5 9 8 1 . 3 0 . 0 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 PRESSURE PSIG. 1 7 5 0 2 . 4 1 3 4 .0 3 2 2 . 2 5 6 . 2 4 6 . 00 8 0 . 0 0 4 7 0 . 3 0 2 4 3 6 . 3 9 7 . 05 6 1 . 6 1 4 . 0 8 4 5 . 6 4 0 . 2 1 6 1 8 . 0 1 9 0 .) 1.0 6 8 3 . 0 0 .1 6 7 4 . 0 7 4 . 5 9 03 . 3 7 2 0 7 . 5 8 4 . 5 . 1 0 . 1 9 3! 8. 1 0 . 4 0 2 2 5 0 . 0 8 5 3 0 . 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 . 1 3 . 9 8 7 1 . 2 0 9 5 .0 8 0 7 . 0 . 0 . 6 7 8 6 . 5 8 9 . 7 9 0 . 1 1300 0 . 2 9 7 .

4 1 1 . 6 8 3 1 . 5 4 4 1 . 5 2 . 1 7 7 2 . 2 .1 7 6 1 . 1 2 3 . 9 3 5 7 . 1 3 4 0 .1 6 .0 . 8 2 4 9 .1 6 .6 2 6 1 . 1 2 0 4 .2 7 1 3 . 1 8 4 2 . 4 1 0 5 . 1 3 8 3 .4 41 2 . 6 ] 2 3 .2 4 3 2 . 6 1 . 1 6 5 2 . 2 . 4 7 9 2 3 9 . 8 2 3 . 5 1 1 1 . 2 .8 1 5 . 9 7 9 2 . 0 5 0 3 .3 6 8 8 . 5 1 2 .1 3 9 . 2 3 1 .6 91 3 . 4 1 1 . 0 2 2 . 1 5 6 2 . 3 8 2 3 2 . 2 9 .1 1 .1 2 . ‘lM” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PRESSURE PSIG. 3 2 1 2 . 1 2 3 2 . 0 8 1 7 . 7 2 6 1 . 5 1 8 7 . 4 5 2 2 . 2 4 6 2 . 5 1 2 . 3 1 5 2 .2 7 8 9 .2 9 6 5 . 1 0 8 3 0 .5 21 . 9 4 1 2 . . 7 3 2 .1 5 .2 1 5 0 . 9 2 0 0 . 5 3 7 .1 2 0 . 1 8 0 6 . 7 5 5 1 . 8 0 7 1 . 9 3 2 4 0 . 1 . 7 4 8 . 0 4 2 .1 2 .2 13 9 0. 1 . 1 .1 4 6 7 3 . 3 9 3 . 71 1 . 0 2 5 3 .2 2 5 8 . 4 2 7 8 . 3 .9 2 9 4 .1 7 . 5 4 2 6 . 2 6 8 2 2 . 9 5 0 2 . 3 4 2 . 2 1 6 . 2 3 1 5 0 1 .2 0 . 0 2 7 . 1 8 1 1 2 .1 4 . 3 . 2 . 0 . 6 8 1 .s.1 0 . 2 1 6 8 .1 6 5 8 . 3 8 2 2 . 1 . 8 9 2 . 1 9 6 4 . 5 0 4 6 1 . 2 3 7 2 . 8 3 4 9 .9 21 6 . 2 7 9 1 . 0 2 9 5 .1 9 . 1 2 2 .2 9 . 7 3 5 1 . 1 0 2 1 . 1 . 8 8 8 2 . 1 .1 3 .1 0 . 1 . 8 2 0 4 . 1 . 6 9 7 . 6 2 7 2 2 . 4 1 8 . 4 1 7 .8 2 1 3 .2 11 9 . 5 6 5 1 . 3 1 6 4 . 5 9 6 1 . 8 5 8 9 . 9 1 6 . 1 5 2 1 .3 5 9 7 1 1 . 1 3 7 1 1 .1 2 1 .2 6 2 3 . . 7 5 2 . 0 2 .2 2 .2 2 .0 1 0 6 . 6 6 4 1 .) 1. 6 1 1 3 .152 4 REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (cont. 7 1 . 1 6 4 5 . 1 2 2 .~ 1] 9 . 2 4 3 0 . 6 2 . 1 . 2 1 . 1 . 6 3 7 .1 7 4 8 .7 2 4 2 .2 4 1 2 . 2 6 . 3 0 5 2 . 0 9 3 2 . 2 . 1 8 0 . 0 5 .3 2 3 9 . 6 2 3 4 . 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 . 1 . 5 2 8 4 . 1 1 4 1 1 . 5 1 1 . 8 1 3 2 .9 0 . 1 7 6 0 . 0 2 3 2 .7 71 4 . 0 8 . 9 2 5 .1 1 8 7 . 1 6 0 2 . 1 7 4 2 .4 1 0 25 2 8 0 .2 1 . 8 9 2 1 . 4 2 7 5 .1 8 . . 5 9 2 1 .1 8 5 . 1 . 2 0 1 .

de thenozzleloadsisbased inpartontheBulletin107of WeldingResearchCouncilandrepresents a simplificationof it. The vesselsare not intendedto serveas anchorpoints for the piping. first evaluate ~and y..2 and 3. 2 and 3.— — . r{. Then determine CL2.875 (&)= . I 4 FRJW A R. .070 From Figure 1.to s teh h n determine l e o.then use S.2= 1. 0= (q(R.500 psi rO= 15“ b= . fl=. * -—. a = 440 y= + = ~= 50 () From Figure3. and A from Figures 1. = 17.) [f a is greaterthan S0. for the specified~ and ~ substitute into the aquationsbelow.7511 SY= 31. E x t F e or & M nr ao c l m e e s n t s T calculate the maximum forceoand moment. (ST—O) roSy A4RCM = R~2 x Mm =& S Y –0) Plot the value of FN a FWand the smaller of .To avoid excessiveloading in the vessel.A41w. as the stress due to designpressure.153 N E C F V M .875 ($) Determine CL~and A from Figures 1. ~R\f EXAMPLE: Determine Resultant Force and Moment T= .the pipingshall be adequatelysupported. of FRF.~~c~and s MM as A4w. Y=+ CalculatePressure Stress (~.The allowable nozzle loads are bounded by the area O.35 From Figure2. A = 340 . and calculate FRRF.875(%)= .500 psi@ 460° Rm= 37. P b i t a p d i j n oh n o ie g n z l ixzs y ne o l igtet ev cr r s eT e am sth s e s l below. FM= — R.-. ———— — .5 P = 150 psi S.

e s N m e n s i ou n lme s bs e ea o S d ia h i.500—14.a o d b l ie -n lr b z o a F. b 0 bo a n 0= l u l0 s( o lA w p. s Resultant Radial Forc( = l Maximum T hh =D i m i ice k n n l e c s l sh . w B p . m e n t m i n c h p o u n d s * p p e r ao p t su u r q i e n . n a W d s sL m i n e c h n p o t u n d .070 z (37.52 (15) (31. w0 n 0 b on b0a * u l s l (o o l.M ’ a x R Re i sm MuMu l o t m n n i ma e p o u n d s * e n N s i ou n lm e s bs e r s * e e a r r b s Uv s s a o sl l u ue t ee s = D i m e n N s i o u n lm e s bs =D i m e n N s i o u n lm e s bs REFERENCES: Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings. K.214 lb.alculatePressureStress 2(150)375 ~ = 14.i a e oJ 0bn 0n 2 i 0 l . M-m= y (sy — ‘-= ~ IL S P ‘ R T S o s ~ Y a O =N =M = S T A o O R =Y S T e m = S p = S p Dt s Vt s h P f t v l o a oo a h FRF l a tt u s r e m eo n af k f a ~. Standardsfor ClosedFeedwaterHeaters.500—14.sm C ui @u rl c t u mm a f n e rt i t or e Me an laytD g e d te r h is a f i R l n M o . Inc. d s sF m u p q i e un a c r r h eF = .p t h u e se o r FRF eliu= a l nl a .97~ in-lb.850psic&=17. .poundsper sq. T k n b 6 * T I u zR O N : l s l e lz e a f = i h e ar n e r o f oe zroa F e= zc2 . Wichman. = a o e u zc fs 4 0 5 t ll t . aQ A 1 ~ n T 7a &f l f Ll n o d W h M w o l as z. Z = DimensionlessNumbers r t za i s o d l n i ie d c A u e= h sD i . n b0 0f 1 0 i l 0 ? w.o b a b o b u t r an o d e he d e y e a F’RF. Hopper and J.850in the equationsfor calculatingFRRF and MkM ~alculateAllowableForces and Moments Fw= ~ (~y. Heat Exchange Institute.154 NOZZLE EXTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS IN CYLINDRICAL VESSELS (continued) . G.2) Jse o= 24. A. in.5)2 (15)= (31. psi ~RcM= Rm2~o~y =37. Mm.850) = 53. .500) = ~zo 984 in-lb 9 1. tl0 li a eo . s * q i e u n a r cr e h M R x ei o u l to m r a u nc n t o ra f M e S la s .500 ‘=%m-3= 75( ~ . Bulletin 107/August 1965 — Revised Printing — December 1968. n e u n c l FRRF s h f e. 1969.. da o b t l ie N U a ob vt s s oi ae t l gl : u r u te eh a e p s h n = DesignPressure. e pounds* s k f M a gR xc te i . r 0. Mershon — Welding Research Council.032.850—l. e u dn a s r cr e h R x ei mu o Mn u l gtm iMat un d t Dr u e s ie g e n P sp r te ss o s Iu o u r eM . @ =(#2(3 1. R. L.

!.. . .: I \.. 4 ----: : : 4-%-4 ~•••ì´„• i ! . 1 .’ . 1 1OJ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 . 6 5 4 3 2 a 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 . t 10 . f. 1 I! !.. I I I I I I I I I 1 t I I ! I I [ ! . I :-+-!r i !{I --+--L - l-l++ +--l-%-l-~ -: . ! — I 1 1.1 : I II I . I I : i I ~i i ~ I. I [ I . 1[ I I r . . .!”” i! !:”m!!!- 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .I ]02 .: I t I 1 1 I 1 1 i I I 1 1 I I I I I 1I I I I I I [’1 I I I I 1I I I I I ( . I t . .-. . i::: i I 1 !. 1 . . . I . . . I. ..155 NOZZLE LOADS Fig.. - . I I I [ WI . ? I . .

1 5 6 NOZZLE LOADS Fig 2 ! .

Fig.3 .05 .2 .45 .1 1.35 . 3 1OJ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 A lo] 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ]02 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 .5 .1 .4 .25 .15 .11 NOZZLE LOADS.

.

t= minimum required thickness of cylin- der at thejunction. deg. t.) 1. EI 30 17. NOTATION E = with subscriptss.VALUESOF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END P/S. lblin.etc. y/S’~E~ TABLE A .010 0. For compression E=l.125* P/S. in. ~ = factor:SS E.in. deadload.= requiredthicknessof cone at thejunction. (Use minimum 1.001 0.in..deg. Q.080 0. S= withsubscriptss.O for butt welds.“.005 0. R~=insideradiusof largecylinderat large endof cone. deg.020 0.in.002 0. 11 TABLE B .007 0. E= with subscriptslor 2 efllciencyof weldedjoints in shellor cone respectively. A= anglefi-omtable A or B.EI and read the value of~ from tables A and B“ 2. y = s~~~ For reinforcing ring on cone. 1 R T U J I C P C A the junction of cone or conical section to cylinder (Fig.003 0.c or r modulusof elasticity ofshell. EI 0. C and D) due to bending and shear.040 0. Seechartsbeginningonpage43 for modulusof elasticity..in.excluding pressure. Determine factor y.5 30 15 18 21 23 25 27 A. psi. E.009* 28.in.= algebraicsumof PIL/2 andfi lb/in.002 0.= actualthickness ofconeatthejunction. corrallowable stress of shell. For reinforcing ring on shell. t. orSCEC .006 0. 4.etc. deg.005 0. DESIGN PROCEDURE (The half apex angle cz<30 deg.0 for k in formula).5 24 27 4 6 9 A.psi Q~=algebraic s~ofPR~/2 andfi 1b/in.008 0.5 12. Design size and location of reinforcing ring (see next page). U= halfapexangleof coneor conicalsection. e r ur e f *A= 3 d f g e r v e o W 3 D t v f o Ai l t c r s b p e e =y/S. P= Designpressure. t. Determine P/S.VALUES OF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END 0. psi. discontinuity stresses are induced which are with reinforcement to be compensated.100 0.= actualthickness ofcylinderatthejunction.004 0. deadload.excluding pressure..coneorreint20rcing ringmaterialrespectively.cone or reinforcingmaterial. j= axialloadat smallenddueto wind. fi= axialload at largeend due to wind. lbfin. R=inside radiusof smallcylinderat small endof cone. o gP/S~EI aa 0 t l .

30” FIG. in.L = (t. em a e g s r h b s a ..x.25 X~ JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END Requiredarea of reinforcementA sq. A sq.—t~ {h.) x (a—A) {Rst. in. ~ r~ . c i c a g w o er U l nd ( a ( i l n s ec gan tt “ e ap h ) rh a bo2 fo : v t r o tu C h S l o eh V e d cD e I s ti e l f v i eI io . = — S.n oi a s 0y . C Area of excess metal for reinforcement. in. in.25 X & N OW T atthe E hj u n c S tion e c:o m pl r en ssi o ovref i eax c e e dd t h est e l n s~ ido n oea l t b ea r y md 2o P r e R s p e. in..+ m+ (tC/t.d~ g e ) 5 & . / cos a The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated./ cos CZ The distance from the junction within which the additionalreinforcementshallbe situated. gp a e s bn n e aece ( 1 C( ( o .L S. kQLRL 1 . G P M.—t) G+ (t. 0. sq. I n i o ..t c d t i/ s v e erb 2 lh s ih ya . s. when tension governs (see notes) . sq. ” n ) W t r he m d h o eu o c a oe nm f rc e u d ts oo s w n e o ci trf o t dc a i ir a fe aof l en w p n r sei k gn e tn t l h u a w t h ha n a ah ea p ni g d g l n r t e l3 e df a e hx t d e t . . /zj cos (a—A) (t. 0. K The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated. = (t.E1 () Area of excess metal available for reinforcement A. whentension governs(see notes) kQsR. A. A la tan a ‘. in. A. in.160 T J R C C FORMULAS M JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END x . D The distancefromthejunction withinwhichthe centroidof the reinforcementshallbe situated. Required area of reinforcement. in.EI () a tan a E!l FIG.

.25 {100 x 0. thick bar.132 = 4..800psi. insideradius of smallcylinder = 13. a . axial load at smallend = 50 psi.300 lb/in. the width of ring: 4.4375 .4375 in. thicknessfor smallcylinder = 0..4375= 1. l X j.500psi.5 .132 sq.. Factor k=y/SrE~= 13..69-0.0.49) x{1OO X 0. ArL= SE ( 13.joint efficiencyin shell and cone = 0.4375 = 6.55 in.429 in. requiredmin.375 in.AeL= 4. = 0.41 in.. axial load at largeend = 952 lb/in. The required cross-sectional area of compression ring: kQLRL~ .800psi.65 in.60 in. internaldesignpressure = 100 in..55.161 R T J E C C DESIGN DATA: = 30 deg.800 X 1 A A= 1 e e S Ai l t ~ r r i r ! U r ~ SsE. allowablestressof shell material = 13.=30x 1 m o e p = 1. = 0..thicknessfor large cylinder = 0.8 ~ tan 30°= 4.95 Use k = 1 =5 + 800= 3.. actualthicknessof large cylinder = 0.19.500x30x 106= 0. requiredthicknessof cone at large cylinder Jsing the same material for shell and cone. actualthicknessof cone..0036 f t 50 .0. requiredmin.800 X 1 () The are: o’fexcess in shell available for reinforcement: AeL= (ts..L .55/1 = 4. in..360 in.25 ~~ = 0.0. P/SsEI = 13.. half apex angle of cone. Maximum distance of centroid from the junction= 0.= 1 o t s 106 3 0 X 1.L = 0.500 in.4375 + (0. the required cross sectional area of compression ring Using 1 in.tr) @t~ /COS~ = (0.joint efficiencyin reinforcingring = 800 lb/in.49 in. A.~ ~+ (tc. allowablestressof ring material = 0.69 sq in.429)X ~100 X 0. Location of compression ring: Maximum distance from the junction = ~= ~100 x 0. required thickness of cone at small cylinder = 0. allowablestressof cone material = 14.ECE.. QL=PRL12fI .55 in. actualthicknessof smallcylinder dL t.5/cos 30° = 0.800 x30x 106/ 14. insideradius of largecylinder = 84 in.300x 100 1. 1. .+ t a = 1 X 3.

162

R T J E
JUNCTION AT SMALL CYLINDER 1. PAS, El = 0.0036; fromtable B A = 5° SinceA is less than et,reinforcementis required. 2. Factor~= S, E,=13,800x30x10s 3. Factork=l 4. QS=PR, /2+~lb./in =50~84+ 952= 3,0521b”/in” 5. Therequired cross-sectionalarea of compressionring: ~ 184l~o tan 300= 8.94 sq. in. ~r, = kQsRS ~-~ tan ~= 1 ~~>~~~ S,E, () u () ?
The area of excess in shell available for reinforcement: A,. = (t, / t,)

C
(continuea)

C

–A) (t, - ~ %+

(LI t,)

/cos a x cos (a – A) (tc- t,) * StC (30-5) X (0.375 - 0.36)X 484X .0375 (0.395/0.36) X COS + (0.5/0.41) cos (30-5) x (0.5-0.41) x ~84 x 0.5/cos 30°= 0.77 sq. in. A,. - A,, = 8.94-0.77 = 8.17 sq. in., the required cross sectional area of compression ring. Using lfi thick bar, the required width of the bar: 8.17/ 1.5 = 5.45 in. Location of the compression ring: Maximum distance from the junction: a = 484 x 0.375 = 5.6 in.

Maximum distance of centroid from the junction: 0.25 fi= 484 x 0.4375 = 1.5 in. Insulation ring may be utilized as compression ring provided it is continuous and the ends of it are joined together. Since the-moment of intertia of the ring is not factor, the use of flat bar rolled easy-way is more economical than the use of structural shapes. To eliminate the necessity of additional reinforcement by using thicker plate for the cylinders at the junction in some cases maybe more advantageous than the application of compression rings.

1

R T
D, t-l

J U

C E P

C

L. d r !$! ;L w
I

I

3

Reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of cone e o c to cylinder, or at the junction o t l section to cylinder when cone, or conical section doesn’t have knuckles and the value of A, obtained from table E, is less than ct. TABLE E - VALUES OF A P/SE o 0.002 0.005 0.010 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.10 15 21 29 33 A,deg. o 5 7 10 P/SE 0.125 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 57 60 40 47 52 A, deg , 37 6 d f g e rv e o o a gP a l0 t .u / e r re S s f E CX=
N I n o t e rt m p ob e l ma t f i: ia o a nn t e rvo dm y a e d e le i a ur t e e

I T FIG. F

The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of reinforcing (stiffening) ring — when the half apex ‘ angle a is equal to or less than 60 degrees — shall be determined by the following formulas and procedure.

1. Determine P/SE, and read the value of A from table E. 2. Determine the equivalent area of cylinder, cone and stiffening ring, ATI,, sq. in. $3:: pa~~ 46 for construction of stiffening ring) 3 FIDI. A~lJ= ~ + ; + A., Calculate factor B B = ~ (~ ,) where 2 2 3RI,tan a 3. From the applicable chart (pages 43 thru 47) read the value of A entering at the value of B, moving to the left to the material/temperature line and from the intersecting point moving vertically to the bottom of the chart.
For values of 1?falling below the left end of the material/temperature

F[.= PM+ J tan a

M = -RL tan a + L[ + R{?-R.?

line

for the design temperature, the value of A=2WE. If the value of B is falling above the material/temperature line for the design temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall,be changed, and/or the stiffening ring relocated, the axial compression stress reduced. 4. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia For the stiffening ring only: AD[.2A 1[. Is = ~400 For the ring-shell-cone section: ADI,ZA 71, I’,Y = 10.9 5. Select the type of stiffening ring and determine the available moment of inertia (see page 87) of the ring only 1, or the shell-cone or the ring-shellcone section 1’.

164

T

J

R

C
(continue~

C

If 1 or 1’ is less than I, or 1[, respectively, select stiffening ring with larger

moment of inertia. 6. Determine the required cross-sectional area of reinforcement, A,~,sq. in. (when compression governs): A,~ = @fi;;an~ [,@&):]

NOTE: Whenatthejunctionthe compressiveloads determined byPR~2 orPRJ2 are
exceeded by~l or~J tensional loads respectively, the design shall be in accordance with U-2 (g) (“as safe as those provided by the Code Section VIII, Division 1.“) Area of excess metal available for reinforcement: A,~ sq. in.:

A.~ = 0.55 ~D~t, (t, + t. /COS @ The distance from the junction within which the additional reinforcement shall be situated, in. a The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated, in. 0.25 ~ R, .~ L~ LL ~ = =I Reinforcing shall be provided at the iunction of small end of conical section without flare to cylinder. The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of reinforcing (stiffening) ring shall be determined by the following formulas and procedure. 1. Determine theequivalentareaofcylinder,cone and stiffening ring, Am L, L, t L I R1 A “ I 2. L,t, An= ~+ Calculate factor 1? B . ; ( :~’ where Fs = PN +jjtan a RL2- R~2 N=~ + Z+ 6R. tan a Let, ~+A,

)

FIG. G

165

R T
3. F

J

C
(continued)

C

t a c ( t r e a p v o B m t t l t t m l a f at i p m v t t b o t nc F v o t l e f n l f t d d t t v o =2 e of B is falling above the materialhemperature line for the design I t v
temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall be changed, and/or the stiffening ring relocated, the axial compression stress reduced.

e

4. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia: For the ring-shell-cone section: ~; = AD,2ATS
5.

For the st~~e~~~ ring only:

~.= 1:.0 10.9 Selectthe type ofstiffeningring anddeterminethe available moment of inertia (see page 89) of the ring only, land of the ring-shell-cone section, I! Iflorl’ is

Iessthanl..orli respectively,selectstiffeningringwith largermomentofinertia. 6. Determine the required cross-sectional area ofreinforcement. A,,, sq. in:
A~s= kQSR~tan~ SE

metal available for reinforcement Ac,sq. i A.s = 0.55 % [(t,-~ + (tc-tr)/cos ix]

n

.

The distance from thejunction within which the additional reinforcement shall be situated, in.G The distance from thejunction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated, in. 025 G NOTE:Whenthereducers madeoutoftwoormoreconicalsections ofdifferent apexangles withoutknuckle, andwhenthehalfapexangleisgreaterthan60degrees,thedesignmaybe basedon specialanalysis.(Code1-8(d)and(e).) NOTATION

A,

ing ring, sq. in. A,,L = requiredareaofreinforcementwhen AT = equivalent area of cylinder, cone and stiffening ring, sq. in. QLis in compression, sq. in. B = factor At.’ = requiredareaofretiorcementwhen D~ = outside diameter of cone or large QLis sq. in. end of conical section, in.

a ev = area of excess m reinforcement, sq. in.

af t i

cross-sectional area lA.a a = b ol l e r of the stiffen-

66

T

J

R

C
(continued)

C
shelljunctionandone-thirdthedepth ofhead o theotherendofthelarge

D,, . outsidediameterofcylindricalshell, in. D., — outside diameter at small end of conical section, in. E
— . lowest efllciency of the 1ongitudi-

shell.
L, design lengthofavessel section, in. forstl~enedvesse[section: distance between the cone-to-small-shell junction and an adjacent stiffening ring on the small shell.
f

naljoint inthe shell,head or cone; E = 1 for butt welds in compression. E
— with subscriptsc, r ors modulus of

elasticityof cone, reinforcementor shell material respectively,psi. k A
— S&L5’RER but not less than 1.0. .

unstlflenedvessel o section: disr tance betweenthe cone-to-small-

shelljunctionand onethirdthe depth ofheadontheotherend of the small
shell. P external design pressure, psi. PRL PRs — +fi Q,= ~ +fz 2 axialcompressiveforce duetopressure and axial load. outside radius of large cylinder, in. outside radius of small cylinder, in. allowable working stress, psi. of cone material. allowable stress of reinforcing material, psi. allowable stress of shell material, psi. minimumrequired thicknessofcyl-

axial load at large end due to wind etc., Ib./in.The value offi shall be taken as positivein all calculations. etc. lb./in. The value of~2 shall be taken as positivein all calculations.

fi

— axial load at smallend due to wind,

Q~

I T

= available moment of inertia of the

RL R, s sR s. t

stiffeningring, in4
— availablemomentofinertia ofcom-

bined ring-shell cross-section, in4. Thewidthoftheshell whichistaken as contributing to the moment of inertia of the combined section: 1.IO~D,,t IS I,’
.

required moment of inertia of the stiffeningring, in4.
e o e

= r

L L,

. .

i w n i da t l he l o of r wu a m q u o oi i m r no e et ed n r t t c i of ar i o s i o n n , c m r i n b g i- s n h c e el l rd - c oo n e s s t. a c t h t i o cuc k w an o ei l s t s ic t n i o n4 , . c o r a rl o si w i a o n n cne l o a l x e o c in i o a g nt l n t, he f , . m i rn e q u i i rm e d tu oh i c mf k n e I e n g t a h os fl cu o o o n r f e f cn a o w c g n e e to , h i c r a r lo o l u o si w it o a o d i bs e t s at t n iw r f c ef r ei e e n nin n g g s a c t h t i o cus k w an h ei l s e t t, o c i o n n e f , . a l l f o c wo a r rn i o oc s ei o ex g

el s eo a v in e s gg e s nt c as h t ih e f oa l na a , pd LL . d n l g ee l f in~or stifle-nedvessel section: the — A valueto indicateneed for reinforcedistancebetween the cone-to-large ment, from table E, deg. shelljunction and an adjacent stiffening ring on the large shell.

for umtl@enedvessel section: the
distancebetweenthecone-to-large-

167

R T
t,

J E

C
DESIGN DATA DL = 96 in., o Ds = 48
~ =

C

T

d

o l

c

E,, Ec, E

m a r m

a

c
fl

o e p

o s

= 100 lb./in., axial load due to wind

A = 30 lb./in., axial load due to wind. LL = 120 in., design length of large vessel section. L, = 244 in., design length of small vessel section. Lc = 48 in. ~ = 15psi, external design pressure F = 48.00 in. outside radius oflarge cylinder LL R “ = 24.00 in. outside rad;us ofsmall cylinder Designtemperature=6500F SS = 13,800 psi. maximum allowableworking stress of shell and cone material. SR = 12,700 psi. maximum allowable working stress of reinforcement material. = 0.25 t t = 0.1875 in. minimum required thickness of small cylinder. t. = 0.25 in. actual thickness of cone. t, = 0.25 in. minimum required thickness of cone.
t. =

0

i a

t

o c

JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END 1. P/SE= 15/13,800= 0.0016; from table E A = 4 since A is less than U, reinforcement is required. 2. Assuming As=O, A~~ = h/.2+LJd%A. = 120X0.125 +48 X0.125+ O=21 in2. -&2 LL RL2 48X 0.5774+ ~0+ 482–242 ~.— RL tan ~ a+— =66.9 2 +3RLtana=— 2 2 3 x48X 0.5774
=

FL=Pk?+fi

tan a = 15 x 66.9+ 100’x 0.5774 = 1061

168

T
~ = :(~L)
TL

J

R
CONE TO CYLINDER EXAMPLE
(continue~

= 0.75 x 1061 X96/21 = 3636

3. A = 0.0003 from chart page 43 4. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section: ADLATL 0.00035 x 962x 21 = 5.32 ‘L= 10.9 = 10.9 5. Using two 2% x $4flat bars as shown, and the effective width of the shell:
1.10 x ~= 1.1 ~96 x .025 = 5.389 in., The available moment of inertia: 5.365 in. (see page 96)

It is larger than the required moment of inertia. The stiffening is satisfactory. 6. T

r

c

a

o r
X X

r

S,E, = 13,800 X k= ~12,700 X ~L= ~ ‘fi ’15 j48+ kQ~RLtan a A,L = I SE
s

106= 3 ~ 09 0 106 3 “ 0 100 ’460
L

= 1.09 X 460X48X 0.5774 ~-025( 13,800 X 0.7

15 x48 -460 4 460 )33]=

1.412 in?

The cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring is 2.5 in2.It is larger than the area required. The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction: m,, = 448x 0.25= 3.46 in. = 0.25~48 x 0.25 = 0.86 in.

The centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction: 0.25 ~ JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END 1. The conical section having no flare, reinforcement shall be provided. 2. Asuming A,,= O, ATS= LJJ2 + L~tJ2 + A., A,.,= L.,tl 2 + L&J 2 + A.,= 244 x 0.25/2 + 48 x 0.25/2 + O= 36.5 i
~ = R 8 t + ~ ;n ~ ~ + + a 2 ; ~ ; “+ + ;4 5 : ( X =7 ~ 7 4x 4 = 4 149.7 2 in. : +

j

169

R T
F,= PN +fJ t

I

J
a

E
=1

C
(continue~

C

X 149.7+30X 0.5774= 2263

3 F$.DS = 3/4~22;; :48) = 2232 B ‘? x 3. Since value of B falls below the left end of material/temperature line: A= 2 B/E = 2 X 2232/30X 106= ().()()()14 4. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section: AD.?An = 0.00014X 482X 36.5 = ~ 08 in ~ 1’,, = 10.9 10.9 5. Using 2% x % flat bar, and the effective shell width: 1.1448 x 0.25 = 3.81 in. The available moment of inertia 1.67 in.4 (see page 96) It is larger than the required moment of inertia; the stiffening is satisfactory. 6. The required area of reinforcing: k = 1.09 A,., =Q,= ~ +j=

15 z X24 + 30 = 21O lb./in.
. ~ 05

kQ,~. tan a = 1.09X 210X24X 0 13,800X 0.7

in T z3

T

2 4

8

Area of excess metal available for reinforcement: A. =~~a
==

(tc - t,)+ ~,

(t., -Z)

.

(0.25 - 0.25) + d24 x 0.25 (0.25 - 0.1875)= 0.153 i

Ar,,-A, = 0.328-0.153 = 0.175 in.2

T

of ring used for stiffening 1.25 in.2. It is Iargerthan the required area for reinforcement.

a

The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction:
G,=d24 x 0.25 = 2.44 i
n .

and the centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction: 0.25 ~R,,t,,= 0.25424 x o
= O . i . z n b s l .

170

O

P

WELDING
V

R

There are several methods to make welded joints. In a . particular case the choice of a type from the numerous alternatives depend on: 1. The circumstances of welding 2. The requirements of the Code 3. The aspect of economy

1. THE CIRCUMSTANCESOF WELDING.
In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the type of welding. In a small diameter vessel (under 18 - 24 inches) from the inside, no manual welding can be applied. Using backing strip it must remain in place. In larger diameter vessels if a manway is not used, the last (closing) joint can be welded from outside only. The type of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the manufacturer. 2. CODE REQUIREMENTS. Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service, material and location of the welding. The welding processes that may be used in the construction of vesselsare also restricted by the Code as described in

paragraphUW-27. The Code-regulations are tabulated on the followin~ the titles: -. DaEesunder a. Types o W eJ l o d i e nf d t s ( J permitted o i by n the Code, t s their efficiency and limitations of their applications.) Table UW-12 b. D
eo W s eJ i lg o dn i e nf d t s

(

o J

t b u

f

v
d i

i v

s
s

a

u

c

tain design conditions.) UW-2, UW-3 c. E x a m io nW a t e iJ o l n o
e nf d t

The efficiency of joints depends only on the type of joint and on the degree of examination and does not depend on the degree of examination of any other joint. (Except as required by UW-ll(a)(5) This rule of the 1989 edition of the Code eliminates the concept of collective qualification of butt joints, the requirement of stress reduction. 3. THE ECONOMY OF WELDING, If the two preceding factors allow free choice, then the aspect of economy must be the deciding factor. Some considerations concerning the economy of weldings: V-edge preparation, which can be made by torch cutting, is always more ec~ nornical than the use of J or U preparation.

[

Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more economical. This must be decidedin eachparticularcase. .weldingequipment.171 Double V V a Lower quality weldingmakes necessarythe use of thicker plate for the vessel. etc.depends on the size of vessel.

p fd d e r d f .f u l o la i e l l nt — p t 5 S w i n fg l ie . 3 S i n g l b e -j w e u lo d e di t w i u o t b h a o s c u k t i s t r i n t e n f g p t 0 .i ~ d g n — p t s .0 8.lf u ll l e t l j o a i n p t p w i l e t lu hd g s .172 T W J JOINTEFFICIENCY. n . D f o u l ij b l e . 8 c j S i n g l b e -j w e u lo d e di t n t t w b a is c tk t i r nh ig 0 p w r h e i m i ac i h n s n p a lw f e a lt c d e i e nr g . S i f p u n l l . gj i w l e ~l o l lu $e a . E - TYPES CODEUW-12 F R g a r b us E d x a p c .00 d s e i ue r f la c ci u t k i rs n ig e a am o fl v tl e op w l e e t i ol n a e d e e e d l 0d e d . pN ~ o ia E mo x i a -n m h e r w an s B as s b rh c o m t i w m oe e tl o h s u i t n 1.

l e oo ti c e o dm tp r r e s s i o n . u w e oa m b c h e m o) e r ane n t 5d v T fe s x e f f i c g i ei i n t c it v e s h ae b u 5 e ir v o l o e l / oe sn a tt br u 8 i .t k en sd I t: E t ah a s t bhi t r . P R2 r B t y :. 3 d i t a s m n h o e 1 eti t e v l o rh l / eo in s o ct ‘ r t k2 1 vi . i . J in C o F T 6 ( F t a t ta oa oh h c t p r t es s nh s o r e t q h ui o ci w kr f w i o i l e on s l A JointCategory: Y O P R E m a x h a li l m jo . st t y j h o e f h iby arc n or gas t e s made se h l i t e d d l n e l weldingprocesses. e et r a t i o n .t y C: E bx w cw uo e ep ip o t l lft n t fat d — f c i r c u mjo f e oo r e n itn i ra n l l t F T J C oa C i r c u mjf e 5 i t a n h 1 o d i a m e 3 Y O tA ie g. a n rp o l t 1e n sr ta . t y : f ns g f s f iE =c I fi b en j n . he g e Co b b iu t n s t b-e s hw de a u ly d . ne el s h ps r e g ie r g o i n mn e d go ilt .nt g i u p l u s e s c mo f u eu c r o tn m e o p ad l w t t e e o t pd lhi n l l gh d ao e e o e t fp e s ee n s e ta t s fr a u t F i ss no n i ou o n t 1 t h .173 T W J NOTES E .o w D w a h pe n f i d t e r c s ej lo di th s e b ei e t tC m t it a o ah e g d d r y ne w y s e p .n o N : . a g ri t o c oi r r v ha e e t c n e J C o a t e i g o n r y t: C m e n d e d . f : .D I A WELD TYPES C oa tA Bie L I M I T A T I O N S P PV L A Y R I IN N O G U O g . t r t l rs e P R E u n : d o e rv c a eu a rt sl b .t i d 1a i m oa 1 t hm ne 2 e ts h em e r e a wf r e e g c l rhde o i i dpn pgc i h f t p o l ol h u e g r e . l vto y . g 1 n o 3 r . n Y e 1 c r lz o / . o e e ir e dl e s t ls n e l g f d y r. k n g. E T j s a te tpi re s: oh t h e a t dp b . 3 e / r 1 1 s v o J ao t h ti ea m n ci sh htp ih t e se nr g i ca a l o d s a h e xe c l l r u l d s e de . B n a r vt di e e ne rl6 oJ d 4t nv . J o n t B i w e t l s d es i o h c n iog owr eu eb b jl l u o td ee i t d n ( C i r c u m b f j e r e o f n [t i )a l n o h l a d s m t iw e h s ir e sf l d a t t t a s c ohh j m ae n e on c l t k l v eo o s t i fe s p o tu tr r f i s b r e b m c o h v e e i s h n a l g l 5 i i n ot/ m h n i wi c t n kh 8 a n . n o r ooe nn t i o n i a ln n2 i i o nv c o u8 t e r . te p c r or m f m pu a li s so e t ti d 4 n . 3 B j u o s b i h ft n f a .a c M k at n rxe n e i s ie sm i u ment of heads n o 2 i ov o u te n s u t ir di . . e l h t d e . Tgl an l e t i r v 8d a se s ys d s h u . e n 3 c t 4 p l/ o .c toy u o. g n o r t ty w : e l d h ag c r oo o mv e er sl e p f s iwt r lm 8 l m e ee b b dl tu u . F T 4 Y O ( L o n gj i a t nou o d 3 i i n a ) v n t h i ca tA k J C o ie ( C i r c u mj b f e nr oe on 5 t i i ) a i t h ca tBk ie . r f s o r w m e eu o lhe a d n ue ne o dis s l . B ( F a t t ba o o hc h h m e a e ) p r o ee s si s t u [ si r nh h d e o 2 i i v dn i a e sn a n m o i re 1 r e t q h 1u i w icf r kw iie n4 o o uo h t f s o e l i ad n n a J C oa tA ie g n o . n o r. lr od c i e s n s ge s . a t y r :e i n f C o rT c e o t r e i n f h o sr c n e hm f ee n a t e x t f c o l et lh e d i o i c wk n e ne s g F T 5 Y O P R E ( Circumferential ajoints f a t ) t o aP c t lh h r i i. S FOR TYPE 1:N J F J r Ct y T 2 NY O O P RN E 1 C oa tA ie . lo n ys h ew p .a a d i l n v o t /e t mh e n i st h c.

e c n y a d d s e f f 1i c 0 o 0 .a s d t e c o h sn d a ei i t t g air o bb n nu rs e l. i o w g r j a e p h o l i cd i e n d t s m i n a t i o n o s t n d a t o r y ‘ W ( b 1 ) 2p e t y 1p P C o e U C S e . Uw-11 s e o c h t ei o a n sd r s U 1 2 W ( d ) r Joints Band C butt welds C a Ata e Bb g o n ur y t din t e n c w i ve s e l e s c dc t s ise o n l n s s n e a h s eb o nhT a a dy d l s p l1 e in f ee wall UHT-57 (1) or T ( y 2p thickness do not e require ) 2 F r a d e x a i n m a U l y u T ( ol Ty ( . s o T t j o u hi c n enc d ro ot e n t se sd a p i r r i e te f ja o d em o is i b ni g ed nt a er l ts ne e t d t i t c T s h p r e e q uc si rw ie e m aa eh b n l t sio . 7 4 D W J WELDED JOINT LOCATIONS qin u c o i ar n i e a m p w eln p a h tt sl i y e ay rI s .0 g 0. a l t D C O E N S D P W O E N E A P H OI C I JI TO N D PI O T G RE J G N IY R A H E AF TF I IO C E E N A C T Y A D M NT I R A NT N E E GX O R I YN I AT C I O l u c a i A ta gD ee b gn F o snu r l y t dl t 1 T d ie A hs . r ce s m r hav e tt e i e hdc ri aen ic .ak l n ee o d w .1 . r 9 A c a B to C e lb g s ou r l p y t T r (o Tt y ( ( d S e w s ( eeni i b g n l e c nd l o uu d s i t n t 1. C 8 2 po e e S 8 5 . b l 1 yp s u 2pe p ) t r T e (o ) Tt ( 0 0 .l wo s i s e o n ln s b o ja s i ve e i se l e n d s c nd tt a i h e n. -. e 8 8 5 r i f p t P t yC1 p U .9 c o n d t i ti n ih o oon o z s zs l ee n s r l bi sec o m t lm e o uc n h i d c aaw tmi nb g e r s ) w f h w u i eh n tlt e i n r slc e hc h t s e r a d i o c g ar A atw p e h i vy g e oe l r s y d s se n l i n s e o c h t o eis o N an sd o r s r m a n) d c a to s o n r v ya e n . m e e l cs e t ss se 0 l 0 .

r d) 1 h o e 1 2 v e eo e U W ~ T ( 0 y . 5e T y p ( 5 ) a t o r y .( 2F ( 1r n b 2 ) ) d ) o2 F s m t i p a J e C of p ci s e n utn e t t t r sl a st i ol i n spot e fq u ro e d r welds iextending through No m a tthehentire e r i of the ae l section w m e e t l a r d l joint W 2 ( b ) J D of p i e n un e t t r l a s t i ol n w e ex tt le h n r dd o i sn u g g h t e s n ea h tt c i t ri e h o e n t e j U o W( ai. l B o s b i t h N n a y t l s o p l e e .h o l a s l r u a l d l ie y e de .b f s b p h o g e r a x p c h e e r p t bit h N n a y t l s o p l e e .n g b e r e s o e xs o c d s x r J oo c ai C tf n e m g t e o r fh y a n g r e r J a a . h t 1p e r T e ( v r y u t ) n p r .175 I DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT. ) 0 ( . 2 p o n s f .) D C O E N S D O ET O I CP I W N JI T N DP I O T G R EJ A P H GO N IY R A H E E A F TF I I O CN E E N A C Y M A N TN E E G X OA D R I YN I AT C I O TI R T M ( 1p ) r y e l l . F e . )u l l ~ N ( p o 1 J W( ( 2 ( 1 aa ) ) ) o Ba i Cs n b h nt a s l d l e / ef sa s b ec s r soN e . cal a a s e nh a 1 a d d g sn .n 2 p (t2 na ) ) d e s t f a b l rj h i c o a t W i e( e d p 3 a p n e ) d r s e U t W n. V ( y o l n .p 5eS ) r y ( 4 o s t 0 .r s ) b te le( o d w 2 U 0 W( ” a. . p 4 T ( ’ 0 y e 6 ) hs s e e l s i g no e d r e r n a l s n s u rl e y ( c ) o A s i b hn at ls l e I. eo s ps e e l . j i os i h n e t s lV nef l s a 1 ) cl s o . 2 9 j l a s l o s u b s J t a Wn ( (c. o c 1pt a t al i e n N t i ( hn g a o 2 l . g 0 i w i.( 2 n ( 2 n bt 3 ) ) d ) A osr e er Bos s N o(t W iu i t i i 1p 2 e 0 $ V a – i r t o U PhC o e UCS-56 6 U nstean f J i ( with d p e sr s e xu c J n i 5 p S n a o( be o i t c oh U l a d e s c o 4 n d i boilers ul l el e t d l e t d be i t h.mn 2 s (n s C o )i U l ( W ( 4 a I ) ) g t n o n : A s b t r o ao e 0e 2 9 . .pC 6e o e ) r y ( i n a t i o n U C 0 .4a 1 ) ) r U F u r a d i o e x a m i n m a n d T v ie d e fs e x t p r oe Uw-1 l J Ao s b iT h Nn ay t ls p l e e o ( ( ef a x u 1 c s t eoe p n ) i t f iT r c ( Type y ( c h n r os i m t c ai i uk n m le e l s s s t e e l ) . ) 1 r T ( y 0r a .p 6e rd y 2 ) ione i my r T a op w h yi j ec ol p d n e f t ( s 0 g 0 P3 .e 2 s ( 1 b a ) ) ) h b p a o U W 2 ( a ) v h t e re ]intsB andC butt J D os bi f h n aiut b w l s l e ull e l l td e l t W d J 2 n p e n w e t r e a t i l o n d s o c D i s i hn et ls n l e x tt e h t n rd i o. d N n aA yt b w l s o p e . s op 1e . h nuh gs ge h n n h a ea d d l s l x e tn h i to t c i k } n r f e rh e s u s a l f de l iey 1 v oe n sw o sz } ae z g e l lr l ra t x e p cl h e e dp t U W( ( 2 d ( 1: a x ) ) c r c t h ) u a .2 (u a d ) ( l b ) (s c ) n J l ( W ( .

176 DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT.8 5 s o l t a s le .0 0 0 0 8. t e t h e i c x 5kc is cn s s ut e b j l e d fi i rN w r e je i c ooln t t ( a p e r f 3em r A o Bj ioa i t h i c k n U W 2 e .c d n p o e r oe m si t t r a d i o g r a p h s e a 0m l e s. s s p o t e s s e l Pe C o e e o c Jt i o oo n s c i n vn n e e c tr ts N i s ns g o e l n o w A o B h e r n r C5 U S e d t s ae a c h ies o n an s d d s 0 . 8 w a te 3 l y r d p s e e .0 . s N g rt e o a h t ea t o m p A lW e t e e n d l d y s . 8.0 l 2 Y . 7 6 0 . U 2C p 9 l 9 F c o v 1 1 S v s h U ( U J c b u U l t e r a xs o n a i cm o y . u ) n ( Te l( I. 8 0 u r e s s u r y e w 1 2 ( f ) i l e E F F I C (I E T N B CU Y E I S C A L C )EU O L EA D T I ON N S O S E A M H L T E EHS F I S CA A K N Code D E S S UW-12(d) S M E TYPE OF HEAD H s O p h t e e h T OFY JOINT i l s P E r N m i cN a e Ar o1 00 N 1 .l t h 90 i tf e l n s 8 . p o.t as u 1 I T ) ( l 0 T ( ) F u l w t t h h l a w e e l o o ci a n . . P nC 1p 0e . e n rt i a ae l s @ s t h i o s c ek h an m e se l se s af s r r d .e : y 1x p5 i c 2p e e m a . 0 . ( 5 b ) ) W 1 2 ( d ) o 1 i n t .F he r .) D C O E N S D l : P W N O E GO N IY R A JI T N D PI O T G REJ A P HOI C IH E T E AF TF I IO C E E N A C Y I AT C I O A NT N E E GXO R I YN A D M NTI R T Aos bi t h N n 1 ay t ls o p ) l e e . 0 e e s e / s n d s 8 . t os D 0 N g . d i yn e o d t p 0 s f e 0 i i t to ) e e h d e r r n n t r s n y e s s ( d ) W l ( F d l . U s s l f s. to P t h h ~ 1 p w o o I t r e ei a t n a n d a o y . l W ( a 1 ) 4 5 6 .0 9 .l g u 8 E l e c tA r b ow s U l a w e l ( d i n 6 g ay t ls o p l e e . r l l e i d nw Aon w s a u e n y a ts t h 1 iT ( o he n e S 2C p 9 U l (e W ( 7 a o n 1 s t ) r )u0 c T t i( o ny . (t P 1) e . 0 * c a F l i c u n lv o a ot il r ov n i n g c i r c u ms f e ort . 0. T y o h 2. J Bo s b i t h Nn [1) o N ( 7 P r ve s s e u wr s. P l C 1p 0e S y .

c at a lh m l e lr y i ot nu g e h hd o eu t i e ln e t n i g r t eh . as a minimum. Category A buttweldsinvessel sections(including nozzlesand communicating chambers above10 in. ULTRASONICEXAMINATION n I f e m r a r te i l e etr c w i tn ar ca o l e e ss l l lea w c gn d t wr e a os s g li d a is d n t sg h l y p g rat e 1 1 as ih s t b es u h a /l rtn r aa ns e o ln x 2 i .oornr e e l b e c p ter or b o t o ac in e na m sc e h os r n t dnr iy if n er r u a oi i d u c s tv i e o n w e p l r sd o b i u h c ln t er a ga ss e o s ln x i c af a l tm l e l e y i h n lno e e td n i g r r rt eh 3 U l t e r x a as m om in n b i .s a ct u ib o as f n t r i a t d u i yt fo o ee r a cpio h r hy o tg d f l n s a ru e s i t e c o n sa th o rt uv c m td ei f o en hs np o s e i n efto e ree r l m r p a rs ed i tt i a o t b gl e r a p . steam boikrs having lethalsubstances. nozzles.or when the design of joints based on no radiographicexamination. No Radiography. heads.0.wallthickness) the designof Catego~ A and D buttweldsinvesselsectionsand headsbasedon ajointefficiency of 1. all electrogasweldingwith any greaterthan 1 radiography. in vessel sectionsand heads where the design of the joint or part is based on joint efficiency 1. If spot radiographyspeciiled for the entire vessel. t weldedjoints(~ radiography p isoptionalofbutt o 1 2 w a hn i 1 r c o ) h required to ~ filly ~diographed. 4 All butt weldsjoined by electroslagweldingand . (see preceding pages: Design of Welding Joints). wall thickness do not require radiographicexamination in any of the above cases. pipe or mmect seamless vesselsectionsor headswhen size and 1in. 1 1 Exemption: B and C butt welds in nozzlesand communicating chambers that neither exceed 10 in pipe size nor 1 1/8in. 3 All categoryA and D butt welds . 2 All .177 EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS RADIOGRAPHICEXAMINATION FuUradiography is mandatory of joints: (Code UW-11) communicating chambersofunjired 1.9. d t d t ir e t q iu ih n a md e i o noet gxs r a a m p i ah n wifa c tm ie ob l nt l.9.a d d lh 2 I a . radiographicexaminationis not required of CategoV B and C butt welds in nozzlesand communicatingchambers. ismandatory of B or Cweldswhichintersectthe . 2 S .or 0. All butt welds in shells.No radiographicexaminationofweldedjoints is required when the vessel or vessel part is designed for external pressure only.0or 0.

. tn h al 2 k s s oel 5 a on h rr f W l t i e h t oql e s t f r s la bi ash gu n f hf a fat g i r lc e l nn e i q o e ue c ee m b o e ..( -C E 1 ) . e xt 1 d e f il 3 ba n t n n e g e u1 x h ei c o e w n e h c t pe r s er s o e a l q v nr o e uy i t in d a ro e ge t u 1 e .ty th .F O O T UT R.E 9 D W . ~ H a S 1 a n n L Y g~ -. p L A A OE R D N T I IT R T E A L S P HY E O C R N AT E ED D I J T O AI C N E N R T O x2 3 & 1 T & r L e g i e nn t e L &3 e ai t ~ p o e o{ e vu $ j tr ~ s~ i ‘ s L @ & y $ H T E S AH E D LS L A T T A C H M E N T z ~ l / 2 ( t @ T s p h c h le en ma t e l e r t l l ia e b o e si o t h i h e ee dh n r p c le n t a e r tl i n e e ‘ ~ Y % Y e n ’ % .t ~ .le r t l i la i ent e i t Ta s p p h l h n e r ta es o t h p cee h l n t aae r f l te id n e e . e n nhd ~ e. - T E S AH D E LS L A ~ A C H M E N T ~ 3 Z z l / 2 ( t h . H T R H PIH N LC N A F UE EO W TR U. 3 L E O HN T T G ATE T H P H RE A R NF SSE EI D T H B I M O AI N N 3L T I T M L I UM E F B FE S T T W A E D ET J H ES A U N C R E F TE N A W T C EM SH E B. ~ z “ e.178 B P I T O E W C L J U T B T A IP T E D R I F EF E H E D I T R H E N F I EC I M E K NT E O S 1N S H R O O N EN .n ti L i n $ /e g — @ e —7 : ~ —t c me e i l oe i s h ~m tn r u g e a W t e h~ t.s .

1 APPLICATION OF WELDING SYMBOLS WELD MEANING OF SYMBOL SYMBOL n m +rt v m = P v m K 6 8 & & w ~ ‘ ~ & .

EACH 2 P * 8 E - P s .APPLICATION OF WELDING SYMBOLS WELD SYMBOL MEANING OF SYMBOL b G ‘i’’’g%N:i. INTERMITTENT FILLET WELD.E’”E g~g2g9D ~. ~q SYMBOL INDICATES L d D m SYMBOL INDICATES 1/4 IN.

c ao a l tn r a e dbs l s o o t fb l np h e o rUa wo e .8 C 3 a f s Uw -2.( 4 ~ l a mE mx a p c b o a l nne n m o n o x d o g a u s e s m l i q u i dd L s u e b B t s st W w T S s S t V i e w h uej a lo il v t f cr e a u a d ab h n s i f ah b o r ci e h te r e e l j o o v hi a c ( cl e s d i e t ec n t s o dst l ne se s tlu ntb as s i hU to a n.y( l l s l e a a t de td . u s ( G( i kns n / & h eh.s 3 n s( 6 d se c en t h d bi uo r s s n a ss o l e l d t U -e . d s f s n ee d 6l f - N O T E S : 1 U ns f b t i om r eai eb l .c s et il j u n ru cr r d ie o es h o t dd i c m t i o h e n c a l o ii srd t ee e d n . d s I s J ( G - e i em q l ui t sitn r h ih i eo mcl d k u ss a t nm ? e e ucs h s -25 r ) u c i ra w s hs a te s e e tr b o h e p v e dri n ao rc v le i dl r l t o l soo ni h w lo a tn n 1e c o oh e t cs a f / t as h n it c a ek nd t e se s . i W ( a V ew sar s t 2 i t ane t h b w ac o i r a c u p l t a lh M t h i i 3 c s & hh n e ~l l . ew sar s e i em q l ui t sitn r h ih i eo mcl d k u t a m c n h nm e e ucs ss % h s -25 n i & n .a n ol g r a l p e h y e d .s 3 e ns e l 2 a l . p t c l oe an f t e to s p r e em l c is f n Si c g aA St i o An o sU 3n hb u a s o l e l dt e .kn n 1 U e 1 . nra t it s e e ogs c o h u orf s ti nape f as lr o a r lg m r a po h 2( -6 ( .181 C Service i R RELATED To VARIOUS SERVICES Code paragraph Brief extracts of Code requirements A ip r v e lse r f su s u w s r cl e o e im s l pa s r et e r sxi e a s hU e c -d r e( p .s s a C i t an t h b u c i ra c s o h m tpa e r e s e o ee ss ds r be i nh vd i a c r le l p r o w vc i o i d r a r e l ot d l sno il wh o ta n n1 e o coh e s a / t s n 6 -2 t c a l c p h u t l lh a i t c aM e k d t nt he i is 3 e c s i . ca dol e an m r si a t s s rc uc y c o o t r ee d d a n c n e w t i ht h e 2 V ei w s s s a e e x tw l f. V ew sar s e i em q l ui t si tn r h ih e i o mcl d k u f s 2n t nm ? ee U hs . 4t p e r o m t i h ti et t r p e wa d h ir ssa e b gih p r ra n ao p s h v l i dl ee d w s u i i i n t s t ap o e bp chl e t e i n oi n n g .

.7 . .1 1 .8 . Tn o l ft ne ct pi r u tlc u h m od fj g e rt es tU ir aa l . . 7 1 1 . . i-u e U n ei f( o (G r o t re c iw n e o g pl l u e d te n2 . 1 1.6 5 1 2 ha s1 i lc n1 s1 k 1l .1 41 . 1 1 1 . i. .0 7 3 1 c7a .1 l 3 6 .95 . v s t ie a c e rw e va s. 3 6. . Wi b . (C e 4 S i w n eo g p l l eue d . 9. 5.1 1 0 . td eT n Ut a f i f n l iu jg l wl o l p . 9. 1. 1 .l ae w iie l fl tn a ett p t ut a oo lh ch h g n me ra 2 i v o u d e t in s a t sm r i h4 a e d . 1 2 44 . 06 1 2 o e2 41 2 s 2 4 .27 .. 1 1 . 9. 16 3 A % 6 4 . 12 . . . 0 2 2 2 29 0 2 1 2 29 01 2 . 1 2 1 21 8 . 4 . 6. 1..k u ea hn mh e e so eu s l n nlas f f s bdti d o r us e i e ( fG l ad b e -m) r n hb l ta o 1 e il h ls a t ne s n % . 5a 6 ab 9 6 1 1 I1 1 e 1 1 2 1 1s 1 2 . ‘. . . . 1.e 3i i ndp g s s d in n ip r p o e zU . . 06 1 2 . 7 1 . . e i p nd s gd i n sn ir o r c e m e n t . lp e a e p t a b l e . . n mf eo f rs b c se w m e1uf n o it e f1 n lu i gj l l wo l .- 6 2 M a n u f a m c t u a r s e rr b . 4 1 4A 3 6 4 4. 6 l 8 e9 1 8 9 .1 . 8.A x 6 24 1 5 2 3 4 5 2 4. . 07 3 . .1 . 1 1. 8. . 1 .2 ic k l n5 s ~ 1. 5 T s 6 D 7 S f 8 S o 9 M 1 1 M S a c io. a a i f c tx h i i omcr e k u i . . a i e n smc tr b e h 3v e i i d a /rc le 3 nU l G e ( 2 it t a nd gh d l s e te l a a e m e r i Un i ( pn G g p e . .e e nT p d tt a a sb e p ro z q e o . ( 1 T l T s m i t 1e m i e sr B E N o t e s x r ot Ci r Rae e o q c f u ti r sd e m e fn et s ) tn h h i i o m c p . qo e ( u r e i n f o r c e m e n t .< . 11 1 . p 7 l 1 i1 c 7 a1 1 b 3 l 7 61 e 1 3 1 62 o t e s 1 2 7 1 2 7 1 2 2 .r m i tnh h i i om cs . ce t ec ee l p r l t as o b .37 6 1 37 6 1 1 3 7 61 . .6 5 1 2 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 . w i ei l /t t l U r 3 nt ( d W / l rUW n t ‘d W b f d 2 8 - ( . .0 7 3 1 1 . 1 <A i T m i \ N p 7 1 .k uf e n lw m e e a s c o s oln t s d tsf r e u b e c n hr t dui o a (n G o l h / s 1 a s6 n . m rv ae r l d i o l rc s no i e wo aC n n oc 1e oh t c s a a /l p ch s u t n ll h a 6 i tsface e bk dp ht n r e o ae s v s il d e l de . 07 1 2 1 1X 7 o6 X 15 6 A % 3 & v — 1. 5 1 % 36. 4 5 516 4 v t n i a N p 1 4A 1. 01 9 . 7 8. loe a n i eg l i w o tt n ue jpd t i l i ona ra c dil c . . 1 . . 7 . 7 . 06 1 2 . . . 818 .s k ’ h o 3 I l c t o U S e m p a r s e sai t s .wen e d sr a n e ac tro . . 3 1 6 1 . tnh h i i omcs k ue a hn m he e s u es l n i cl a sof m s dp ad e r se s ds ien d 1. 1 Q? 1 C V n a T i h i e 1 s 241 p5l 6 8i 9 c o 1 1 t 1 ha e 9 i s R W T R V ? 5 2 4 6 . of f u l iu b j U W l bs l f l oll. 92 0 .l e . .0 3 . . . . 7 N p c k n3 s < 3 . 2 1 I 1 1 1 2 4 5 .n nmf eo f rs b c se w m e3uf n o ti e tx 0 h i i omcr ek u i . 07 3 p 7 l1 i b 0l7 11 e 1 07 1 .n t . 1 1. .

2.e t a tq m d u e i tn r (2) t e d . uw-lz 20. i eu itt o d bh n ao t s s ctu a k tc t ci e r fe n p f tg i a bp ol e r n d y 1 P-1 shall be fully radio.s hr ( l NT o sa o o b fu e u . se d st s s u s ut s d br f e e jfi l e iir sc c re c eo (nt g W g a t t iU o Pl w 1 p 2 l ho et ee) r es )e rr a l . . UCS-56 19. e d 1 ) a 8 g e 5 . Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materialsis not mandatory provialedthat material is pre-heated. Pull radiographic examination of butt welded joints of P-1 Grade 1. See page 179 f N P b p l t e m o p oo e p r ae t r ru a w r te i o n . ej 3l o p d i r b t h ( o a y( w i 4 neb jg l 1 ev en . l a e ii p et n lw ht lt a o p ec sc u u le f tp a d t tg a Tb t so U l ae o h e c e on t a p n r d t tv e s fs e s h s xe u rl o e l s o . w u d l o . Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materials is mandatory for all welded Table connections and attachments. l p a t. Double welded butt joint or single welded butt joint with backing Table strip shall be used for circumferential or longitudinaljoints. 3 materialsis mandatory. 21.UCS-57 graphed. 22.183 C R O U R E D L LT V A E E A T S E R W D I T O H A IU C O K SL N O EV S L SE E S S ( C o n t i n u e d ) N x r ot Ci r o t e s Rae e o q c f u ti r s e d m e fn et s ) c W bh r S ( 1 S m W Bs S f i B E a f 2 n li ug j l l o w l. Note (2)(a)(b) O T E : w h o t e r ee si n al t e at rm i d e e nq tt n pt u h r ioe fh rs o d i ti o e r d jr ie b o n t r s e a tu w s st e t e as n e ii o n tn tt i P l ece 8 g e s .

the occupationalsafety and health standardscontainrulesconcerningtanks and vessels as follows: 1. Underwriters’ Laboratories. (FederalRegister. No. Locationof tanks 4. American Petroleum Institute Standards No. Atmospherictanks may be built in accordance with: 1. In addition to the regulationsof the above mentioned standards and code. ASMECode for PressureVessels. No. 650. Emergency reliefventing 6.106.July 1. 2. 1985) CLASSIFICATION ATMOSPHERIC TANKS Storagetank whichhas been designedto operateat pressuresfrom atmospheric through0. 12D. Drainage 7. Definitionof combustibleand flammableliquids 2. (These tanks are not within the jurisdiction of the ASMECode SectionVIII (U-id) but may be stamped with the Code U Symbol U-lg) LOWPRESSURE TANKS Storagetank whichhas been designedto operate at pressuresabove0.5 psig. 8 4 - T C F A A V C L Excerpt from the Departmentof Labor OccupationalSafety and Health Standards(OSHA). P V P V s b b i a with the ASMECode for PressureVessels. Standards 2. 12F. Materialof storagetanks 3. Inc. No. Low-Pressure tanks shallbe built in accordancewith acceptablestandardsof design. REGULATION Atmospherictanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design.5 psig. Stora e tank or vessel which i? asbeen designed to operateat pressures above15 psig.1 . Ventingfor tanks 5. Part 1910.ChapterXVII. 12A. Installationof tanks . Section VIII.. Low-Pressuretanks may be built in accordancewith 1. SectionVIII. but not more than 15 psig. & No. 12B. 620. American Petroleum Institute Standard No.

e du i e t m g m p i ce r t o a 1 t u l i h r e m 2 d 0 ea p °s r a F e da s t b tu eh r U e si C a da S e l-l 6 dl 6 e gm U M S TG P C N qm ua cs o it t e ro re t s id a sl i s .c oo mc b i na aa lt i a r o n s b ln i to o b t c e i uF l Ur h oC fv i S w tm e G eei s p6 s r e q u i r e d .e o6 6G 5 s tm J . d i F U C1 i i l S t . m e e rcs h o a cd o d o r en o e l qg slu ii s ir n t eg m g e t lan f e li n w nn s d ti r . t .i o .oc.sc e al t l l sye d 4f g t e d: t e e ms h ip n el i r t ag o -t.u sn0 r 2e ( A p jp e l f io fc isa cib ii l h ee nn i cc ai t le sul o T s 1t n 2t a w a a o t f i o sl l l t h oj w Ji n l t h oi m c h a k l tn i i c ee A. 20 I I I I I I I I 0 0 /0 / ‘‘ .0 0 a f r n t ro e d i d2 m uh c 0 t i T m i d n the e i ms mip 5 e u i e r3 0m ag t .y a d c lc i l n ik .4.~ r sl l l b t ni itl o e f l son e o l t dl h y oe s gb h n ee o4 o l s w od t w n 5& 0 5 8 .394 1 I 8 N IC I tm 2 ot e n p x s a p t cid 1 0 3 4 5 hm ii c i k n n ae 6 E A U. * . ~ @ o. e : 1 ~ 0 0 =0 0 / 1 5 .ih a g es s p r f o ub v r t i uadtm e ha sw s e t siie r t r s h i i tm e U psG t a . .i6c n 6 t(g b . .S e m 3 p 0 F ea r w 7 a tau 2 r rr n te m F s t av t e o i w os t n c s ah oe r r i ry l n hs e c a i. t n t rt t m in d nn h m e i ms . r s deu s i e 1x i eo e 1 ne t d t h oi m c h a k l tn i i c ee r s~ eu s i D n1 d 3h t v ii h e y dc s hr o t ss h t a e te i . 0 .185 LOW TEMPERATURE I am i d n m ei t m e s e m uipaf tem tg r aa htn n e s s .n s . r S A c aa p a a n S A G S A G S a s &6 &7 I 0 / 1Y / { /{ A o r M ~ I 1 8 6 : 40 . R E D O U MC I T IN O I N M U FM M TE E M T P E R AA T L U R E E X A M P L E : > 3 : 0 . eF un or hw e 2 ea n Fg o h sh 5d e a t r n 0 t aa r o fe l h v td i e 6n e 5t2 h ml a h ao no c li a . ~ Z < “ “ 0 V . c S ” 2 6 \ 3 Z g W A a - ~ F d 1 t ee O R ms ip f ei F r U ag r tC u IS n r. s p t r s a i h t . o o oe m k ss uh mn m a at l e i Fr o is rs a t t Al h e o sC d ee eo . tm i r m p ee f a S G A B a -t e 1 m p 9Fa e rw 3 a ta Ru 4 7rr nt e m 6 C R S ST V A GEB T a t. A Sr 5 G1_ A 2B5 r 5 n o 1 r6 m6 o i n a l 5 i z 0e f o1 r 6 o a rl 5 i m - A G 5 &6 i n5 n 0 z f I j 4i a e : :F I 0. ) . . I I I OPERATION u n i r l e -c k d l ef n o ed wl y s s na 6. ” ’ I t a sc i th tt e r uf ni e af e n s r s l t i se oo p r a eo s l s t i 1u o n hp r 2 ae te s @d r i On s m a a zl s li o om tt h we u m r a a tm be e n la l e i as 1 5 .go e 6 t hn F6 . ci n t g s N I tO H aT t n mhE d c b o.

Mn C .Si C .Mn .Si C .Si C .Si C . For pressurevessel maybeusea withlimitationsseenote: 1 Boilersfor stationaryserviceand other pressurevessels Primarilyfor intermediateand high temperatureservice 99 —— – “ – – “ – For moderateand lowertemperature service 99 —— 99 —— 99 —— For hightemperatureservice For generalservice For low temperatureservice For generalservice For hightemperatureservice For hi temperatureservice Bolt2* in.Mn .Si C .Si C .Mn . SA-193 SA-194 SA-307 * Dataof the most frequen~yused materialsfrom ASMECodeSectionII and ~11” .Si C .P Form Specification Nominal Composltlon Number Grade c c C .Mn .Si a&: C“S ~z ‘u c1 e E z M G .Mn C .Si C .3 m C .Mn SA-283 SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-105 SA-181 SA-350 SA-53 SA-106 I LF1 LF2 B B B7 * 2H B* c c 55 * 60 * 65 70 55 * 60 * 65 * 70 * M CARBON & LOWALLOYSTEEL* APPLICATION Structural uality. or less For hightemperatureservicenut Machinebolt for generaluse *For lowtemperature operation seepage185 ICr-1/5Mo. dam.Si ~ 2 C .Si C .

0 36.0 60.0 38.0 70.0 60.0 35.0 30.0 60.0 65.) Specification Number SA-283 SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 w b e 2 SA-515 SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 .8 3.0 60.0 30.000 psi.0 105.6 3 3’ 3 3 3.4.3 — 2.0 32.0 – – DIAM> 2k’2 in and<4 in See Notes 1 2.PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL (cont.0 35.0 30.a J z ZQH <z~ ~<_ & u ~ 2W E% 3A m u z G : SA-I05 SA-181 SA-350 SA-53 SA-106 SA-193 SA-194 SA-307 I LF1 LF2 B B B7 2H B Grade c c 55 60 65 70 55 60 65 70 P Number 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – Yield Tensile Point Strength 1.0 60.0 36.8 3.0 55.0 30.8 2. 1.3 2.0 55.0 35.000 psi.3.0 70.0 35.0 70.0 55.0 32.0 30.0 70.0 38.0 60.0 65.7 3 — — 5 Form . 55.0 125.0 55.0 55.0 30.8 3.

0 3 . I For service temperatures above 850° Fit is recommended that killed steels containing not less than O. 0 5 . 7 nl 2 t 3 s 9 2 I 8 h 2 0 >2 .2 w rt Cbe 0 i oe 2. 4. 7 8 3 7 ly 6 2 s 2 2 7 2 6 h -. . andstiffeningrings on which strength welding is applies does not exceed 5/8 in.u r e Millionp f T e 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 5 7 2 . MODULI OF ELASTICITY FOR FERROUS MATERIALS 3. 5. The vessels arenotusedto contain lethal substances. 3 2 . oe T v ia t h E l s m p Foe o i r a t .1 2 .188 PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL (continued) NOTES: 1. which are somewhat less than those on which the values in the table are based. 8 2 6 . x u P t hr ee eCe r s sa n h n is ae an u l ftrr e ree t xnpts dr oe e e r d s n s c a l c o u l a nt i o l n s y . For welded pipe maximum allowable stress values are 15Y0less. 4 7 4 2 . either liquid or gaseous. 2 nl 3 2 t s 9 20 h 8 2 C <2 . 8 k 2 . % I 2 .1 8 3 2 . 6. flatboltedcovers. The material shall not be used in thicknesses above 2 in. The stress values to be used for temperatures below -20° F when steels are made to conform with supplement (5) SA-20 shall be those that are given in the column for -20 to 650° F. Material 70 C C H a s a s a w rt Cbe 0 i oe .IOOA residual silicon be used. 5 4 2 . 6 2 6 . 7 si l t lg e -. the carbide phase of carbon steel maybe converted to graphite. No increase in these stress values shall be allowed for the performance of radiography. SA-36and SA-283ABCDplatemaybe usedfor pressureparts inpressure vesselsprovidedall of the followingrequirementsare met: (1) (2) (3) 2. allowable stress value 7000 psi. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800°F. Tmaterial isnotusedintheconstmctionofunfiredsteamboilers(see Code U-1 (g) ~. 5 4 2 . Only killed steel shall be used above 850° F. Killed steels which have been deoxidized with large amounts of aluminum and rimmed steels may have creep and stress-rupture properties in the temperature range above 850° F. Not permitted above 450° F. 8. 7 7 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 3 2 8 5 2 . Withtheexception of flanges. 0 2 . 3 2 . 7 . 7.

$ - - - - 15. 0 5.7 6.0 I LF1 15.5 2. d~ :0 e 5 900 0o 950 0 0 o c SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 13.5 4.5 4.4 17.4 8.0 10.0 10.2 15.8 12.8 13.5 4.5 lfj.5 2.0 12.5 8 “ 8 - SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-105 SA-181 SA-350 70 55 60 65 70 17.6 14.5 6.8 - - - 8.(.0 14.7 6:5 - !.1 8 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS CARBON& LOWALLOY STEEL Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension 1000 psi.8 8.6 14. I . 1.0 15.3 6.1 10.0 4 .9 11.5 4.5 13.7 6.8 16.5 6.5 4.* Specification Number G :r For Metal Temperature Not Exceeding Deg.0 14.5 8.4 13.5 2.2 15.b 14. 3.5 - Seepage177forlowtemperatureope.0 13.5 13.4 8.8 16.4 13.5 2.0 9.3 12.5 4. .4 13.ationo * The StressValuesin this table may be interpolatedto determinevaluesfor intermediatetemperatures.5 6.5 16.9 11.5 4.8 12.5 4.1 10.3 15.5 - 2. a 5.5 0 15.5 2.0 14.5 4.5 16.8 13.5 6.5 1 41 3 7 .8 5.0.5 6.3 9.6 21.5 2.8 8.0 1 SA-53 SA-106 SA-194 SA-307 LF2 B B 2H B ]7. F.0 10.5 2.3 12.5 - - - c 55 60 65 13.6 14.7 9.1 10.8 13.5 2.0 10.8 12.4 13.5 6.0 17.8 8.7 6.4 9.0 9.5 6.5 4.0 23.3 8.2 13.5 - SA-193 B7~2%’ ‘ 25.&l12.4 13.) 7.3 12.5 4.0 14.5 4.4 8.5 2.0 25.0 17. .0 14.3 15.() 3.0 10.5 16.5 2.5 6.

3 16. 51 . 51 6 . 17 4 . 31 6 . 11 3 . .7 15. Pp. 31 8 . 2 8 . Pp. . 3 3 3.. 4 6 .9 15. 1 1 .1 . 0 3 . 1 4 1 5 .312 SA-479 g G 304L TP304L TP304L 304L F b t d Product =jS ~’g j’ ~ >* . 3 8 . o e 317 SA-312 TP316 SA-376 SA-376 TP316H SA-452 TP316H F316 SA-182 g SA-182 r F316H 316 SA-479a 2 2 — — 2 — 235 . 1 0 . 2 15 . .2 1 3 .0 .8 1 1 1 1 18. aA 316L E S0 S 54 r d. 0 7 M MATERIALS A X A L I LM O S U W M A TVB R L A 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 18. 8 1 1 3 N T d w t F 1 S e h s 1 1 s c a a a q [ p v 1 1 e p d I 1 w 6 c 51 11 s 5] 11 T l v v c . 21 . . 9. pp. 61 1 .fj 9 . 0 9 9 . 1 5 . 21 7 . . 31 7 .6 1 3 4 M A TAyLE 17. Bar g o a u A : s g TABLE 4 Spec. Smls. r N r — — — 5 ~ z O* ~ ~~ Plate Smls.z2 7 . 111. . 19 e s a b o 1 1 . C SE Forg.4 4 Io. . 4 5 . Smls. 0 9 7 . 1 4 . SA-240 SA-213 SA-312 s G 316L TP316L TP316L Nr — — — oa ~ B EL E 1 S P US . 21 3 . 3 I4 . 4. 51 9 . 2 . 41 . 51 8 . c t t r m s s o . %: . 11 7 . a SA-452 s SA-182 SA-182 SA-479 Q * a g ‘p304 2 TP304H — TP304H t — F304 2 F304H — 304 235 . 0 . ~ ‘ 5 s z [ z y ~ ~ 3 +@ q “gg Tb.7 1 1 1 T E 1 81 1 61 1 61 RF I M A 71 .4 71 51 61 41 18. 3 0 . 4 2 . Pp. Bar Pp. Forg.1 15. 1 .: TP304H TP304 TP304H z . SA-240 SA-213 SA. 21 . 11 . 1 . Pp. Smls. y v m s r c m m b p s r o t f 0 t h h am t g t s v o a r . 51 . 110. 11 ‘ . Tb. 41 3 . 1 7 5 41 . 5 3 . 0 9 9 . 41 3 . 51 9 . Pp. 61 . 10.312 W. 5 3 . dt P . 2] 6 . Smls.::: Tb . Smls. 2.1 7 . 49 . 5 . SA-240 SA-213 SA-213 SA-312 SA. 3] 4 . 1 . No.0 16.312 2 2 3 e 2 3 2 — : g < : a d Product TABLE 2 Spec. No.? & 33 =-~ “Z g“ “? ijg e re o S l S cr e N ot 6 o a 4 . 51 9 . Forg. 41 . Cast Pp. . - —— sN d pG u aA 316-t 317 TP316 TP316H TL~?l~\ TABLE 1 P Plate 00 TAklLE3 eN r c o t c ao 2 3 : 2 — 2 — r S o N dp G u 304 . 0 . 11 8 . .190 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STAINLESS STEEL P No.8 Group No. 51 2 . 31 7 . 1 . g ~ .: Smls. 4 19 . y:: H:: S m SA-213 l TP304s SA-213 SA-312 SA. 01 N O 8 .8 81 81 61 61 18. 0 9 7 . Tb. 2 7 4 . 41 8 . 61 . Pp.: . 21 18. . Smls. . 15 ( 3 0. 41 7 41 . 31 6 .1. Smls. 2 8 .6 1 . 10. 01 7 . 01 8 . P Plate .’: . 8 16. 9 L T SE E OM T P E RA A RT U LR E S 6 .. . 01 1 .

s0 -0.76 8.80 9.08 8.48 8.94 6.0 1 8.86 14.62 -1.28 8.74 4.80 5.S 3 8.80 9.16 -2.67 4.s7 10.74 4.S0 6.60 7.97 7.1 1 10.S8 0.61 2.83 7.S2 4.77 7.23 –2.50 42S 2.17 9.72 4.8S 1.99 10.86 2.26 10.90 4.97 –0.46 S.33 4.“:::.91 3.47 8 6.69 3.16 12.71 6.69 5.86 4.30 8.15 13.42 –0.10 13.4S 2.96 9.49 6.46 0.49 –0.01 –1.78 -2.47 2.62 2.94 7.73 17s -1.78 13.94 S.23 0.s 6 10.94 1.20 14.28 0.4s 11.64 9.96 6.53 7.23 6.63 -1.6 2 7.43 775 82S 8S0 87s 900 92S 9s0 97s 1000 102s 10s0 107s 1100 112s 1150 117s 1200 122s 1250 1275 130 0 132S 13s o 137 s 140 0 142 s 14s o 147 s 1s 00 25 Cr 20 &l ~:n~’cu –2.81 13.20 1.S2 9.3 3 10.3S 8.69 14.70 0 6.03 2.42 S.84 13.99 I S.77 10.96 –1.37 675 4.98 -3.7s -0.14 0 0 o 0 0..s0 12.50 –1.89 47s 3.36 0.90 150 0.31 6:87 5.42 3.71 1.11 2.94 1s.s7 –0.07 -1.09 10.97 7.17 7.11 –1.46 -4.81 8.7 8 11.17 7.06 –1.60 :.88 –2.62 S50 4.s3 3.83 6.74 22s -2.62 2.33 1.81 4.99 200 1.18 13.21 1.4S 8.S6 15.9s 8.27 1.5s 10.0s 2.0s 12.69 4.83 3.s6 9.13 1.25 3.04 7.96 -1.37 11.37 -0.38 1.S8 0.77 12.46 -0.44 -3.50 -2.7S 6.84 -0.79 11.07 4.7s 9.80 12.42 10.91 2.03 S.74 -3.77 -0.98 S.61 0.43 11.62 0.50 12.84 2.86 -3.96 1.99 3.1s o 0.72 6.7s 11.1S 8.80 11.72 so –0.s9 –1.26 –2.09 14.08 -1 .92 4.63 1.80 0S.98 -3.22 2.20 0.27 4.30 17.47 S.08 1..6S 9.22 0.0s 9.14 -2.06 8.s7 –0.34 6.37 .90 1.83 3.40 2.88 5.62 Sol Soo 3.01 1.48 2.27 6.41 -4.06 13.26 5.73 0.43 6.64 1.58 5.09 4.29 7.08 18.10 8.98 6.18 5.31 –2.62 7.3s 9.72 2.98 6.46 10.80 2s0 -1.04 300 -2.30 1s..30 2.78 12.56 -1.09 11.17 -2.02 -1.30 3.31 3.67 3.63 –0.22 12.40 12.18 5.43 13.191 - THERMAL EXPANS1ON LinearThermalExpansion between70F andXndicated Temperature.73 5.46 9.61 300 1.8S 6.26 1.27 -1.7 6 8.86 –1.38 11.06 4.89 9.86 14.34 1:: 0.64 6.63 8.31 10.16 7s0 5.S4 –2.63 700 4.96 7.46 S.48 37s 400 3.22 14.80 4.62 -1.47 5.1 s 5.83 11.08 3.10 8.31 7.13 3.90 -1.30 11 .24 12s -1.68 -4.48 11.s0 2.30 -1.47 12.18 0.41 -1.23 1.32 0.S8 3.42 0.22 0 0.61 4.93 350 2.31 8.24 16.72 –0.83 2.82 12.:.67 -0.04 10.46 1.17 2.26 “ -3.95 8.7s 0.7s 10.29 0 0.18 7.18 -0.toy.94 12.77 13.82 5.02 .I.92 17.s3 10.s7 -1.34 4.11 3. S:33 S.21 0.31 7.03 -3.8S 11.S9 6.81 -1.50 -0.93 2.24 3.05 4.91 3.01 -0.32 2: -0.o2 -2.61 0.90 32S 2.22 6.17 -1.s0 5.3s 3.3s -2.84 -0.98 100 –f.76 13.9 8 9.72 7.76 14.41 2.99 1.93 8.86 0.16 4s0 3.68 6.18 2.03 3.10 4.0s 9.s0 2.s0 13.14 11.11 3.88 1s.38 -2.0s 9.12 9.38 0.43 7.77 –0.2I -3.61 4.90 16.28 3.10 2.84 1.62 8.66 0.82 6.04 4.s7 –2.34 4..25 7.33 -1.6S 11.00 2.22 1S.44 12.93 S7S 4.79 -1.42 1.03 2s0 1.71 12.15 S.53 0.52 0.67 –1.64 6.85 -1.76 -1.21 -0.05 6.S2 7.40 0.79 -1..24 3.80 2.97 –1.82 1.66 16.27 -1.57 4.S8 14.42 0.3s 5..38 -1.50 4.13 –0.10 1.90 2.10 3.32 –0.90 72S 5.2S 7.46 9.07 7.32 275 1.42 2. I 1 N MATERIAL ~mp.11 650 4.15 -1.3s 3.28 9.S6 7.34 6.52 3.16 6.s2 0.10 –3.36 125 0.0S 6.47 4.02 11.71 -3.76 1.2s 10.86 S25 3.4 0 7.s4 14.11 13.s0 -1.89 4.4s 1.46 3.12 10.S6 1.62 8.26 3.96 2.32 -1.:C 120 17 Cr )gF Low-Chrome thru 9~ 18s!W8’\i 27 Cr -2.69 17s 0.11 12.68 -1.26 2.24 3.33 10.62 -2.S8 .74 5.39 3.46 0.38 6.ss 11.25 -2.44 9.ss 7.04 2.7s 1.28 0 0.71 -1.93 4.02 3.74 1.44 2.32 -0.18 6.47 6.66 11.1S 11 .98 -1.4 2 9.s0 0 0.22 1.19 -1.98 –O.13 9.68 25 -0.79 4.30 9.1 8 8.48 -1.65 5.22 5.28 6.80 0.S2 13.s2 1.95 S.92 275 –2.26 2.21 2.21 1.24 -2.86 8.98 -0.70 S.80 5.70 2.8S 7s -0.10 11.71 2.16 8.94 -1.68 7.64 1.76 10.45 -2.ss 8. ::.11 12.31 6.69 4.41 2.90 5.02 3%Nickel Aluminum &q:on -2.2 0 9.46 -0.37 1.34 6. 5 Cr Mo .23 7. Inches/100Feet THE DATAOF THISTABLEARE TAKENFROMTH~:AM~KIcANsTANllAItll ~Ol)E: O T S T FOR PRESSURE H~lNC.14 4.30 -0.63 -0.69 2.49 4.38 7.s0 S.79 3.27 -0.14 7.49 -0.8s 8.94 7.1I 4.71 2.24 -0.97 -3.21 1.23 0.81 8.93 7.00 10.69 18.50 -3.8 & 10.39 14.25 -0. 4.12 so -0.s0 7.20 0 0.03 22s 1.S6 1.79 10.81 1.oo -0.11 -1.6 5 9.s8 16.46 200 -2.17 8.06 11. g::.9s 10.62 8.37 1so -1.39 S.68 2.

M.300# RF. 1“ . Gasket 18-300 # Spiral Wound ASB. So. PART 9 9 = ~ BOLT CAP Screwed COUPLING DESCRIPTION Bar2 x 1/4x 3’-6 Bar3/4 @x 2’. Bore 6“ .6000# 900 Scr’d. L = 48” r = 3“ 54” ID x 0. Red.192 DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS Whendescribingvarious vesselcomponents and parts on drawingsand in bill of materials. R.450 S.Fig. 2“– 3000# Cplg. En. R.375 min. SA-285 C SA-515-70 SA-516-70 HEAD . 6“. 1“ .Plug 2“ -6000 # Scr’d.Wn. Sht. FLANGE SA-1811 b ~ Q ~’:kw:d Welding FORGED FITTING GASKET SA-105 0 3 9 ASB. Hemis. 2“ -3000 # S. X Stg. Cap $.it is advisablethat a standard method be followed. Fig. 6“ x 4“ Std. L. g . 1“ -6000 # 4-1/2 Lg.B. head 2“ S. W. Filled 48 “ID x 0.Street En. 1“ -3000 # 900 Scr’d.3000# Sq.F. nuts SA-1942Hnut 8“ Std. For ordering material the requirements of manufacturers should be observed. 4“. 48” OD x 0.O MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SA-7 BAR 3/4 @ x 2-1/2 H.En. WI(1) sq.Tee 2“ -3000 # 450 S.Fig. nut SA-193B7bolt 1@ x 5-1/2 stud w/ (2) h. Bore 3“ . 1“ -6000 # HalfCplg.150# RF.F.Std. Eli 4“ .F. Bid. R. For this purpose it is recommendedthe use of the widelyacceptedabbreviationsin the sequences exemplified below.O Bar 1 @ x 3’. En. Std. 8“ -150 # R. So. 6“.w.En. Head D SA-105 h Welding ELBOW SA-234WPB B. ASME F & D Head 2 S. 18-150 # 1/16” Serv.500” min.375” min. 2:1 ellip.600# RTJ.Cplg.150# FF. Wn. Hd.Cplg. Hd. Fig. 900 L. 1“ – 6000# Cplg.Fig.X Stg..

Std. Red.1 DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS (cont.438” WallPipex 1’-0 FL96” X 3/8 X 12’ -6 ~ 24”OD X 1/2 X 18” ID ~ 18” OD X 1-1/2 6“ x 4“ Std. Tee I 0 PLATE SA-285C Welding REDUCER Welding RETURN Welding TEE SA-234 WPB SA-234 WPB SA-234 WPB — — .Pipex 1’. Tee 6“ x 6“ x 4“ X Stg. 1800 S. 160Pipex 2’ 4 24” .X Stg. LWN n c g k I SA-1811 SA-53B 0 ” 0 PIPE 6“ . Cone. Reducer 6“ . Return 4“ .0. Pipex 2’-1 8“ -X Stg.S. Reducer 8’”x 6“ X Stg. 1800 L.Std. Ecc. Return 4“ .6-1/2 4“ . R.) L W o eN l n 1 d e i g 38 RF.Std. R.

EQUIVALENT
U . S F. rA a.

AND COMPARABLE
G n W ( c e e RF es e e

MATERIALS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES
r m a n p d t E . .( R)a y F o e S D s o U p r vt n . m e i .J i ) e a ot r pn a n

SA -204 B SA - 283A SA -283 C
SA -284 B SA -284 B SA -285 C SA -299 SA -455 SA -440
& A

15 D 3 = A 33
TSE 24 a = E24–2 E -24-3

1.6415/15MO3 =1.0035 I = St 33
=1.0036 I Ust 37-2

15 Mo 3
= St 33 St 381[-2 St 38 b -2

A 37
A 52 15 CD 2.05 A 50-2 A -42

= 1,0038/= Rst 37-2 1.0116/St 37-3 1.0345111 1.0844/ 17 Mn 4
1.7335/13 CrMor

St 38-3
Mb 13 17 Mn 4 13 CrMor 4.4 St 50

— CT O-2 CT 3 kn 2 BCt 3 cn 2 =181 cn
= 12 K K47 12X M Ct 5 Cn 3 ~.. 16 k 18 k 16 k 18 k Ct 5 Cn 3

— — — —
— —

— Ss 50 — — — — SM53 C SA453 c 316L

SA- 572-55 SA -51560

1.0050/St50-2
1.0425 / H 11

I SA -51570
SA -51660 SA -516-70 SA -572-55 SA -240-304

I


A -42

I

1.0435/HIIi
1.0425 / H II 1.0435/ H 111 1.0050 /St 50-2


A 50-2
I

Mb 16 I Mb 19 Mb 16 Mb 19
St 50

I

SA -240 -316~

— =22 CNDIT-1$

1.4301 / X 5 Cr Ni 189 =1.44041X 2 CRN]MO1810

X5 CrNi 189 08X 18 H 10 X8 CRN1T1 1810 03X17 H14M2

195

S
FOR THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PRESSURE VESSELS
N P p t a t O T E S

r ve s ue sa s sm u as rneu e e fnh a r c ld t u e sa r vecdre s e[ sv or t p pat e er n ada wd ic h a tn h ri d c ia ra d o v a n v i t ad eg ea e no cu h o ss n s i o tn p rg n ur ecv ne t i e sd oT s ns s s p u eh erc file if i sni c .a c t li p h r awo c h t h s b i c ia e ete m s cc w v o ho a ih mce dc e a se e f p eo t l tal b y ln l o e w e d .

T p C

s h t a a en p d rs a a e rfr e td e t tr ss e e l n aelcly ht e es c pr n e t ar o e b t e tm idA viM e ts C t h e od da e nrs d c t a e r c l i s d ob n y es i m t n d rg u e n c n tt c i h d o bn o y e tv oC de Ts ro r h e tg d d uo hl e a t a n oh q u i d t r o o S p e et e hc i e e f it c i da t i nos n . E N E R A . L

A G 1 2 3

T S p e h c i t f io i c w a g .t t e is p o tn i u h or eh tc a rr d h rahd a cs e n w ee o t ir e vn rq g u d e i hs r re f t d a e o f hsa b i ro nip g rc rea v n e t i es d o ss n s u e r f le s . I c o c o a n t fp l s u i . orc n htc e a r sdf h , r a d ta s en pwee r iae n c r o eg td k dS s e v p e nh ce ci fe ei c i

P r ve e s s ssb d u h s e r. esf a e i al b g ls r in i n ec l sd a e pts , e e t dci ,a t n c e mc d o p r t ed d ad w i n l ea d ot t i Ae t Bsi S haot P niM r V e l f e n sE C e e s S sru o er s d V d c eD e I t i el 1 iv aI o i , sn I i s u b a s t ed q d u e e n n s t d a . V S V m e a sv a a H f sa e pe p n s ul . r s ts e n c ea d h n olw c eatm s r i el p g A e e ( na O t lS y c t Hd h A )t . u lo lhl tt y aO t c i c h ou e n h p s a t

4 5 6 7

M e a n s u fs a a ci et .un t rl e qv rr s pi u to r ao e i e l d tm tc e ao ree ta n ec sao r n tn i se an t rl u e i et c h o oono o dam ts s i m ch p fi sr e e a e a c rts r td o ks s n a e b l to e o o

A d e w ra V d D r E

v f i l at t Sr ip o e l iof s t i p c i a um t i oros h nc o r , t h dd a r se ea r s e hw h h it , n aar g e .h cn ip o t p t rt~ o ue r v n c ha h la s ef er .

f e a b s r a s i r c ie ae . ot p l c o l u r e , ore i csr pr h f dt h a u t sep frae u rn r cl i ,c h hss l e a h sc e h a f aw p i p n r o g o sv a lr . S I G N

1

PressureVesselsshallbe designedto withstandthe loadingsexertedby internalor external . pressure,weightof the vessel,wind,earthquake,reactionof supports,impact,and temperature.
. pressure shall be limited by the shell or head, not by The maximumallowableworking minor parts.

2 3

Wind load and earthquake. All . vesselsshallbedesignedto be free-standing.To determine the magnitudeof wind pressure,the probabilityof earthquakesand seismiccoefficientsin variousareas of the United States StandardANSI/ASCE7-93 (MinimumDesign Loads in Buildingsand Other Structures)shall be applied. It is assumedthat wind and earthquakeloads d n
s h b d r ( e n p oe fsu e i l w g i d n oo te e i a e hd r o s ic m o u lc t a t n e utoo v u t h sr l e y , tl e h n or q w r a u hd a ik iirc ee v , a e tr ge nhr g

e

4 5

H o P Z T i d

v i z es o n u s tp s b e o a lrs d t sb ed h d de l a a s ec iy c s lg t t o nm r l e de e o d iL n ht g .a p s l i S ti c L r eH k as o s.r ,r P e i zs r g o V e n n sete o a sT s l uS s r e a Se u w l d p s pd o n r lo t f o l hv e c e vt r .i et e u o 1 cf oh l e ee0 ns is n nc ns o aoef dl p rl e c e s m ro an a rs td eg r 0 t th f . ii n l t n he i g o x6 an o s c

1

9

6

S p e c i ff i t c D a t ie ao o n F hs a 6 S t t m

bi r n oirgPce a rn t V e i do se (n scs o u sn r tf e e i nl u s

i r s e ks s a i s odreo . ds t s lt s u n e ,a phs tp , e a o ht r n t r t aewc s hm ie md nx t a c e e rl d a a xh l i l m so u w v te a mr a ob m l e l ae tu s g e in e sr iPart i s UCS av l of f the s e ASME n

Code by 33-1/3 percent. 7. Vessel manufacturers shall submit designs for approval when does not e o d s n i so p g t er e o n c e rq p i s h uf t t lh i y ir c a eek dnt e s e s furnish a d
C F A B R I C A T l u. N 1 M s w

.

a t s e b r hs i p a ae lb. csp li u f r lia c e e t h d ad hs e nse y i er ig n i ad do t i itr c o n a d rh a M w o ai tn s eg n prs h b i . s a ua l b o ss fl t t i t l suh p tt oee ew o d c ii p s f t r i he re r a i p to p pt r u o e r c v n h a a l s e rf .

h p k u nl f e. s e s a s a s hh t o e f see e b n d h 1/ la r 4 a l m d -d i li s n n i l m c e uh 2 T t h i o c c t u e r pe l rr .’ d o s a ci q e n u da g lu in rr f ie c e a s t c ibdoo h s n ur b a d f m sli 3 M a n u f a w a p p u r r o pe v o c pa ou el roi cnpr W h t d a e ss f e l e n d hrb ip . aen ro g p l f o l r r t p u r c ah p a so p ew rr ’ o e op s v lr a o d ac l i qe un d af l g ui nfr i e c a t i od n . A w w e s l l b dh d i ba n lt o gm l e n ls t h h e a ei al e p l r d o i c ne s g s . o ely t le i sd c u r e b dh m a e c r

P e r m ia n n e sb n t t al a sy l c l s t k e nr id h b nu i agwp o sil s w t l rh e a i tp o eto pd u tr t p u r cWh a u s hbe s ra .s ee c s t k dn br ih t n ,si agcp o a h l l ms aei t e ms p so t ie o e w t h a a ih t t c t e ra hc hy o e e d .

4 L o n g i s t u id . li o n m e ci y n a l cd r o sis n c ha ni s l e c il e s a rl p l l ah ss e , m ah r i l esc b u hi l s e t b -h l a u o ta pd c a o l s l pt l e te ne rdi h e a ni o g ne p r fs o a , i ra sc i a rdn g dn w p e l C ai r c a t u m e f s .oe t si a la ers r e n s h b m hl e o a st lcc f l a ol l p t l eee en d t r he i n e pf o t ir a ca i r id n r ng s s u s n a l u , a r tp y ia ip d o sn n o aw rg np d t s l ed , a W t ch o o v e h c e i r c r unim fns ee r g eb n r te ie fa i l n p af o i ur nc m ai v an y ot gi d a s s e b hg ara f o alm l u e lx un a ep nd sm t irwh n e id et l dr oe d i inr h pf n o o g r i p l a c e n . N l o n g ij t u o s d i bi nh aoa nll aw lt o i tl s dw t o l ew he h a n d i co a on ar m o e r e t p w l p h a rv e co ii n r p e s s p oe eu te w cr a t i i l m o eh p n o sl s f i e b d l e s . T 1 5 S d t S a p S d 6 B i m i i h i n n s h / o i c fm i h w i ue 4 sm l z . e l a r s e e tv l f r w ti e fd n ni eg n g t t ss e o l h br h n d

k V ei vr r t e s i ts b p . s a re la o w l vas ls i i w dl k e s e htd i h h i a rho a ac ut lth v .c h ae m t qe t t o u eu d r a th i s aol tim o sd eeu tep v eh p ro.e T r s tm f e e s e i i d nh i f c a s k ns k eo b sh1 is i a r nr l/ t c l h e 4 . s k o 4 kf a s sa c e se i b ih p r ao wt va lm si i d il 1s d s e i a bg8 p l rs e a e o e n e t td i 2 m h vu w him er 0 s t . e l n o o fca ol c n h ha e

ii d e ri aa t m le s se thetnh e o n r aa as c ns c el l n e a e er n sh -g ; o d l pv t ’ s i4 m sk e h ith t e r 1 a a r t 8 Ol s w v a i l .c o ne p cco r e D h . nf s so g lr is c e e e n i is n w b d h se af s . aie a l g l nl lo bo ee w ed p aa r b rr o e lnc is e os n o n u6 g c rp r e e a q e e iu a eric d r w n ea e d lh s c s ee o b h rh i lm o f u a tr l tl

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h o . r b u w sr h e x s i 6 cg e f e l h t 0n b T ee n t d e u s o h am b. o n 8 ii p m r ef u ;f e m r r ef d s . .

S a s d b d hw l e a te t l s l v d e le e s he x w ds c s e op h el e e i e c , pi o f rt ct d abnl el y s h l i op S p o a t e d bs s d d eh l l . i e sp os bpf h oo e ti e a tds v t l ea te mlh es ea d s n m af fr i k in soet ea d lT l la s t r id d o n hr h . s a bo wh d e i ea ep n it n ga l sa t i r ll u c o n c t e r h n i in g s .

197 Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels (continued) Whentemperature expansionwill c
b s t c s 9 O c O F F e

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e av l il e n Oe s h sp s e e n f a e l ni h s o d s nct s e a thr elo l do sr . p ng s ea nle h i t df qo8 ih n uoe r u t o - as h nh 4 .

t i h nd eh i s ao i t m n n d e e t oe n ehz ar e t z wf l e e cn n e l h fd k e lo id n ae c e f l i d d t ib i t 1/ n fi i g n fo m gn e1 t o r p c y o r s 6 ah m he d ra i r , l as e m lb t h e f t r a a p a r e 1: ar e t d 4i t o . p p s e s nb h r i en i ag nf sfn l o a r lc c oeeae d o w n a f l re ,o c wd o d rcl o r u l fh r a se i n t p o e e f o s e r bcd h ti a sn r g ac o a m hl d p so lms a e i tt t e u ie o e h n o h h o ht w e e i h i lr c ea o l i n r nd ce c o ht e td s . c a d

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198 Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels (continued)
T t I I C m R t R c 1 e m e o m 1 n n i ih ct ft

t nh h i i o mc i k ue n nm pt el e a s rtsa en s w a f o u lrr pnk s s p i n o hb n lrd a t g oe n a / c nh 4 . e as r p r nt b i a s elbp os h e t i n a a wn l n e lgd i a l g r e hd t r a l et . ea r o d t l e s r a b nh A n a g1 a l N e5 s l s l 0t S i l o- fp e yal I -b b f ro pi pn c

as ri t n b t feo el n se ra n b nhlfa gal a e sw t slc e i a n ls e r es td q bu a e oh r e n e a bc ah o s i ln qn n eu t a u c a sk r td w t e e f l dls e t ad h a n l vg o oo eo es s e m a io nv ta s e b b rl h m e n n h w a y s e a ia ls a s e l . w c d lt c h ie b e o r i nn e s ac tm

h oh r v n

m i o nv t a s eb n r l h bn e p a ar l o w s l v c o i li r d at r el eotl d s oF w i oh o a pn e c oen n t n p e sc u t u e acv d tm o bi r o r sp n e tb , a h p e rk o ax e v r i l d e l de .

A p p u r 1 t e n V a n e cp e. ssr . sow e v m il a i d s n l e w tdil a v a 1 f l a v egb e rs oe s b a he 2 v dq t au ee w i c l , p i lpl a L r r

q c y eh o s u , o nv r i t r ed o a eeag t dd p d h e t n dfr o le a

aa pd l d a l n t e s fb u r h o s h rd o a g m p t t w l s v e l le d We e sh dv h s e e v re o lee t r. is e i q n s u u f li a a b rt s i r eo i fn c h ,a u at r ao i n r n ls i s nu sl rt p h a iR p eldn oi l n rgf ot mi a bn u l at g i i s ls u s p i yp iz o n o e sr e u d t l i an nt g i o n .

I n s u s l u a r tp i s p o i n bo h 1 n r i atg l i n l /s w e l tci e t s2 dthh h s ti oa h c n hk i n s u a ls a p t 1 i fn a o o n cio t c e d -n s d l1 t /aa 2e c t 2 r t tat hi a r n h l nog T g i t e e n t r s b i oh c o nn at i w n plugo et ult sl he l y d a e o eh ra d t m li d o h b e a n ; te a t lg a r b a l -l f i ow n i ol cy 1 n e lh 2 c egle i tn T nd tb c e no h rh h ts o i. te n o s e ua m l v e vr ts e i bs h c e q s a au lw e i 1/ l lp i2p ls e e qn td i w u n h u c e a w htlr t eideh e ds e t t t o u o tt h h s o i a e o ph de p r e o ax 1i f me2 asd t -e n q lc iy eu n n ca t h e r re s 1 D I F a o p N S b I P r t2 i o c a l a T E C T I t e s ir o n .a h nen c x ate g On e . O. N ls oc l i e n lh me d it i tid ct ta eb ta seeh gdb i

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1 P u r r c e h ts a r es e tr . ii rv h n eg t ssv h p a ee a e h t st c o d st i n e ea r l m u f b r t iit y c n ae a st t s vh u e m r a has tea e st t rw e ieo arn l k l hm s a a i na sdc h c ei r o pw r td a i ne h s p e c i f i c a t i o n . 2 T v p E a s e r o p

p o har w o v b. t e ao n pl u r r cf h rh ye a pk r s ee y s ra e e ’n hs t a r t i e vo n ea l i e n s hr s e a t el m o a li l n e ul hf ov at a c etr u e s r ep e orn n f s ic b a i l f o i y to r ty r y i o v ti s s pi eh oc in f si c i a t if os n . .

or whendeterminedby the economicsof design. 2. The completedvesselshall be providedwith a nameplate securelyattachedto the vesselby welding. 3. If the vesselis post-weldheat-treated,no weldingis permittedafter stressrelieving, 4. Removable internalsshallbe installedafter stressrelieving. 5. The location of all vesselcomponentsopenings,seams,internals,etc., of the vessel shall be indicated on the shop drawingsby the distance to a commonreference bi h p e r a n m m a n l e ao n t l tr sle y k h e he d l nl e line. The referencel s 6 T .s e b h hydrostatichtest pressure m a i a nf t al aa i d ln o ete dq t p u i a er t n m r
a t 7 V h es oi nr s o p i u e a cg ct h i n o l nan t , 3e o smhn iy s n e a ut t s n e e d s0 . . s n hs b p e a a luo. i s l s n n p lelt c t se ie e f d ito s co aa sl r l t y d e r n

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o rsc b o t b e h fc l e tl se ta i d b h c n n gow ya d e a eb tv hp td er ao rh b te le s

o a lp n ew g n a .e i h l n nd pi g r s r c ow o v c h i ios de p t t al ba e l t e e e s l . ep as e dn b h p ei . d ln aug gs l g b p b , ho lp el de . e rr a tot sv l a p t o e s a r u rn s .i a r tu t la p ss m e n t . s l bun h ct

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e f a sb s r s i t ce h a. n t l a a oe r c l pe k l r se l c s ia ea l u r l t oyi b o ab n d ls o a i r t av c a e i f hsun r sgn an ni e s e h c l mi e ld nas g tt sp a e r r rl d y e ia v am le a R I EN P O A R . L T S

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a n ~ w a y e D i fs tt a .oh e fr n o fca lo a cm n e e c e n ot me r a lt r in n e e w f l e a r if ey n n v se u s l p bs p u e oo s tl r ag t t d o d, m o c e n ot v e re wl s h i n i si e c eh e l f v, e applicable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1

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h D e vf i h a ot r ri i v oz. on o e n r t tm a li , c o t i n tp he o n i s a d i r ete d i o n n direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1° e e Q ! ! i

D e v o ib a h t io i o a o . n ll e nf t s direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1 N o C z o zw u lp a hl en i t, ibn g rc o h e c o n t np e i c p t e i d n g o . ! l T t -o l e f h rm a an scn oeeb ws h a ay r s a p p l i e d . N o C z o zw u lp a hl et b i, in g rc h e c o n t np e i c p t e i d n g o . D i fs tt a fr n o f c aoh e lo a cm n e eg c e n ot o e rp l t eri n en e f li e nr i f eg n n v se usl p b s p u o e oo s tl r ag t t d o d, ml c e n ot v e re wl s h i n i si e c eh e l f v, e applicable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f 1 f D e v c ii r ca u m t f ie r o m e. nnte i a al l y s u r o t o s u uh o t v r f e.en . a . e .s ?r c 1s e e g P r o jse h c tdo i io r f n . t ; t e ar s nt s o u s t u o s v r i fte dt a fse c s e a he of opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1/4 c o f l

201 VESSEL FABRICATION TOLERANCES (continued)
N o (z c zo n l tei n s u, e d ) a n

h D e vf i h a ot r ri i v oz. on o e o n r t tm a li , c t i n tp he o n i s a d i ete d i o n n direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1/ i D e v o ib a h t ii oo a o . n ll direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i e nf 1 t s

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o C z o z u lu p e f l s l i s ,n 8 eg o e sa v g de c e o en v t r e t o ll c , . D i b s te a c t en w n c ot e ee er l n i n openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1 a d d l e l l k D i c s et n a ot b ne oc r . le t it nh e o reference line . . ., . . . . . . . . . ~ 1 k D i c s et n a ot b ne oc r . le t it nh e o centerline of shell . . . . . . . . . . I 1

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1 D i b s te a bt o n w lc i .t b ee h e o n al e s s p o l b e ab t o w t l o te s eh o e o l r nl e o s t two saddles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . k 1 k m T r a n t so b v eip r s a . . .l e.l . . a s 1 t tf e / e p F e u bd iip n a a l.l . l . ~ a s1 n L o n g it t o .. t tf e

&hell o. Deviation from verticality for vessels
of up to 30 ft overall length . . . . . ~ 1/2 for vessels of over 30 ft overall length ~ 1/8 per 10 ft. max. 1-1/2 P Vessels for internal pressure. The . difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameters at any cross section shall not exceed one percent of the nominal diameter at the cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 170 Deviation from nominal inside diameter as determined by strapping . . . . . ~ 1/32
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D i b s te a t n d w tc j . ea e e cr e n supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1 t. * Distance to reference line . . . . . . ? 1 s. Distance to seal pan . . . . . . . . . f 1 v D i f a e l w T W P iw ai isl n u d . t . . t r p ~y oo r p i 1oh t r e

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x. Out of level . . , . . . . . . , . . . ~ 1 Y. Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 1/8 * z D i ts i t n a o vn s w c e . i e. s . . da t so1 e e l f

The deckshall be conical.r1 nF id O P E specification covers material. B. C. ia C ca i p t a b b l bf i .air pressure.203 A S S C u S p e c iP f f i c a t i Io o n r t t9 i. extended neck cleanout. l . APIStd. tanks in diameterslargerthan 10 ft. steel productiontanks in nominal capacitiesof 90 to 500 bbl. CONSTRUCTION The bottom of the tank shall be flat or conical. Sump: 3/8 in. 12F Fig. t . A. e t e i r . Bottom: 1/4 in. and construction requirements for vertical. A M A T E R I A L B R D E JQ9 H Plates shall conform to the following ASTM Standards A36.6 0 7 0 9. N C b 9 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 7 T o o a p mW i o n r a O k l ui a Dy ci . shell and deck plate joints shallbe double-welded butt joints with complete penetration. both insideand outside.26 0 1 5 1 60 0 1 0 1 00 0 2 1 1 20 0 2 5 1 60 0 2 0 1 60 0 3 0 4 0 1 6 0 4 0 1 7 0 1 4 0 7 5 — a n c * i e r e l tn s g i d e Hy e .g tm f t n. shallbe tested to 1-1/2psi. Fig.1 1 21 9 8 1 9 102 6 10 0 11 4 12 6 22 6 6 2 2 0 9 5 1 6 5 2 6 6 2 1 i n 3 n / A . MINIMUM PLATETHICKNESS Shell and deck: 3/16 in. x 36 in. OPENINGS Tanks shall be furnished with 24 in.. air pressure.cylindrical.aboveground. design.Fig. The slope of the bottom and deck cone= 1:12 WELDING Bottom. The bottom and the deck shall be attached to the shell by double-weldedbutt joint or 3/16 in. PAINTING Onecoat primer. shopwelded. shall be tested to 3 psi. 7 0 7 9. (in standard sizesup to maximumdiameterof 15 ft. D.) for oil field service. the latter may be skirted or unskirted. Fig. fillet welds. and A285 C.3. h o SHOP WELDED TANKS o m M m R aae q r uj iyor A e o mS fe rtnP t aI s n T Id Z Ee a f d . 6 in. A283 C or D.4 TESTING Tanks in diameters up to and including 10 ft.. E through K.

Roof Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint. INSPECTION Butt Welds Inspection for quality of welds shall be made by the radiographic method. A 516-60 The plate materials shall be limited to !4 inch thickness WELDED JOINTS The type of joints at various locations shall be: Vertical Joints in Shell Butt joints with complete penetration and complete fusion as attained by double welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of joint. + b t s . 9 oh n 8. Shell to Bottom Plate Joint Continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. Roof plates shall be welded to the top angle of the tank with continuous fillet weld on the top side only. The sizeof each weld shall be the thickness of the thinner plate. Bottom Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint or single-weldedbutt joint with backing strip. Fillet Welds Inspection of fillet welds shall be made by visual inspection. including any corrosion allowance stated by the purchaser. APPENDIX A — OPTIONAL DESIGN BASIS FOR SMALL TANKS (Summav of major requirements) SCOPE This appendix provides rules for relatively small capacity field-erectedtanks in which the stressedcomponents are limited to a maximum of 1Ainch nominal thickness. MATERIALS p The most commonly used plate materials o t A 2 C A 2 C A 3 A 516-55. By agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. S t a 6 n E d 5 iaE rg d d 01 i h t ti . the spot radiography may be deleted.204 WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE API. The bottom plates shall project at least 1inch width beyond the outside edge of the weld attaching the bottom to shell plate. Horizontal Joints in Shell Complete penetration and complete fusion butt weld.

Air pressure or vacuum shall be appliedusing soapsuds. Applying vacuum APPENDICES OF API STANDARD 650 Appendix A — Optional Design Basis for Small Tanks Appendix B — Foundations Appendix C — Floating Roofs Appendix E — Seismic Design of Storage Tanks Appendix F — Design for Small Internal Pressure Appendix H — Internal Floating Roofs Appendix J — Shop-Assembled Storage Tanks Appendix K — Example of the application of variable design point procedure to Determine Shell-Plate Thicknesses Appendix M — Tanks Operating at Elevated Temperatures Appendix N — Use of Unidentified Materials Appendix O — Under-Bottom Connections . and examining outside for leakage 3. 1988 TESTING Bottom Welds 1.. Tank Shell 1. Eighth Edition. Standard 650. After attachment of at least the lowest shell course water shall be pumped. The tank shall be filled with water.or 2.. or other suitablematerialfor detectionof leaks.. underneaththe bottomanda headof6 inchesof liquidshall be maintainedinsidea temporarydam. or 2. 205 W S T S API. Painting all joints on the inside with highly penetrating oil.linseed oil.

. ..-l S H E (2.. . 2:12 slope r= R/200 but not less than ~lG in. . tank. . deg.. .... . . 120 to 200... . . . .m F T T R IO All S e l f . . 0. . . m i n BOTTOM n . = joint efficiency. .A. in feet. . . . . . . . . ~.85 when spot radiographed 0. . .8D (unless otherwise specifiedby the D A O M N E D M T R 1 q fl e u e h ah e s c e ek f 6 ni t i tt t e na u l me : o t t a h n i sr o g c a i n p c t h cl r eo s s h u . .WELDED STEEL TANKS.. Maximum t= 1Ain. . .. (E) (21. . * SELF-SUPPORTING CONE ROOF ~m:umt . . . . . . Std. . % 50 to 120. API. . . . 28 min. . . .500 t s l t ha h o a m t a a m ie n l s v i o t lm m e hui s / n s f 4 . .So u p p o r t i rF n gS e l f .*in Maximum@ = 37 deg. . .. . . . .in. 6 = angle of cone elements with the horizontal. . odeoe p m im os o a or m t t et a n n sh o bg h t m lio ae n e pi l . incl. 650 — APPENDIx A FORMULAS NOTATION = G = specific H t = = D = E ft. . . = 4 ~ . .70 when not radiographed t = minimum required plate thickness. D SELF-SUPPORTING Minimum R = 0.000 P N b op o 1 ei d G DR 1. . a e c to s i ro t n e sa e l a r p ow l ai a do tti o se h1 f tt s i a t in n t chhm ei e m e af s s t u r m r h er . . excl..s. .6) (D) (H– 1) (G ) + C. . ft Smallerthan 50. . * 0 but0not less ~ than i n 3~6in. . . . . R = radius of curvature of roof. R= radius of curvature of roof. Over 200 L L . . @ ~..So u p p o r t i r n C R oo o n fD s e a o U: m R m b n r o e e ol ~2 3.. . in.000) but in no case less than the following: Plate Mean diameter of thickness. . . 9:12 slope Minimum6 = 9 deg. . ft. .

. . BOTTOM DESIGN All bottom plate shall have a minimum thickness of ?4 inch. . . . . . .5. . . . .5. . . I . . . . ‘/4 N s ROOF DESIGN Roofs shall be self supporting cone or dome and umbrella roofs. .6) (D) (H– 1) (G) + ~ ~ t = (E) (21. See Appendix A for design formulas.207 WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE APL Standard 650. Storage tanks designed on this basis are not to exceed 20 feet in diameter within the scope of API Standard 650. . .but in no case shall the nominal thickness less than: o T m D i ia na N a mn o P l e mt T k li e h i r n ac a k l tn e es n c h e s ) ( f e e ( ti ) up to 10. . Eighth Edition. Flat bottoms shall be attached to the shell by continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. incl. . Flat bottoms shall project at least 1 inch beyond the outside diameter of the weld attaching the bottom to shell. Bottoms may be flat or flat-flanged.. . . Joints in bottom plates shall be full penetration butt welded. A 283 C.. . . . 3/16 Over 10.000) “ “ . . 1988 APPENDIX J – SHOP-ASSEMBLED STORAGE TANKS (Summary of major requirements) SCOPE This appendix provides design and fabrication specifications for vertical storage tanks of such size as to permit complete shop assembly and delivery to the installation site in one piece. SHELL DESIGN Shell plate thickness shall be designed with the formula: (for notations see Appendix A on preceding page) (2. . .. A 516-60 WELDED JOINTS As described in Appendix A (see preceding page) with the following modifications: Lap-welded joints in bottoms are not permissible All shell joints shall be full penetration butt-welded without the use of backup bars. . . Top angles shall not be required for flanged roof tanks. . A 516-55. . TESTING Apply 2 to 3 pounds per square inch internal air pressure. . A 285 C. . . MATERIALS The most commonly used plate materials of those permitted by this standard: A 36.

0 0 300.ey .208 S u P P C W a SO I T C A H D o m M m R ae q r u j iy o r eo m fe rn t s I PC O I ND G E S p e r tt a i n i n g o I P CA LK E A N L E L L S NO S P W R A B E DL S ES U O I EP E F O R M U L e A f R S E n P t r e e r s n s a u l r = PD. e m n l i b pm o i l t a e t d n y t 1 41 . s t i. . l M e d u m a A t e oA 5r Ba Si A a 1 lT rB s n F M T ee ee me o p r tN e r E a axt u rcDr le o e F s e ( -a L m a iP a x tiG t bu us )rop e h r v sp o m bl u s li t i i m qp b u le i e et f r t –o i t . Only Category D and For determining M fluid p r o c D i1 v e i thickness and stiffening requirements the d UG-28. ( i Lt ga P a p s G h oh m es a )o n s i u2e se 0 x . i wo d n n e .1. A C H B 3N 1 . E 1 d e t w e r t m h ia a i ns c i t % t n irlg me f n q e f ue tsl i n s r e i p r o cu i d Rt uU t sr i 2G ea rn s3 o -eaS d2 e V s n n8 c. i txi cd e t n c Fm M g es T . 0 . 2 A 1 I n P 9S 6 8t r e e r s n s a u l r = P t e t s m g c g C c o to d v e fd es ah b ir e rg s i n ec .80 . i p( n di 1g3 n5 6 f 6g t . 0 p F . u r 29eands V s i o n I . co t .2 or 300. p t t ee mo p ne E r aa xt u c rD r le o F e e s d e a l i b hm 1 i 0 T t 0 as e .f te d e n m o a s httf i a e bg s r r i ir n ac e la . s0 a n u fg a l c ti u aqp r e ue d et s f r i o F e . tt s m e 27 s 5 7 00 o 0 8 5 0 – 3 6. – A) C p h r o e ms i ci d r r ni s e b i e qe m s u ui m r e .P(l . 2 –SA r te a c iet n i s o s p pn ne a t. n t i . S) D r= t = .r)] + A A a l l – 2 to 100 2 2 02 3 .3. 1. 3 S . i n i s t a o l t l an eo t ips o n. M 0 d e 00 0 tures of these gases. . I D i 1o v t Ai B s ai S oP h o r iV nM eC ln es fs e e s E bs ou hr s f o l l o w e d . .e l1 e d u 2m 03 40 o 4 00 1 . hs y d 1 s . U B 3 S 1 . 0 F 00 8 .1 9 I 9 E P M A IL C A L N N 3 T 1.e y f fs g t s u e aa o n m us ag e s t e rc u a l sr h a s s l O S.1. - + S E +@- 2y(r. r 19 1 .D So e 4e s .13 4 l u i t n a n sl p h e e e cl i r sei f si i s m c a y il e l ty e d n x R t e e sr n a au t r e P 1 a 0 r 0 s . o n . a . 7. 8 0 16. + q ~ A T m e B 3N 1 .A) + df – r2y(f” d E ( t F M a A t o e A 5r Ba Si A a 1 lT rB s n M 0 p la d a i hn s en t st a y sr e st. W+2 .2 0 4 0 0 50 02 0 1 0 . 1S- 1 9I 9 2 / .S0 .

2. Every pi~ing systcm. . Paris.4 0. 104. psig. Para. Para201.grooving.0(XI psi and weight at least equrd to Sch 80 of ANSI B36. . Jnd tu providefor mechanical strength. the maximum working pressurefor piping systemsinstalled in buildingsintended for human useand occupancy shall not exceediO psig.. Piping systemsinstalledin open easements.1. When not specifically required by SI gas using processor equipment. Statically cast . .7 0. and thermal stresrses. .304..201. The minimum thicknessfw the pipe sclcctcd. cunsidcring manufacturer’s minus tolerance.7 0. 0. 0.7 0.b.7. .n. pi~ ~nds s]M]I meet the flattening limitations of Ihe applicableCode. pip witht equaltoor. .2. (Ct.2.idcUSAS B31.5 Austsnitic Stmek 0.) Temperature 900‘ 1: and below I I so ‘wd J’ “* 8. Para. . Para.1) 5. 2.1.3.corrosion ist~d erosion.b. .2.5 I:rrrilic Steels the rcquirem$nts of USAS B31.2.2 Cl) 3.greaterthan IY6. . shall be designed in accordancewith USAS B31.2. A= an additional thickness.4 0. or for water serviceabove 100 psi with watel temperatureabove 220 F the pipe shall be seamless llaving the minimum ultimate tensile strcngth of 4tt.203) h Note: For intermediate temperatures thevalues maybeintcr. The minus tolerance fur seamlesssteel pipe is 12.7 0. Fornonferrous materials andcast iron. c= the sum in inches of the mechanicaldlowancesithreador groove depth)plus corrosion anderosionallowance.385. Where the minimum wall thickness is in excessof 0. inches tm = minimum thicknessof pipe in inchesrequired fer pressureand to compensatefor materitil removedfor threading.y equals PISE greaterthan0.2.in inchesto compcn sate for materialremovedin threading. . . . and to provide for mechanical strength. Para. .4 0. (Code ANS1 B31. fatigue.4 0. requires special 0. 0. .1. inches = efficiency factor of weldedjoint in pipe(see applicablecode)For seamless pipe E = 1.4 0. psig S = maximum allowable stressin materiistdue to internal pressureat the design temperature. (Code USAS B31. Wheresteelpipe is threadedand used for steam service at pressureabove 250 psi.0 ~ = for cast iron pipe casting quality shallbe usedin placeof E factor F P= internal designpressure. .regardless of anticipatcd smviccconditionsshalllurvc a designpressureof at least }0 psig between the temperaturesof minus 20 F and 250 F.etc. .3. . . which are accesible to the generalpublic o: to individualsother ‘than the owner of the piping system or his employee or agent. the piping system shall meet 0. inches )&D. Ihe valueof y fur ferritic andaustcnilicsteelsdesigned for temperatures failure. ~ = outsidediametcfof pipe. 201 . (Code USAS B31. .7 (Code USAS B31.5% of the nurninal pipe witl! thickness.14in. consideration. .4. of ~900F d bCkrWdlti[] be tukcli iSS: (Code B31. For cast iron pipe the following valuesof A shallapply: Centrifugally cast .18 in.10 of the nominal dia9s0 1000 toso I boo above meter.Summary of hiajor Requirements of COD ES PIPING (continuation from facing page) NOTATION NOTES 1.02.corrosionand erosion.) V&Y = coefficients as tabulated below Values of y & Y 6.8.1) 4.shallnot be lessthan t. . t = thicknessof pipe requiredfor pressure.grooving etc. : d = inside diameter of the pipe in corrodedcondition. trsking into account design and materialfactors such as theory of I For pipe with a f)o/ftn ratio lessthari 6. or pcdated.or maximum allowable workingpressure.JO.

402. or d.1 9 I 9 2 Pressure R U O IL E D U Internal M t“ =t+A S TRANSPORTATION PIPING SYSTEM T C p h roe m s i c id r r ns i bi e e m s eu . d s t s aa so h fop p e ee a tm rc e a yt ta sin o i f n 2n t xd F x .n n s a . d a v b e b l w t .1 a. assembly. .E x T. i t o i n n . aiq d l u s s . 8 S .b e l c y t i~ . 4 S.w c o n s tar u s c s it e i n os mn pa.n vs sF i .1 9 I 9 2 G T R A N A S M A I S S I SO N D D I S T R IP B U I S T IP Y O NS I TN E G M S T C ch o to d i v efd es ah s b ir e rg s I i n n ec P t. ln i g n =a es sp . p c d l u t i t o n ou t e c ht u ssl tp h o e em t e a r fA’ e1 s B S = 3n d p 5 0 .3 . s0 6 m s a e s s t M e ei m e n bw crl s l y t i u .e s e 2e o d t e a l rh i e v p ce e e no ir r iv y i n n dt g s .a s s l s g t = p r de s w e s t shu a i ir i c ekg n l p lr e a f sin n t te ta r es t ir ia e .3. . e . e s d i .1 9 I 9 I 2 n P t r e e r s n s a u l r c R E F R I G EP R A T I I OPN I N tm =t+c G ThisCodeprescribes materiats.l 2s s . fabrication. For pipe n ag a t n s u oag r ll t iai u l nq l e ria u . a dg s e l i n e s .n l s . g . e se n a t t ih o n ea l r l y E x P t r e e r s n s a u l r e ( w p a b t e ) r eb n e te h s s i u tc s ir k hg e ( p d i e f pc e s x ii g t n n o e ) g e r n d Ta rp l r d e h s rs m n e Cd d ai o i s) a c ci o w r n rn e e xs 1 cs p ( eo u Ie rr d 1 eei s gn a t& g0 r dd e 5l i t e 3 e s i z e f .mo s i . i n pn s g m ea i o t e Ap r5 SB i r a el T A r e gs u t l g aa mtt i a a n o s ga n ie s n r .i d e B. Cd = t n e o d h o wm . p= . b. design. c o m s p r t ea g st ms i e o oa rt n a e s r . n r os al c ue o r c u o c u m n i d ed h n l ss ea t . = z~) ‘r t = 2(s + e - t i o n . . n st .210 S u P o m M m R ae q r u j iy o r eo m fe rn t s I I CA LK PC I O N DG E S U L R A f pertainingto PIPEW C A L T A H A N L E L L S NO S P W R A B EDL S ES R M U & SO B 3N 1 I P EQ T F O C D O EP E . on n . c. Fs 0 6 T C s hn o a h t i p ad ps l oe l l w y t 4 : F 0 o 0 ( a s e l f -o ac un os n tysan i su tn ) y e tb d i e jt =m e r t s c t o p r de s w e s t shu a i ir i c ekg h e c ( n h 1 S o e t . advised that m t a ax l i l s m o it w um a r mb e l de t ir n i pu t rae a e r l s n e s p m ai A t e Ar p 5 SB i a a el T i it r p eh s j i up e r e n i s c dig ti c i nt v ri o e n s A . 1 a .w h e r S= p p t o p o a r a g r a p h s .t i h a i n ic a k n ll n ec i t s o tc s h o eah g c sp n t t e i e i ro ao f r s n (a ne g s1 Se2 o 3 4 5te e e s e q u o it p c mp l e tn h o fti s y ef p e ap d e e b n o c f a f o tp r o r ef g ai d be o r r id p c m a te e r d f p ar f i i oa t g n t p si m n t e n go a d s r .o sk c r a e . S G 25. 1 B Ss 1 0 p 5 a 1 . 5 S .200 psi. 0 l n 2 e s cn A B 3N 1 . A B 3N 1 . where t e o gn t ra a n a s ac m d ii es s s ifn t o s rn i b u d S m c i s i y nf s i i t e mr d ee u n t s yii s n t c go e p l m i u pd n g s e ia . laa r e t eo p s tit r aip n ln s ip p g io n r q tf g i e nu g a i p t pd a l li . ar e e r s n s a u l r e t i ni s t i a o n l l s an p tt e ie o c a.erec. d c ( nh 1s o e t.lc s o a c c w o r C d P a i o n a c d t e p i s i .e m dua m A t eA5 r S Bia a A 1 lT s n f p e i t g r a o le la pie eudn qt s m r uo l . at –20 F to p r bo e d p u tr o c wl dt e fu s ecea e nc r a s i ’s f ie 2 i Fn 5 0 t t if an a e arg s n p t mr u. m ~ h e r q u i rf e t m d e e nm o t sa hs t i e gr r i n ea t. P 5 a0 4r .

n i c l m a n u f amc t u t ir e or s n ’l ue t s r es . 8 e Fn s o a l l o i wi a n c c f e s h t ha gr re d n oa e od p vd t N eh . o ie ep r l e 4 c o . 13 . D . h i l c k ii C n s e o st s e d d e n .d a i l a ut ee s a p nc o lcra r e e o u s r. S a P t. ne r ua f s e sa o pm t i l 1 i ee os 2 p r s e . t k a ln l o e s t t e nh o w s m h a i s a n n B ae . lo a a30a .e p1 a om 2 i l . ee t h ra eg a r d a o r in o n vg i T en d Tge m s = pD. . I D i r{ o a 4 ) u n / . in r T ee s m d p e r a t u r e u C n P o d4 a 0 d e 2 r e . tc o e t r i i a l r le s i n c h e s F b r m ia o t u e t r l ir ae s l L o n g. s 0 0 r s 2 s 5 e i u a p r s o mt e ee c a t f id s v sue 3 r F e . 5 0 0 9 = u f i n p t r oe te s rs n s a r hr l u e . n a s p l i uf g r y e q u i if r p e n m e r n g ot e sC r -8 t 3 B s. i n o rst i o rl l s u i w ao n n c e s o a l l u io w f n a n c m c h e f o. e 8 4 F 1 s . 1l c .Y= c o e f c e a t e d : f e x pt or e etr s n s aru l rh e d . n i o on c a b d s ln B e1 e iP . 8 .0 r o b ft aC i r t n o e ao dd b em l .s u c8 . a .e e r F ar t a u a rt e c i n t q u u Ci n P r o 4 d e d a ed e0 rr f .r 4 a . 1 a 1 .c a a i a rb e ess b rf p t dc o r i i sb s n c h e s t o c y o n s p t r ue c t i s o nf . e1 .e l t n o w m th h i ia T n c t k a en l l he os ls e m r b au an w a sc s l eh pe y s e ee fication is not available. . ef e f A rm N e a r o Sit t d c i ma a o n n n da ds w i st p p u e i ir r e n e ht i rn e i t q m h u iu i c m rk C en f d e Ps o r s Pe o min g i o tes p .in o s no d f fm i ac it eo e nr t i a n s a l l i o w oa n c ne . N 0 O T E S E= 1 . h e1 T .n yt = 0i e t e i l.ra d l ae e g u l a et a iex o n 4 a 0 i 4 b n. e f r se s i r aat r a l ie s t e u .a tl h s et s tt =a d i t“ =n f s l t T e l n e l t ml = m i m sf .f n h ap nc t u r f e V oa D l Fe u F a s e c i s g t 1 If o n e ro m t i o l sn e b r thu a i naa s c ek n l F c o n s i d Te rma t ti i oo n h l .f gt s 6 n = i nd is a o ip m d e i t e e p r e f . o P d 4 i 8 1 re . ep sr s e . 4 F e m 0 0 0 . a a u l l ob n wr n a n ce e u5dsL o . . i s i i n o uc c o r h r m oe s n si Fo fd n u n c oo n t m f ie r l rr e oau a e r a lo nl o sp wi a o nd l c ne s u t. & = f ed f u ~. F. i n s a ct r i le s fqw y n u is r oro M c e ic d E he a n n tg i i yc n f e lf e l r f d e pe n r o s u et i s s s gS u n r n e . N e otW t a mT h i sa i n Cc . 1l 1 4 . o i tt g a a t p ip C olh n i so c a b df as described at the formulas. 4 f 1 and i a p p c l ip o r . 1 2 Pipe b s e m h tn f e a l d .c s a n c e .211 S u o mM m R a ae q r u j iy o r eo m fe rn t s S n mg g e f P I PC I O N DG E C o n t i fn u f a tr a p i o n c o ai N O T A T I O N A= s c d f D h m e c h c i i ol l r ~ i rc ao l s. o s ar rhm ln s t s . r a r r o2e s q i uo . n d t p e e r r sp e n sia s s lgu r P &Pi = i l n ie i m . s l p e t c m ta i ni u o . 4. o w m t hi ais n c ak l n l t 4e L il s i sm s oi P .ij t u f d o i a n a lc n t y o t = i = 0. 3 C l a s s oi L f i o c a c tI ai Cot.1e F . i on t ef t ri p e o n l a :o t t ee m a n u f amc t u t ir e or s n ’l ue m s r ev . i n c h e s Y ‘ d +dD o u d t i s a o p m i d e i t e e p r ) . a a g h r r F e nT e h sec i t a i n i c w ntr h e a i a c sdk l e n e n l F os l 1 .s u b i T l ho Ai s m n h eh ef re r i . 0 0 0 9 u C n P o 4d a d 0 e r 2e r a .s e s a tc f r oi rb m he s ud ld ae t s es .aD t i V t e o. lTl 8 a l3 4 8 1b .

.

/3 Constant.16 0.r t i eet e qfry u ri e ia c f rl t o tae n diga u l n ra h it f g ch h y l i e va o n d re o r t s in sc s r a c l e aa h lp H a s m oc w f si e o te e m yv t .213 R U T N H Y D R OE SP T R R A T E I S C S U R E F l a t t.056 0.0 0.p s e l s a t ef .070 t a S 0.~ or? Constant.4 0.38 0.00046 1.a h W E L O e o t PD 0. f e oln Re .se r o : ( r: i ) tB5 e.cr 0.= i @ tn e .5 0. 0.43 0.w da a lt l t n e d mu hk e c h e s a dn i eis a co da v rl a l n s yt a g ae h o u u s af lsrp e e o h y d r p o sr t e oa ts iTn sc q u l ur o a eh m y n a t .116 0.060 0.47 0.0035 3.d u w r a t snn t ni i0 f . d hw eV f h= e v : e o c f lr P r e r f e a L r a tos b l in1 ei B o g S d : e h .~ . d r 6 e6 D T E o w S I G N u e 7 um t f L =t V r oh m t u f ol l ea p h l s o aa w bni g e n oa g m r e sa s x a e li e l m d do eu wnf m a l eb c l t t d h # e te nt hro i.0 0.25 (lmstant.5 0.333 0.041 0.086 0.~ or.00027 Ratio.49 0.s e : c c ts t i a d S o n ng u l af r u K .0.f1ke . a o ~al u n e d s / f 3 Ratio.078 nh d x L = g al A D G h eo n t t n I f= gk am T G F E E k ii f b s m te u sa t mun w pc e p e eo IL E N Somepreferable welded joints of plate edges: LL T s t i f w e a l m B I B L I O O d t m e V o j 1t A a 3 eh b i in n tot l c li ot rn t et y ni t n m hf eb na i t n e at gt sta tc h w y e a e d a eeh r k o me db p i n nli a g an o o c ds u y ei t e s dd i e d er .031 0.024 Constant.080 0.m p h el s t o r i e c t ta o n ig a p unr l n ea f fb r ek e r o ac t s b a les heu f as e ab er aii c st f a g r t i yn o o nh u t i l o i s z a p t i ao n c e f .5 0.0 0.26 0. M U f F A XS I MI U MZ E 3 or s c h f g y a ee t at o .091 1.00083 2. cd tn i s n u gh4 s m s io r cn s .5 0.022 i 3. n s e e.0 0.r e . ot c s e h i ek d.. l a t o a r t u g no s e k rr h r s i st a va f e i ee dsc f a y o rbso ne l so ea R O A S T I I D O E F S I a s a ie l d q t l r u e efo a lo h sn s l e gB . n s t ti f m fa e b nn n e l d a ka t c a e p a c e i t ty . e ea t r p i .667 0.0083 4.043 0. G R A P H Y h e sa o t ei h fi g t ro f fr n d e o ls r p lh e ao e d w p i en ne r g s : s z at a D k .0016 2.2$6 0.34 0.

AR TANKS UNDER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE WITH TOP-EDGE STIFFENING NOTATION = factordependingon ratioof lengthand heightof tank. M a dx e i f o m l pe uc l m t ia o n t H = a 0 F G. inches = w = load perunit of length lb. inches REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS ‘=’B / .7W 2 Minimum requiredmomentof inertia for top-edgestiffening: w= w ~ H I = W2Eta OA T N EE M T DA - W B O P T L T S H U P P E BO BR M g I 4 I 1 B 1 “ = * a sx p i o m s a uu c f pm i ap n o g r t ih i o v cb k o e n te n s t so m ‘ 1 G .as tabulatedin Code.psi. psi. el a sl c o r s r e o r s vi v i e c e .30. Y = deflection of plate. riches reactionwithsubscripts indicating the location. ./in. FF E NR I 0H N AG 3 L M 6 ] ~ S T I ~ R.214 RECTANGUI. t~ t* height of tank.000.Dl_ ‘ T h i t c m k bn u e a s a sf s ./in. inches = = thicknessof bottom. t l e y os b op ti i l e t ao s n um tti r i ef r f a s u p p o r t e d .inches length of tank. T h i c f s k bn h i e ns c a si r ..H/L (SeeTable) of elasticity. s = stressvalueof plate..TablesUCS-23 = required plate thickness. ” 4 ’ ~ .3w 0. lb.000 forcarbonsteel 2 = modulus of liquid G = spectlcgravity H= I = 1 = L = R = t t. = 0.036 Gl% Rz = 0. in maximum distancebetweensupports.

= 78 inches H = 4 x .6 X 20.s fh e ta a e p d fe e d n oc s ha i p g k~ a n r e p f r eo rp o s r o e r i td i d o n e s f : L = 4. y r c=ee 4i d t f .47 ft.18 in +0. s o a c ih u b e d t .57 lb/in 2 = 0.187’m “ . : 3 t a o p t a t c 6i a gt h n ya =8 0 ck l ff e al p : p or0 uo t x n i o n w t G ae = 1n t t e : r .18 in4)satisfactoryfor stiffeningat the top of the tank B O P T L W T i n u o bm O S A H UM P T PE BO E BR T N EE =eb 4 1 =ea 2 if r mn f c s DA h . HIL = 34178 = 0.808 lbiin R = 0. = 2 6 f 3 = .g t cn 1 a e e le s 8a c su 7b tl s p f as uc p i p o no g r t sr : a m 5o t ae sv d xh IB= 1=4x0 .063 X134x 10.31 x 1.000 x 0.e l .8t eg r A i 5 a l C o r a r l ol s o 1w i 6i o a n c /e : n 1 .808 = 6. allow = 1/4in.h5 n i f e3 n t k c 1 h s = 1 3u 7 S s2 5 C i m 0 a n .43.036 1 X 342 = 2 20.214 in4 6.24 lb/in Ri = 0. 0. .5 = 6. 36 i 1 8 n t 7 c 7 h W o it t d 4 athf = . S T I F X FF E NR I N AG M E w. M Y 6 s S e lb = L 2 5 4 k 0 4 i “ = 1 n’ 6 e i ’ m. O u t sp t i l h h inO ac r k a . e e 4 s 2 s y .0625 corr.036 x 1 = 0.l~T5 1-3/4 x 1-3/4 x 3/16 (.808 = 14. .215 R E C T A N G U L T A R A E X A M P L E N S K S D C C T P E D S IA G TN A m a 0 t .3 x 20.24 X 784 ~min= 192 x 3Q000.063 R E Q PU I L T R H EA I D C K T N E S S t= 78 10. /3 = 0.

/S 0 . 0 6 4 2GH31 . p c .216 RECTANGULAR TANKS WITH VERTICAL STIFFENINGS N P O = F m T A a d T I O N n n o d lr i r a e n a cs si t g t n i g on height. - h k e .. .lf/1 y f i. ’ ~ 1 L l ” : : l l ! ! ! ! A R E Q PU I L T R H EA I D C K T N E S S t = ’ r L O l A ~ b D 0 . 0 3 6 s m qm u o u oi m m r ee d n t f Iti~ = ‘1 ‘4 192 E t. 0 .. a a k a n nt l e c s e s h e t t lh s iu ic “ . 2 2 —. vt or a p epl l s a u s s t e e i f ae s e p q u t lhi i r ic a ek n d nt e= c s h 9 . S T I F R FF E e NR I q s N AG M E Rz = 007W ue m i c ro t o e dvi d u e o sr l n t tui if s fc e a n f li n g z= M i rn ei 0 . t f h d e c p o et (SeeTableon page 213) o o e d l ua p sl t u i E= If = heightof tank inches I = momentof inertia.inq ?= s = specific gravity of liquid the maximum distancebetweens[iffcnings i a n on the longeror shortersideof [hc t s = r = n c s . 9 . s .3W = H R. . L = l t e o t n i a gn nt c hk h fe.i 3 n 6 =G0.

24 = . 1 3 7 5 = l 3/16 i l o w 0 n +0.000.in .0642 X 0. 784 X ~1 = 0.3 x 20.22 X 34 X 0.036 X 1 = o ~15 in .0625 corr. a S T I F FF E NR I N AG M E z = 0.036 X 1 X 343 x 26 13750 = 0.19 in3)satisfactoryfor verticalstiffening 0.000 psi L = 78 i H= 34 in B = 52 i Content:Water n G=l n s = 13570psi 1 = 26 in HI! = : = 1.8 = 6.217 R E C T A N T G U LA A R N W V E I E X A M P L E S K S R ST TT II F C F HA E N L I N G S D E D S IA G TN A E = 30.172 in3 2 x 2 x 3/16 (.22 R E Q PU I L T R H EA I D C K T N E S S t= 26 X 0.31: /3= 0.24 X X w= I 1X342 =2081b.036x 2 = 6.

A / i w = 0. = modulusof elasticity. 30.64 w M f t O I S T N I F E F R F E N r s 11= m RI L4 1 R E ta o i 9 2 T O I F A I N G M i n r e i q m m u u o i om i r m e n e de n r t t f i n t e ro m s e t di i f a frt e n i n g Rz 1 =— L’ 192 E to 2 .036 GH2 Dn .. inches L S P A O C I N G F HI = 0.06 w Rz = 0.psi.036 GH s— L } Ob .3 W Rz = 0.psi.psi.in. it n ch h ef s / ne i . pressureof liquid. n .000tor carbon steel SpeCifiC gravityof liquid heightof tank.4H T H I C K N E S S 1 = 0.000. requiredplatethickness.2 R1 = 0.6H S T I F F E N I N G S H2 = 0.218 RECTANGULAR TANKS Under Hydrostatic Pressure WITH HORIZONTAL STIFFENINGS NOTATION E = G= H= I = L = P = R = s = t = t.4 l r e e o t w a an n k g . o stressvalueof plate.3 0.in momentof inertia. sc u t i b i s no c t d rnt i i k cp h atx ts l i th b n i g.

ft.12 ft.b / Rz 8 = i 0..000.750 + 0.036 X 1 X 602 = ~ .219 R W I E H T S N E DESIGN DATA Designed Capacity= 1.3 w n= 9 RI = 0. 13. (approx.000 9 x 0.k 2 l .12 = 7.667 x 5.000.000gallon = 134cu.036 X 1 X 60 = o. Preferred proportion of sides: width = 0. Hzn = 6 0. .06 w = 3 19. a p 4 ip r n oc x h . REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS: t = 0.) Content: water s = 13750psi.~ ~b. The side ofacube-shaped tank forthe designed capacity: 3~~= 5.000 X 0.0625 corr. e 2 s L = 1. 60 inches For h 6 i i n s. allow = 5/16 in. approx.68 ft.12 ft.500 X 5.3 x 60 0. 92 inches H= 5.4690 in4 2 9 4 19. r SPACING OF STIFFENINGS: H1 = 0 H =36 i . approx.2X ~ .44 x 924 192 X 30.25 8 2 = 0.4H = 24 in.44 lb/in l MINIMUM MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR STIFFENINGS: 11 = 12 = 1 3 X 9 . LOADS: w= 0. using SA285 C material Corrosion allowance = 1/16in. .41 ft.: x 30.25 = 0“967 ‘4 .12 = 3.

N O T A T I O N S c u s r ie rc ao e t o id s o r n s a el a f A= R e q t r s i o i q d n e .036Gh1 = 60x60x0. = s P p E Q U I R E D P L A T when E a. p z ii o n t t ac ln h .036x60= 7. i . E D S IA G TN A e n f g wt hi t 2 =fd 3h t 0 .e th 5 if = g. . hz = 120 in s0 0 i 0 . . ?‘ 4 i. a = 6 i b = 6 i G= 1 S = 20. b = v G s p g e rc o li a fv i = i i qc t u y i * f d P= p r o e l s i sl qu r u ei b d f . s .000 psi t = 15’ 0. plate P =a A = 1 0 1x 1 2 5l 0 = . hl n 0 . 0 23 6 . 0J .7 b x 60 0 x. 5= 0 20.776 = om389Sq. 4 .h l M t P t= . 5 b5 $ s 2 .000 3 6 = 0. Al = 7.7~ V P P=ab 0.000 psi. .036 Gh E Q CU I R R E O D S E C TAI O N R A L E O T R I O F E S A D A = % E D L X A . + + s s v t or ar e m l as = tp uoe s r es i af dl = r e q p ut lh i ir c a i e k dnt e s e n s* .b T H I C K N E S S L T R S O O R I A O D E N D R t = 0. a = h o r i e pr tii i t c c a nl h . = 06 0 3 x 66 0Gx *0 h.625 = 5/8 in. . = 3/4 # rods 20.776 lb.000 PI = ab0. 5 i = 17 5 Zr q 27 n o 8 . .a ma e r b es n s u g p af k p e m e c o n o bms t i rc a t l ol y i d sy e . 1 x 0 120 20.000 . L l E . S = 2 Sp= 20. n = 60 in 0 . . .in. vt or a p e m ll a s tu a e s r e t i f as e l .d .220 T F R IS UOP -E P O D R u T K r e os S R E C T OA N T G U LR AA R N U Hn y d d r P o s e r t ea r ts i sc T a t v u o o h h is esto i df a f t e sn ve i o fn ilyg h s t d .

The simplestwayis the use of teltaleholes (Code UG-25 e) or corrosiongauges.25in. Vesselssubjectto corrosionshall be suppliedwith drain-opening(Code UG-25 f).erosionor mechanical abrasion shall have provisionmade for the desired life of the vesselby suitable increase in the thickness of the material over that determined by the design formulas. C Vesselsor parts of vesselssubject to thinningby corrosion. The desired life time of a vessel is an economicalquestion. that are to be used in steam. thejudgmentof the designer. or mechanicalabrasion shall be providedwith inspectionopening(CodeUG-46).thedesiredlifeof thevessel will determinethe corrosionallowanceand if the effectof the corrosionis indeterminate. shallbe providedwith corrosionallowance of not less than one-sixthof the required minimumthickness.l I — . UG-26. To eliminatecorrosion.ApendixF and Par. Thereare severaldifferentmethodsfor measuringcorrosion. all gaps and narrowpockets shall be avoided by joining parts to the vessel wall with continuousweld.or forthe entire thicknessof the vessel wall. Forothervesselswhenthe rateof corrosionis predictable.erosionor abrasionon both sides. The corrosionallowanceneed not be the samethicknessfor all parts of the vessel if differentrates of attack are expectedfor the variousparts (Code UG-25c). water or compressedair seMce. (Code UCS-25). .The sum of the requiredminimum thicknessand corrosionallowanceneed not exceed1/4in. The rules of liningare outlinedin the Codein Part UCL. The vessel can be protected against mechanicalabrasion by plate pads which are welded or fastenedby other meansto the exposedarea of the vessel. The tie does not prescribethe magnitudeof corrosionallowanceexceptfor vessels with a requiredminimumthicknessof less than 0.erosion. All pressurevessels subject to iintemal corrosion. Internalheads may be subjectto corrosion.A corrosionrateof 5 roilsperyear(1/16in. In vesselswherecorrosionoccurs. while minor vessels for shorter time (8-10 years).corrosionresistantmaterialsare usedas liningonly. = 12 years) is usually satisfactoryfor vessels and piping.or by using some other suitablemethod for protection(code LJC-25bi). This requirementdoes not apply to vessel parts designed with no x-ray examinationor seamlessvessel parts designedwith0.85joint efficienq. Majorvesselsare usually designedfor longer (15-20 years) operating life time.

— ) . the Dow Chemical Company. White. Materials rated under the letter “C” may be satisfactory under certain conditions. “Corrosion Resistance of Metals and Alloys” by McKay & Worthington. Caution should be exercised in the use of materials in this classification unless specific information is available on the corroding medium and previous experience justifies their use for the service intended. In rating materials. Information on metals has been obtained from the International Nickel Company. the Haynes-Stellite Company. a H o sw g e v oa r e s u ar m c . “Metals and Alloys Data Book” by Samuel L.222 SELECTION OF CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS T t a i b nh f uo r ol m t a a e f to ri l o pn l h oi a w a in g tn e tg e e am s p s n t a a Footnotes have been generously used to explain and further clarify information contained in this table. The letter “X” has been used to indicate materials generally recognized as not acceptable for the service. the Crane Company. The letter “F” signifies materials which are somewhat less desirable but which may be used where a low rate of corrosion is permissible or where cost considerations justify the use of a less resistant material.” Third Edition by McGraw-Hill. the letter “A” has been used to indicate materials which are generally recognized as satisfactory for use under the conditions given. “Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering” and “The Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. It is most important that these notes be carefully read when using the table.c d er s ees f s u l el a a per and c a a e l ec c on n t d r y ui c c t d ai v l i t y .

D- ” — . e it is not recommended unless confined a * Sources of D E S- AaA r tm U- s at & C r -: o n J - g P .223 by any i c h e sm i t c to a 6a170F l lbut. bs y being l a plastic.

.... F ................ ....... z c A c : i : & g g $ c F c Z z c F c 3 ~ c A A A A A c A A x $ c c 4 a c c ec ...... TO 122”. A ............... ................ c ..... ................... ..................... A .. – ............. x ......... r x s c F c 1 l b @ / 4 s5 C )q O........... rt i i u d c c dc ...... nl i o u r F m i x d x eA x hydroxide ..A s I ul a l .......c .................. .....c . .......... 5..... .......e o F Fr x a o... o .. A c c A ..... 12S0 maximum....................... F i . l s ............ ......................... 4 ac n h e y d ... F x x A x m mc oh ..... ............. A . A. ... x i r t e fh ao o o da u tt i nt n o e g tn ex s t d ....... ..... a p ....... c. ...x ... n e ........ u r e x ............ ...... F......224 C C w R O M Resistance Ratings: A n Good.......... ...... ............ z c o n l ..c c - c - A A A A A A c c F A A c c - A A A c F c F A A x A A x 4 1 u n ... F G F d e e nnd d i = C a u t op ic o a D u n t u i table o no s : o t ec = N r e c o m o m e n d e t d ..... x c c c x x x c c x – x x c c x A - A x A A xy A – x x c c x x x A A A c c A A c c A c F A A A A A A A c A : c A : ~ A A A A A A A A c : .. Hasleiloy h f 18................ F F ........................ .... ....... ......A.... x m i cd c ex ... 2 ...... il no ur .. A................. .. ... a 14. .. x A 4 1 u c m h ......... ...................... c ..... x .................. A ~ immonium t l I I .. F F A A c c c A A c A c A A ........ A A A a c e t y ...... All Perrentj.............................. .. 70”.......... u A t k ..... . ~ 3 E 3 “ $ : A A c g 2 c A c . F A a c e t o .......................................... A . .0 ....................... .F F A c c F F v . c r i i d xc A ..... ei . *. A A A e p n e z t e ir n o n t le a he A........... h ........ .. ....x n .......r.............. .. Sqo — .....................c F c V ..... pu Ae m A h A rt A h ...... : A A c A A A A A A A c A : A A – A A A A A A A A & A A A : A B x x A c A A A A A A A F A dA A A A A A a A c A A c A A A A A A c A A c x x A A x A A A c A A A 2.... l e n e ......... A A A A A x A A c A A A - 4 i gn d ~ .... ...... t i d ..... F ... .. F ec P ................. sa r r i y sFa A ................ C h e m i~ z w 5 c & v : o & l c a : ~ “ ~ ~ m E w ~ ~ 2 ‘ s ~ 7 b : G F F ................ ........... ....... A c A A A A A A A c .. ......A............... c e 1n 2 ez n ........: $ A A A A A A A A2 + + * .................. .. ...................... A.... i f c q a ...........................

UPto 176”F.- C ( R e R O G G TN E E e n gs g ) e C HS E M O E O I C P APP EL O S A S I S n a g ap s m c ai s i R s at t a i ac nf e : * text a S f er o e n t t — 48~0 — — U n s a t fi s f a c t o or y R c r t e o m p t e1o r e a s a C 5 t om u rr i 8r e e s r o 9 200”F. 26. 10~0 . 27. — I .

.....x % ..... c.. ........ eA A d A A .....o... f i a x ct x xe A f o r m a_ l ....... ...._...A A A A A A A A A A A F F x c A A A A A x x x x x A A A A A x x x x A A A A A A A A x c A A N c oo n t o t o i epn p p u s e o l o d sa i tn g e e DO A ercents..........A llc A A A x c F F ....... l T f H b 9 f i ..................... r ..A A A tA c c F F A A A A A A A c A A A . lx ....... A .. ......x c . . .. a A lA c . .. -c . z : m g $ * ( ~ : $ * K ~ ... f i . A A A Z t g hl y c o y l .. A F ex F t F ex c F o . x dc A A ..d e .-.. t m o — .... C a c l h c .. i A . -r . A c F c A – A A A A A A A A x A c c A A A A x x x x x A A A A A A x I A .... 2 A A c x A . d ...asoline..........A .. .o-. 2 u ~ t ‘ p $ b o $ g = : s Butane.........A oA lA H y d r o a c ( hS cl Oo ”r x iF i c ...l .. ey r c ................. x x x x ‘ s e u..........o r n A ...--+---. ‘ u .c ............... c A c x F A A A A A x A A A A A A .i........... c $ y d r o a f cl c u ( o o r ix i6 c x l dx5 d F > 6 5 x % x x c Z h & d x x A x x A x x A x x A A c x c A - A A x A c A c x x c F A A A A A x c A A i ... A ..d u t o p ic o o t e fh a o o o d a ut t i nt n oe g t n e x s x G t N d r ... x x c x x A x x A x c A A A A A A A A A x x x c c x .......... ... . A ‘erric chloride ......_......A A y A ..~. ........ : r~ . sour----------------------------c x x A R e .. i i . ..... A o l .e c o m o m e n d et d C h e m u 2 0 i zc aG l w G ~ ~ ~ ~ : m m E c ~ E z & 2 6 3 % + 1 ~ G E s j < A A c c A $ z ~ g : s .... .....c A A i c F A c A c c A A : c c c A A . .A ... . u r F imF d ~ a h y l p oc ......--. c hm l o rci Cm = a a r pb c oh . d ..... ...... . lA ......... . l ~o .. A c Ao A A A A : A c A t c c ..... — ‘ oa . .. .. .. A A A .. o c .. ...A .... acid. A r 6o n o . s ....... -i---x cA A A Z t h e ... m i i c c d x x ... n e .. A cd c F .. eA .......709..226 C R O M A F G w i r c = C e e n nd i d a . . x x c F Z h a r . ......e.......A c A x c A A A A A A x x F x c F A A x c x c A A x x A A A A A A A A A A A x x x x F c .... ... ....... ......... ... ...-...h . ....... e ...-..... ..... 1 1>............ A A . ..... . ... Ay ..... c A A A ...n ... . n ............ .. . . r f u r ..............-..... A A B a u l bc u t to a n h y ... ..c .. r c m .. .... .. y F . r l r .l... en A r....... c ....... l yg c l . .. .... .......... ..A ~ i t ...... c .o..... li ei n ........ ........e -A .g g ....---............ . : d r .. .

C (SEE R R e C s O G I T N G E E a i e n gs g ) e H E M O I O C PA PLP O S S A iR s a t a tS ni ac nf a e g ap s m c: — u n ~ > ~ A s b e s t — o Woven C o m p . e : — a . R u b b e Rubber B o n d e 1U I s . es — f .- n 3 z : c c A A : x 1 : A : A $ 2 PI PI F r DI C c P F A A c c c c $ c A c ? A A A z c c c c $ c c c c : k A A x F c c A A c c t A A A — E : A A A A A x x x x A F F x c c F t h n ge e t > A A A — z A - x : A A A E x x x A iee tex O – t A — . - 1 t f 1 p r o h alloyJ : oa . r d - isce l e l o a 2 ~ z QJ .

.... A ........ l ... .. C x ‘ o t h a y s d ..l.... )x y A x A x c x ----------------------------------------------c )A c A L a ( c sq o u .... A c A A A c A A A A A A A A A A A . g $ A A A A A A . c ........................... m ............... .-....g -............. ....... z c .... . if a tu e . ................ A F c S oc hd ............ ri o uAm x c i cd .. l u t ex d x x x x A C o n c e ...................... c e i i . ... e.......t m e ) .... i o ............. ei2 A nd rx 0 e ............. A.. C h e m w z ~ ml i z c a g z m ~ ........... g $ ~ + ............... Fi m Fd F e A c c s oc d y . T e ~ j s c A c A c A A A A – A c c x A A z * .. ....... ... r s a A .. A A A A c A c c c c A A c c A A A c A A A A A A A A x A x A x . ... n t r a t xe d x c A 3 a 1 ....e x M a g sn e u._x d ............ .... t i f l nA ig A s n A A e ..... F A x A e f 8.....-.. A A A F m : g c g u b y : p L o > g .. a u....... x _x.F ... c s ex .... iA m .. A....... x d c xd x ....x .. ac l i i cd c A A ..... ur ........ x_ e . _ ai _ n . w g a a g.. .................. o p ................. A A A A A A A .A A lA ......... m c i ... u f c maA – t -e A c x x A x x tiercury.... .... iu . ~ a g t.................. A A – – A A A An A Am A A .. n A eA A A A A S e( .F .. c c ) a x ....... x ? a a l .A .. hc ...... cc t . o r e ic c c d C c ...... x $ oh y p d o c i h.............. x _ s o h yd d .......... c d cA A .. H h f Pre$ence oj water temperature... . o u r i xt me H H N c oo n o t t o i epn p p u s e o d sa i tn g e IO. c A A A A A – A A A A c 2c A c A – c A c A A c c 2c A A A – – A c A c A – c A c A A c F c 4 F c c F F A A A A A A A A c A c – A c A4 – A A A A........ Ad A M a g cn h e .................... i i xdc A A .... .. sl i fu c a mA te A A A P r .. s l i . ir o u x A m i c d Fe F c x c x c ......-..... ) : : A A . rr i ....... a ( o s s c oad r d b h o i a nF u a ... ......c A A A A ... A – i c C – A A A A A A A A A y d pero r xid o e ............... .. A c x { a i c t c ...... s ... .. l e v er c n s ct s L a a .........c S ob i sd u l .. .. c c c A c A . c.. u ... A c dA ‘ h o a s p. sl i o u F r m Fi Fd x e F F x k f a gh n y e d ........ s r i o u cx m xi x d x e x x ‘ o t sa u s.......... ...........F ..d l: ( g f .......c A .. ~ ~ C m E c ~ E z 2 G 5 i 7 E 5 g Q 8 ‘ ............... c..c c c x – y c s i u .. I SVO .............F ......- - - C C w R O M R e s i R s c C a c a D u n t u it o a no s : b o lt e e x E N r i r t e fh a o o o d a ut t i nt n o e g tn e x s t d at : A a t= n( i c l e n F n g O F s oa – d u t op ic o o e e n nd i e c o m o m e n d et d ............. a . G 4....n -.. c CZ1A ? e t Or ( o S 1O l O e ° luFA-mcc sr u :e .... – c F L u b r o i rc a i e ......c c A c A A A A A A x x x ....A F g. ti i c c dc A2a ....... lc c ... x e x A x x x x A D i ........

— I . 3 R c g a s e s 3 . 320”. 8070.- C ( R e R O G S A I T N G E E m c : a i e n gs g ) e C H S E M OE I O C PA EPLP O S s iR s a t a tS ni ac nf e a g ap s – — ?3. 19. t e or n tp 1 e o r C a Sto m ~ rir 8 r e o ”J r w e a i ~ e~ ~ b .

. A ......... dry......... F A A A A A A tA ... ..... i .... dc A......x x . i ..... A W ..c A x A F N c oo n t o t o i epn 0 p p u s e o 8 d sa i ............. . A A A ~ ...... ................ y A F ...... – A A A A A A ... e t .. x A F u........... A A A .... .... 7 o 5 lx % x d ........ A ... 9o 5 lA % c ....... o t .. i uA A m A o p de .... C ......... “ h A y cp c e itearic acicl..X F ... t c a ri X i cd c – A ................ l no r X i dc xe A x inc sulfate .... c A ” Zc A c A A F ~ulfur....... c A C J fa ( tr b e t eo r a i s ..A ..............c x x x c x x x – x x A x F c A c A A ............ A )A A ? sa w t ...A c ........ I A . A Z 7z z 5 c A A A A A A A A ... f e e . x A x 7 5 c ....... A A A r i c h l o r o e dt h ......... x A x 1 0 c ....... i r o t xlc i c m dos t d eu ........ ........... ik n X e n c y ce -d s x i c h . l c c c A A c A c A A c A c A .. x eu i x d tFr e F ....................... c o m o m e n d et d ...... b f S — .A fm .............. c ................. l ...A ......ulfur dioxide........ u l a f( c u c 1 r ..........A ........230 C C w R O M R e s i R s at A t a Dn iG c n eF o gD Fs o : a D u n t u it o n ao : s b o lt C e = eC a – d u e t op ic o e nnd d i i r t e fh a o o o d a ut i t nt n o e g tn e x x s c N t dr e............ ......A lA . A A ea . .. c ........... A A c..... .... c x x ..... e ~ A * c A – A A A A A c A cA A c x i i A i A Ax cC A A AA xA c A A A c c A A i A A C A c c A . t e a d A . o t ........ ii U ud A c m ec iodium th iosulfate. x A... y lr eAn eA...... tn g e e All Percenls.............. – ‘ o l u e ....... A A A A A u d l i wo f ...A . t i n e .. .A – ...............A ..........A ..... n e _ ............. u cr o iX u Fsd F A ............................... ... F ‘ a a r .............A A A A A F x c F x c c c x F A x c E c A A i A A A – – c .. : ~ u 2 4 & c ~ ~ : & 2 2 5 L : 2 v ~ a K z ‘ & : A A A x # w ~ m 0: : : T z g u Q E z 2 s 2 i A A A wY + v t ~ w Q $ v $ u L o : g & : : ~ w w e$ : c & ....... u... c . o t ........A ... ......... ae e t r c A ... F – c u r p e n ..... c H ............ i x i o0 cd c c l% A ...... ~ .... 7 Gas.......... c A x A A x x x A A c c c A A x x – A A F A c A A x c x A – ........... oS f d........... x H ... m i n A –g – A c u l a f ........... d H .. C h e m u N s i zc a ................ ...... C .... l ‘ % G w ..... c ......................... onitrate d... .. p l h e....x x ........................... ..... e 4 aA r i h a i w s ... A – – r A x c c A – – – 9 A ......

A A x — x x $ A — A A : A A A A A A A A A A A ~ x x x ‘A A 1: A ~A ~A ~A x x * 2 2 : A c A x A A – – – A c : – - c - - : : x x x x A A A A x x x x - x . w g c ~ ~ ~ ~ Q : s w z : ~ ~ Q $ ~ z m . A A A F F x J A – – – – i A A u P P P P P 1 u A u u c A A A A A A c A c A c . 2 2 * > m u a $ & Q .– – – F A F F – c c c – – – c c c c i A F i c x : x x A A c c i c x % x x A A c c i c x % x x A A c c x c x i x x i c x i A c z F c : x x F A x x ? x A c : x x c c A c i i A A 2 c x c c x x 2 – – – – – A : – - c c A A . i A A A A A A A A A c A c A A A A A tt h nt a g ebt c A e f es - A A F x A . m : ~ ~ : & + * : 7 & 0 g ~ u 7 . ~ ~ u : ~ g z g *J c A A A .c F c A A A A A A A A A A A A A – – – – – – A A A A A A A A A A 4 A A A A A A c c c x x x c A A c A . c A A A : c . ~ % . n c a ~ > . F F A F F A A F A A A A – b a 330”. u ~ ~ $ ~ w ~ e s t o R s W m po . c A A . o — l 32.– .x . $ Q ~ o + 0 “ ~ . UJe ij n cw r o e ph a as n r e e t~ i[ a i t i .– .231 C ( R e R O G ) e C H S E M O E I O C PA EPLP O S S A I T N G E E s i R s at t a S n i ac nf a e g ap s m c : a i e n gs g .– . ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ Q : z z A ~ * u e e n e b n r d b M i e s c re l l a n e o u ~ L m 2 ~ . v . l o s ~ g g s : $ I = “ A C R B z ~ & ~ ~ u ~ ~ s o u o b 2 & ~ : w & g . R u b b b b e r F n r id o J c te i d . :~ . : 3 .x . t i . c F x x .$ : x x x x A c A c x x x x – x .A – A A x x x t c c x l es — x F x x x F x x x x x x F A x x A A A F x c A A x x A A — — A c c x t A A A t A A 5 A A A ~ A – A – A – A A c A A t a S A A c A A A A c A A the e f 0 A A A A c x A A A A e p rx A A A A x x A A A A o e t oa . c F c x A : D A – A A A – ~ x – – x x ~ A A - c c ’ A A c A A A A A A A X3 1 Fa] A A P A A A A A A A A x x A F x x A F A A 4 A F — A F .

4 . MAXIMUM THICKNESS i MINIMUM DIAMETE.% Q LEG IN LEG OUT MAXIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER in. 3 Q R O L A LN I G N LG E S MINIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER in. { MAXIMUM SIZE LEG IN LEG OUT MINIMUM DIAMETER in. MAXIMUM WIDTH in. ROLLING BEAMS MAXIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER i ROLLING CHANNELS FLANGES Q Q IN FLANGES OUT MAXIMUM SIZE ROLLING FLAT BAR Q DIAMETEll in. BEEN M A LEFT OPEN AND ARE TO BE FILLED IN BY THE USER OF THIS HANDBOOK ACCORDING TO THE FACILITIES OF THE SHOP CONSIDERED. MINIMUM ON EDGE .232 F C N E THE TABLES BELOW ARE FOR DATA OF FABRICATING CA}) ACITIES OF THE SHOP WHICH HAVE TO BE KNOWN B T V E D HE S S ST I Y G C E EN OL E L H H R U . Rn i ROLLINGPLATES TENSILE STRENGTH OFPLATE p NOTE: FOR MATERIAL OF HIGHER STRENGTH THE THICKNESS OR WIDTH OF THE PLATE MUST BE REDUCED IN DIRECT PROPORTION TO THE HIGHER STRENGTH s i .

HEIGHT MAX.233 F NOMINAL PIPE S1z i? C SCHEDULE MINIMUM RADIUS in. LENGTH ft A I . BENDING PIPES PLATE THiCK~ESS in. OFHOLE in “ri-ilCKNEss PUNCHING HOLES vliNiMUM iNSiDE DiAMETER R 3E’ VESSEL Accessible FO iNSIDE WELDING TYPES OF WELDINGS AVAILABLE FURNACES FOR STRESS RELIEViNG inches WIDTH ft. MINiMUM iNSiDE RADiUS n BENDING PLATES WITH PRESS BRAKE MAXiMUM PLATE MAXiMUM PLATE DIAMETER in. MiNiMUM PLATE iNSiDE i THICKNESS RADIUS in. TEMPERATURE ft. ::AHMoELTEEi: THiCKNESS in. F.

234 —

P I s o b e an p d o t ii

A tnu n o g p

IT bp u

B P N UE o h eet t a b r p a u d

N * E BD D I

EN

G h d n n e sh

, e i se r eh t r r a et n t t f i ce

e c c o mt p a r i e aos t s nre d n e o , o hs p

o us l esn t s i e n tt f qr e ds t eu p s a

li eh

r tube tends to flatten or collapse. To prevent such distortion, the common

practice is to support the wall of the pipe or tube in some manner during the bending operation. This support may be in the form of a filling material, or, when a bending machine or fixture is used, an internal mandrel or ball-shaped member may support the inner wall when required.

MINIMUM R4DIUS:

The safe minimum radius for a given diameter, material,
w at i b a p d h o i p e l i u

and method of bending depends upon the thickness of the p possible, for example, to bend extra heavy pipe to a smaller r

standard weight. As a generalrule, wrought iron or steel pipe of standard weight may readily be bent to a radius equal to five or six times the nominal pipe diameter. The minimum radius for standard weight pipe should, as a rule, be three and one-half to four times the diameter. It will be understood, however, that the minimumradius may vary considerably,dependingupon the method of bending. Extra heavy pipe may be bent to radii varyingfrom two and one-halftimes the diameterfor smallersizesto three and one-halfto four times the diameterfor largersizes.

d
R
( S t 4 3 t a P n f d I d i a r i pd

d

o )( E e

R to 4d)
Hx

2 Pe t a ir

% va p y

MINIMUMR4DIUS

*FromMachinery’s Handbook,

Industrial Press, Inc. - New York

235
PIPE ENGAGEMENT LENGTH OF THREAD ON PIPE TO MAKE A TIGHT JOINT

I

Nominal Pipe Size

I Dimension [ Nominal I Dimension Pipe A A Size inches inches

I I
I I

1/8 1/4
3/8 1/2

I I
I I I
I

1/4

I
I

3-1/2

3/8 3/8
1/2

4 5
6 8 10 12

I I
I I I

1-1/16 1-1/8
}

I I
I

I
I

1-5/16 1-7/16
1 -

I I

I I
I I I

3/4
1 1-1/4 1-1/2

9/16
11/16

I

I
I I I

I
I

I
I

5

I I
I I

1-3/4

11/16

2 2-1/2

3/4 15/16

I

I
R O N

D I M E D N NS I A O NL F SO V L A R O OI T A WT I I T A OP T P H R I EN A N GD I N R G

DRILLSIZESFORPIPETAPS Nominal Pipe Size
1

Tap Drill Sizein.
/ 1 1 8 /

Nominal Pipe Size
23 2

Tap Drill Sizein.
2 3 /

1/4

7/16

2-1/2

2-9/16

b

3/8
1/2

19/32
23/32

3
3-1/2

3-3/16
3-11/16

I

3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2

15/16 1-5/32 1-1/2 1-23/32

4 5 6

4-3/16 5-5/16 6-5/16

-

.

236
BEND ALLOWANCES For 900 Bends in Low-Carbon Steel Metal Thickness (t) in. 0.032 Bend Allowance Inches With Inside Radius (r) in. 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 1/4 1/2

0.050
0.062 0.078 0.090 0.125 0.188 0.250 0.313 0.375 0.437 0.500

0.059 0.087
0.105 0.128 0.146 0.198 0.289 0.382 0.474 0.566 0.658 0.750

0.066
0.101 0.118 0.142 0.160 0.211 0.302 0.395 0.488 0.580 0.672 0.764

0.079
0.114 0.132 0.155 0.173 0.224 0.316 0.409 0.501 0.593 ~ 0.685 0.777

0.093
0.129 0.145 0.169 0.187 0.243 0.329 0.424 0.515 0.607 0.699 0.791

0.146
0.168 0.183 0.202 0.217 0.260 0.383 0.476 0.569 0.661 0.752 0.845

0.254
0.276 0.290 0.310 0.324 0.367 0.443 0.519 0.676 0.768 0.860 0.952

r&I 4 ben~~l~o~~n~e

‘1 =a+b+c– w=a+b+c+d– w=a+b+c+d+e– (2 x!end allowance) (3x bend allowance) (4x bend allowance)

Note: w = developed width (length) of blank, t = metal thickness, r = inside radius of bend. EXAMPLE: Carbon steel bar bent at two places. The required length of a 1/4 in. thick bar bent to 90 degrees with 1/4 in inside radius as shown above when the sum of dimensions a, b and c equals 12 inches, is 12 -(2x 0.476)= 11.048 inches MINIMUMRADIUS FOR COLD BENDING: The minimum permissible inside radius of cold bending of metals when bend lines are transverse to direction of the final rolling, varies in terms of the thickness, t from 1-1/2 t up to 6 t depending on thickness and ductility of material. When bend lines are parallel to the direction of the final rolling the above values may have to be approximately doubled.

237
LENGTH OF STUD BOLTS FOR FLANGES *

1. Length of the stud bolts do not include the heights of the point. (1.5 times thread pitch) 2. Plus tolerance offlg. thk’s. Sizes 18in. &smaller 0.12in. Sizes 20 in. andlarger O.19 in. 3. Minus tolerance ofstud length Forlengths upto 12’’incl. O.O6in. For lengths over 12“ to 18” incl. 0.12 in. For lengths over 18” 0.25 in. 4. Rounding.offto the next larger 0.25 in. increment. 5. Gasket thickness for raised face, M & F and T & G flanges 0.12 in. For ring type joint see table page 346 and take half of the dimensions shown, since in dimension “A” only half of the gasket thickness is included. *Extracted from American National Standard : ANSI B 16.5 - 1973 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

1

238

P

V

D

IN THE PRACTICE THERE A S E RVD E I FRFW EA E R L OE AD N E T TY A I P R E VS S E .U B S R M S EE A TL K D S IR A N HYAWG L I W NW EG T A S S Y T S H A M E C TO N H S O I D T E D R ,A C B IB L E S M A A A A VE T N E N L DI L OI T p OE S DS SH I BO E R A R L O TE R R ES SC OHS ME M M E. N E DE I E T D FH O O L H P D OR ~N O E L N P R A C A T G I EC NA NE A L R CA CL D EL PY T E D .

A. Select the scale so that all HORIZONTAL VESSELS
4

f
3nd View
1-

openings, seams, etc., can be shown without makin the picture overcrowd f or confusing.

Ref.line

ELEVATION w Saddle MIS~~~~~SEOUS
~

B. Show right-end view if necessary only for clarity because of numerous connections, etc., on heads. In this case lt is not necessary to show on both views the connections etc., in shell. end view would overcrowd the picture. On elevatlon show only a simple icture of saddle and ! he centerlines.

C. Show the saddles separateGENERAL ly, If showing them on the SP~~EC~~CA-

1

BLOCK TITLE

D. Locate davit. E. Locate name plate. F. Locate seams, after everyth.mg 1s m place on elevation. The seams have to clear nozzles, lugs and saddles. G. Show on the elevation and end view a simple lcture F etc., of opemngs, internas, lf a se arate detad has to be mat e for these. H. Dimensioning on the elevation drawing. All locatlons shall be. shown with taded chmenslons measured from the reference line. The distance from ref. line ~odbeshown for one saddle The other saddle shaY 1. be located showing the dimension between the ;-w$~~ bolt holes of the END VIEW I. Two symbolic bolt holes $~aytdy tlgn%~le~~t~ straddling the parallel lines with the principal centerlines of vessel.

L

239
P R E V S SE D U S E R TE S A( E I cL L Io N n G t . )

VERTICAL VESSELS

+

O

r

i

‘-E*
e n t E a tl i e o vn a t Bi G A S c [
TIIle Block

A. Select the scale so t a openings, trays, seams, etc., can be shown without making the picture overcrowded or confusing. B. If the vessel diameter i unproportionally small to na s e the length, draw the width a of the vessel in a l
s t c h s a a e p n f e a d r ea o t l la eL c S i f i tc. T i o o r in e h s in nt t v b i ao s ec i n f o r a m at b t c a o n t o ei z ln i

h

o

M I S C E L L AD N E E O UT S

e pI a

r a v e o l r s l

b

aa t i e o n o h uw e pm , l i oo n h z o lt ne t a w t

D. S

t

ho

r

i o e hs n

E

.

mS

3 . @ Em : u --.

F

.

G. ORIENTATION PLAN

degrees: 00, 900, 1800, 2700 and use it in the same position on all other orientations.

240

PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.)

Nozzle on Top or ~ottom

00 ~—+ H. It is not necessary to show internals on vessel orientation if their position is clear from detail drawings or otherwise. J. Draw separate orientations for showing different internals, lugs, etc. if there is not space enough to show everything on one. K. For vessels with conical sections, show 2 orientations if necessary, one for the upper section, one for the lower section. L. Two, symbolic bolt holes shown in flanges make clear that the holes are straddling the lines parallel with the principal centerlines of vessel. M. If there is a sloping tray, ,

,

1800

1 ~

partition plate, coil, etc., in the vessel,show in the orientation the direction of slope.
J O

(

(JO

27oo
q

. w t 1

.

1800

8 Lowest 0

Point of Plate “D” ORIENTATIONS

2

PREFERRED LOCATIONS Of Vessel Components and Appurtenances

A. Anchor bolts straddle principal centerlines of
vessel.

B. Skirt access openings above base minimum to
clear anchor lugs, maximum 3’-0”.

c. Skirt vent holes as high as possible.
I
I

D. Name plate above manway or liquid level control, or level gauge. If there is no manway, 5’-0” above base.

r I

-.

H

I

E. Lifting lugs - if the weight of the vessel is uniform, “E” dimension is equal .207 times the overall length of vessel.

F. Manway 3’-0” above top of platform - floor
plate.
1

G. Insulation ring must clear girth seam and shall
be cut out to clear nozzles, etc.

H. Insulation ring spacing 8 - 12 feet” (approx.
length of metal jacket sheet).
.,

J. Girth seams shall clear trays, nozzles, lugs. K. Long seams to clear nozzles, lugs, tray downcomers. Do not locate long seams behind downcomers. Seams shall be located so that visual inspection can be made with all internals in place. Longitudinal seams to be staggered
1 i p 8o s s0 i b 0 l ef .

I & %’ +

L. Ladderand platformrelation.

3_u

M. Davit and hinge to be located as the manway
i most accessible, or right hand side. s

v
.

+

N. Ladder rung level with top of platform floor plate. The height of first rung above base varies, . minimum 6“, maximum 1’-6”.

A

242 COMMON ERRO RS in detailing pressure vessels

A.

Interferences Openings, seams, lugs, etc. interfere with each other. This can occur: 1. When the location on the elevation and orientation is not checked. The

practiceof not showingopeningsetc. on the elevationin their true position, may increasethe probabilityofthis mistake.
2. The tail dimensionsor the distances between openingson the orientation

do not show interference, but it is disregarded,that the nozzles,lugs etc., havecertain extension. Thusit can take place that:
a b c d e

Skirt access opening does not .clear the anchor lugs. Ladder luginterferes with nozzles. . . The reinforcing pads of two nozzles overlap each other. Reinforcing pad covers seam. . Vessel-davit interferes with nozzles. This can be overlooked especially if . the manufacturer does not furnish the vessel-davititself, but the lugs only. f Lugs, open%gs, etc. are on the. vessel seam. on perimeter of the skirt for the required number of ! There is no room 3 . anchor lugs.

Particular care should be taken when ladder, platform, vesseldavit etc., are shown on separate drawings, or more than one orientations are used. B. Changes. Certain changes are necessary on the drawing which are earned out on the elevation. but not shown on the orientation or reversed. Making changes, it is

c. D.

advisable to ask the question: “Whatdoesit affect’?” For example: Billof material The changeof materialaffects: Scheduleof openings Generalspecification Legend Orientation The changeof locationaffects: Elevation Locationof internals Locationof other components. ShowingO.D. (outside diameter) instead of I.D.(insidediameter)or reversed. Dimensions shownerroneously: l’4Yinstead of 10” 2~0’instead of 20’etc. Overlooking the requirementof specialmaterial

E.

)

R A CO D L T K S Y A P H I E H E L . . m t I V R E RE S S QE E U L D S I A S W P H P I E L P I R P G B O I X N H . . QC R F E N O . S . / D S S EC C N FI S EO M D I O G R A P H I C I T A M I N A T I O N D I ON A E N C SE M 1 E L N 0 L I Y TA T 0 D N T 0 E ( C S E L I E F L A E R W A I H T II P OP N I G S H ST G U T B ETL H E I I N G L )O N G I T JU E F F I C I . A X A H A A M C N O I R G KN & IN GT . T T . R E H ST OH E A@ 1 T .) \ 1 . S KB A S A BN D . P W L T .Y X . G ST d : . D E . LT / S R G G B 5 T T FL ~ E * a z N B c W F A O N O L L o Z T I N Z E I u H G L N N CE G p G K E . E K G P A A I S K N E T T . .2 PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont. D P T a z o W z u ‘ c S 8 E W W W W O P L I P E R BM I R L C I I T B E N F E SS I D E R M E P S P E @ SS R O A U T U R I R E E F E G M S W . A x R R A . Y T . O LSI I L O N O NW .

PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.) OPENINGS m q ) ! I 5 1 — I .

– — ) 0 ) ( “ ’ I 5 ( 5343 H —. . yd” M//u.Nw. ~/ 5 2 v // /~ ~O yg. 8 A “ MlIv. eliminatesthe necessity of detailing every single opening on the shop drawing.? f.# 0 % c j 0 7T a ”/ & “ /~ r D R M b WE LO SIZE L E LE OF GS . . Y. Y I c-1 A/-f M-l /lvLET /%llvw/ly SEnVICE 1 2 6 3 3 /8’ 3 SIZE RATING c 0G w 0~ w0N TYPE — “ -& ~– .Detailingopenings as shownon the oppositepage with data exemplifiedin the scheduleof openings below. . 24*X~2“ S/l 5 M BORE 29Z” MIN. = 6&” S* 53-49 X 0 H ..

. TRANSPORTATION B TRUCK. height above bed of car 10 ft. weight approximately 40. 6 in. b. Oin.. width require escort. to 5 ft. With special routing. Oin. height above road 13 ft. 6 in. Maximum dimensions of load which may be carried without special routing. height may be handled.. . length of load 40 ft. O in... (height of truck 4 ft..) d.. b. TRANSPORTATION BY R41LROAD. width and 14 ft. 2. Oin. Oin.246 TRANSPORTATION OF VESSELS Shipping capabilities and limitations.. O in. loads up to 14 ft. It increases considerably the costs of transportation. Oin. a. Truck shipments over 12 ft. Oin.. 1. width of load 10 ft. width of load 8 ft.000 Ibs. c.. The maximum size of loads which maybe carried without special permits a.

u it ms1t g t o h eh 2t h h e s a w r aa bh n r i u tn Ts f c h re i d n o e hg u p ~ r e f p saa r hc a b fb t e o i ao u n l a a gl t n a i dc n i e ce lndr ho s et av it s e ee fs d h s e e E L E O CP T I S A O YN I S T N F E TM S t ao t h b f ol l p el he o ss aw a i n eg gn e g u rt e s i v s t e dp e l e r pse sh ao c s i op nt y t e e si r e s tt n ir m e a q q hd t u u eia o p r n eet f a dv i t ai sy r o e nc i f r o otn v du rT ii s t dc i o en a s h a b t u lh h a b t ea e t de f r a v t ee kS r e S et n t o h r ne u P cm a te C iue o n r l e uts snp i c en i cgl i f ’ a i r e co o m m n n e n d as t i od n s . a t c o r 1h rb o p s r e i .h n yo tg r aa r o c g fe s tte i vr v n f e e to hsa s r s m s u f ea 2 b r i n . s i ic n aa a t d l a t h ne i c te g t s tr mh ed t i e s p h l tr yo p a rv oo l ie tt d .u i h c tn b s lt h l . l t e s . n s P s ti ds e e r v i v n h a gr e o i pr a a ae b i p ll r ne ots i b ii lan f ed g m v t si r .e t c e s tt s h i t o hen o e e d v t t e r uo r a lh d .and phenolicpaints are also good.u h ie lb e ics tt r .epoxies and vinyl paints have very good abrasion resistance. ol m i l i iep oml i re v n nvil i fre o g nl m e e v t l i h dm o es had o rci o at s ug le l r e e i s ea l rt a . y c r x e ki o w fh oo i s t r cr u s m h c s t t uu s b r esn a t et l q e h u r e l no h ot lp o el r I o i ate tn m ti g o n i h. C E O CN D I I A T IL O N S C o a s S A B R A S I O N W t ph a m i eh nr t u a e n i b nser tsga ig s a s it o d oht nh o t . a S U R P RF E P A A C R AE T I O N T p r r ih e mq f u aa si reus y c i oc p t e ej s a is t f r iru lo e n o mh m to s b vr c i s ae d a u l l li s f g r o e a f a o s m i re n a e. ns a i a etn h p g i l ns ic ss k e s al t i dt f a cP r t e to r e r sa y t a m .247 P O S T S U ER F E AF C L E S P U R P O S E T m p a h u o r p ipa e i o t ns p t r e ei s n h eo f rg a vs a t s sit e u o nT re f p a er f ac e h l e it .l eh g r osa iei y o .s e a t b q tls u e o i p s t m a aa nn c u i fe a c n t u f r et r s . co t t eo t y n t or h o p a pe jn a l s i i et i o s n fu p etrr h ef bp s a a r nt ca e ct e i o o n p noh e t t r e p ta sdr a f d f ee i rv g e a r ni e ra t p y e r os i p on o1s tr g 1 t i n0 oF n e x 1 atf o 2m co p . s e on t c v i th re o h sn m i eef m ne t ap . l i e o i sn p o n eh l c g ia o n m dt pig e l e n m s f t s .m er c . I m s p r o t i in c b al c a r o lf a ld s c e p lks h te r wy dgi . he u np t h s o c oo s wp h p h as a r att ee i x s m cf r e ee h l t lr e co n eh and rougheningthe surface. i u . m oi c o p at e l pr t m ia a eh s t i e r n fi e a t l . c ae e a t cl u rt E C O C NO N O SM I D E I RC A T I O N S T s e l o hep c a ta s i eo ui p n rr n n e f pfb a at r c e a d t t ety i o e n oc a h n sn i d n i p a p r oo e c b ol n e o m m i c s f . Oleoresinouspaints may develop m greaterresistanceby incorporationof sand reinforcement. Z rich coating. e oc s o ei i dp o ah a ntr t i i c fn u e l i m p oF r m t aa n x ao t d . T c a d e x d i s a n o s S T a t t o p o h i n a os i r2 e m n 5 t oa l f -lt o l t 3s e yc 0 o p %soh a ai s r s n ts rft e tu i c tt n t f h g u r v oa u n h t s a q g i iue p an i g a laf g pi i p h t Sa y n r p ie e t n oxtrm s . M t i s lt gdi i e r lal .i oy -v cp te h e r. Urethane coatings. d e . v e.e t l iia y c s ce al tl l e n c o u i n p t r e ar e c dt i c en . T a p b a r am h i b s un u tie s r t s ae t tb e s le f o ie fh t a a s co i cn toh e ni m o i dc n a l s f .v t oe e c n n ot o in c.i h m b e u csr l m i l oe i at na b.o . o l oh e r d bi l a a s 1b t i t n 0o g h i .

blast 6v cleaned 0 0e ° F is desirable. for example. ) . or in the supplier’s literature. etc. 60%.60-= 960 square feet. Black 70 15 1 6 % 50 & 70 37 57 47 .Aluminum 1 2 silicones 0 0 up to 1600-1800 F Silicone ceramic coatings A L S 0 F 0 F 0 F 0F 0 F C O R R COHS EI M V IE C See tables I and V for the selection of paint systems. Losses due to overspray. complexity of surface (piping. THE REQUIRED QUANTITY OF PAINT Theoretically. especially with spray application. .50 In practice.) may decrease the actual coverage to 40-60$Z0. the paint never can be utilized at 100 percent. THE CONTENT OF SOLIDS OF PAINTS BY VOLUME $% I % 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Varnish Paint Aluminum Vinyl Paint White 14 70 103 104 106 Black Alkyd Paint Black Phenolic Paint White or Tinted Alkyd Paint. surface Recommended Paints: u to 2 2 3 3 7 8 0 2 3 4 5 8 05 0 Oil base p paints limited period 0 0 or phenolic 0 An alkyd vehicle 0 0 modified .a .001 inch) thick coat when it is wet. one gallon of paint covers 1600 square feet surface with 1 mil (0. If the content of solids by volume is. then the maximum dry coverage (spreading rate) theoretically will be 1600x . or even more.alkyds 0 Specially 05 0 Colored silicones 0 0 zinc coatings 0 Inorganic above 550 F Black or Aluminum silicones 0 F . which can be found in the specification on the label.248 H T EI M P E GR A T H U R E B t e e m lp e o r o5a t0 uw 0r e t s o 6 0 ba 0 g °t f s F a o u f i rc o o fo n ha optd c h i eo n o s gr t r e ias t a t mi se fAn a ct 5 tb o 0 r 0 y s o . The dry thickness is determined by the solid (non volatile) content of the paint.

and exposure to the weather Condensation.02 Fresh water immersion. inside of b t w t 8 n c 3 o m Req’d Not R (1.. or very severe weather exposure.:?= ~ Y L I S ET N E. condensation. ness (:?7) Condensation.) Req’d (1‘7) 104 5..0 9 F G G 9 F 9 4. or ( 1.= @ 1St Coat Paint and Dry Thickness.0 I 10. brine drippings and Other extremely corrosive conditions are Q present I 2 or 3 Not (1’. TM S A I P c o .5) I ( I .0 w 3 6. high humidity.0 404 or 8 6 or 8 6 or 8 6 8 4. severe weather.05 Condensation.03 Dry. short term or temporary in corrosive environments p 9.5 roils. 5.0 104 (1 (1 I Steel s exposed to alternate immersion. high humidity and condensation or to the weather or moderately severe chemical atmospheres or immersed in fresh water Immersion in salt water or in many chemical s c severe weather exposure or chemical atmospheres 4. or chemical atmospheres 4. infrequent immersion in fresh or salt water or to mild chemical a ( lc5) 6 or 8 (I Not ( 1?) R ( E ( IC5) 104 (1 .5) I 03 (I 5./ G a l L K 6. condensation.5 (1G5) 10 6 Not Req’d 3 ** Not Req’d 3 ** 3 H (lHs) 9 ( 1!5) (192) (1:5) (1% (1?) H H 6.3) 14 104 (i .0) 7.01 accessible places. mild chem]cal atmospheres Steel vessels p w f t w s f 5. but should not be used in contact with oils. P T System Number s C A I BS A z N T I N G E . very severe weather or chemical atmospheres Complete or alternate immersion in salt water.5) i (1 ( G n .::.0 Steel surfaces exposed to the weather. chemical fumes. 6 or 103 * G 9 9 5.3-0. 6. . solvents.5) 4 5. or 6 ( I .r G 6.25 Longtime protection in sheltered or in8. & :. non corrosive environment. Mi]s See Table IV 2nd Coat 104 ( I . 8. high humidity.. or other agents Underground and underwater steeJ structures U c p u e w r d Not Req‘d Not R ( 12 63 ) 0 ) ) or for high tempera- 6 ture *Four coats are recommended in severe exposures Req’d (1!-18) (25) (8! 5) 35 **The dry film thickness of the wash coat 0. or 6 3. 2.01 1 ing 1 and 2 or 3 6 ~ 3 ) I (wet) 63 M Corrosive or chemical atmospheres. or I .0 I G G G (2.5 4.5) 5.3) I (I I ( I Ps i ~ 0: WL+ 3rd Coat 104 (1 104 (1 I ::h.

Zg Not Req’d E- n E. mists High humidity or marine atmospheric exposures. crude oil.:- te See Table IV : ?J&~ 6 :.oo Zinc-rich coatings comprise a number of different commercial types such as: chlorinated rubber. With proper topcoating in brackish and seawater immersion and exposure to chemical acid and A I P BS A o . thus improving the adhesion and performance of the paint system to be applied. T t M i n Su a 2nd Coat e d ) n P 1 coat (’l:) a T 3rd Coat n c nk h i iroils & ::!t . Epoxy Paint System T R t T 1 I a W b E e f e r e n A I c l T O P RB E I T R L E AI T E S P ME E CN . .= gbl . condensation.I F TI C A T I C I N S e To e a iP ut rn l p oe S pee c i f i c sd N u m P C 1-64 T T R I E NA I G T M E L N T S S Saturation of the surface layer of rusty and scaled steel with wetting oil that is compatible with the priming paint. sewageand alkalies. 3 BASIC ZINC CHROMATE-VINYL BUTYRAL WASHCOAT(Wash Primer) Pretreatment which reacts with the metal and at the same time forms a protective vinyl film which contains an inhibitive pigment to help prevent rusting. burial in soil and exposure of brine. urethanes. epoxies. fresh water immersion.250 T {stem Imber sPcPs Fresh or sea water immersion. I subject to chemical exposure such as acid and alkali. I (’l:) 32 I ~.Uz= Ob Y L I S ( E cT No G . SSPC-PT3-64 4 SSPC-PT4-64 .. HOT PHOSPHATE SURFACE TREATMENT Converting the surface of steel to a heavy crystallinelayex of insoluble salts of phosporic acid for the purpose of inhibiting corrosion and improving the adhesion and performance of paints to be applied. polyesters. vinyls. styrene. chemical fumes. 2 C C P O H o n v t O S L SP U H A D R T TR FE E A A C T M E E S N ST 2 P es r u t of i rsteel hn g f to insoluble a c e salts e C- of phosphoric acid for the purpose of inhibiting corrosion and improving the adhesion and performance of paints to be applied. silicones. tidal and splash zone exposure.

alkali. rust and paint by the impact of abrasives.paint or foreignmatter by the use of sand.tight residuesof paint or coatingmay remain. The surface shall be free of unreacted or harmfulacid. and contaminantswith solvents. mill scale oxides or slight.hand sanding. salts. rust. or foreign matter by the use of abrasives (sand. P T % t T 1 I a S b O l L C V L e f e r e A I .hand scraping. grit or shot to obtaina gray-wh~te. paint. stain. rust and other detrimental foreign matter by high-velocity oxyacetylene flames. or by electrolysis. rust-scale. COMMERCIAL BLASTCLEANING Removalof mill scale. streaks. or discolorationscaused by rust. or slight.loose rust.loose rust. dirt.cleaningcompounds.2 — .emulsions.veryslight streaks. or by combinationof thesemethods.or steam. rust-scale.power sanders. and loose paint with power wire brushes.rust. SSPC-SP 2-63 SSPC-SP 3-63 SSPC-SP 443 SSPC-SP 5-63 SSPC-SP 6-63 SSPC-SP 7-63 SSPC-SP 8-63 SSPC-SP 10453T I . Very light shadows. soil. POWER TOOLCLEANING Removalof loose mill scale.or by both. (Sand. FLAMECLEANING OF NEWSTEEL Removal of scale. shot).tight residuesof paint or coating that may remain.followedby wirebrushing. power impact tools. uniformmetalliccolor surface. grease. grit. BRUSH-OFF BLASTCLEANING Removalof all except tightly adheringresidues of mill scale.paint or foreign matter completely except for slight shadows.hand chippingor other hand impact tools. WHITE METALBLASTCLEANING Removalof all mill scale. millscale oxides. or smut. and loose paint by hand brushing. power grinders. grit or shot) PICKLING Completeremovalof all mill scale. HANDTOOLCLEANING Removalof loose mill scale. rust.rust. and rustscale by chemical reaction. or slight discolorationscaused by rust stain. rust-scale.or by combination of these methods. NEAR-WHITE BLASTCLEANING Removalof nearly all mill scale. n SB U c e T e E E AN N T I N G A I N T I N G 5 P R L R FE E P A A CRS IA E ~ T ~ lI FO I N C A T I O N S oa iP ut rn l p oe sd S e p e c i f i c a t i N u m b S 1-63 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Removalof oil.

104 Black Vinyl Paint 106-64 No. e iw e d 12 13 14 15 16 102 103 104 106 107 . Ready Mixed. 15 Steel Joist Shop Paint Coal Tar Epoxy-Polyamide Black (or Dark Red) Paint 16-68TN0. Gray No. iron oxide. 11 (Vinyl-Alkyd) Enamel. 2-64 No. Zinc Chromate. n i ws e d e di e d 4 6 44 n ea k P o r. 14 Red Lead. Raw Linseed Oil and Alkyd Primer Red Lead. IV 10444 No. 106 Red Lead. n L I e O e a rx a Pd i o h d dV e . 9 i) y n l t . Vinyl Type Paints. Antifouling. Paint. S a t e r i a l N u m b 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 1 Red Lead and Raw Linseed Oil Primer Red Lead. 16 Black Alkyd Paint 102%4 No.Z z. l n ad i ic i s hn 64 8-64 No. Types I. Outside. White. 11 and Alkyd Primer 12-64 No. 103 Black Phenolic Paint White or Tinted Alkyd Paint. Iron Oxide and Alkyd Intermediate Paint 10744TNO. Ready-Mixed Type I red lead-raw and bodied linseed oil Type II red lead. and Fractionated Linseed Oil Primer E P Z R A W R tR e L n R d e a ee B ad a oLd r i m e r D Z i u O n s ix a Pi t c n h dV e .~ TT-P-86C ~z TT-P-86C 32 z~ TT-P-645 ~k MIL-P-15929B ~ j MIL-P-16738B ~ 2 MIL-P-15929B ~ & a II VR-3 Lg MIL-P-15931A I > * !+. ai O t n c ae s . Iron Oxide & Linseed Oil Primer 15%8TN0. alkyd Type Paint. III. h n5 6 6 n e a n P o r. II. n l u V m Pi i n a u n mi y ( hC o i V l o ot P i r eea n dr I O re x Z Ci 1 o h i d r dRo en L n m x 1-64TN0.— A B c D E F G H I J K L M N o P 11-64TN0. Outside. Bright Red Undercoat and Indian Red Finish Coat Enamel. 102 103-64TNO. 27 (Vinyl-Alkyd) Compounds. Vinyl-Red Lead Type Vinyl Resin Paint Paint. Outside. 8 n l t 9-64 No. Vinyl. Red-Lead Base. Bituminous Emulsion TT-P-86C : ~ m “ & ~ . P T :e t ~ 1 r 1 a e b n l c fe Mo e A A I I P N B A T I W LI N N E G T . Iron Oxide. Alkyd Type Primer. 1 2 344TN0. MAP44 X’2 MIL-E-1593513 . 13 Red or Brown One-Coat Shop Paint 14454TNo. Rust Preventive Coal Tar Enamel and Primers Coal Tar Base Coating Coating. 107 Paint.252 —— .5 MIL-P-15147C j z MIL-C-18480A ~ ~ MIL<-15203c . Vinyl-Alkyd. 3 m z l : T N + t < Tt N : ~ U l n dd i O . Boottopping. mixed pigmentalkyd-linseed oil Type 111red lead alkyd Primer. 12 Cold Applied Asphalt Mastic (Extra Thick Film) 13-64 No.5 : MIL-E-15936B ~ ~ 52-MA602a ~ . Iron Oxide. Zinc Yellow-Iron Oxide Base. Type II-yellow. Gray No. alkyd Paint. l n ai d 5-64T i c i sNo.

. . . lo4o 4r 4 n i 1 d 1 e 1 . . . .i 2 i 20 2 cd 4 3 3 . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 A m m c o h n l . . i1 1 d c1 % 1 1 . .t .1 1 3 3 1 2 1 Mdline. 1 1. . 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Chlorine gas . . . . . 1 1 2 21 1 1 i1 C a h l y pc o c i . .p. . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 3 31 C a c l h c . .i . 1 d 1 e 0. 2 3 2 24 4 Benzene . 3 1 3 2 1 1 H y d r oa c h c lc o . . 1 lo 1 . . . 1 3.l .1 4 l 3 3 4 4 3 4 1 i1 1 a Acetone . amyl . . . . . . . .T L CA N O CA M E T A Acetaldehyde . . .n p . . 1 l 3 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 Ferric sulphate.y. . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 C h a r 1 oc .o. h . . .i .i . .1 1 1 1 3 % 1 1 2 2 1 F oa r 2 c m . . . . . 4 2 %2 4 4 2 4 C h a r 6 oc . u1 r 1m i1 1 d 1 e1 2 1 1 2 2 1 C a h ly c d r . . . . . . .o . . i 1 c2 dc . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 H y d r o a c h1 lc o . . . . . . . t. . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 F o r m a l 4 d e . . . . . . . . . ethyl . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 A l ic s o o h . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 21 1 C os u p l . r1 u 1 am e 3 . . .no . 0 i . . . . a i. . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Butyl acetate. . . . . 1 1 2 2 1 2 Ammonia. . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 A m m n o i n . 4 n 4 e 4 .2 2 2 2 1 Alcohol. o . . . .h . 1 r 2 i 0 i c d 1 % 3 1. . . 1 u h1 m a 1 t1 1 e 3 . . 2 4 31 1 A l u s mu i l . . 2% 2 2 21 1 ii 2 c 1 0 1d 1 1 3 H y d r o a f l 4 uc o . . . . . . 10% .p. t.i 2i 20 2 cd 4 3 3 .o .n. . 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 C h l o r o b. . . 1 r o 2 ii c n 1 d 1 3e 1. . i 1 n 1 d c 1 e 1 . oy 1ml1 l 1 a 1 . . . 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 41 1 Glycerine . 1 . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Ethylene glycol . 1 3.%1 3 . . .e . . . . 1 3 21 1 Gasoline .h . . . u1 l o 2 mr2 i 3 t 2e 2 4 1 1 2 21 C ad i r s ub . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Diethyl ether. . . . 1 1 l 1 . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 A l b c n uo o t h . 4 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 Boric acid . . . 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 A a c g e c l . . 1 r i0 i c1 1 d1. r 1. liquid .1 1 3 3 1 2 1 Ammonium hydroxide . 1 1 2 2 1 F oa r c c m .m . . . . r . . . 1 ur 1 m i 1 d 2e 2. . . .o4 h ni 1 d 1 e 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 C at e tr r a bc .r . 1 u r1 m i 1 d1 1e 3 . . . . . . 3 1 3 2 1 H y d r oa f l 1 uc o . . . .2 P T A V C H B E I N IN A T T I C E N F RG I A L L R M EIS E CI S A O. e1 a 1 1 tr 1e 1 . . 2 2 % 2 2 1 1 i2 3 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 1 3 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 . . . . . o . p. . 4 2 %2 4 4 2 4 Citric acid. . . . ux m d1 e 2 . . .p1 y l 1 2 1 111 1 1 A l m c oe . . . z . . . . . . e. 1 3. . . i. . 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Chloroform. . i. .r i c1 01 d1 1 3 . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 11 Ferric chloride. . i. . o . .h . . l.m .1 1 3 3 1 2 1 1t 1 1 A m m s o u n l . . . . 3 3 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 Alcohol. . .h . p . . . . . . . .h 1 l 1y . 1 2 1 1 1 11 A l u c m h i l . . 3 3 1 1 H y d r o a c h3 lc o . 1 u h 1m a1 1t 1 e1 4. . . . . 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 Acetic acid. . . . . . . . . . .

. ip . 1 1 1 1 1 1 .p. . n e . 4 3 Phenol . . . . . . . 3 e : 4 44 1 1 1 3 Toluene . 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 m1 . 4 3. . .h. 1 1. .4 2 4 34 2 4 N ai c t c . . . . . .2 2 1 2 1 1 1 S u l a p 1 hc u . . . .o . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 S u d l i po .P T A V C H B A I N T I N G I T N F RG I E E L R M EIS EC I S A O. o i2 i 2 c d 1n 1 1 . r1 i2 i c1 5 d % 4 1 . . .4 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 2 L u b r oi c . i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1 .x 1 e 1i n1 d:% e 2 . . 3 .i . . . .hx . . 1 i 1mt1 1 e 1. . 1 1 1 . . . . . h u . . .% 4 1 2 S o h yd d i r2 o u .r 1i i 1 c0 %1 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 . . . 2 2 2 2 3 H y d r o a f l 7 uc o . . .i0m1 d : e . . .3 3 i . . . .3 1 1 d P h o sa p 1h c o .3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Oxalic acid . . .e . . . . 1 3 3 1 3 P h o sa p ch c o . .3 1 1 d P h o sa p 6 h c o . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 S o s ud l .3 3 : 4 3 2 H y dp e r ro 3 i g o 2ex 2 0 n i1 d e 2 % . . . . S b oi s d u . r.r 1i i 1 c0 %1 3 3 1 3 1 .y t1 1 y o l2 1 n e 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 2 Mineral oil . . 4 1 1. . 3 H y dp re o r 3 o g . .4 4 1 3 3 1 3 1 : 2 2 4 Nitric acid. . .a . 3 % 3 3 1 3 S u l a p 6h c u . . i. . . . N ai 4tc . 3 1 2 2 1 2 H y ds ru o.r o . hu . r. u 1 i 1 dr1 1 e 1 . .l e n 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 m . . 1 Silver nitrate . . . . . . . .T L CA N O CA E T M A (continued) A N m v c 8 3.e . 3 . o .i1 i 0c d . 1o 2rm1 i t Sodium nitrate. . 2 2 4 24 : : 3 2d c. . 5%. 1 1 4 1 1 1 .x 1 2 i md 0 e .. . S o h yd d i r1 o u . . . . . y . . . . . . . o c 1 u : s1 : i . . % P o t p a e sr m s ai . . i % . . . 3 % 3 1 23 .3 1 . 10% .i . . p. . .ti. . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1. h . r. 1a 1 m t1 e S os u d l . . .t . . 1 u hm a t e 4 3 3 1 3 1l 1 4 M e e k t t h e. . i. . . 1 e h n1 i d e 2 1 4 H y p o c h ao l . . . .n 1 am t e . . . 3 3 .gp .p u1 h a 1t 1 e 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 : 4 1 1 2 2 S o c ad r b i.z.o. r. . n2 u g 2m a 1 n 3 a 2 t 2e 3 . . o r 1 ii 1 c1 n 1 d 1 e 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Potassium alum . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 S oc h d l . . . .x 1 . . . . 1 1 . . 2 4 1 % S o h yd d i r4 o u . i. . . . . ru . 2 4 1 1 %2 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 3 4e 2 . . S u l a p ch c u . . : 4 d 1 3 1 4 : 2 4 Kerosene . 1 1 1 . r. u . .r . . 4 1 1 % 3 2 2 4 52 P o t h a y s d s r9 i o u 1 x2 mi1 d e 2. 4 2 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 M a g sn u e sl . ..1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 . p . . Phenol. i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1 . .. . . . Nitric acid. 1i m d1 e .i n 4 g1l 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 P o t h a y s d s r2 i o u 1 x2 mi1 : d 02e 2 . 3 % 1 1 3 3 1 3 S u l a p 3h c u . . . . . . i . . . h. . . . . 15-25% . . 4 2 4 4 2 4 3 2 1 1 1 3 Oleic acid . 4 4 4e 1 1 1 4 : : 4 44 : 44 T r i c h l o r o e . n. i.l . . i n d c :e 3 . . . . . . . 3 4 1 1 3 3 1 4 S o h y dp o ic . .l . 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 P o t s a us l s . u l .x 1 2 i m1 d0 4 e3 . h 1 u 1a m1 t 1 e 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sea water . . . . . 1 4 3 3 : 4 2 2 . . .4 3 3 4 4 1 : 1 1 : N i t r o b . . .0 . .

~--. s ( a . . .............. . ..................... .”””........... ....”.. ..---. . .. .. Specialflangeorstructural loadingcalculationsavailable . .... ... ...... .. .~...ti... ........ ) approved Materialrevisionorsubstitu~on and shownwhenapplicable ..-... ............. ..... ... ........... Calculations: 9 5. ..... ...---.....P O a Is job n b) C~rrectspecification(SA or SB) used . ........ .. .. .... .. .. Identificationwith S/O or S/N andapprovedby fabricator.. ........... Drawings: a) ‘“ All info& b) c) d) e) 9 detailsrequiredbyQCManual shownon drawing... .... . RequirementsofUCS 79 (d))specifiedwere applicable. .. .. . ..... ...~......... . .... Welding: al Are correct WPS(s) shown ondrawin~s? .. Revisionsor metal substitutionshownand approved. . .. o r E ....... Requiredreinforcementcalculationsavailablefor all openings.. Requiredmaterialtest reports ----......... ..............."".. ..and/orjob numbershown..... ..””””..... Codes and Addenda.. .........255 CHECK L F I 1..... . .""...... . ... ......” b> Are complete weld-details for all welds shown on drawing? .................. ) Shoporder.. 3...... ...=... Approvalby fabricator(on drawing) ......... ........ ....-.... . 2.. ......... .. ....""" e) Immaterial ordered identical to Bill of Material or drawing requirements? ... .... ..... . .... ””””.. ......... ..... ...... MAWP&MDMT matchesdrawingand specifications. ... .....UHA-51) .. ..-....... .............. . . ... Externaldesignpressurecorrect-template calculations&template available..... .”... . .... All materialidentifiedas SAor ) SB ----------------...””..... d= 6......... Headscorrectlyidentified........ .. . .... ....... ....... ..-. MDMTcorrect formaterials used (UCS-66............ . ..... ) specified ...... ...". ... ... .. .... Correctstressvaluesandjoint efficiencies(S &E) used...... u p c) USC 79(d) & UG 81 requirements specified as applicable ... .. . .. Correctformula&dimensions used for heads ---------------Do nozzleneckscomplywith UG-45? -.... .MDMTand RT.. All metalcorrectlyidentified... ..... .. .. . . .. . ...... ... ...... .. ....... .. .............. ...... ......... c) Are copies of WPS(s) available to shop s u p e for r instruction? v i s ... . ....... ... .... d) Material Test Reports requested .--.....”. ................. -----Nameplate facsimiliestampedcorrectly: MAWP. . . ... ..... ........=.”-”” Dimensionsused match drawing ..... .. ..... ...... .... . ........ ... Bill ofMaterial: a b c d e 4.. ... ................. . serial number. ..

......................... ............. c) Are the requirednumberof film shots in the proper locationsfor thejoint efficiencyand weldersused (UW-11.. i) Isa calibratedgage size per UG-102available for demovessel?..... ................ ........... or interpreter?...................... . same as specifiedon applicableWPS? h) Do weld sizes (fillet& butt weld reinforcement) ........ ...........PQR....................... ............../orCode requirements?......... specifiedin the PT procedure? Do all radiographscomplywith identification...... e) Is the PT materialbeing used the sameas . ...................................wfilm... b) Do film reader sheets or checkoff recoid~sbo.......... fabrication..& 52)? . d) Is an acceptablePT and/orMT procedureand personnel qualifiedand certifiedin accordancewith Sec...... f) Are weldersproperlyqualifiedfor thickness.. ..pipe diameterand weldingwith no backing(whenrequired)?..........1 procedureand certifiedpersonnelavailable? .......... VIII.... ... . Appendix6 or 8 available?.. ................ Al I Non-DestructiveExamination& Calibration: a) Are SNT-TC-lA cmalification records with currentvisual examinationavail~blefor all RT techniciansused? ............................. . ..... ..................................... Radiographic Examination Serial Number s/N Shop Order Slo Welding Procedure Specification Wl?s .........electrodesand shieldinggas(es) used t .... .. .... ..................... ......and acceptancerequirements of Sect.. e) Are WPS.. g) Is sub-arcflux....... & WPQforms correct and signed?...... ......... 12............ ....position.................... complywith drawingand Code requirements? i) Is welder identificationstampedor recordedper QC Manualand.... 7.... ..............penetrameter.. intemretationby a SNT’-~CLeve1 I or II examiner —............ h) Are tested gasesmarkedor identifiedand calibratedas stated in QC Manual? ........... ............ ... ..... ............................... . ..................................... ......................................256 CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTORS(corztinuec/) 1 I QC d) Isa Welder’sLog and QualificationDirectory kept up-to-dateand available?.......................is a visual examination !3) For 1331............... .. . o density.VIII and V? . .... I I ABBREVIATIONS: Authorized Inspector AI Maximum Allowable Working Pressure MAWP Maximum Design Metal Temperature MDMT Quality Control $...... ....................................................

....................... 300 1 A p p u r4 t ............................. 272 5...............................................................".............................. AND LAYOUT OF PRESSURE VESSELS GeometricalFormulas.............. Length of Arcs ........................ Circumferences and Areas of Circles ...................... 281 10...................................................... GeometricalProblemsand Constmction...."""..........e s 312 ......."""""-" 268 3............ Flat RingsMade of Sectors .... 258 2.................................... e n a n c ............ Table for Locating pointS0n2:l Ellipsodial Heads ........... Solutionof Right Triangles ........................................................ 278 Bent and Mitered Pipes ................................... GEOMETRY 1..................""""""................................."................257 PART II...............................""".................. 291 11. OptimumVessel Size ............................................................ 8........................................ Drop at the Intersection of Vessel and Nozzle ....................... 293 12.................."""-""""".......... 270 4........ Fustrumof ConcentricCone ............................................... 7.............. 9................................................ 297 13......... 274 6................... 276 Fustrumof EccentricCone ......................... 280 Intersections...

’ b ’ s c ) . a2 +b2 A A b h [ C A A N U TGR T r L I e E A E N DG = a L E . b ‘I/== ~= e ~ = A=. 900 A A axb r a . d o 7 a =0 T A N r x ~ o a =$ A or.AT N G R L IE D A N a G ~ L E ’ c o A .6.b = — a G L e 4 1 A U L i A S eg ) l ap ee h cs a R e E = 4 . . = . ~ : x A : ~ s ( : s . 7 E = = ~ 2 1 a b a a gn n e u l b I b b B ’ A% A A = a2 d = 1 . A w . a = 0 R E C A A a A d = a = b = r - r b o D P A R A L L E L O G R A M A A r e = a A a x = b = A a T = J A b y R I G H T . s : O A ’ \ L E * * “ A B A T N UT G R S L I E A E N DG A r e = a b x h = ~ s - w: s .258 G E O M E T FR O I C RA M L ( S e Q xS ao m t e fp U r ~ .

Area A = s = % (a + b + c) = % (3 + 4 + 5) = 6 Find: A= # 6(6 -3) X(6-4)X (6-5) =fi = bsq.a) x (s-b) x (s-c) =i12 (12-6) X( 12-8) X (12... 1l 4 . . = 3 / 61 s 2 2 q 2 /. = i n a d g= o n a = l_ a = A/b = 1 =3i2 b = A/a = 12/3 = 4 in. R I A N G TGR H L I A T E N DG L E Given: Side a = 6 in. Side b = 8 in. F iArea n A = a dx b = : 6 x 8 = 2 s 2 S c i= dh ~ 6 e +z 8 m S i d e a ‘ ~ – 8 = ~1 Side b ‘~c2 – az ‘*102 – 62 =4 1 q . . and c = 5 in. 4 1= 11 4 4 1i x. . .d d - en e i n 6 2 . ..i 7 3 1 1 n 2 = g i * n 2 . Side b = A = 96/8 = /12 in. in.1 i hi F iArea n A = a dx b = : 8 x 12 = 9 s q Height a = A/b = 96/12 = 8 in.. and side b = 8 in. A = D i a d g= Area A= Side a = Side a = A R E C T Given: Side F iArea D i Side Side N G L E a = 3 in. 2 i n4 0 . . - i =2f l 2 =06 6 0 =3 8 n4 i= i2 i .259 E ( S Q U A R ~2 = X ro A t m e Fu M P L E i S gnn e e g ) F E o S l aP ea h c s a Given: Side Area Find: a = 8 inches 82 = 1 o n a. a = d = 12 0. P A R A L L E L O G R A M G i H v e a e= i 8 in g a : t h n s t b = n . = 4 i f5 n 2 i . and b = 4 in. + 10)= 12 F iArea n A = sd z % (a : + b + c) = %(6+8 Ad s (s.. and side c = 10 in. 83 n1 1 . n A = ad x b = : 3 x 4 = 1 s = q / ~ n . a . i 0 0 n n~ n~ = * = 2 – 0 1‘ – = 4 6 A C A N U T GR T L I E A E N DG L E Given: Side a = 6 in. b = 4 in.x 1 7 1= 0 8 . OBTUSE ANGLED TRIANGLE Given: Side a = 3 in.10)= 24 sq.7071 d = G ‘ 6 s i q n 4 .-in. .

155 h E r b h ( 2 G H U E LX AA R G a Z O I e D = e = = h = 0. 0 9 7 2 R.866 a T A R A A (c P a + ) O N e 4 A r e = a R a o c i d r c i u m c u = s c i r s i b r ef d c l R R ao i dn s ic c ur i i sr b e cf d l e 2 a0. 9 z4 8 6 z a = 1. 6 8 5 2 G P UO L L AY R G O = N u o sm r n e a = ’ @ = ~go” – a “ = J r A A R R r = R 4 A R 1 r = 1 a = 0 R r .= 0 8 R. 2 z3 a.a . = 1 3r . = 2 5 R .(3 ~ d c l d l e 8 1 z 2 4 8 ed r e 4 E A * N i b e A a @ - . = 9 3=5 r8 . 4 7 4 1 0 1 A WH N 2 G 4T I L A e 4 7 4 N a h E N T 5G HL ( ) Eo a — 2 a 1 h G L E E Q U I L A TT E R RI A A L 6 m & u D w : ‘= R A f @ A R 2 i R = r = a = R = E e A A A a ~ r x a = 1. = 2 3 =8 r8 . 0= 0 7 8 a.260 G E O M E TF R O I C RA M L U L A S e x S ao m t e fp l ap ee h c s a i gn n e eg R A h [ a A b h a I T = A = a 2 =~ l = 0 = 1 R GI r e . = 2 8 R. = 0 7 r. 6 8 6 6 6 R = 1.155 r 0 a . = 0 2R.155 r E G O U C L T AA R G O N r e a = ao c i d r c i u mcu s c ir s i b r ef = ao i dn s ic c uri i s r b e cf a .

a = 6 8 6i . = 0 x .125 in.x 8 7 = 5 0 0 1 .58 sq. a =7 .-in.5 i6 2 8 n . and heidt h = 6 in.125 = 142..828 x 62 = 101. 5 x .7 -1 Area A = ~ 2 2 .464=4 in. F iArea n A = 2 d : = 2.155 r = 1.59 in. Side a = 0.-i . radius of circumscribed circle Given: Find: Area A = 2.-in.. A = ~ = 2. 6 9 6 n2 8 h F i n d : = 0 8 x .a x 49 = 4 8 1 w 2 .598 r = 0 8 x4 6 x .866 = 3. i 2 n T R A P Given: Side F iArea E Z O I D a = 4 in. q . Side b = 1. + 3 s8 ( b h = ( a 4 6 = + . 64 Find: Area A=~ a2 =7 82 = ~= 32sq. side a = 9.i7 6 1 5 n6 8 . b = 8 in. REGULAR POLYGON Given: Number of sides n = 5.81 sq.8 6 5 5 h .414a = = h = 0 0 . REGULAR OCTAGON R= 6 in. a = 0.261 EXAMPLES (See Formulas on the Facing Page) RIGHT TRIANGLE WITH 2 45° ANGLES Given: Side a = 8 in. . .25 X9.828 R2 = 2.750 Find: Area r=m=-v= 625ino nra 5 X6.765 R = 0.4646in. R = a = 1. — = 2 7s 8 . E Q U I L A TT E R RI A A L N G L E Given: Side a = 8 in. Radius of circumscribed circle.2 4 2 4 9 a = 8 X 6 x =. R = 7.155x3.. ) ) nA = d z : 2 X 6 q n R E G H U E L X AA R G O N Given: Side a = 4k.-in.765 x 6 = 4.

x xa 1b 4b 1 =x ea z e 6 t r er z r a p p r of x o i m f r a p nt me e u t o il . . eo a n f R S C x 4 1 x 6 2 c g 7 c 0f d I x0a r 8 e 7 n 6 UE L CA ra = A e . 1 (a 4 +1 b )6 { 2 P = 3 E L a — b x = u L o L p c I P S E a o o t e ii l n n l g ti ps s n ao ao e if jx r s o i — + . x L I P S E r i am e t rP = P ee = =a3 . .1416 z d L C A A I A n = d ag 3 .262 G E O M E TFR O I C RA M L U e x S ao m t e fp l ap ee h cs a C I A R r C L E L i A S gn n e eg ( ) d @ A C ie r c = u ma f e r e n c e x A= r2 x ~ = rz x 3. r= a tn 1 o 0h g. d) of which total area equals area of circle diam. = R o am . N 2 1 0 2A Y T & a < v ‘ r X r x a x 3 a = 1 5 7a a=— r C A A < I A A R S C AM R E = n A e : o s r a c g= C l = c ea i =ot t nar o r f iu r a e oe sn ga l c = 2r x sin a T Q a — w x ~ L * + E A A A L A z . D. U E ra L G e m 2 1 8 R T O R = a=a r A = 4 9 r 6 .( 2C x y2 ) a ti= i nx ct m Q m 4 Y = c — 0 D D d ~ ( w 0 0 N = the required number of holes (diam. — az .

and b = 3 in. A = r2x ~ = A = = 12ZX0. diam. P = + ) = @ = + ) = E G L i A L I P S E va = 8 e x andn b = i 4: in.7071 = 8.274 in. x N a = T X~ = Radius r = 6 in. a = C I R S C U E L G AM R E . x = 6 in..7S5Q C = dx = x if a = 60° dx a = = = = x x = = CIRCULAR SECTOR Given: Radius T = 6 in.2 . A a = r2 x ~ x — A = Chord c = 2r x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x 0.2 Area of 576 H in.85 = = Sq.. . a = 8 in.25)2 = 242= 576 holes= Area of 6 in. pipe? N= (’/d)2 = (6/0.2 EXAMPLES (See Formulas on the Facing Page) CIRCLE Given: Radius r = 6 in. Area A = ~ x a x b = 3. ‘ 6 ~ = ~ E H X m %i @holes have same areas as a 6 in. in.. h.276 in.485 in. c -( 2 ) 2 (2 2 2x ) ~ . then s C = ~ = ~ = 2.398 in. Area A a = r2 ~ x ~ = rx x xa = r = = 62 x ~ x ~ = 6x x 6 x = 18. E L L I P S E Half axis. #holes= 28. @pipe= 28.1416 x 8 x 3 = 75.

(— .1416 rc F R ’ UO S C = 1.: - ’ : = C & P R I S M m w T f : oh : c r ‘ b. S = A 4 = 1 i r 2 7 c f a a af l 2 1h . h d v : N : 0: ” x: : 7 = d E o = c r o s 1 6 . . .5708 C( D + d ) I I . C v . P ~ s =% 1..5708 dc T U O M N F E c f a a af l ~ ‘ 0 h . Y L I Volume . C v . — .( G E O M E TFR O I C RA M L U e x S ao m t e fp l ap ee h cs a L i A S gn n e eg ) C b ~ V = V U o l B u E m e i– v= ~3 1 S I I — I J L : Q P U o — R A l R I u ES m e M V = V .2618 h ( D2 + Dd + dz ) = a = R–r c. “‘ .x r x % L “ S = 3. - v v i Volume S = A o = c r o s n u e i r i 0. N D E R o = c ry S = A l i sn e d u r ri a c f af la % + .x r x 0h = d n u e 4 82 x ’ h q . :* ’ . . m ai Ay r p u efaa e l p so a l n d iso h o nere n es af e s a eu ‘ ” f= a d c i h i p e r p e nt de i c s fu u l a s rr n f a co d e rrn y p . O Volume 3 : . .

.x 6 1 6 x 1 = 4 12 1 3c n V =l 3 d u . 72 . o 1h = e4 3 1 . F iVolume n V = adx b x c : = 8 x 6 x 4 = 192 cu. x : rm x l i S ne d u r rSi a =f c 3 af a l .. 5 n — 2 4 .2 3 -2 8 6 u 5 i9 n . h ( 2 + D 6 0 ..265 E ( C Given: F U Side iV Side F o S X ro A t m e Fu M P L E i gnn e e g ) l aP ea h c s a B E a = 8 in. A c = ~ ‘ 3 1 = 6 {4 1 ~ 3i = + . h. x 6 x11 43 = 2 1.n 7 a eD m = n2 e i : ta e d n r 1 i nh i D vi V = +d D 1 = 8 2 2 d ) iVolume n d 0 :. 1 2 v 1 9 — = = 8 -i b = =n = .1 ~= 3 i n2 n .2 . x: rm x x7 0 2 = 64 4 z c 25 7 u1 x 2 2. b =6in. 4 o C r o S n ue i r S = c f 3 a a a f. and c ‘4 in. X 1) 85 Surface S = 1 6 7 s 8 q . . i C G F O i iV N E v r e= 6 in. d h -= e 8 iin. C ( D5+ d 7 1 0 . 0i d . n i E v iVolume n V = hd x A =: 8 x 12 = 96 cu. o u 8 := m5 n V =l ad = a = G 8i c e u .-in. n and: h = 12 in. 3 2 . cr lxc e 1= : 4 1 6 = 3 .7 2 + . 5 6 4 s 2 q 1.-in. n and h : = 12 in.5 -8 i 6 n . x 9 . d C G F A Y i L I r v iV o C ry N D E R = e 6 in.. . .2 . 5 2 . = 1n 4 . . o e 4 n V =l 1 d u .x 1 1 x 1 = 44 15 s 2 6 q. S Q P U R A R I ES M Given: Side a = 8 in.. . . x 1 2 0( 6 + . = 6i a ! 8 4 b 6 x x c = —1 9 ~ 2 = 4i n c . a 2 x x b 6 P G F R I S M s ue A r= nn 1 f s : aq a c . 8 6 -8 R F G F UO C S T U O M N F E = .cx d x e1h : = 4 1 6 = 3 . 4= n 1 i7 n i 4n 6 . 0h = . 21 x 231 8 + 1 7 4 =5 2 2 2 7c 3 2 4 u ( 1 7 2 = 0= 8 42 .

elliptical on page and and surface of cylindrical shell. spherflanged and dished heads beginning .266 GEOMETRICAL FORMULAS (See examples on the facing page) See tables for volume ical.

and h = 3 in. 3 q .s C2 = 11. in. ) . X6 X 23 = 1 8 1 3s q 3 2 . r 6 2 ..5236X3X ~ 4 ( ) Area A = 6 . i R v a r e= d6 in.1888 X216 = 904.78 CU. in.5236 x 1728= 904. i 7n — .78 cu. S G F P H ES R E I C G AM L E N T s in. n i Cl : = 3 X 82 + 3 X 11. n and : r = 2 in. i R v a r e = d6 in.. Find: Volume V = 4. -1 i 7 n 1S = r2 X a 3. = e 1 7 3 9 =7 z 9 9 X6 X.74 cu.6252 + 32 = 248.. .-in. or = 4 x 3.1 i 0 n . x m :m 1( 4= 6 1 1 x e e4 = m @ -4c 6 1 1 u. 1 x r.1416x= m1 X6 X3 = i 0 H EZ R I C O A L N E u 8 in. 22 473..1888 r3 = 4..7 3 Cu. v= 0.4 sq..267 E ( F o S X ro A m t e Fu M P L E i S gnn e e g ) l aP ea h c s a SPHERE Given: Radius r = 6 in. Find: Volume V = O.-in. . T G F O R i Radius v Re = o iV n V =l A A r= U S 6 in. d u 9R : m 3 9 eR = .1416 x 62 = 452. Area A =4Tr2 or A= T d2 = 3.4 sq.1416 x 122 = 452.2 = 8 4 4 s7r7 q 8 3 .625 in.-in.-hi. 3 a 4 9 x 6 7 x . n iand: u m = 3 iV = 3 A S G P o nV = l 3 d ..5236 d3 = 0.x 3 1 ( Ar 2 r u.3 z .

a B B l n i D As i a e n d c.+ t LOCATING POINTSON A CIRCLE y =x =q~’ L = . EXAMPLE = Sin. & q. te c cll i t eTi te m h o ns e v o o r t t t ir i c a ah e t nps g o l rt f e h ei c s n ieht c a u l r a c r . ~ind Y == =~ = %= 4 in. X= 3 in. C are known. O of the two arcs is the center of the circular arc. Measure on this line Dimension M. dn r o. D .USO OF A C I R A ‘ q e ~ : ‘ ~ ~ ~ : ~~ . p r Ao a f o i P r nn B moo t o i s o i t a d tC o rh e t hn i n sn ct e fe e c. y .268 GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS AND CONSTRUCTIONS AJ x z . A z~ D J M CONSTRUCTION OF A CIRCULAR ARC The Radius is known. .k s i n o . Y=R-A4 = 2 aa t f Ch r i r k 8A4 FJ c .d~ I q P o I T F t T IC E N O HN AC O T D I R EE A C RU L FA y ‘ b w p o t a # k h C ae h oD i r m n e n d M ea n . e tc t rh s o w si t in lr at i T t ii s nng t h e h r h p ts s e c o. but because of its extreme length it is impossible to draw the arc with a compass. t r h esc e r c . and Chord.@ T 5 r 8 d i a Lm 2 e t1 1 e FINDTHERAD. O N F G PF T LC e A H Y T L O IE N D R E E X A M P L E d i s=a = im d 4t e e i r n I g n t h o f 2 e h i oc k :e np 1ie l s a s t n l T a t f x A C U 3 L E L p ~ ~ : . strike an arc from point A and from point B with the given length of the Radius. R. Draw at the center of the Chord a perpendicular line. ~ C + 41W . Connect points B a m e Ma n d si m uD p /e e rd rn p e se ni d 4 oi cn u l R e p t e p a r th o i t cn g i de uq as rh t er u ee c s ct o a M w cb a e i y b i a l s 4. t i s t lr ha O i i t i n cg f e he o tt h sn c i. ’ : : i n o TO FIND THE CENTER OF A CIRCULAR ARC When the Radius. The intersecting point. Determine the length of Chord and Dimension M.

GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS AND CONSTRUCTIONS ...

c = s Side a = 6 in. S 5 c c a ‘ a = 3 in.S67 in. b = C X COS A I .d = Sidea = 6 in. a b e4 6 tan B = ~ b b F Sidea A B i n = = 1 n g 2 .392 in.856 d C AA A. side b = 12 in. side a = 6 in. b = 4 in. c = 5 in. b = = 4 A. side c = 12 in. b = 12. = 12 c i— n = 13.S00 A =~ = 30° A B Side a = 6 in. side g a = l6 in. = 0 a A =~ sin 0.866 = 10. 30° Find side b = 12 x 12 x 0. b A = F Angle A = 30°. 8 6 ~ d. C A c @ c a = c x sin A Angle A = 30°. c c c @ = 12 in. c = 12 in.500 = 6 in. c =- = —6 = b A& a a = b x A A = a = = b = x x =6 A b A A @ b c . a a b = a x cot A A a AA A = 250. side c = 12 in. a F n A A i n ‘ n g ‘ 0 l . e1 2 l b A c b = 3 in.SOLUTION OF RIGHT TRIANGLES R E Q U I R E D E X A M P L I NOWNSIDE OR ANGLE FORMULAS E S ( E N C I R C L E D ) @4 t b A ‘ ~ ’ a Sidea s 6 in. a a B =y C c A c B =+ = O = 0 . b = 12. A = 3o0. b = 6 x = 6 x = i e ( b c a A ) A = A n ?300. a = x = 12 x 0.867 in.

2.176“ C5= 34.. . in c1 = 6.317“ Cz = 18. Cl C2. t D n= e 36 rin. ft. = 4’-1 yz C2 = 12. .-in. .67/lG S: = 4’-4 ‘/fj C4= 20.968” S4 = 6’. .000” Sz = 6’-2 Yle S.212“ s. = 4’-0 % S1 = 6’-0 ~ s. Cl C2 etc.776* ‘6 = At The Top Factor c times mean radius = Chords. ft. 4. c1 = 9.2. S 1.184“ ‘*G== 4’-511/lG HZ + & G G’. = 4’-2 IMG s3 = 6’-4 ~ C3= 16.971 A F r u of Es C t C uE E Given: N m C T P R O I L E C N E X A M d M i e at a the m large a e end. sl~ . s:. in. C of Circles for “Segments =1 t h A The Bottom e t 300 6Q0 ~oo 1200 1500 Factor c times mean radius = Chords. .784“ Ss = 6’-7 I946 S: = 4’-5 Yl(j C5= 23..-in.000’ C3= 2S.4S2” C4= 31.

272 O V S P T l T ( b et o p a v u e ofi a c s l e c so r a d e tw p la athe c minimum i i i n t material. 0 0 .000 3. i 00 F = F 100 . lf i . 1 in. D D = Inside diameter of vessel. * FROM: “ Gulf Publishing Company. t a Length = 4 x 1. .0 . = 0 . o r a r l ol s oi iw oa n n cne v t or a m ea l tp s e u rs s i ea e of f i c i n e n t c y . EXAMPLE Design D oi P= 100 p F t 0 c a t a : V = 1 s c . u 0 6p . The length of vessel = ~ n .0 n1 X . ft. ty theh correct r o a d n i a g s m bt h de eh t t a e e or r m l i nl e e d . where V = Volume of vessel. E s= . cu.2 8 y -5 l rm 5 ft. fi S 0 = 1 t . permission. o as 2 0 = 0 05 i .X 1 0 6 6 0.. . ft. say 42 ft.52 = 42. where C S = S E = J P= c= Design pressure. — . E M F c n o hf t a p a e ac tr ra li h t n g n se h g a t ei d f n t ee c d t sh a d io p t era v tc e e e id s th h o or i z t ov t n l t ar ele l p ih yr e t s n v e n o o te aE i en h gl u e e f t ir n t e orh ms e v cmeto ir e o at n ir v c t a v l ee n loy af h a l d du ) e e f . 6 in.0 8 p dt h n ii a am d m l u e e mt nn e rg t d h .14 x 5. rD = h 5.6 ft.1. Houston.. p rt h o i a l m eft u et n m d i ig a o c t hm b f fhe tboa te e f ru o l n p n lh r e oo d wc ie y r T ie l s h i st m 1 u eirp a e t0 e e l s ld0s i h np os a0e o ai id s ad as l r u d m se de F=~ CSE . i 0C . psi.

. +[ I r I .000 I [ . .000 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10. ! I I I i . . . .000 80.UUU k . . 1 1 i 1 I 1 1 I I [ I 1 r .. . . . . ! . .000 . I0 8 .. 1. .000 6 I 1 I I I I II 1 I I I I I 20. %~ fz~ t i w 1+ I 1 I M 1 I [ I I t. D FT. . .000 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1II 40. 1 I I i 4.000 50. b. I I 2 3 4 8 910 VESSEL DIAMETER.000 I 1 f 1 I i 5. CHART FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM VESSEL SIZE ( f Sap fc eax i p l n ea g o ng a t e i o rn ) .000 2. .000 I \ . . 1 .I 1I1 1[I I I 3.273 100. . .

Determine D/d and D2 (the area of square plate would be required for the ring made of one piece) 2. by dividing the ring into a number of sectors. * ~ T R O P M ~ m 3. less plate will be required. Determinethe requiredarea of plate 4. ONE PIECE Since the sectors shall be welded to each other.707 D 0 n 0. stiffeners etc. Divide the area by the r p o D e q w u o ii r a ls a a h t l o t o t e w ep h s th n fa b t l t eo at h np i gl n h ta e ht 8 S E C T O R S 5 A a l l d ( o w 1 m a i n . The cost of the weMing must be balanced against the savingin plate cost.866 D 3 SECTORS ~ u 0. d f ac n f e xc l c u b t e t s t i ewa n c e a g t t e e onn d r o t Tp t f e e E QH W U I IR E ED D H l h a L F RA I O T FN E G R S O A S E D C T E O RF S S E x Oa eF m a P p cl e a e i gn n . R S 3 6 E 8 C T 3 c r Os e d Re f e c r ( ha f o n t tr a e i i v t n i dn Sc t o p oa a dtc a rm p i g tn q a g h uw e i r t r f h ee d e ne g sh t d u io m ro r s d Q o+ R E 0. DETERMINATK)N OF THE REQUIRED PLATE SIZE 4 SECTORS 1. The figures at the left of this page show the width of the required plate using different number of sectors. This area is expressed as a percentage of the square that is needed to cut out the ring in one piece.274 FLAT RINGS MADE OF SECTORS L 1 Making flat rings for base. d = Insidediameterof ring. 2 SECTORS The chart on facing page shows the total plate area required when a ring is to be divided into sectors. D z Outsidediameterof riu.. the weMing will be increased by increasing the number of sectors.500 D e n D.

50= 14.9 inches.L 13 FLAT RINGS MADE OF SECTORS (cont. From chart (above) the required area of plate is 50% of the area that would be required for the ring made of one piece. = m a ~ 169 “ 1 .1 12/84 = 167. I. in.112 sq.D. Did= 1. D2 = 28. ring made of 6 sectors 1.D. 2.4.5 X 168 = 84 14. 3..224x 0.224 sq.1 3 EXAMPLE 4 5 6 NUMBER OF SECTORS 7 a Determine the required plate size for a 168 in. Area required 28.L.) 100 90 % LL 80 o @ ~ 70 u $ 60 & q 50 CA $ do & * 30 CIa + ~ 20 — & 10 ~ o 2 w — . Width = 0. in. O. 4. Divide this area by the required width of plate (facing page). 120 in. the length of plate. Add allowance for flame cut. 5. ~ l.

c li r ae e d b— = D.- . - - F r u of Cs O tN C u E m NC T R I O C G D DI = H D e i M M H v e n N : E a= e e t d ie a a t ml a ne h r n r a e e tm n e d ie a a t ms h n r a = hs e o t if rg u tt u m e iq P hn u le i a r t te R r e et d T R e q Ph u .DI 2 e s tan c1 = + .r 1 D rl = —1 2’ m f + a R C o T n R i a c oa n l o k / P= x3 T R e q Ph u li r ae .

2 R = i = a = i o 6 n n n n s W o it R d e q P t h u= R lh i + r 1f a ee d -t L eo t n R e g q P th ui h li r a f ee d t t F r mu h f s at r u e o dm me 2 P :l 2 Y a +Z t Xe s + : Reauired Plate . 2 s DXZ 2 Rxs Rxt exs exc b 1 R m X 5 > +% ~ + 1 2 ~ 7 c t / & 2 2 + i 9 2 l’% e x Y .277 F r of u C s O tN C u E m N C T R I O C N E Made from two or more Plates t - % G D D.– 2 tan W = * -b D Elevation c rl = ~ +H = D . = H n = D b . I i M M H N v e n : d ie a a t ml a= e e t a ne h r n r d ie a a t ms a e e t m ne h n r a e o t if f e rg =u h s t t u u o p m (l b s a ee t cr t e o f i q P hn u el i D — r a ee l d t e = t t e Rr m e D .

B . =~H2 W circle. F t p r 1 o 2 o h 3 i e n m ° ° t s at w r c r i O e i kn c tet S t f a ap r rto a o i 1 no i g ( m 1 m a e rt s k a p e s a d uh o t b o c o h t i t ct r oc f o e a i n a t 2‘ e n r s e r d c 2 # Side view of cone 4 O of the top circle. Draw the side view and half of the bottom view of the cone. Rh denoted e the mean r radius of e the base See example. 2 R x sin 45° + C. 3’. etc. Fig. 4’.F r of u Es C t C u E N C m T R OI C Plate by Layout N E Determination of the Required and by Calculation c 1. A o C A L C U L A T I O N T f the t c iu ro t v hnp a bt o da hr cl u le a ce u l t a f O B only (marked If the bottom C3 . S3 S3) circle divided into 12 equal spaces. Divide into equal parts the base and the top circle. with the center 1’. Draw arcs from points z’.

. ft.8Y2 = = = = = c = C~ s. = 4’ -0 % s. D = 36 in. using C c = . . 2. s. “ “ ‘ = = = 6 . C C =1 etc.-in. .970 L F r u of Es C t C uE E X A M N m C T P R O I L E C N E at the large end.. . = = . = 4’ -1 %. . . S1 = 6’ -0 % = ~ = = = H2 + D2 = 6$. = = = ~ 1. 2 .

BENT AND MITERED PIPE .

o f d e g r e e s .e a m t h e r d o i a upv e gr i c ph se ni d h o i c n u t t l h D i e t nit e l r o e me s i .a ‘2== cq 4 c 4 a t i n t e r hp s e i cln t i e n a g n p e r p e n t d t i c a u l oa tr x h i o c y l ti n i n d t e hr r is . . c. :b ! . k\ r [ ./ 1.o ~ 0 ) s ° h l h a = l = e 2 2 o 0t a ) s c s 4 ° a. = r x cos 45° c%= r x sin 22-1 /2° a . a ih c u m fo e t rc e y n l cD h i e ni d v e f e t l i h t i s n i nn a h t u s o em m o b e e pq a a tmlo f e s r e sn e t u c i rr a c u h t c y l hD i n ad e r e el r . r h s c hi n o t ep a l s t h r a es n qt f h e u ei c l e sa r a h a b nt a l c ie a l s k nl c o n s i d e r a t i o n .a e c t ieo r e l l i p s e .---16 — ‘– . / . -w I ‘Y” h 1 1 = ( = ( a .t i h p l b i e fW li t e om m b l o a s a l t o ui b ry p a ei a d ny t f l d o e w n . si 40 in 0°t e .e c s oT m tte . !Cl C O N S T R UOC T T I IO N N H T E IC2 \ \ \ S E C E T L I L N I G P S E D it c v i r ic uh d m o f et e r e ne c e c y il ie n np qd a ea u t dr r a o rn t l a e l a e e m d eia p n n i to v c s ii t h T m a a o h t jxe loi e t il h r i s p l o d n i g b s t e e a ts t in w t cn e e h te s e p c o a t t i m nn a nig t i h ns x d o t d i ao ht m c e y t l T e eh i rn d ef p o o t ie nl c l t b h di s p e a f se t e m bi u nt s c e i h o d n yr g d th o c y l s i pb n p ad r ec o r j a ee c d t i s o h b c o a l cw ua le a n t i x o r y n es i dw h e t . E X A M P L E f c a l co uof l length a t i rof o n e l e m e n t s .~ *G1 & When P \ \ \ ‘F } : 17 .—. c = r x cos 22-1 /2° 1 . D E V E L O P M E N T T l e H n ih e g t q tt h e c u .hn e o e e la a es m c o h be cf o h n t w a c u l B a c t o i n o n t n e e. c t i h y g n p o o t ie hm se ln ec t b o n fa e t s t at s it r e n t hc le h e o d t d -i o e u t n i n t e r a s em c tb i u o n nf a s d c u o t p t a fi t p u n tm g e i o i r t t np i e n t g c .2 I C . T c i r c u h m of te r c e ny e c e l h i n i d i i v 1 ie n d p q e a ts du r oa t T a o n ah s g e = c 2l e t 2 e i . T a o nt h i ng t e r lh ps e e ec l t f i e a n t t a o t x hc y i= l o h 4 i e ns d f d e g r e e s .

em e Bl p o e l o n nt e e c pt i oh not g n e il e e nh m d s t r oe h curve t c of the h uintersection ee d t can be developed. E V E L O O P M P EA N T T T E R N F s t r lr o a a e ii g l qw h en t tut n e ag i r c u m o f t e rc e yn c l ei D h n i t d e vr f es i i t sn n n ea h u t o e sm m o pq b e a e eu t c i r c uh m o f et r s ec ne yc e l h i n d a e r l te a hm e r w e d o nna iu t v g i c e r p e nt d t i c u l hl a i r De e n t se e or e s l e o e hn e g a l bte e p m c h r o e jf h e n c c a l c u ( l ae t ix S o ba r n .282 I o e d q i C a u wm a e a to i n f ie n l rt g ts e r 9 s l e h c te i o 0f n I I . c t ie ln ed t hm e s t e t e n lfr e tm s iih e r s e c t i o n f . 1 I — 1 ‘/4 O T L D it i e e d p o o o i n t D D c l a D p t o c t I 1 d F O IH IN T E N R S E E C ET I F O N c vi r c i u hm d of te er c e n yec l e h i n np q a au td r aa e o rn t ll a e a s md ai vp ic o s T ii ih n o n t ne h rt s e . EXAMPLE for calculationof lengthof elements If the circumferenceof cylindersis divided into 16 equalparts a = 22-1/2° c1 = r sin a C’2= r sin 2 a C3 = r c a c4 = r o s .

C2 etc. d @ f e e 1 r° 14= @ R c. D E V E L O O P M P EA N T T T E R N F S D a s r t l r of a a e ii lgw t n eg q h etn tu a h t c i r c u m o f te rc e yn c l ei D h n i t d e vr f es i . a u = 3r = r sin 30° C2 = r cos 300 C3 = r 1 = = ..e g t c a b c e e w t ah c t s l i . to the circumference of the larger cylinder and draw elements at each points. m t h e r d o ia u pv eg i r cp h s e nt i dt h o i c nu l a rh l D i e t nt e l r e meo it .n h g a o t rp a v c rho t t i ls i n ca ae h yl r lw g 1 der.i 2 n s . T c u r o hv t a h t u i e tr o hl e al f h er c y l i di e n t e d b r et m r l i n e o es d hn g e l ec C m e es n p 1 t t as a c dch i. Draw an element at each division point. Project distances c1. e .h n n e el g e h t me h e b p r o o j ce a c l t c iu( o l y e a n t x S i o an r .o rc h .- I o u n d ei C q a wmu a e a to fi n i le n r t g ts e r 9 s l e h c te i o 0f n I inder into as many equal parts as necessary for the desired accuracy. The intersecting points of the elements of the large and small cylinder determine the curve of intersection. pt i o h n yo g n i t e l et h s m te r o ne h cte t sc o ut h u ee r d vh i n t e r c s be d c t e iv a o en l o p n e d e . 2 .m e b e Bl c oo nw nt )e e c. + E f D i c1 X A M P L E c a l co o u ll a t e oi r e on n l g e mt e f h n i t v c i i rd c u i hm n o f t eg rc e n y ec le h i1 =n 1 e n p q at o a t 2 sl 0 . . t s f . h l f t i s co n m yh il a e it r n s l n e d l e ah t r n u o e m p qb a tae u c i r rr ac u f h tm l f e s r e sn o t s c m yh l aDi n af l d eer e l r e a .

I C s d . f ~ \ r — — . . D D t c n c t t o c B e t T m l i w m E V E L O O P M P E AN TT T E a s r t l r oa e ii l g q w e h n ut n t c i r c u hm o f t e r b e on r ec e h a y al di n i i d nv r d ht e te s n i d a u o em pb q a eat u cr r a f ith l u m f e Dr e a n rc e e . 1! -+ .e m S oba e l p o e c o n nt ee c p t i o h n o t y n g i l et s m te r o ne h ct t sc o u h u ee r d i n t e r hc s e b c d tei v e o a e n l o c u r o hv t a h t ‘u t er o he c ya il d i e i n t ed b rn t em ri n eo e n l e g c C m te e s h n 1 t tpf s t a dh n i s a e tb c a egn mc t e t ah t l i eo r c a hn o h t gr e t e c ya (l ei il n s e v d a n e te ri o A M P L E l c oo u l l a eo t e i n o lr neg v t il m t il e s n L k E X f c a D c c. - y *-* .284 I w n C i in t e r o a t s e c h x t i nn g e a .(r . . i y i i d n of t g c r c iu h m e r e n ec e i e nn pd q e t 3u r r ot 2 1 a a= a /1 = { — = r sin 30° R + C 2 - 2 C2= r cos 30° 12 =~ R2-(r 1 + C1)2 J 4 R2.C1)2 16 = R .– ‘ . . + I I 1’ I I T L O IH IN T E N R SE E C ET I F O D it v i r i c uh d e r e ne c e c m of e t b rc y a o l nb i v c n d o ih i e r et n a m e a pq a n an u e sr c ay e t s l f t i n o t a h ec n c D u d r r ee a d rc a e l a e e m d eia p v n n i toc s i i t T p oo ih in t e n r o st t ee c s t i o f c o r r e s e p oln d ed i m n g e n t e t e r m t l o i n iht e r s n e c e t ie o f n . hn t e l ebh m p re o nf jo e t e c s t a l c u ( l ae t ix n .l a e m h e r d o i a upv e gr i c ph se ni d h o i c n t l Di eh t n t e l r e o me i . b . I I .

=w= ‘tc .x b (a S e m e l.a .285 I C A C N B % / 4 3 2 1 2 3 T D c m t e D r s b e c e o d o o c l e a o a ( D D t d n c t p t j of O IH IN T E N R SE E C ET I F O N c v i r i c uh d m o f ee t r e ne c e h i i r a te n n w h y l o ib n v d o e e a pq a a n nu e rcay f e t sl s s a o d e a h s c ic u r D r ee a a d r c y . i .t c t e l e v h T a st i n c u r ou v t a ht u i tr o he l f h i t o b d e n t e br e tm i s n o e d h eo a n a ag r e tt r 2 chta 3 n f s s cf . a a a re m 2 b ct o 3 bf s ac t .a m t ef 6 r I ‘.l a e m w h er o d a iu v h os i ihe o nn p g i cp e n d t t i cl u D l i a eh r t n e r e om e l eo t hn e lg eb t hp m e he nr f te e o c b c t a li c tou l l n a e t ir h n y g g n 1~. t e c i st n h t e l e vT a i t n i t o e h rn p s . 1 e t e c *.t n . p e o l I w E X f c a C6 = A M P L E l c oo u l l a eo t e i n o lr neg r sin a a R d= h i t u p s . e f t pr v olohc i a dl amc e ue l n a w e x e m bp l ei T f l s i e s po d ahw c . s h o m ob c w a l as c n u l r a y t e S x ba e e m lp o el w e ) . a l a e e m de a i n v ti h o n p t i co s c r i o r p a c v l lw w e i s a i en ar . r de T i l t u2o i s i h c n l . e o ct tp ii d ol h e tn e ar nm e i nn t p oo ih n i t en r y s o te e c ts i o n f l e a m t e c no r nt r e s d d ie h s p o n i P r cr t l o p e hj s o te . e oc t ii e n g n t p r o a j h e e c l t eo w f ne r m s e i n e t te r l m o ii i nh n t e r ns e e c te t no r eh e . it L E V E L O O P M N TT P EA T E R a s r t l r oa a l ii ee gw h n nq t g u et t c i r c u h m of te r c eo n e y c e hl a d e i i in v t i s n r d d at h e u o e m pbq a e atu r c ra f t ihl u m f e Dr e a n r c e e .

A -—.— .286 I C A S N R K I > -—.—. C a x i g l t c d u i ls x a thX a t e n e c el e ts 2 . 1 1 I . The intersections of the elements with the corresponding circles are points on the curvature of intersection. etc.r a “ - . . \ % B . . R2 THE LINE OF INTERSECTION Divide the diameter of the cylinder into equal spaces. P 2i F i l S i wm t w i t kt r ao w d d i n eh d e da rtt yh t e ei r o ee e r ts g i cm u a fo h ta hd s . a a D p n iH g n e se ic l e ap a h o nr ~ n hu i h a sc i p k nh sl i h ie u t i qt s r c s h . —. P i 2 iE l l i pH :p s o e e i n d 1a la T c ep h n o o rt th e e i i ra oeh p n p a r m aa s t p h e s e l er i ty g c r m a al e o hn d w i he 0 iq t cu t i dh . l tp no i 0 h e e m i t ti d m i a oh e t m he s tt eleh ro ia h i n t e r as e d c e tv i e o nl o n ot p c m y e d n l th i nc b f i oa t a u db n e nh seomd c r av n i e nb . aim a so h lt m e 9e h W e t a ph i dw ieh i a . I al a a -3 - 1 s . . c . The horizontal planes through the division points cut elements from the cylinder and circles from the sphere. D D c t T m D p l c I “ Iw E V E L O O P M T EC N T Y LH I N D F a s r t lr a a o ei i g w nt t ut n ea g l q h e i r c u m o f te rc e n y c ale hdi n i i d nf v e e t s n ah u o p m m a ob a t e c e ry r l t h i s p o ah t d c ii p v ne h io a g s d i i f eoe n bi t ln e o e a hn o d t g r c y ty e l c h h i a e r l t e a h m e r ew d o nianu p v t g i coh s e r p e n td it c u l l a Dri e h tn e t r oe me e o t n e gl eb th m p hr e o n f jo e e tb cs t a l c ou t l a l t ei oo nh 1n 1 g e t f he 1 ts 2 ‘E f e X c l e A a M P L E l co uof l length a t i rof o m e n t s . x i = x~ v + r xesin a n l s.

E f X c c= a A M P L E l c o o u l l a eot e i no rl d = r x sin a n eg m t ef r x cos a L E O NE L G E TM H E N T F S I t a db eh so mc r v a n ci e b ne e n d b f to d e u v e hn lf o e t p d m re eno t a s p i tiw i e h o c e n e ns : one end is square 2. The points 3.t t ’o 1 3 n .e t em 2 h t 3 f . Strike an arc with 1 as center and the chord of divisions as radius.a b t ea t qkt c ue o e t an o h l r o d i vo i t st i c o iin h t s o ra h c f e l p small enough for the desired accuracy.287 T connecting cylindrical P and rectangular shapes D E V E L O P M E N T D it c v ii i e hr d n c e a al u p q te d a e r l ae a e m d w ea i nv n p o i n t . the circular and rectangular planes are not parallel .c t h’ h s i t i h eo d th i t r g e a sn hhe s ti t p i e c e . A q q A A A- B t e d e g v e h li o o t p n m l e e n ti h 1 a d t . e n d tt e T l eo 1 h n 2 g 3.w nh S g e w bh S o st qh s et u e i ae a aA s s A ai w h dh yn p o o eA t D s e d n u e f b o t r u i a n n g o u cl d a a t i lyo c n u t F i t op i n o1 2 n hi 3 . The intersection of these arcs give the point 2. in the curve can be Found in”a similar manner. one or both sides of the rectangle are equal to the diameter of the circle 3. er a ti c s F t li e o en hn e g a l d be t e m c h e t r i a n g o ub l c a at li o c n uT l a t i r o y e l ea m t h e y n pr t oho st t e n eu e s t r i o a n side g of l n which e s is e A A A --e a 2. 4 etc.r rn t i r a h liSg d a. With A as center and A-2 as radius draw arc at 2. the circular and rectangular planes are eccentric 4.

w nh S g e w bh S o i ae st qh s et u e a aA s A ai w d h yn p o o eA t Ds h e dn u e f b o t r u i a n n g o u cl d a a t i lyo n c t F i i n n t op o1 2 hi 3 .r rn t i r a h liSg d a. With A as center and A-2 as radius draw arc at 2. er ti c F t li e o en hn e g a l d bt e e m c h t r i a n g o ub l c a at li o c n uT l a t i r e l ea m e y n pr t oho st t e n eu e t h t r i one a n side g of l which e s is A A A--e a 2. Strike an arc with 1 as center and the chord of divisions as radius.288 T connecting cylindrical P and rectangular shapes 1 2 2 3 4 3 @ 3 : . E f X c e = a ~ A M P L E l c o o u l l a eot e i no rl d = r x sin a + -d ( - n eg a)( b m t c = r x cos a )2 In the above described manner can be found the development for transition pieces when: 1.t t ’o 1 3 n . one end is square 2. the circular and rectangular planes are not parallel . 4 etc. one or both sides of the rectangle are equal to the diameter of the circle 3. in the curve can be found in a similar manner. the circular and rectangular planes are eccentric 4.3 2 1 2 + . The intersection of these arcs give the point 2. B t e d e g v e h li o o t p n m l e e n ti h 1 a d t .e t em 2 h t 3 f b t ea t qkt c ue o e t an o h l d i vo i t st i c o iin h t s o ra h c f e small enough for the desired accuracy.e n d tt e T l eo 1 h n 2 g 3.c t h’ s i t i h eo d th i t r g e a sn hhe s ti p i e c e .A D E V E L O P M E N T D it c v ii i e hr d n pq c e a al u te d a e r l ae a e m d w ea i nv n p o i n t . The points 3.

= t3 2 ex 8 r 0 2 .03238 0. i 2 60 n6 5 c8 3h 6e ls s .38268 0.06679 0.03377 0.13053 0.06824 0.03926 0.43388 0. . 23 24 25 0.05509 0.04907 7 0.03205 0.04027 0. . 0 3 .04188 89 90 91 92 93 % 96 97 98 93 8 5 0 .11196 0. 0= n 2 0 ° i= 2 .04302 0. 00 2 6. 4 07 8 .03529 4 1:: 0. 5.07473 0.10117 0.04551 0.04618 0.03272 0. 20 29 88 68 2 33 2 3 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 .19509 0.58779 0. C = D E X I i r C = 100 x sin No.09227 90 1 10 80 2 3 90 20 4 51 % 54 55 56 57 58 59 0.04423 0.34202 0 0 0 0 @ . .14232 0. 7 06 1 .: 79 80 81 82 83 84 5 40 60 % 5 10 8 5 ) 8 4 0.03414 0.03341 0.04362 0.14904 0.09802 0.05709 0.18375 0. 76 . 3 2 2 c No.03739 20 0 3.04687 0.05607 0. t le o s a lt r e o o E X A I i r e cf 8s C =D T t f a i A e t i la f e e at r a c . 8 9 4 0 0.00000 0. 10 1 4.03976 0.06153 0.07134 0. of Spaces eo c h n n hf g oao d d t e r eh o n ds n fu i s o sm r r pen y b s d ae c ihr t o e o f s w h l e : 1 8 0 m s e t e i r n n uo sm p b a e c r e f s P L E : u a i 1 ri v et ds i d i n 0 da c om eiic e 1 r0 t e nh ec p rq l 2 t a u e ro a 0 t l s 1 8 0 — 1 x s 1 30 1 = i0 x 0 0 ’. b eb u t M P L E : t q d u a ii 2 r i v ed t s i di n a d c o m ie ic e 8 e r t0 nh e sc q r p l t u a e c ao e p f o ta t r c a0 e roh . of c 0.13617 0. c c 1 2 3 4 5 .07846 0.06279 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 0.06407 0.04758 0.12533 40 41 :: 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ! 2 08 5.06976 0.20791 0.04831 0.04132 0.289 D C T p m f c I E P + c I b m e he f d t si h o v e a o oi c t sd i i ta f tr l i t eo t h n sn c s goo hd a e t a l s h ew u n tr ide ig i ot s v th t e T r e l n eoc t h ne c .70711 0.b s 3 l m 8 e 2 e :6 8 ax m 0 l i b a~ M t q d e .86603 0.17365 0.n 0 6 c 2 6 h 1 2 0 No.09506 0.04079 0.03490 0.00000 1.07300 0.11609 0. 20 6 8 7 0 3 86 8 0 2 86 3.03173 0 .10812 0“10453 0. 8 9 1 1 1 1 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 30 38 35 0.04244 0.12054 0. 6=37 8 8 .03452 0.03784 0.03830 0.05924 0.06038 0.05814 0.07655 0.50000 0..04487 0.15643 0. g hC = th edo i x c r w c ch i i e ro r nnc q l fu t h t e a o h a rf e n dr p h he c r u ci idh r e h i r ao f m d e e. 0 0.16460 0.06540 0.03306 0. . 4 0 8 0 5 0 3 3 3 3 0.05322 9 05 6 .05414 0.03878 0.

431 83 1. values of 1. 1 andradi”s 0 Deg e De[ T . 0.449 84 1.361 79 1.715 0.344 78 1.880 166 2.019 174 3.007 2.117 65 1.000o m 0 .length of chord.867 108 1.037 175 3.124 180 3.134 66 1.18? 2.002 173 3.396 81 I.239 7? 1.955 1.147 2.379 80 1.290 m I P W SEGMENTS OF CIRCLESFOR R4DIUS= 1 / l\ Length of arc.850 107 1. and J the values for areas.815 105 1.950 170 2.100 64 1. height of segment.897 167 2.054 176 3.827 163 2.466 85 1.920 111 1.3?6 77 1.667 1 1 T A 0 m7 62 1.042 2.73? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 I — 1 63 1. i 4 5 6 -1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 h c 7A 1 h c A e Deg Area h I 2.291 75 I.833 106 1.072 177 3.11? 2.ooo1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.199 2. h and c in the table by the given radius r.984 172 3.089 178 3.862 165 2.107 179 3.915 168 2.990 I 2.780 103 1.414 82 1.152 67 1.798 104 1.885 109 1.025 2. the square of the radius. multiply the .967 171 2.483 86 1 87 1 88 1 89 1 90 1 91 1 92 1 93 1 94 1 95 1 96 1 97 1 98 1 99 1 100 1 1.309 76 1.257 73 1.763 102 1.094 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 121 122 123 124 I15 126 127 ]28 129 I I .077 2.X34 70 [~q~ 71 I.937 1.129 2.217 ~.164 2.?34 2.902 110 1.932 169 2. .082 3-F 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .845 164 2.169 68 1. ~ I 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 &6~54 I 162 2.:5 ] 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 c l 6 ment 0 2 9 3 3 0 9 0 2 3 i 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.142 1 i [ .187 69 1.274 74 1.059 2.972 I 1. and area of segmentfor anglesfrom 1 to 180 degrees = 1 For other radii. by r2.

062: 0.500 0.I 25a O.1250 .1250 0.2500 0.1875 0.12.0625 0.0625 0.062 ! 0.1250 0. T 6 %8 1.3125 0.0625 0.0625 2 2 %3 0.0625 0.5000 0.1250 0.0625 0.12s0 0.062$ 0.1875 0.8125 0.062! 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 0. 12s0 0.062$ 0.3125 A %5 ( I 1 1Y2 0.50 0.1875 0.1875 0.062$ 0.0625 0.0625 —.0625 0.1875 0.3125 0.12 SC O.1875 0.0625 0.1250 0.0625 0.291 Ziii4 I d D A R T I N O T EH R SP E C T T IE O N O S H A NE O L N ZF L Z L D ( D i m e In s ni o cn e hd e s E ) N M ~ I 3 NE 4 0.0625 —.2500 0.2500 0.0625 0.0625 0. 0.125C O.0000 1.2.1250 0.0625 0.1875 0.0625 0.062 ! 0.062: 0.1250 0.3750 0.0625 0.125C 0.0625 0.4375 0.062S 0.1875 0.3750 0.0625 0.2500 0.125C 0.1250 0.062 ! 0.2500 0. 0.1250 0.0625 0.0625 0.8125 1.6250 1.062 ! 0.6875 1.0625 0.3750 0.1875 0.1250 0.0625 0.0625 0.12SC o.062$ 0.1250 + O.062 : 0.

3125 0.2500 2.000o [ [ [ [ L .6250 + 0.1875 1.4375 0.1250 3.1250’ 2.0000 5.000 4.8750 — 4.0625 [.6250 1.0625 2.0000 3.2500 2.3125 .3125 6.3125 0.9375 ).625C 1.1875 0.8750 1.3750 4.437: 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 I 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 0.8750 2 5000 2.3750 0.4375 1.750C 0.8125 0.1250 0.6875 0.000C 6.0000 ).1 82! 0.5625 4.6250 0.9375 1. n ns IN 6 ic o hn (P A 2 8 e E E s .4375 9.6875 0.000 4.9375 0.5000 2.5625 1.0000 5.5000 1.3750 2.5000 3.182! + 0.81 25 ).4375 0.0625 1.1875 I 1.250( 2. 0 D.1875 1.0000 0.8750 8.3125 4.1875 1.0000 3.1875 1.375( 0.37s0 0.5000 1.0625 1.7500 3.3125 2.3125 1.875 0.0625 1.812 : 0.6875 1.9375 1.5625 0.1250 2.0000 7.8125 6.9375 0.3125 1.1875 2.0625 1.1 N M 1 P I a 20 30 4.8750 1.7500 ).5625 4.3 12! 0.3125 3.3 12! 0.8125 1.3125 2.312 : 0.2500 4.750[ 1.8125 2.0625 [.5000 1.292 I I I i I I I dl I D A R T O S ( D i I NO T EH R S PE CT T I EO N H A NE O L N Z F LZ L D md e I .6250 2.1250 1.8125 4.1875 0.6250 0.6250 .8125 4.4375 3.7500 3.8125 1. .937.5675 1 1.7500 6.5625 1.4375 1.5625 2.3750 1.0625 1.8750 0.1250 7.6875 9 5.0625 !.7500 1.2500 1.6875 —— 0.6875 0.7500 0.7500 0.1250 0.4375 0.375C 0.6875 1.4375 4.0000 3.5000 !.0625 0.1.1250 0.1250 1.8750 1.7500 2.7500 0.3125 2.8125 0.0625 1.6875 2.375C 0.6875 7.3125 5.7500 1.3125 0.3750 1.8750 36 38 40 42 ).250( 0.3750 1.0625 5.8125 1.4375 0. ) S ! h i 1.500( 0.8125 0.875C 0.6875 0.0625 3.250( 0.7500 2.625C 0.7500 — e l .2500 1.0000 1.6875 4.5 1.375( 2.8750 1.1875 12.8750 1.7500 0.0000 6.6875 40 0 0 .2500 2.4375 1.7500 1.500( 0.8750 3.1875 0.7500 ). 1.0000 1. 125C 2.0000 0.0000 8.2500 4.0625 3.5000 2.5625 0.625C 0.4375 2.8125 0.0625 0. l .250( 0.250( 0.5625 1.0000 8.5625 0.6250 4.2500 1.250( 0.437$ 0.1250 3.1875 2.4375 1.8750 0.

3442 4.4852 7 5.9372 0 13 2 5. 2 9 1 2 6.7 — T T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 — 7 7.0990 4 5 6 4.7749 6.4162 6 4.5 7.4772 2.3166 7. I T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 — x 1 3 = 12 Y 2. 1 2 6.293 I TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS t ~ From these tablesthe dimension y can be found if the diameter.2613 4 3.8729 14 5.8284 2.3808 T3 41 9.7838 15 5.3541 2 3.4 is — 7 7 8 9~ [0 ~ [1 [2 [3 .8734 x Y 8.9843 2.245 6.1231 2.4833 - 7 .1622 3 4 2.9749 T Y 6.4833 8.3301 11 0 16 — 5.8027 70 D = 16 Y 3.1234 T Y 7.8722 0 ‘=36 Y 8.8094 3.6568 4.7082 4 6.8722 5 2.4494 6 1.9580 0 -J D =38 x Y 9.3301 4 6.6332 4.9529 2.8284 3 2.7459 4 5.1937 7 4.9749 4.5 .1961 ) = 30 8.4543 0 14 — 8.6097 6.9160 4.7082 6.8218 4 2.9861 8.4330 8.4852 8. ~Ient ‘ L i R=t n r e a o h hd e i u a e sd f .3619 3.3 .4083 — 7.2360 5 1.6457 1.9282 8 3.2915 ) = 28 7.7081 3.4 .6 .3979 l L’ l —( i 5 6 7 8 9 0 .1622 6.5383 5 2 .4641 11 Y 7.3666 3 4.5901 4.8581 3 5.3245 6 5.6925 2.9364 0 ) = 18 x 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 4.7416 3 7 5.9686 3.1 .8374 3 6.8738 4.Y 6.4772 7.2 .7416 3.6568 13 2.9442 8.7697 6.4226 2 6 4.1533 10 T Y 3.1794 5.4807 6.1240 5 3.8094 11 0 6.8729 3.4868 2 9.4472 9.3878 4.9282 2 7.2426 6.2284 = 3.2426 4.7459 7.4409 2 4.9686 2 7.3245 3 5.0710 Y D = 26 6.1225 2.3484 7.0615 0 I 7.4641 r z 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T 2 3 4 i 5 6 7 8 9 ! 2 ) 7 0 ?.5980 4 2.1651 .8989 .0208 5.8989 T 6.5980 Y Y 5.6904 9 ~= 32 )= 22 4.7942 7.8989 10 2.2915 8.6583 0 6 — — D = 14 x Y 1 3.5707 6 5.5 12 7 5.9791 4.5 3.9580 2 2.1846 5.0311 3.9821 7.4772 4.5825 6.7749 8.4721 4.4641 3.0621 7 5 12 =24 5.0622 7.6055 12 ) = 34 5.8741 8.1234 8 0 0 4.2249 5.7662 3.2111 6.8738 6.2870 5 9.5993 5 4.6143 9 3.6458 8.3541 2.7445 8 4 13 Y 9 5.4721 7 7.4807 6. D and dimensionx are known.

0871 9.5916 9.4833 6.2462 7.9917 14.3078 10.7082 9.1833 =7 8 19.9302 8.8293 30 19 13.8262 7.0311 33 6 19.6886 12.5499 9 17.2678 0 7 19.2478 11 15.351 13.0078 20 14.1612 Y 27 9.2665 12.4721 3.4868 9.225 7 10.3851 3.8405 0 -7 .9666 9 15..3137 17 14.2665 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 x T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13.2015 0 =48 Y 11.8994 1 Y 14.4868 Y 19.5885 7 16.1421 29 10.9904 12.6654 9.2915 7.198 9.2462 20 13.9666 14.9583 11.5393 9.6168 8.9374 4 17.9160 22 12.8474 12 15.7854 2 16.3091 14.5434 6 11.1234 4.2330 8.4936 28 8.4924 13 16.9518 14 14.1937 21 12.3923 10.9087 10.1391 x Y 12 16.7242 22 14.4083 4.9722 ~ 2 18.9059 11.6306 17.5831 3 16.0138 8.3516 8 7.8317 8.4309 28 11.1244 7.9706 1 16.3704 24 13.4226 5.4852 7.4278 0 = 54 Y 13.5993 7.4629 13.6332 5.1414 6.8094 4.7459 7.4284 10 17.6168 8.619 11.0623 9.1515 32 8.6564 8 17.7477 13.7083 9 8.4164 13 15.4499 15 14.5563 23 13.6602 8.8007 6.4782 11.4164 13.3137 11.0413 0 =40 Y 9.9737 1 17.0934 4 5 11.8738 31 4 19.0623 9.8322 11.6400 0 1 =60 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 -L 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.9931 10 18. 10.4523 10.8743 8 10.4705 7.6202 10 15.9553 13.8885 5 17.8309 5.6969 27 11.3288 12.3391 4.4697 14 16.6558 32 5 19.6143 6 5.8745 21 14.7703 — =78 .8939 1 12.9442 8.1658 25 12.3675 8.4743 7.7958 3.3666 8.4881 9 10.7279 2 12.2130 3 2 24 11.8481 17.3972 5.8661 14.) T 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 x =38 9.5383 5.7367 6 7 8 9 10 T =42 x .8666 6 16.1846 5.1245 5 16.7979 9. 35 8 4.8740 30 3 19.0777 7.1421 13.6654 10.586 14.7902 14.5185 13.2678 4.7279 33 5.0691 8.3484 6.7467 9.3675 9.294 TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON 2: 1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS(Cont.9874 9.3095 17 15.4317 15 16.3654 6.1651 8.7121 10.1245 19 15.9442 8.3248 36 0 10.7482 7 17.0990 3.2984 34 23 1 1 .2916 1 ‘66 11 17.8255 6 17.9416 26 12.225 18 15.9248 14.3589 3.198 10.7321 -i29 2 19.2426 3.9498 9.5399 3 12.6969 14.9059 16 14.8868 9.1225 0 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 21 x T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 9.1624 13.4422 6.3592 12 11.4907 31 9.1644 5.1803 2 3 4 5 10.9896 11.4568 14.8322 11.0384 12.9372 7.0710 6.3631 4 16.4907 13.0853 Y 9 18.1243 10.4881 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 T 11.9498 18 13.3314 6.2889 8 16.3923 10.9282 6.6824 9.8264 7.3783 16 16. Y 1 10.

3848 18.9333 29.9322 23.8997 19.267 20.798 12 26.5744 6 26.295 I TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS(Cont. 1 8 1 1 3 26.4878 25 26 20.1384 17.1720 0 = 120 Y 29. 6 2 2 9 3 9 .7394 14.0397 16 25.7846 24 25 20.6139 17.2947 12.9815 . 7 6 9 2 8 26.3923 9.1644 4.6577 24.6271 25.9762 20.9248 14.4499 22.7063 20.3307 22 23 21.5 6.3095 15.1467 10.7486 21.4031 40 4.3693 11.3516 45 45 6.1421 13.8328 10 23.1421 13.9706 16.3249 16 22.0857 28 15.0384 12.6082 36 10.9258 8 23.7942 39 6.7834 17.4444 14 26.5916 44 44 8.4284 33 33 16.8496 29.6332 4.4499 22.9464 19.7083 18.9792 23.533 14 22.3704 14.884 9 23.7705 16.6643 5 26.198 8.7761 22. 5 3 2 6 3 0 .5524 8.666 19.3961 20.9411 34 34 16.6969 31 14.9666 14.2003 18 17.0768 18 22.8322 11.7021 12 23.9687 19.9583 7 23.1686 32 13.9954 -i.2047 16.5 12.0777 6.6525 29 15.6155 20.8747 24.3078 9.103 10 26.1012 15.8745 26 16.1742 26 19.6525 14.7434 4 26.052 11.5609 20.748 15.0799 24.2486 15 25.2988 17.0712 13.) D=78 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 F 18.3613 8 26.9373 37 8.9374 19 22.2029 18 18.799 19.4936 28 28 19.5499 17.7283 20 18.4662 21 18.1077 21.1246 29 29 18.3325 15.4109 2 2 2 2 : 7 2 20.9762 20.3717 20.2337 25 16.4599 11.4734 7 26.4778 22.1868 23.48 41 41 11.225 10.2736 8.3235 31 31 17.9531 23.6015 33 12.9948 23.4339 15 22.4285 24.9442 38 7.6654 43 43 9.0329 18.8885 23 17.0654 23 24 20.4558 25.4241 35 35 15.2971 14.7722 11 23.2801 5.3468 10.3391 19.9904 34 12.994 -i2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20.4944 22.9737 19 18.7407 16.2665 40 40 12.1905 30 14.6278 19.7169 0 =96 Y 23.8957 29.6023 7.5122 20.3288 35 11.615 19.4924 27 16.3827 23.1833 18.9833 29.6274 13 26.9911 39 39 13.2379 9 26.6224 13 23.1556 19.6643 23.8745 36 36 15.7951 .8431 27 27 19.8741 7.5812 21 22 21.6748 18.3644 18 17.8734 47 x 0 48 7 7 = 108 2 Y Y 3 4 26.124F 19.3874 x 0 T 1 =84 2 x Y 3 4 20.9165 7 T 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 4 50 8 51 52 53 54 7 x 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 25.5739 13.8193 15.5344 14.0868 22.7846 20.1246 19.8885 32 32 17.2735 25.2059 17 22.619 42 42 10.735 30 30 18.8062 12.4165 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21.8507 20.6629 38 38 13.8167 9.9958 29.2889 37 37 14.9625 29.7876 20.554 18.5713 24 17.5713 16.0294 16.8556 46 4.5552 41 0 42 =90 v 22.4317 16.8174 21 21.9565 11 26.1865 22 17.

9896 10.1402 23.4923 32.7083 27.303 17.367 24 23.4347 34.4261 5.2614 29.7239 34.1077 21.4083 35.1364 32.7902 13.1138 33.4558 25.541 30.9393 32.9961 31.9225 20.1333 28.6437 29.6224 26.1025 27.4284 16.4839 14.1662 32. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Y 32.9032 21.5967 24.8617 28.249 32.9464 20.2874 29.666 18.6495 22.749 31.7333 31.3939 29.9659 32.6586 27.3961 19.6358 15.9737 18.9666 14.5931 29.9106 27.9411 33.0622 5.6167 23.3137 Y 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 5 9.9777 27.6917 32.8998 24.4965 35.9314 30.6511 35.8865 31.6274 21.9848 32.1123 29.5831 15.7176 35.296 TABLE FOR LOCATING POINTS T 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 & u 120 29.4116 24.1769 30.4561 28.4955 27.9131 35.6481 18 17.3875 c i a 4 ah e a l e la .8997 19.3307 20:6337 19.619 32.4243 20.2783 34.8328 26.8295 35.0624 13.4642 16.3771 25.5774 35.2631 25.6606 29.748 14.1246 18.5832 34.6948 27.6182 28.5996 11.3133 16.4484 31.9821 34.9815 26.3729 33.9861 35.7567 32.9444 35.5788 28.285 31.9687 35.8361 8.2718 27.2835 8.3772 25..9965 35.8569 34.) 10.367 23.9507 32.4915 29.2843 27.1719 29.533 26.6811 z 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 7 Y T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 59 54543 0 60 — D = 132 T x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 .249 31.8118 L 67 68 69 70 71 72 13.9333 29.798 22.3939 29.3267 26.5778 30.0767 r 55 56 57 58 ON 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS (Cont.2718 26.7321 29.7706 28.2843 28.1025 27.0156 31.3535 32.7602 33.1679 22.6643 23.4603 31.2414 17.4956 28.5804 29.1127 30.7477 12.1814 10.8139 32.9137 28.4924 15.7184 24.7409 30.8828 30.0474 28.7909 26.8431 19.9962 32.2404 28.2164 22.8035 14.5708 33.45 32.7261 32.5384 32.7771 35.3129 35.9943 21.2488 25.603 31.8602 25.7227 0 = 144 Y35.6856 25.2614 18.037 26.035 24.8747 28.9037 25.8634 32.3315 30.9052 32.9791 0 N O T T c u r h v a o a e l l i p s h e ei t a i n o o su it i at r e l l i p s T p a r h a l c o u t r o p sp o si i n e l l o i a t n h d o a t t t ha bi a n r o a p p l i c a t l o c a p o i n t g eh o m a r iu c a ln d e t e r m i c u r v ( e i t o h w s c h a p e 5 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 J@ 2 22.8748 35.8831 29.3607 21.3675 7.5407 20.7703 9.2101 35.3224 19.0999 34.9808 25.0549 24.

= 3 N F 7 9 o l t V @ / 2 6 4 1 C 0 ” oz @ 3 cz a l t ee 0 d rt al oeb o h n lm g e t e a =7 ’ . i r 8 4 n3 c ? ° h 8 f .8 i. O =3 P . 8 n9 . O. 3 D 4 .D. =3 ° f ° c 0 0 . 3. These tables are for locating points on pipes and shells by measuring the length of arcs. I =3 O = N o l FW t d .D. e0 e e ur c r i t n e 0 e r ti e .0 (i ) D 2 ”e 6 . Y 2 @ 7 9 I s . not shown in the table. ” d ° oe e o h d m e o h@ 0 ° m e ih c 4 f s 8 n3 : 8 c P 3m’ ) 2 4 d 7 9 .p 0 . x2 2 6 1 2 = 5i 8 . 0 0 0 7 5 n 50 1 8 1= 0 i . 8 W . EXAMPLES A. The length of arcs are computed for the most commonly used pipesizes and vessel diameters. 1 =8 0 J . 8 ( Y B 6 . 2. can be obtained easily using the values given for diam. 0 ” oz @ 3 cz a l t ee 0 d ? ° r l a eo W o 3b na f lg m 0 t e r ho f ° c 2 a 6 1 x2 3 6= 0 81 .297 LENGTH OF ARCS 1. 8 . 1 or degree 1. The length of arcs for any diameters and any degrees. 0 . @ D p 22%0 ! 2 & 7 { 1 9 ( 0 ” N o l oz @ 2 cz a 2 l t ee ? d 4 F t r l a eo o1 ba n o lg m te r h 3Y O P’ . All dimensions are in inches. 4. ln t / e” s l8 h s = ” a ?. w 3P O. W t h D0 a i c 3 k . V D0 N o l oz @ 6 cz a l t T a t b mh e r a f st c P 0l c o e ns t @ e e rs l T n o i 3 hz f z t s 9r l ~ T l eo t hn a 7gh & ’ .

2 3 17 0 32 . 680 1 50 15 . 8 0 0 . 07 10 97. 0 1 0 4. 3 3 0 53 04 20 5 1. . 1S 2 08 1 3 : z w & z ~ z 0 z 2 3 a 5 6 8 w w ~ ~ A m x a 8 $ & a z ~ n . 1 7 4 . a 00 00 m 5 0. 1 6 1 . 3 8 2 8 .80 0 27 . 8 0 6 .298 L D D 1 1 1Y2 E E O NA G 1 G R R T E 2 E H C S 02 F S i 0 0 1 .8 2 .

2500 56.6 .0313 11.0000 23. 1 5 1 8. 7 . 8 2 3 80 4 5 4 53 .6563 16.0000 11.4688 0.7500 3.0313 7.5625 16.6875 75.8438 43.6875 113.0313 29.2500 2.7500 10.9375 2. 4 0.0313 1.4063 47.4063 0.0938 122.4375 10.8125 94.1250 26.2188 6.5313 94.8438 20.4688 5.3 9 8 .0625 10.8750 2..: 6.8750 5.3438 7.6250 20.1250 28.0938 15.0000 3.5313 1.1250 75.4 3.0313 25.5625 14.5625 61.5000 6.5625 13. 4 1.4 4.8438 69.0938 4.4375 11.9375 15. 4m 3 0 0 .0313 2.0313 8 7 3 2 .0938 33. 5 66 78 :.5625 62. 71 3 1 5 0 36 2 0 .0625 1.1250 50.5 8 9 .6563 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 7 9 1 3 4 6 8 0 2 3 0. 3 .5938 6.6250 3 5 04 7 25 6 20 65 82 06 49 27 07 68 69 09 21 20 84 61 46 82 3 0 .8438 56.5625 13.5938 13.7500 0.3 0. 6 . 1 .5938 0.8125 25.8438 20.6S63 183.6875 87.1563 11.4063 13.3 7 9 .2500 9.0625 3.4063 80.2188 . 3 3 1 8 9 8 4 .0938 119.3750 11.5625 25.4003 1. 5 5 .1250 17.5625 61.1 8 9 03 6 34 74 5 1 56 8 66 5 17 8 52 89 w N G m & z d 4 g z $? 2 2% 3 3% 4 5 6 8 10 12 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 .2500 13.9688 7. 08 5 0 6 2 .3438 14. 07 0 .8438 21.1250 5. 4 4 3 0 9 3 9 .1563 3. 54 2 3 91 3 .6563 9.1250 84. 89 9 7 8 8 003.2188 12.0 6 56 1 .9375 1. 5 .5313 106.8438 56.8125 89.1563 22.2813 4.8438 8. 4 1.0000 4. . 0 .1250 27.1250 1.0000 25. 3 .9688 75.8125 27.5000 1.4063 22.— 226. 2.2813 31.4063 81. 31 0 84 3 8 5 6 7 3 .9688 94. 22 0 8 6 0 3 .2500 . 8 . 6 1 3 3 1 44 . 2 .2188 1.0 8 8 . 4 5.6563 131.7188 5.0000 9.7813 8.1875 2.1875 245.5625 1.3750 5.2813 7.7188 7.9688 113.1250 51. 57 0 8 .4688 20. 1 4.5625 25.0938 3. 10 1 31 8 0 1 3 .2500 100. 3 1 . 71 3 8 5 00 2 .5000 169.1563 9.7813 11.1 0 2.3125 3.2813 29. 1 29.7813 16 1 .0625 43.3 2 .8438 65.9375 23.3750 1. 16 0 3 8 5 2 .5313 4.3125 25.6875 62. 30 6 0 1 6 88 2 3 .4060 56.2500 103.35619 5 05 47 3.7813 8.7813 11. 25 6 93 2 .5625 9.7813 169.7813 10.5938 .9688 70.6875 42.1250 15.3750 125.5625 59.0000 12. 89 9 0 18 2 .3438 30.2813 18.4 2 .14159 4.2188 5.5313 5.0625 37.8750 20.8438 22.9688 50. 0.5625 37.8438 31. 3 0.8438 14.6250 3.0000 12.5625 1.8750 1. 05 20 6 65 0 10 3 4 4 7 79 1 14 5 48 8 2.7500 4.3750 4.2813 3.5000 18.1875 4.0938 6.9688 7.2500 98.2188 23.3 1. 0 7 21 8 7. 3 .3125 20.0 6 .0938 127.9688 14.0000 1. 1 8 0 . 5 8 0 02 6 3 6 83 .2500 141.4375 10.8750 12. 62 7 0 02 2 .4688 9.8125 113. 5 2 7 0 5 84 .5000 18.4063 34. 4 5.2813 33.7188 0.5625 14.5000 6.2188 1.7188 17. 13 1 33 5 6 9 3 .2500 53.3125 3 0 8 2 34 2 5 . 6 9 8 35 7 7 5 3 .8750 5.4375 4.9375 0. 63 4 39 6 3 8 63 .. 3 1 2 .1250 14.3750 1.5938 3.0000 37.6563 4.9065 28.4063 47.6563 188.6875 40.6875 42.0000 23.7188 4.3458 —-.5313 1 0.3750 9. 7 6 9 53 0 5 2 7 2 .4375 03 7 0 0 6 .2500 65.3750 155. L E D O NA E 9 5 G G R 01 R T E H E 5 2 C S 8 F S D 1 1 1Y2 i 0 3 a .9375 8.4688 11.7188 28.5000 6.4063 84.5938 12.7813 2.6875 8.0000 37.6563 0.9063 3.4 0 3 5 0. 3 8 . 25 5 58 9 0 2 0 3 .2813 6.0625 8.. 6 . 6 .6875 2. 0 7 7 07 5 . 0.2813 30.0000 10.6563 16.2188 9. 5 5 1 3 3 15 07 89 61 53 36 18 9 0 m : u ~ A ‘ 48 a LLl g 54 60 5 * m + E 4 s 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12.4 3.0313 18.5000 207.7500 18.4063 33. 1 35 85 1 .9688 47.1250 51. 150.8438 1.7813 40.2813 7. 7 5 2 52 8 5 .7188 16.

. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 . .349 .566 .4430 2 7 8. .0686 6 2 7.598 21.297 16.370 1 9 6.525 6 25. . .813 21. .20Q0 7 4.465 30. . .962 .2284 9 3 7 0 9 2 1 6 5 0 1 7 8 4 6 3 5 3 6 5 8 8 2 2 7 3 3. .4918 5 6. 19. . 13. 9 16. . .261 18.991 22.4301 1 4. .060 0 29. .2467 9 0 8. .967 26. . .457 18. . .4 14. .238 9 30.850 19.186 .023 —— 2 31. .347 24. .919 33.466 .279 17. . .472 35.955 24. .667 4 29.8540 7 2 8. . 4 7 8 3 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 9 9 9 8 1 2 3 4 6 7 9 0 2 4 5 7 % 9 % 6 7 4 3 2 4 0 1 8 3 7 5 1 0 5 10 2 22 3 17 4 20 1— 2 3 18 1 6 5 1 3 78 9 6 3 49 1 3 4 1 7 0 0 6 3 2 0 3 7 7 1 3 1 5 3 4 3 8 7 4 4 9 1 1 6 2 0 4 3 2 1 6 4 4 7 1 7 4 7 8 1 1 1 3 5 5 7 1 5 1 3 4 6 1 8 5 5 7 0 4 8 1 0 15.420 20.242 19.7583 0 3. . I 0 0 .799 8 7 10.977 8 5 12.4795 0 8 Area 1 3. .607 15.6 .301 24.0503 8. . .014 1 0 10. . .4119 9 3 5.210 8 1 10.8357 2 9 9.300 C D A Area a .7771 2 3 7 5 6 0 8 0 4 2 4 9 7 9 4 2 4 12. . Circum.9396 0 6. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 8 0 8 8 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 4 6 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 4 9 9 9 9 0 2 0 3 0 3 1 7 1 8 2% 7 3 2 5 3 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 6 7 9 1 2 5 7 9 2 4 7 0 3 7 0 4 7 1 5 0 4 9 3 7 6 4 2 0 4 5 7 9 8 6 4 0 4 2 9. .364 13. .665 .9 12. 6 . .9087 8 5.781 9 4 11.691 23. .3410 7 Circum. . 16.493 16. .406 25.384 22.845 3 30.135 21.704 5 27.6664 4. . . . . .274 7 28.388 11. .064 18.708 0 6 5 1 15. .028 20.1572 5. . . . .653 18. .868 18.5 .8722 3 5 7. . .6759 1 6 6.183 34.133 25. . . . .407 6 3 10.101 8 8 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 6 6 5 5 S 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 4 1 28.166 22. .728 . .603 6 5 10.082 17.174 9 7 12. .562 23.2 15.192 5 0 11. 0 .800 .535 27.4613 7 5 7.886 17.221 23.680 31.671 17. .772 . 17.635 20.5466 7 3.688 28.489 8 27. .996 1 8 11.2832 o 9 1 6.6211 9. .758 24. . . .201 ? x — .882 Area 21.0 14.0321 0 1 9.096 2 27.033 . .776 23. .585 1 2 11. 4 9 c 0 9 8 Q 0 A C I I i Circum.257 1 17.475 17. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 . . . .918 3 26. . 5 18.109 27. . . 0 6.122 . .648 22. 9 18.274 29. .206 21. .169 23.311 9 26.809 32.416 31.785 37. . . 7 8 9 .$04 4 6 16.690 16.6727 5.6576 7.904 0 16. . . .452 6 29. .631 5 31.4248 2 6 0 9 7 5 3 1 9 8 9.2649 2 0 9 7 7.19u . . 15.2126 1 6. .740 25. .8 . . .850 25.147 3 2 2 3 3A . . 5 . .9761 7 4.8175 6 8 10.6394 6 5 8.1416 9 7 3. . 5 .

2 . . 5 . 3 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 . 6 . . 5 . . 4 5 92 8 4 6 3 g 1 3 6 7 ?5 2 6 1 9 8 1 7 5 ? 2 1 7 9 % 6 0 4 7 2 ?9 9 ~ 8 6 — 3. 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 8 . 9 1 01 5 9 1 4 . 0 3 82 0 0 3 1 % 3 9 3 5 X 7 A 8 4 9 9 0 7 4 3 % 3 7 4 7 % 7 6 5 1 3 0 5 8 % 5 5 4. 6 . 7 . 5 . % % 3 % 1 % % % % % 3 ~ 1 % % % % ~ % 7 1 . 6 1 66 1 6 2 7 2. 7 . . % % % s % 1 ~ x % % ~ ? % % % % ~ % % 7 1 % C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 i i 2‘ 2 3 3 4 41 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 72 8 8 8 9 9 0 0 03 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 34 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 75 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 A r 8 . 9 .0 . 5 . 7 . 7 . 8 .2 . . 5 . 6. 1 . 8 . 5 . .9 .5 0 ~ 4 1 8 9 5 5 % 1 9 % 5 9 3.7 8 2 8 0 7 2 2 ~ 2 7 2 6 % 5 6 8 2 0 % 7 5 3 4 ? 0 4 8 — % 3 8 2. 6. . 7 7 . 6 . 6 . 7 . 8. 6 . 21 r . 6 . 6 0 62 4 5 4 2 4 1 7 1 9 2 6 2 9 1 2 2 6 2 8 2 5 2 3 2 8 3 0 7 2 0 3 0 2 3 3 4 2 6 6 4 2 8 8 4 2 1 1 5 2 4 4 5 2 6 7 6 2 1 9 68 2 2 4 6 2 5 8 7 2 7 2 0 7 2 8 2 3 1 8 2 5 6 8 2 8 1 9 2 1 7 39 2 3 9 8 2 6 0 0 2 9 5 1 2 2 0 1 4 8 2 4 3 7 1 0 2 3 2 3 2 9 70 3 5 2 4 3 8 3 3 3 0 1 3 3 4 9 3 6 4 8 3 8 4 7 3 1 5 S 3 4 7 61 3 7 5 9 6 3 2 6 3 7 3 5 6 7 3 7 7 3 0 8 3 3 3 9 8 3 5 0 92 3 8 2 ~ 7 5 0 4 X 3 3 $ ~ 7 2 0 2 % 3 1 3 Y 2 4 6. 6 . 4 3 21 5 3 3 6 % 7 2 4 0 ~ 0 1 4 4 % 3 1 4 8 . . 5 . . ac 45 69 83 7.6 . .5 . 6. 7 . 8 . 6 . .mC e u D . 5 . 6 0 . 9 7 9 1 8 4 6 7 6 1 %4 6 6 1 5 4 5 4 8 0. 7 . 8 .3 . 5 . 8 . 1 3 3 9 6 9 3 8 0 ’ 3 0 3 3 1 4 6 4 1 1 4 9 3 23 4 7 2 4 1 4 3 5 3 4 9 4 3 4 4 9 4 4 5 4 4 0 54 4 5 4 1 6 4 8 4 6 46 4 1 4 7 8 4 7 8 4 5 25 4 8 0 4 8 8 5 9 6 5 9 4 5 0 30 5 2 5 0 1 5 1 16 5 0 2 5 0 2 5 20 5 . 5 . 6 . . 7 % 77 %A ~. 8 . 6 .0 . 6.4 . 7 . 0 . 8 9 . 7 . . e . 7 . 2 7 52 9 1 8 9 g 2 0 8 3 x 5 0 8 6 % 8 9 9 0 Y 1 8 9 4 % 4 8 9 8 ‘7 7 8 ~ 0 2 1.0 .i i 1 4 6 9 2 4 7 0 2 5 8 1 3 6 9 1 4 7 9 2 5 8 0 3 6 8 1 4 6 9 2 5 7 0 3 5 8 1 3 6 69 2 4 7 0 2 5 r ac A a 9 . 8 .3 . 8 .m . 8 8 8. . 7 . . 6 . . . 0 2 . 3 . 3 . 5 . 5 . 8 % . . 5 . 5 . .5 . 2 0 1 1 1 2 2 0 4 8 2 6 0 u r D . 7 . 7 . 7 . 8 . 5 1 % 8 5 6 5 33 4 2 6 9 . 6 . 6 . .7 7 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 1 5 2 2 3 3 4 8 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 s 9 2 6 0 4 8 2 6 0 4 8 2 6 0 3 7 1 5 3 7 1 s 9 3 7 1 8 2 6 0 4 2 6 0 4 ur 4 8 3 7 2 6 0 5. 8 .5 . 6. 3 .9 . 5 . 4 . 7 3 8 8 7 6 5 2 4 3 3 8 2 6 0 93 9 7 0 1 1 5 4 2 1 0 0 8 3 9 9 8 4 7 4 0 7 . 6 % 55 . . 1 . 3 1 22 8 2 2 6 % 2 1 2 0 x 6 1 3 4 % 0 0 3 7 Y 4 9 8 3 1 % 8 8 4 5 ~ 2 8 % 4 9 — 6. 3 . 5 .1 . 1 5 3 1 5 3 2 5 4 4 5 3 57 5 4 54 5 8 5 5 0 5 6 / 2 5 6 5 5 6 8 6 7 7 6 1 O 0 9 6 8 7 7 A 6 E 5 4 4 3 8 2 2 1 A 0 2. 3 . r A aa c . . 0 . . 6 .3 . . 3 . . 0 8 .0 . 8 . . . 3 . 8. 4 5 3 0 2 5 1 8 0 1 50 0 9 5 8 8 0.4 . 6 0 . 9 . 5 .4 . 9 % .7 3 7 3 1 A 3 7 7 ?5 2 % 8 1 0. 0 .. 9 . . 2 . 8. 5 . 8 . . 6. . 1 06 2 .8 . 7 . 7 5 32 0 6 5 7 4 % 5. 5 . 7 . . . 5 4 . 6. 5 2 . 8 . 6 . 9 8 02 7 8 9 4 ~ 1 7 9 8 4 6 9 2 ~ 8 6 0 6 % 2 5 0 0 ~ 6 4 1 4 % 0 3 ~ 1 8 4. . . . . . . . 6 0 . . 7 . . W. 6. 7 . S . 6 . ~ . . 6 . 0 . 6 . 9 . 4 . 0 4 9 3 8 3 7 .301 C A A C I( D o . 7 4 . . 3 7 . 4 0 7 K 1 3 0 1 3 3 2 0 5 % 6 2 0 9 % 8 A 1 1 3 % 0 0 8 ~ 1 6 3. 6 . . .7 . 2 . 5 . 6 . 7 . mC . 6 8 . 7 . 9 . .8 .. . . 5 93 % . 0 . 8 3 . . . 8 8 . 9 . 5 7 91 . 6.i i 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 8 5 0 5 2 5 4 5 . 0 . 7 7 .8 . 6 . 7 7 . . 5 . 7 . . 5 . 0 . 7 2 . 8 5 32 6 7 5 7 % 9 6 6 1 ~ 2 6 6 5 ~ 5 5 6 9 % 7 4 7 3 ~ 0 3 4 7 7 x3 3 & 7 — 1 6. 8. 4 . 1 . 5 .

4 1344.62 736.64 730. .2 1075.121 5 5 122.62 742.55 649.31 785.21 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Area c r u 8 2 6 9 3 7 1 5 m 1 0 0 9 8 7 7 6 . ~ % % % 1320.198 129.69 754.837 8 2 9 .87 766.26 626.554 k 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 .86 823.659 137.76 718.088 135.5 1089.75 621.73 797.020 0 128.8 1097.486 124. .8 1119.769 131.23s 5 127.69 724.764 142.878 125.335 143.979 141.49 689.51 791. .7 1360. .372 141. .98 804.166 120.14 779.308 123.96 677.2 1126.413 3 128.915 123.157 142.267 136.8 1369.0s6 0 126.550 142.559 135.0 1377.3 1336.30 695.36 637.64 748.271 .84 660.093 124.5 1111.18 654.805 129.481 135. 5 1 8 1 6 139.381 119.54 816.52 666.700 124.1 1104.77 760.2 1082. .664 7 126. 4 125.874 136.99 773. .445 137.728 144.98 706.94 643.2 2 A A C R Area 615. 1 2 140.449 126.3 1328.5 1352.71 683.7 119.052 137.23 671.194 140.627 8 128.801 4 .773 120.25 810.86 712.842 2 127.376 130.591 129.161 131.80 632.13 700.586 140.522 122.983 130.942 143.

4 2540.5 2970.1 6 .6 2910.9 1744.7 2608.6 2551.8 2563.326 9 165.2 2768.176 184.1 u 5 9 2 6 0 4 8 2 .390 183.7 1734.8 3(X)6.5 2922.0 2083.5 2164. 3 5 160.605 182.112 166.9 2874.363 6 163. 182.5 2m8.970 2042.1 2185.2 2154. m Circum.2 243J1.4 1790.8 2175.5 2934.0 2474.217 171.2 2585.0 2574.751 175.1 2441. 1725.6 2898.185 162.8 2206.3 2113.9 4 .9 2073.9 2676.1 1781.8 2386.7 1772.683 168.7 2994.4 2839.3 2710.8 1800.833 149.8 2343.7 60.002 172.2 2103.5 23S4.966 174.6 2757.212 182.646 170.5 2792.180 173.719 2 166. 2518.0 2619.440 148.0 2745. 6 5 1 0 7 177.6 2290.9 2144. 1689.8 2062.4 2195.226 149.4 6 .075 168.0 2496.5 2946.655 148.468 168.011 150.1 2452.8 2311.0 2862.5 2269.144 175.577 162.4 2596.2 2803.5 — .0 2237.290 167.1 2279.3 2529.998 183.861 169.395 172.8 2052.4 2687.934 7 165.6 2982.1 2332.9 147.5 2664.6 2227. 1670. 1680.961 Area 2642.039 170.4 2734.2 2300. 1707.5 7 .0 2463.897 167.007 161.792 162.8 2780.285 178.221 160.5 2958.2 2216.9 2815.5 1762.609 172.148 1 164.541 4 164.893 178.431 170.2 7 .0 2258. 1716.253 169.3 2419.783 184.678 5 0 1 0 % .7 2827. 1661.303 C A A C I D C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 r ac Area 4 .2 6 .0 2485.358 174.5 2248. 1698.8 2886.048 148.0 5 .2 2851.9 2722.618 150. 1 0 9 9 8 J 6 6 3 163.504 166.1 2507.614 161.1 2093.788 173.399 161.573 173.4 2630.824 171. .5 2322.8 2699.0 2375.7 2133.569 184.536 Area 2123.6 2397.3 236S.404 ? % % % ?’4 ?4 % 1 5 8 .756 9 164.1 2653.9 5 .2 1753.

% % X % % % % % % X % ~ % % 245.546 239.218 .5&l 206.008 247.847 202.542 250.113 252.254 255. Circum.433 256.044 245.w14 H A A C R Area Dia.437 245.2 3434.149 250.825 257.382 205.487 210.058 212.364 249.506 252.774 206.811 204.469 254.040 256.167 206.579 248.291 253.272 211.862 255.204 204. 238.400 247.665 212.2 3473.2 3460.2 3447. % .898 253.222 246.117 241.510 201.952 3421.793 248.332 240.596 204.240 202.327 251.3 3499.725 241.720 252.647 256.2 3486.684 254.633 203.843 213.971 249.M6 248.154 239.062 201.757 250.939 240.989 205.761 239.879 211.236 ‘ X i % % % % X % % % % % x ~ % % % % .076 254.025 203.5 210.935 251.830 246.418 203.455 201.450 212.615 247.4 3512.

4 5 6 2 .6 5 6 55 7 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 8 5 6 8 5 6 8 5 6 9 5 6 9 5 .3 .7 .7 8 6379.8 7834.4 5 6 3 .415 300.962 271. . 257.881 297.2 6976.8 6701.670 71 287.232 310.675 276. 89.018 311.1 7736.4 6774. .588 312.570 270.246 36 277.031 51 278.410 311.003 Area I—.5 6 4 .273 297.6 5 6 6 .2 6756.2 7814. .282 275.063 43 287.100 10 285.7 6995.497 274.7 6683.7 . 7088.305 C A A C I Dia. 6539.8 4 6326. 6593.6 x ~ % % % % 8 % x % % % % % Y % % % % % % 8 % % % % % 3 Y 86. 6629. 295. 1 Y8 1 s % 4 9 5 3 ~ 7 7 % 9 1 3A 0 5 % 2 8 4. .059 298.387 38 280.921 12 284.355 271.7 .926 273.4 8 3 6344. 0 7.132 294.702 296.383 291.460 276.6 6064.748 272.7 .0 6013.9 7678. . 6557.3 7697.7 5961.027 289.7 .1 4 6151.529 49 283. .4 5 6 2 .6 ——.0 Dia.743 14 283. 6521.6 9 6256. ..4 6 1 .625 311.346 293. . .241 52 288.711 274.7 6134.209 49 Dia.9 4 6432.8 5825.09s 296.812 2?0.7 6 6291.2 6030. >.9 5996.5 7658.7 9 .597 290.9 5 9 5 8 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 0 5 2 .140 272.1 8 6414.6 5859.6 7795.8 2 .104 274.3 .1 7639.492 73 285. 88. 6611.4 6~ 5 1 .196 312. . % % % % 5A 3% % 87. 2 % 5 6 % 7 0 % 9 4 ~ 0 9 ~ 8 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 0 0 .8 7620. .638 99 278.237 299.8 7032.3 .3 $.8 7200. % % % % $% % % % 3/8 % % ~ % .173 63 281. 82. .6 .661 309.844 299.177 270.990 291.2 7106.3 7013.8 8 6186.451 298.8 6958.6 5944.7 91.803 312.3 .634 14 289.374 313.5 ? % % % % % 308.6 .7 5842.780 90 281.5 1 .6 9 6450.319 273.885 45 286.1 94.3 . ~8 % % % 5A 3% % — 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 — 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 — 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 — ~ 6 I3 5 0 .7 99.4 5 6468.8 5978.6 7756.054 309.561 292.456 16 287.9 6720.4 3 6397. 90.5 5 6 5 .6 7 .9 5 .1 6 6238.739 294.5 3 . 6361.981 313. — 5808. B 3 0 7 8 7581.611 258.5 5 6 3 . B % % ti 5A 3A % 95.4 1 3 6116.488 296.447 309.205 290. Circum. . .629 300.954 293.1 7775. x $6 % % Circum.5 5 — 6 4 5 3 .— 5281.853 7 277.2 1 6203.4 7051.889 275.~ Circum. .848 89 288.136 86 283.816 87 279.0 7069.5 5910. —— 276. 9 3 ~ 1 7 2 1 $ 4 5 % 6 9 ~ 7 3 9 — 7 1.6 7144. — 279.067 6647.6 5927.2 0 6308.6 9 % x % % % ~ ~ % % % % — 270.524 294.419 289.168 292.1 3 6273. 6503.3 7163. . .0 8 ——— .5 5 .5 5893.2 2 6486.0 7181. .602 02 279.5 5 6 4 .4 .807 Arc 6939.767 2 6 6 4 29 93. 6575.917 — .1 6738.7 7717.6 5876.666 298.707 47 285. . .9 7125.5 7600.4 5 6 1 .6 5 6 6 .533 272.958 88 282.7 3 6221.6 6665.840 310.994 65 280.6 5 6 5 .1 6099.4 6047.5 5 6 5 .022 300.278 18 286.775 292. .4 6 6168.351 51 9 8 7 7 6 8 % 2 5 2 4 5 6 % 5 4 ’ 3 2 2 2 ?’6 1 4 0 % 5 9 % 9 7 A 3A 9 8 s % % ~ ?’4 ~ 5% % % — 282.310 295. 6082.314 75 284. . 4 % 9 8 ~ 0 2 6 9 3 7 92. .424 14 278.565 26 281.

1 1 . 0. 4 3 7A . 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 &1 6 1 6 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 81 0 . 2 . 0 0. 0. 5? 5 3 . 3%2 . 0%1 . 0. . 51 860 5 1 79 0 . 7%4 3 . 8~ 0 3 . 8 ~ 48 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 61 6 1 6 43 0 . 7%9 3 . 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 . 6~ 4 3 — — 186 . 8 ~ 68 3 9 0 55 9 55 9 66 9 66 9 77 9 77 % 78 % 88 %1 89 % 99 9 90 9 91 9 01 9 02 9 13 9 14 . . 6 ~ 5~ 3 . 7~ 8 3 . 0. 9 . 56 0 . 3 % 08 . 7%6 3 . 3~ 9 . 0. 7% 2 3 . 2 . 8 %4 . 2 . 0. 5 %7 3 . 45 5 . 1%5 . 9 . 7~ 0 3 . . 95 0 . 0X9 . 58 0 . 5 1 55 0 . 5g 1 3 . 0 % 58 . 8 %8 . 8 8 9 9 9 9 5 1 3 52 0 . 0.1 3 .306 C A A C If A r 15 2 25 26 37 38 39 40 41 . 5. 5 1 54 0 . %1 93 . . 47 / 3 . 83 0 . 6B 2 3 . 0. 4 . 2~ 4 .1 0 . 9 .1 4 .1 8 . 1 . 2 x 6~ . 1 . 3 ~ 1 % % % % % 3 % 1 % % ~ x % % ~ 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 0 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 1 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 0 2 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 5 . 1 . . 96 0 . 3? 7 . 1 . 1 6 . % 9 33 53 . 4 ~ 8 x 2 % 6A % 04 %4 ~ 8A Y 18 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 06 5 7 5 5 9 1 4 3 2 5 2 7 1 9 1 00 3 9 9 5 8 7 7 9 7 1 6 3 5 04 7 9 4 1 3 2 3 5 1 7 1 9 0 9 1 3 09 8 5 7 6 9 1 6 3 5 4 5 3 7 9 13 1 2 1 3 1 5 0 7 9 8 1 8 3 — 1 5 6 7 0 5 2 5 4 6 3 2 8 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ’ 9 9 9 9 3 64 33 33 43 43 42 52 52 62 7 62 62 71 71 81 81 81 81 9 91 01 01 02 12 12 22 9 22 22 32 33 43 44 44 54 . 7 3 . 0.1 3 . . 5 X 34 3 . . . 6 3 . 9s 3 . 9%7 . 00 0 . 5 1 66 0 . 0 . 2 . 69 0 .3 ~ 6 ~ 0 ~ 4 %8 ~ 2 %6 ~ 0 . 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 . . 7~ 2 3 . . 8 . 8 %1 . 0 . 5%1 3 .1 9 . 3~ 3 . 2%2 . 4 % 14 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 11 4 0 6 0 8 9 0 8 2 7 5 7 7 6 9 15 1 4 4 3 5 3 7 2 2 9 1 4 0 6 19 8 9 8 0 2 7 6 4 6 5 8 1 4 13 3 5 2 7 1 9 1 0 3 6 9 8 0 18 2 7 4 6 6 5 8 5 1 4 3 3 12 1 2 0 4 0 6 9 8 0 7 3 7 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 l 8 . 4 % 4A . 2 . . 0g 7 . 7 7 3 . 9 . 0 . 1 %5 ~ 9 3 %7 %1 ~ 5A 5 9 . 0 . 2 . 4 3 9A . 3g 8 .1 1 . . 4%0 . 4 M1 . 0. 0. ~ 38 . 9 . 5 %3 3 . 360 75 0 . 8 . 61 0 . 5~ 9 3 . 7X 5 3 .1 8 . 0 N 38 . 45 0 . 9~ 5 . 1 % x % % % 3 % 1 % % % % % % ~ 1 % X 3 ? % 3 ~ 1 % % % . 3 %6i . 5 1 70 0 . 11 5 13 24 26 27 39 30 41 0. 1 % 98 . 6 1 77 61 87 6 1 80 6 1 82 6 1 94 6 1 96 6 1 98 7 1 00 I . 1 . 8 l0 09 0 . 9%9 . 5 1 67 0 . 0. 3 . 5 . 6 x 0A 3 . 5 %9 3 . 2%8 . 0 . 7 3 . 84 0 .1 5 . . 22 0 .1 . 7% 6 3 . 5 3 . 0.

97 421.69 426.76 411.05 417.06 395.31 392.94 412. % % % % % % x % % 126.23 3%.~ 407.49 393.41 397.01 419.98 410.33 423.51 424.63 397.15 422.92 392.62 408.66 417.73 402.87 13324 13350 13375 13401 13426 13452 13478 13504 13529 13555 13581 13607 13633 13659 13685 13711 13737 13763 13789 13815 13841 13867 13893 13919 13946 13972 13999 14025 14051 14077 14103 14130 14156 14183 14209 14236 14262 14288 14314 14341 14367 14394 14420 14447 14473 14500 3 2 % % % % 125.13 402.91 414.88 394.83 418. .55 411.12 424.73 413.09 404.20 398.66 406.48 404.44 -.94 423.45 395.23 418.47 426. % X % % % x ?’4 134.70 404.66 395. % X % % ~ x % 133.59 409.40 419.91 403.09 393.76 422.58 420.23 407.05 406.34 412.30 414.38 399.02 397.16 411.87 416.27 405.55 400.16 400.29 425. 3A % % 3A ~8 3 390.87 405.13 391.08 415.- C A A C I (continued) — .19 4 409.90 423.34 401.19 420.74 391.37 421.12 413.72 424.98 399. % ~ M ~ ~ g % g X % % % x % 128. 384.52 391.26 416.70 393.59 398.37 410.30 403.55 422.81 398.02 9 12125 0 12150 12174 12199 12223 12248 12272 12297 12321 12346 12370 12395 12419 12444 12469 12494 12518 12543 12568 12593 12618 12643 12668 12693 12718 12743 12768 12793 12818 12843 12868 12893 12919 12944 12970 12995 13020 13045 13070 130% 13121 13147 13172 13198 13223 13248 .95 401.69 415. ~ X % % % % % 135. % % g % ~ % ?’4 % % % % % % % 127.48 415. % ?-’6 >~ 3A % 131. ~ % % % % % g ~ x % % % % 129.44 417. 409.08 426.52 402.62 419.84 3%.77 400.80 420. % X E % ~ % 132.27 394.51 413.06 % % % % % % % % % % % I % % X Y8 S % 3A % . 1 3 .

14 444.26 427.89 447.65 439. ?~ x ?~ ?4 96 3A 446.97 443.89 458.24 482.93 445. Dia.35 476.52 477.6Q 462.07 448.07 459.40 143.22 429.21 462.65 428.43 140.63 4S3.72 15175 15203 15230 15258 15285 15313 15340 15367 15394 15422 15449 15477 15504 15532 15559 15587 15615 15642 15670 15697 15725 15753 15781 15809 145.13 477.47 437.39 452.18 442.71 457.56 16856 16885 16914 16943 16972 17000 17029 17058 17087 17116 17145 17174 x ~ 3A B 147.86 449.50 446.10 457.75 444.46 Area 15837 15865 15893 15921 15949 15977 16005 16033 16061 16089 16117 16145 16173 16201 16229 16258 16286 16314 16342 16371 16399 16428 16456 16485 —— 16513 16542 16570 16599 16627 16656 16684 16713 16742 16770 16799 .78 464.86 438.61 452.88 480.01 I Area 14527 14553 14580 14607 14633 14660 14687 14714 142.00 441.04 439.18 453.99 463.64 461.70 479.% 454.46 448.77 475.03 450. % % % % % % 146.09 479.308 C A A C 1 I( .29 447.92 478. % x % % % % % 137.08 437.00 452.61 441.61 430.39 463.38 474.32 456. I Circurn. —— 136.17 475.57 442.54 444. % g /8 % % % x 439.84 482.44 428.04 428.85 16827 460. % x % % ~ ~ x X % % % % % .83 429.75 455.95 476.36 443.67 481.74 477.82 440.06 481.50 457.35 454.02 483.93 456.82 462.25 438.40 441.53 455. % x E % % % 144.68 437.78 453. % % % 459.24 460.64 450.42 461.56 475. % % 3A N % % % 478.68 448.49 479. 427.I % X % % I % % % % % % 430. % 17790 % ~ % 474.41 1 18265 18295 18325 18355 18385 18415’ 18446 18476 18507 18537 18567 18597 8 — .03 461.17 464.11 446. 481. % % y.31 17908 17938 17%7 17997 18026 18056 18086 18116 18146 18175 18205 436.43 450. % % % % 41.28 458.79 442.22 440.82 451.45.21 451.25 449.27 480.14 455.32 445.57 453.67 459.

86 524.23 504.59 495.38 % 485. % % 157. % % B % % y~ % % % % 159.33 520.99 38 485.86 535.88 491.05 492. % % % % Y8 164. ~ 96 Y2 —— 158.41 494. % % ?’6 % % 3A % Circum.76 508.68 534.01 505.61 538.11 Area 20106 20138 20169 20201 20232 20264 20295 20327 20358 20390 20421 20453 20484 20516 20548 20580 20612 20644 20675 20707 20739 20771 20803 20835 20867 20899 20931 20964 20996 21028 21060 21092 21124 21157 21189 21222 21254 21287 21319 21351 21383 21416 21448 21481 21513 21546 21578 21610 Dia.61 527.18 539.30 511.90 522.47 512.41 505. Circum. g Circum.9 500.00 538.77 % 4S6.98 507.51 499.37 496.57 528. Area i8627 18658 18688 18719 18749 1&3779 18809 18839 18869 18900 18930 18%1 18991 19022 19052 19083 19113 19144 19174 19205 19235 19266 19297 19328 19359 19390 19421 19452 19483 19514 19545 19576 19607 1%38 19669 19701 19732 19763 19794 19825 19856 19887 19919 19950 19982 20013 20044 20075 A A C I( Dia.23 493.55 497. B % ?4 % % % % 167.83 526.43 536.93 531.16 % 486. >~ x 3A .40 S16.70 4S0.73 499.01 516.12 499. 521.79 528.12 510.33 509.15 519. 502.32 531.80 506.% Area 21642 21675 21707 21740 21772 21805 21838 21871 21904 21937 21969 22002 22035 22068 22101 22134 22167 22200 22233 22266 22299 22332 22366 22399 22432 22465 22499 22532 22566 22599 22632 22665 22698 22731 22765 22798 22832 22865 22899 22932 22966 22999 23033 23066 23100 23133 23167 23201 I —— 155.43 525.52 488.56 % 486.07 534.73 510. ~8 X pa ~ % 3A ~8 168.08 523.89 533. 16Q.54 519.29 522.37 507.75 530.62 505.08 512.36 529.77 497.73 488.83 515.15 508.69 501.87 513.72 521. % x % % % % % 162. ~ x 3A % ~8 3A ~8 163.91 500.87 S2.58 506.22 515.19 517.04 536.72 532.79 517.~ 484.20 .26 % % $8 % 96 3A Xl 156.78 539.48 490.80 495.94 509.09 501.97 529.09 490.04 525.54 530.98 4%.18 528.59 484.21 537.29 533.04 514.45 492.34 497.83 504.91 489.62 494. % x % % % 3A ~8 169.309 C ? Dia.16 497. B x 3A ~ % x % 170.44 514. ~ % % % % 78 171.26 524.40 527.39 538.27 491.94 498.02 494.50 532.51 521.76 519.64 536.47 534.48 M1. . >8 X % Y2 % % ~8 161.15 530.95 487.82 537.25 535.84 493.26 513.94 520.51 510.00 527.47 523.68 523.&5 503.66 492.69 512. % ~ ?$ % % % x 165.65 525.62 516.55 508.97 518.13 488.36 518.05 503.44 503. . 1s4. % x 3/8 % % 3A % x y~ % % % 5 . 166.90 511.58 517.57 539.20 495.22 526.11 532.19 506.81 ! s I 484.34 498. 483.30 489.65 514.

88 577. g x 3A % % % % 185.C A A C I( c o n l i n .20 581.73 5%.70 576.56 572. ~ % 3A % % 3A % 188.98 593.09 587.95 584.30 586.05 578.17 561. 3A % % % % 189.27 577. 5 5 2 3 4.13 574. ~ Dia.37 582.19 592.81 570.52 585.74 563.10 565.59 587.91 575.60 559.51 Area 26590 26626 26663 26699 26736 26772 26808 26844 26880 26916 26953 26989 27026 27062 27099 27135 27172 27208 27245 27281 27318 27354 27391 27428 27465 27501 27538 27574 27611 27648 27685 27722 27759 27796 27833 27870 279Q7 27944 27981 28018 28055 28092 28130 28167 28205 28242 28279 28316 ~ % % % x % .05 589.52 574.70 565. 184. % % % % % x ~8 Circum.13 563. 578.62 591.35 562.48 576. % % 180.55 594. B x % % ~ x ~8 187. 178.59 570.21 559.53 563. 3A % ~ % % % x % % % % x % ~ % % Y8 I I .23 590.41 591.16 3 16 572.38 560. % x % S % % ~8 —— 182.67 567.38 571.56 561.80 592.34 573.91 586.48 587. 559.24 568.84 568.78 561.58 592.63 580.12 5%.42 569.59 581.45 567. 3 572.63 569.95 562.33 5U5.66 589. ~ % g % % % % % % % % % g x % % ~ % % E % Y2 % % ~8 181.84 590.77 Area 24885 24920 24955 24990 2%25 25060 25095 25130 25165 25200 25236 25271 25307 25342 25377 25412 25447 25482 25518 25553 25589 25624 25660 25695 25730 25765 25801 25836 25872 25908 25944 25980 26016 264351 3 26087 26122 26158 26194 26230 26266 26302 26338 26374 26410 26446 26482 26518 26554 Dia.09 576.27 S6.98 582.37 593.20 570.27 588.84 579.73 585. .49 565.41 580. Circum.31 564.02 580.31 575.77 583.94 595.02 569.16 583.99 571.87 588.44 589.99 560. % % % ~ % ~ ~8 179.80 581. ?’6 x % % % % ~8 186.74 574.12 585. .34 584.76 594.95 573.88 566.92 564.66 % % % % % % 183.16 594.23 579.45 578.55 583.06 567.01 591.

00 613.01 602.40 602.15 616.22 601./ /8 Id 36 il .86 61026 610. % x >s ti % % ~8 207.65 633.51 607.39 646. 190.29 630.57 653.72 607.62 602.53 649.44 622.89 619.: % % 191.58 625.36 626.29 608.75 616.61 613.32 639.31 650.11 618. % % 3A S % % 78 195.88 641. % % 3/8 >5 % 3A ~8 2W.47 609.40 624.28 641.90 597.11 640.08 609.Oi 624. 196. % % 3/8 % % x % 199.79 603.33 606.71 651.50 651. ~8 % >8 % % % B 203. ~ Circum.29 619.07 642.4 % % % ~8 193.97 615. 615.S7 636.35 648.S(3 630. g X 2 % % ~8 201.94 606.90 608.72 618. ?“6 % 58 % % % ~ 2W.11 629.64 622. % % 3A % % % % 194.10 651.58 631.25 599.83 612.04 600.72 629. z % % % % y8 Circum.86 599.21 645.46 642.22 623.57 647.60 635.76 627.15 638.62 624.85 643.79 614.29 612.~ 646.08 631.67 642.65 611.18 614.97 626. 202.50 618. 3/8 % % % % 2@5. % x . 1.97 604.29 Area 30172 30210 30249 30287 30326 30364 30403 30442 30481 30519 30558 305% 30635 30674 30713 30752 30791 30830 30869 30908 30947 30986 31025 31064 31103 31142 31181 31220 31263 31299 31338 31377 31416 31455 31495 31534 31574 31613 31653 31692 31731 31770 31810 31849 31889 31928 31%8 32007 Dia.93 639.04 622.68 620.51 629.18 625.32 617.11 607.36 604. % x :.46 631.93 617.24 643.05 611.15 605.15 627.79 625.05 633.19 603.36 637. .08 598.72 640. % % % 205. 634.311 C A A C I( ? Dia.75 649.32 628.64 600.47 598.00 63S.82 645.08 620. % % % M % % 7/8 .79 636.61 ~.58 609.74 638.83 623.50 640.36 Area 26353 28390 28428 28465 28503 28540 28578 28615 28652 28689 28727 28764 28802 28839 28877 28915 28953 28990 29028 29065 29103 29141 29179 29217 29255 29293 29331 29369 29407 29445 29483 29521 29559 29597 2%36 2%74 29713 29751 29789 29827 29865 29903 29942 29980 30019 30057 30096 30134 Dia.43 644.83 601.54 627.17 647.93 650.68 598.89 652.58 603.54 638.28 652.03 644.47 620.54 616.25 621.07 Area 32047 32086 32126 32166 32206 32246 32286 32326 32366 32405 32445 32485 32525 32565 326435 32645 32685 32725 32766 32806 32846 32886 32926 32966 33006 33046 33087 33127 33168 33208 33249 33289 33329 33369 33410 33450 33491 33531 33572 33613 33654 33694 33735 33775 33816 33857 33898 33939 % >4 % ~8 192.86 632.29 597.78 647.54 605.83 634.97 637.96 648.44 600.26 632.40 635.94 628.40 613.43 611.43 633. 5%.86 621. % g Z? % x vu 198.57 614.14 649. % x ?5 % % % ~8 Circum.76 605.18 636. % x % ~ % ~ ?’4 197.63 644.

i r r t e sd hinge n e g e o f STIFFENER I l I > .— . C F I II .q i s g wu o t t hiu so r ih m ea sh di t s nn h o ou e psd n e t.—. e x a e ttc di e se n n fs ld s s e i tc v t e i o i i r ev n oe t ..8 n i lus o el ” u s el t d h t v ae a ge is . t \ Y s I H N O 1 2 3 4 5 Z O O T A l E l A w T d U d F f r O f N P iT E m c Sa 3 ec h b a s l a r e uq A N l F I L V N E G R O OT P I C E R AN L I N t s a : e rr t i ab . le o en l o l /ln f t w id .312 D 3 .i n plrae y r i e tn v fd g e .

lh sg v d e e p rt i e 6t rae s n s e ty 0 i . i a l r o o a lv o i ed s o en a c di s l s t cn o a td p ti sr re e we of at f ey d r rs s a. d u n i o m ir e em Bn e sn d r a b rh l g ser s u Y0 i ro m o B n hl s a m d e po l s v . ib h l s ig y c e hnn d d e it n d e t aa r n o e sc b ns r a h h ei ad a sn l d oi l p g n. ht t aa a r d ee f i a us m K o e rn o r vil te ir n e n a si h n w g d e s ss -ai i h h f n s do n o c rh a t u ip o s fa o ir r d u sa s t bo t l se a e i i d r e s .a r elb s l ie s y t a n t . i wn t i 2 i i m d nu t m c h h g ra : e 2 s :r e e s0 . o n s t i t l rhi o we r ai sfh zy 5 o dn ete a o g el a s i bl p h i r na o o g t v osI i s d l o pe ha i e ed d x e s n pt ee l an oH i sra wn e f s a l dd by rh s a .313 FIXED STAIR AND HEALTH (OSHA) STANDARDS F F b M A R p E S t S f A b D i n s i wt b x p a ir e i w o rd vo l hi ps e d n e lr eea e c dtr e ri s o e est n i gstb r a u et a l e lt e va w vre e e e l l s i t a s x i b rdh ewe a ts ac dy i a s llg a o nf l re t o e dt iri n a o o y r d a e in fm eo lm v l h t s i a cv e i al p a e l e t ut v e c ham e a s t o a crr o v ns c rn e l i o no yt n 1 r oa g p t .7 o o t el de . e o) d w : 1 s ll l e rh s ( m e g i ia o t n s rs rR ( en t u ea f s bb a) u T n del d a l s t g R z (o i n 0 A t n H o r i 3 l i e T o Rsr tn a cl i { h i en ° e e ua e cn i ~ h e d an n ) 7 . e o d a 0u n 0d d f 0s .

DIAMETER G F PINS S 5 I 2 14 0 # 300* 14 / 2 2 11 4 4 4 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 14 3 4 1 6 3 18 1 / 10 2 4 12 1 G 3 I N 3 R A T 1 / G 1 / 1 I I 900* I I . H I I C N 3 OF S AND S U . l y D .HINGE +iii’’”k-w ICl b N F w t T f R s r = E L UW l a p u is t n p g ii hl t s o dia n o o t s c hi o b o e u v W l en lt p e r e us d l g . f l w a f n p i eg u n e to w t sr l a e h t i l ol n u o d p h ar s e t hv f ei e s ir e n pr f et e gc d i e a ol f r e u q ou p es e n tn l r ie y n g ds . ] / 3 2 1 / 1 l f e GE T L -F DL B EA DN T R A TI 3 F L DIAM. . L U W K t ON L E G 1 3 1 / 3 . I G E DA F L E L ID A N B = ~ R – ( c = R + 2!4 – A D = R+ R i d 2’/2 – 6 B D P ao f d t di i ao hm =e i a+ 1I im 1 i i a u n s g f e am o m h .e e ot s e r l t o e r l f e e t e n rn 6 . A = ~ – ( RR 1 R / +t / / a 2) 2 2 1 2 + O T T L-B n s e d s d .

r o C t eo c a t its v i. max.rr am ot v s l i m a i x ni t m o e 2r u w f tm a l e l5 s e tf 0 .s n d e e oi ds m i r u ui am z nn i d oa e d t lr fm e e o mc ss p rao h eln r 2 1 ix 3 i f o / b a/ l nn l a t2 2 xa h 1 8 b r o . o r i z oo n f lt a af l p l.a i ul l r d f e s s e sr a l iee ov y a e d mr d n ie tr o ie mt c l b a d e l a g e . m SIDE R [note N 1 C l 2 H c a 3 A 4 I e i c 5 T t 6 A 7 P g O T E S i n ar e g q w o u t . max. min.a b l h rs g r e d am e p o lsv el de .“ LADDER S 2 3 S in.- . ce n h o pn g or:a ooi fa emc pn i e o tnp e o r o a h d l d ae i d n o t a l v a n i z i n g .e f tl o A: r e m A i3 Sl n g T o M 6 n o st ta e s b ap h . i hg ro o i degi p a s p n l i v g na s t nr u a c g na t u w g r . r e c o h m m m e i n . 30 in. au t f ga . ed os c t irv f f u s e i c e he ta u do a r asp t lt n re h et y u s sc o t u r re a q u s i vt a r ml e e b u n n t gT a s a t hd e v a yddo me u sa . n ysl d ase it b tf h np o g r ar oa m lv l e i e dl 3 v e fa e od e s r t l il me W b n i sg h n ta d g e hef a .rvu e i ret s c p r yl e e e a s t db f sh e po .hi el r se ee ot c d hnr i l 2 g ef it o e l he m fe s ot v a g b e r s o0 e v e l . m a t s e l cr to i n a . min. in. I T D E E 7 0 PT H 2 RS O UT G HE 4 in. u 1 in .r / h e q u r ru i e p4s nr s t a e l cy e t b a u s l r e h ns r d .

0 0.5” TO 1“ WATER GAGE 1“x3/1 6“ 9 . ~>. E T N C HT IF 1 O E N 3/ 1 4 .7 21 1 - 4 6 “ 7./Cu. n er u fu m r r o e pe o l t m d a a am s a e tl v a ii r sni ac l r a h e b q sdln u ae is i r nh e y n za d Q 4 d .S.316 M IST M e t e E XT R A CT OR x it r b a s sc e t p o m a t rr us a in t d i esn y l s gii tr f q a v b. r v m e a a pn rec r ee i o q o u c i u pe fT m s sa e n m sh t a s .center of mist 5 extractor. s 2 e beam support in . TYPE 304 S.0 5. ft. u l r a e si p d t lo ise o q m a ru i mt t p p r e c r of h ov o.01 1“ TYPE 304 S. lx3/16° Y4qi G R B D O A S S % R A B R S IP N A GC I 3N R -G 4 R B S O P A S C S I N R G E l I bf G . H / sT t q5 .A e B t ‘ d - C m T Y O M P E XE I T R SA S C F T O T R S \ I D E– A T A I L D E– C T A S U U PO P M OE X R I T TR A S C F T O T R S 6I 1 than 6 ft. 9. when the diameter is greater SPECIFICATION THICKNESS OF PAD THICKNESS OF WIRE MATERIAL OF WIRE DENSITY lb. PRESSURE DROP MATERIAL CARBON STEEL BEARING BAR R B C W IC E W WIRE MESH 6 >! . “2 O I O DS .011“ .S.

as tabulated: Wheninspectedbya user’sinspector USER Arcor gaswelded w LethalseMce L Unfiiedsteamboiler UB Directfting DF Fullyradiographed and UW-ll(a) (5)not applied RT 1 JointsA & D fullyradiographed.oem a t f r he . etc. rd se .S “UM” y s m b u hb w to as v h l i el e x h se fl e i esm dn n rp s e[ p et U le e C o cs -d t o li m o( n d k ) e ] 2 F v e m os o 8sa f a 9 e n 5 ld .arc welded. MAWP250 650°F MDMT 650°F at 250 psi S/N-19560 b 1996 i s n h s sb p au ee e sc l t e e s i c e . manufacturer’s name. ot e dp m d n n a e ae c n e l m l w el ia a .(MDMT) manufacturer’s serialnumbeq(S/N) “year built Abbreviations maybe usedasshownin parenthesis.(MAWP)psiat temperature. sa d e e o k se y e l s l sr tt a heh fti s b c er n Mi n p n a a[ p r a . . UW-1l(a) (5)(b) applied RT 2 Spotradiographed RT 3 WhenRT1.psi. ie r e cC k rs U lne e e 1d o s Ls e5 n sl T d. etc. s s te dr .preeededwiththe words:“eertifledby”. s r iY s% n tt c u Y e o e n. i c o l n gt e r a a ov5 b fl a g .RT2or RT3are not applicable RT 4 Postweldheat treated HT Partof the vesselpostweldheat treated PHT Nonstationa~PressureVessels NPV 1. supports.. Commonly u m a s f t n e e pr a0 i o l da i s lm a . it shall be marked: “Duplicate”. k e a0m h e d il m s 0 e s la p f ln. Pressurevessels stamped with the Code-symbolshall bemarkedwith the following: 1. maximum allowable workingpressure. o t vtu t n e c d . ( . t as r t i n e 3 o n 1 t el i c e 2 e s . theappropriateabbreviations indicating the typeofccmstruction. inspector. minimum designmetaltemperatureat pressure.as s) e r nt l b e r 8 oe T n p a sh l b s hm aw a e e t e t eu l l n e ia d nl v s e eu o e l l md a st o eo db n er i t al e c r d k h e n o su v ie i n s s au s ll e a o ti ls c en d s a .’317 - NAME PLATE Pressure vessels built in aemrdanee with the requirements of the Code maybe stamped withtheofficialsymbol ”U”todenoteTheAmerican SocietyofMechanieal Engineers’ standard. t e a te e m r t c pac o ey ih d m ae e p . e og b e l ru e o .e c 1 ) — USER C E R B T I F I ( s T T E D v e r N E Tw e v MA P A L Y X A M P E T L E dr E ml W H [ R 1 s b s h t OMEGA TANK CO. 2. ne b e o n ur l Lettering sizes m i b a d at o m l p d t em lh db h ea s .usedin lethal L used on skirts. qy e rs u v .°F. sexvice. b n h l ta 5e o l ih h / l s T a e i Ct 3 no s g d n e h -a 2h s s y . m .

t . 7 IF tiANORAl L POST ANGLE 2x2x3/8 MI DRAIL BAR 2. 30 an. n 6 ofr g a o l h n h rl/ i c e ic 1 l k ne oe0 $---+Fl . p c e oa f e h r s d ae p t h e r .1/4 jA%’&l/4 P i n f P b d l e a s t bf f h o a r b am i r s is l c e c s e u s fis sa t e ec t li ac l t t e e id pe o n n s g d h ra f y iab o p l o dn .min. p t a s lu s s 9 r fi a n c u c x x c a p a o a s p a o ah 6 # di p 6i f p n .318 PLATFO Conforms RM 3 f!. s l t I $ A f c t lt b ibl o d o n r ee -— od e -——. re e CHANNEL n d 6x8. A L T E R NS A U T IPV P E O 9 oo $ . l tt s .e o a nn s l l S E C A –T A I c d k ed d 4 Clearance O N in n g r . —r—— M a n u f sa c f t hu u r 1 er ar e n l ix 0 sl b A m P w M M D p B B h o b o ao o oe s l a u s l v si k r a f i s t re h e cn d h p n t c z ps . CHECKERED r % aPLATE ——- n sr d a lb h s rg r l es l e - 1/4 BENT PLATE tre . . n p i o g r t f s a s if d . o r e :o i g e s xm a e . max. 6 an. a r f . e t i n nr e ir l s f a f t a f b o ri r is m ce a s s ct f s o c io hi m t h i wp o n l ne a e ao t a p k re e n p k d h di o n . o .2 f le 1 o@ 1a s a o f ta l / t l/l oc e f q r r tl h s e 1 t s 2 6 .

D i a ( m = 1 e i t6 D e n r c 2 )h r t & u D PIPE OPENiNGS The shape of pipe openings circular with a diameter of 1 inch larger than the diameter of flange. c e s s E C I C S E R S F ST E S T O Y S P A K . Circular openings are used most frequently with pipe o bent plate sleeves. The projection of sleeves shall be increased when necessary for reinunder k certain i load.SKIRT OPENINGS 1/4 IN CONTINUOUS FI L LET WE LO / INSIOE ANO VENT HOLES I s eo h m y d r i o o cc o a n r e b to n f sh c o m b l u s i t oi q b g lu e t ai ds s s s k b i hp rr a ow t vm l s i i dli e e tn d m o t 2u i v wn h m el o cf o n l c a a h a p t io e 1s dg s d e i s bgh 8 l rs e a pT a v hr e hst o c . e a v u c os o u p p e l i i d np g e r ACCESSOPENINGS PIPE OPENING The shape of openings may be circular o any other shapes. h n l l e ae t e h i n e s u Fl a a o n s t il m od b e .r forcing the s ing conditions. Sleeves should be provided a for a copenings. The projection of t thickness of h sleeve equals fireproofing minimum 2 inches.

a h d oi eo e g f fg e r c r tu e i h v sen e n e s f s dw sv c i e o e r n lr d t ii we tn o i g i o h n ds b s a hh fb f o f t u lo te i n e l m o u d d i hz ea rTm z h s e l tee a e e hi tr b o . . g ou h e h tv t h b a o h bu t l no a dod u h il z e ab t zm mf l e b e s t e u e ia r v ni e a e u le i r tc er y qh a c l r e f ag o r r e at n e o r c ah e s e o rn r s . a t n eG d h e ” i n . . R J oe . . — — @ # — . t d dt i th w a r f l o a btn s. . — — V 2D O —. — . s6 t 9 . pn x r i en a vg Te O n e f e Fr M e Pn ac t e “t : V e o r r cs t. — — - R T OE L X II N Q G U O = D I DF $ 2D I A O MP E T I E R tl + + tl GRATING’ F--i I 1 1 u I 1 I I I 3 - D > r % F M a A LC R P AN L O B T AA S DF S T F t 1 ec r a is a / p r lt : ob l g e or 4 w a e a n r i 1 I G L E E R S A B TA I FN FG xt1 l i i b e . —— — — ——— 62!!3 .. —.320 VORTEX T l C n F t s l p i q u BREAKER e x mh or h v p o b o rr s e ei tet a e ek l f eix t m r us i n nd a es hvsto i oe r r a otb e el u i d s .a p a f s lf a rf dt e le qu r u e w e sn a s wt e il o yi et o d i z a m z e l t e e r .n tr ag1 rh / s8 . b o A u r u4 n 1 ga l9 u . q . — — — .

Table ofProperties ofPipes. ... . .. . ... ... KilogramperCentimetertoPounds perSquareInch. .. .. 426 DecimalsofanInch.. .... ....S... U. .... .. . . Weight. ... CircularPlates. . . . ...... ... Liters to U... Gallon to Liters. . . Kilograms to Pounds... .. . .. .PoundsperSquareInches to KilogramperCentimeter. .Plates... Flanges. .. ConversionTables .. . . . .321 PART III.. Long Welding Necks.. .. Welding Fittings.S. . Pipes and Fittings..... . ... . ..Inches to Millimeters. Flanges. 334 of Heads. .. 374 5.. .. .. . Decimalsofa FooCMetricSystem.. Tubes. ...... . . . Square Meters to Square Feet. . .. ... .. MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 1.. Gallons..Centi- . ...Millimetersto Inches.. . . . .. Dimensions. . . Bolts. . .... . .. . . ....----ti ----------------------------------------of Shells and Heads. Openings. . . . . . . 3... Packingand Insulation.. . . 322 2.. .. . . . . ScrewedCouplings. . .. Square Feetto Square Meters..Minutesand Secondsto Decimalsofa Degree... Area ofSurfaces ofShells and Heads. . . 425 6. . .. Pounds to Kilograms. .Degreesto Radius. . . ..... . . .

583 5 1. std. 5 4 . in.497 4 .6082 .466 .177 .434 ..434 . 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 . w ft. .1764 . iq.221 5 2..280 33 3. 0 .727 1.2301 .675 .940 2.1514 ..0246 . .177 . 3 . 56 4 .405 ..344 . .0804 Transverse area sq.950 8 3..535 5 .275 ..344 .0955 3 .493 . 1 S 9 3 5 2 20 30 40 6 0 1 2.140 s .850 1 3...423 .5647 . 0 . d X-stg.200 9 S .497 8 .1545 .. 9 2 .049 3 . .561 1 2.1280 .1910 .0216 . 0 0 .660 0 1.0499 .1220 ..1497 5 .3568 .0740 .405 0 s .614 .065 .3040 .344 ..188 . .4117 .622 7 . In.638 3. s .0568 .355 3. .275 .344 .u side diam.660 0 1.3775 .4213 1 .220 ..633 1. .068 s 2 g $ .252 ..2 8 4 87 . in.40 .423 : .9630 .5360 1 3 56 3 74 2 34 2...106 0 0 0 Inside $urfac( per ft.03!20 6. 71 4 .322 P S c c aa Sched & alloy s P h n ar eu e No. 1. 4 ..497 6 .2333 . 1 40s 80S .0740 .220 .452 6 1.7648 .824 . 0 ..1013 . 0.095 S .424 . .272 ..473 1.130 1.. .806 2.7080 .404 1 1. 40 80 160 ..344 . .281 9 ..109 ..3519 6 .4403 8 .30s!t .109s .0364 7 5 1 0 1 0 ‘ 80 .567 . . .1433 . .. .147S . 9 2 2 2 .652 0 3.2!20 .420 4 5 .834 . lb. 40 80 4 8 S X . .294 . .1706 .738 . .3927 3 .106 9 . .405 2 ...109 s . .375 2. 305 3 32 0 1.2660 . .545 .1295 .938 0 .1637 .375 2.546 .088s g S .145 9 s . 40s 0 2. 4 8 .767 1 1.330 .495 8 ..440 1.275 <275 . 40 80 160 . .434 .2’20 .375 I .308 3 s 3 3 3 3 3 “ 80 160 4 8 .8820 .678 1 2.2 . 7 . .036 7 1.109 s . 1 4 std.1073 4 .0157 1 .344 .622 7 . Wall t Weight t per foot lb. ft.497 0 .364 s . 1 4 8 .083 ..1316 . 2 .3620 1. .1550 . 6 5 4 3 9 1 “ 80 160 .171 1 2.659 1 1. d am w u bl e de e en s ir i g sg a n i ah ad t g i to r n rw e s e A m iBe -e N 1 for tt 3 -n -n.275 . s bl pn to a l A ne i o Bd eN 1 n p y f 3 s l t Se as d 6 io pI nt l .7 2 .497 7 .660 .1875 .670 .410 . . in.. ..218 . .177 ..900 1 1 1 t..400 .220 ..106 5 .0633 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 .275 . <X-stg 0 0 . Std: X-stg. . <X-stg 0 0 “ 80 140 . 0 . . . .167 .660 1.2903 0 .113 s ..0660 .742 . .5401 . .2340 .622 .6471 . 0 1.0794 “ 80 .654 3.1106 .187 .. t . i ee9 s r p s e Weigh[ Designation S h e l o side diam.405 .083 .186 ?. ft.119 . . 4 8 1 4 8 S X S 0 0 0 0 t 0 . Sq. . s s S 0 .1405 . ...857 1.154 . ...622 1 W.

s 21 1 .. .. 30 5.753 ..047 1..188 .17 I 2.380 5.363 1.436t .. .125 .120 . .453 63 4.500 3. ft. . . .753 9 .041 .. diam..60 3..769 2 ‘ i “ ! .134 5.500 .082 4 . “80 .. . .971 . . .732 3.1 ?8 ...622 .52..047 I .38 5. .75 4.438 .323 P R O P E O R P T ( I EI t S c S P o ) u ) f q f . . 80 160 .047 1..25 0. 40 .105 1.364 0 3.57 8. .375 9. .622 .. X 3. .28 8.188 .10 3..047 I.28 4. 4 4 .238 36 3.5074 ..785 9 . 4 4 ..441 2. . .704 9 .883 7.26 7.6900 7. .978 .802 9 . in.500 3 ...029 1.700 6.981 .700 7.867 .500 3... .. in.622 .343 .716 5..600g .40 .022 5. . .375 X2.58 6.375 2. . . ..687 9 . : 2..062 2128 1 0 13.312 ..52 3.61 5. thickness in.760 3.30 6...62 3.851 9 .19 2.047 2 I .6095 8 ..5237 .. .. 0.65 7.. .37 5.753 . .81 4.69 4...875 2. . . 4. .148 ..71 9. 2.51 13.’ 3. .407 4. . .500 3.155 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 6 4 5 7 ..4920 .34 1.196 1.984 0 . . .289 g .788 79 4. k a t t Weighi per foot “lb.375 .18 6.500 3. . area t Sq. .62 7.115 1. .4627 0 .. 1 .548 0 3.940 9 .875 .. S . 80s .767 . .86 2.744 1.203 .875 0 2.5564 5 .753 .89 9..48 4. 3..61 .06 5. .500 3.80 1. . .500 -3. . . 1 4 8 ..500 s 3.250 .880 .188 ..875 2.300 . < . . .450 g 9..765 9 .047 1..438 3.279 1.047 I.406 . .635 2:469 2.32 8.4581 .500 3. ..312 .047 3F 1 4 8 .217 S .34 3.680 26 4. .73 3.142 . . 5..42 I 2 2 2 1 1 1 3.753 . . 4 .75 10.39 8..323 s . .64 8.100 7. . .050 6.673 5.853 9 .89 8..875 0 2. 4 8 . X-stg..20 3... .047 I .547 3 2..85 3. . ...6381 0 6... sq.673 6. ..552 3 5 6 7 1 13..26 6.. . .. . 3. .393 7.761 9 .99 5. .047 I.2) 6 .605 6..58. ..14 6.312 3.492 5.66 4.155 7.46 2. . . ...442$! .300 8.601 9 .80 9.78 4.... 3.60 .165 .42 4.. s 40s std. 0 0 .900 .218 .. ...346 8.093 1. .56 6. 4.500 .790 9 .11 11. .624 3.971 5.622 .80 4.99 6...375 2.3. .32 9. .... 7.753 2.241 254 .91 2.500 3. in.276 .. .047 1.53 ..06 2. ..375 0 2.1 i 6.111 : 1..622 .. .802 .91 .02 3.819 9 .3929 ’ ) i c Nominal pipe size V Stainless steels iesigm ion e Outsidt i Insideg Wallh diam.753 .950 . .875 2.84 s S .500 s 0 t t .33 4.375 9..81 2. s ..622 . Fn E u Inside t Trans-s rsurfac f verse a e t per ft. .929 . ... .. . . ...6462 0 1.704 3. ..64 3.464 6 8.

40 .80 12.35 5.205 .148 8..625 0 8.587 1..93 15..563 5..735 1.26 2.79 11 35 12.695 6. [ . .312 .227 1.650 1..735 I .1 53.260 1.456 1.30 53. 80 80S 16..95 28. 2. .180 .02 20.15 18.735 I .60 18. .05 12. .02 17..188 . . 8.438 . 80 120 150 4 8 .735 I .87 7.958 3.563 5.695 6.28 7.375 .3 54.62 13. .129 1.187 6.15 8. 12.02 18. ..456 1.86 18.. .08 6.. .97 25.735 I .432 S . 6..29 11.625 6625 6.5 23..470 1.98 5.26 2.67 13. std.438 3.57 12.357 6.96 38.165 ..735 I .280 s .563 5.180 2.359 1.625 6.75 11.42 14.718 .625 6.19 17. .07 24..40 45.500 ~..090 4026 4.80 40 40s 4.606 1. .30 9.688 4.859 4.375 .F n E tl ’ ) w \ a w in..148 s .35 14.625 .625 Xx-stg ..40 14.562 . 8 . ..tainess teels )utsidt liamrt.500 4...95 27.591 1. 80 1 40s 80S .61 12.761 5.. .640 1..97 31.125 6.5 54.32 9.386 1.90 18.50 28. . .91 16. 8.500 ...456 1.50 12.219 ..51 5.281 ..813 4.000 3.540 1.55 9.54 7.500 5.456 1.456 1..1 52.876 3826 3750 3.64 120 160 .250 . .337 .. .271 .5 53.99 27..169 .01 18.735 I.79 36.500 4.352 ..770 14.’237 .134 s .83 54.625 6.175 2...625 .. ... 6.625 . .500 4.31 12.66 8.19 5.625 . 5 9...14 23..735 1.735 I .660 1.500 3..15 12.75 31. .750 .639 1.456 I .57 32.456 1.26 14. l P o ll Urliice ...219 939 10.17 11. :()() 4.56 .80 11.. .500 .10 32.04 10... ..625 . .6 23. .10 26..24? 6.064 1.26 2.375 .864 .70 30.563 4.. )er Transverse area sq.065 5.563 4 I 4..54 8.!280 22.71 5.500 .152 2.55 12..047 4.2 23.12 4.625 8...500 4.152 5.52 19. . 6.625 0 6.00 30...563 0 5.62 19..272 1.735 I .295 5. . X-stg. .313 4.063 6..178 2.30 21.287 .70 13.. 13..625 0 6.10 29.85 10. .45 13..26 2.38 13. ..134 s . .(525 6 40 ...625 6..500 4.203 .258 .563 5.161 2. . .26 16. .96 11.31 13.158 . .135 1.437 .9 1. .24 12..735 I ..27 5...73 12.011 6. .. .938 3.26 2..50 11. 1 .531 . ~ater ]er ft..47 7.78 23.456 1. .06 7.620 1.6 23...77 21..500 4.300 .500 4.625 6.10 28.674 .475 1.625 0 6.510 1..900 3...277 .51 11.324 P R O P EO RP T I ( E It S c Schedule Nominal pipe size ‘arbor alloj eels No.321 1.188 .500 4.45 5.875 5..250 .500 4.. 1 .59 20.29 10.735 I .26 2.36 2260 27.85 23.563 5.7 120 160 ..98 4.16 13. .30 19..195 1. .624 3.78 1 1 ..32 5.625 8.81 30.500 4.563 5.1 22.62 9.00 14.735 I.265 6.

..7 71.9 77.34 ..7 120.81 2. .9 52.4 0 34.. 22.. . ...322 . . .73 2.203 7 .1 67. . thickness in. . . Nom inal pipe size P o Outs id iurface >er ft..65 5 21.26 2.71 2. 2. 80S .5 0 29.61 2.48 5 43.3 2.. .12 85. .3 48. 9..26 2.4 8?. 0.2 51.625 8..12 5.843 7 I.6 80.q. .. .250 . ft..81 2... . .. 0..5 37. .250 7 ..70 2..6~5 .5 17.29 2..9 0 26. .2 50. .... .750 7 .3 31.9 119.16 27.6 21.26 2. 0.344 . 52.1 58.00 5 24.26 2..0 0 .44 2.1 15. .81 2. .192 . .81 2.625 8.8 18..20 5 09.406 . .2 0 35.4 2 .26 2.26 2.5 49.. ...625 8..50 2. .74 5 57.. 0. .307 7 .0 51.906 Weight per foot lb...8 51. . 0 0 0 0 0 .26 2.6 38. .625 8.6 43.165 7 . .81 2.... 0 .625 8.7 47.81 3..26 2.5 60..420 .26 2. .81 2.68 2.6 81.0 49.279 7 . ..5 0 36.6 0 52.54 2.9 46. .9 0 35.tain ess teels . 34. .7 73...625 8.960 .26 2.625 8.81 2.37 2.365 7 .352 .24 3.395 7 .5 51. .238 ...219 . 0 0 0 0 ... .500 7 . pipe It 22.. 40s . ..26 2. 0. 0..4 45...20 5. 9.875 .625 0 0 0 ...1 0 25.81 2.500 .2 64. .10 5 89..34 3. .219 7 .625 8..81 2.180 . . . .125 7 .3 21.375 ..26 2..203 .1 0 27.81 2.23 3. ... 40s .81 2...34 3. 0... ft.625 8.66 5 40.2 29.8 20.812 . .7 51.0 0 34. .277 ..81 2.8 I 2.. .136 ..81 2.68 5 54.9 0 36.593 7 . ..7 16. .22 3..03 5. 10s ...625 8..9 74..5 118.4 21.55 2. 31.250 . . 9...625 8. 8 .1 19.60 5.34 2 3.3 0 24.7 40.72 2.22 3.34 3..40 5 77. .4 56. .5 42. .531 7 .054 .6 16.1 118.26 2. 0 0 0 0 0 0 . . . ’ ) Iarbon i alloy teels .063 1..1 36.718 7 .3 0 35. . ... .469 ...26 2.90 5 i 6.. in..00 5 80.8 Transverse mea $q. . 28. 1 .3 0 31...5 22. . 0.P R O P E O RP T ( I EI t Sc Schedule No..7 0 32.1 20.42 2.2 21...020 . 01 water per ft.374 .8 68..26 2..4 36.81 2.24 5 38.238 .8 33. 7 ..81 2.81 2.7 79..256 18.1 0 33.62 2.6 119. .98 5 64.26 2.22 3.625 8.66 2.7 22.718 .26 2. .81 2.625 8.3 84.625 8.000 7 1. 80S .750 ..0 83.7 0 36.344 . 0.5 84.625 8.20 5 04.593 . 10s .86 5 24.64 2.65 2. 8. Weight designa tion )utsid liam !l :nsi de iiam.188 7 .3 78.. iq.348 7 . ..8 18. .310 .1 0 29..F n E Inside surface )er ft.9 0 31.

750 1!2. .67 2 03.062 I 2.34 7 3.5 12. .750 12.9 .5 48.2 .34 1 1 3.2 2 .34 0 3 0 3 2 3 5 2 7 2 3 2 5 20 25 29 22 .279 S . .9 2 63. .000 1 96 7 1 05 9 1 1 .000 1 3 .5 31 42.34 3 3.090 . .000 I 3. .000 1 14.000 13.34 7 0 3..2 46.375 .7 49. . . .3 3 34.500 0 Std.67 5 0 7 3. ..0 41.. . 116.750 1 .126 1 .F n E l ’ ) t No. . 108. . .8 59.34 2 3.624 .000 1 . . .750 73. .6 6 8 108.150 12. 12. 7 1.4 53.750 12. .750 12. .67 0 8 .67 3.000 t 3. . .000 1 14. .7 49. .34 3.000 13.8 1 40.0 . .9 46.524 28 32 35 37 46 55 58 631 0 64 0 75 8 85 7 86 53.9 . .. I!2.67 0 0 33.. I4.7 8 00 51..01 v I u rranserse Irea q. .. 12. w at ~t’e igh per root lb: Mt..67 4 8 3 3.. . .750 12..4 3. 111.9 .2 43. t Weight iesigne lion Outsidt jiamn. .67 9 4 5 3. 106. I4.0 3 .. 14. .34 3 111.5 58..67 3. .67 8 53.000 I 3. . 103. .5 .34 4 3.1 39.67 5 3 3 9 3 0 3 3 3 5 3 6 3 0 3 7 33 30 94 26 .0 2 47.67 0 4 93.1 .1 ! .34 .2 .406 I4. 113. .34 3 5 3 3 6 8 3.5 50. .0 44.7 48. ..5 0 1 45. ! 1 I I I I 1 55.3 0 1 37. .5 5 65. I ~ thi~ kness in. 150.874 11!750 11.9 48.5 .326 P R O P EO RP T I [ EI t Sc S~hel Nom inal pipe size ~isrb Or allo) eels P o l ) u . .500 11.188 . . 63. 114. .000 I 3.064 11.750 12..67 3..438 .9 49.626 11.67 3. 114. X-stg.000 11. 1 CONT.67 3.8 . ..34 3.500 1 10. 1. .000 13.1 . .313 1 10. . .376 11..4 . . .375 I 4.67 0 23.I 8 5 3 1 50.6 3 4 53. I .7 59.34 0 2 3.3 5 54.750 1 10.67 3.9 3.. I4.0 20 43. 161.. 12. 50. .750 125. W. .] 80S 12.2 5 6 80.0 52.8 3 3 45. 2 37.1 50..5 2 36.6 41. ... .6 4 57. 12.1 .34 0 1 3.1 .6 48 11 11 11 11 3.67 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 .9 1 55. I4.1 .0 3.000 10.238 . 140.250 I I .750 12. .8 .67 3..750 88. 1. 1 I4.312 . .750 40s .560 I4.750 12.000 1 14. .750 I !2.9 44..750 12.4 .750 12. .2 0..938 11.5 52. 1 1 1 1 1 41 3 3 2 2 2 .0 ..188 .0 8 110.34 3. 14.250 . in. .. .34 8 4 3.220 . 116.34 3 C 3 3 3 0 0 4 . 2. . .5 .67 53.5 2 6 0 3.

..0 187. . ..281 1 t . .1 95.. ..000 8. ..438 ..... .51 4.0 180.5 176.... .o 189.1 160. .. 4 5 5 1 1 . .2 99.. 0 .90 3 4. ft... w tVe aI per foot lb. .000 8. . ..000 8. .000 8..7 71.29 4.500 .9 152.. ..531 .000 ). ..20 4.8 99. .. . .5 01.90 4.5 213.0 92!?..45 4. .000 0 8 .6 ...4 168.7 1 7 .0 4. .2 .40 4.000 1... . .5 91 . 04.5 927. .2 193. .83 3. ’2 97...42 4. Nom iniil pipe size .250 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.. ..327 P R O P E O RP T ( I EI t Sc S~hedule No..000 I.0 237.32 4.0 1W.90 9 1 1 8..406 .20 4. .... .’0 241.20 4. . ..188 0 .!22 4.7 79. . .20 4.0 165.. q.11 3.20 4.000 1.20 4.20 4.. .1 182. wt. o’ Jipe II [ .0 220.20 4.000 8. 3 4 .750 .687 .20 192.0 185. .58 4.20 4. . .5 83..78 ... q r ‘ ft...0 924. thickness in..3 182.. .3 132. . 6 1 1 .6 181.000 $. .469 .000 8....5 8 0 3 .218 1 . 0 o 0 0 0 0 ..F n E l ’ ) Inside ~iam. 1 2 . ..20 4..375 .39 4.312 344 .2 169.7 129.000 8.6 144..!2 88.6 204....... ... ... 1 6 8.000 ~ 0 0 ..90 4. . . . 0 0 1 1 135.7 175. b 1 1 1 1 ....7 229.6 184. .tain ess (eels Weight designa u P o l )utsid urface )er ft. .5 98..3 79.031 1..2 96..90 4. in. . .%!0 4. .6 102.0 178.. 1 4.238 0 .89 3.. .1 233.20 4.W 3.000 1.20 4.8 210.656 . ... 5 5 5 .... .20 4.. ... ..2 75. .20 0 4.4 . ..48 4.843 1..55 4..000 8.

.. .. . 63 5 ... ..3 .. .. 0 .... tion in.. 5 1 07 1 05 1 02 6 8 1 6 6 8 7 0 3 6 8 1 5 6 6 62 . . . P o . 5 228 .. . .. .. .2 ..... ..... .. .. ....... ...... water surface per ft.. ..... 2 2 2 ..... . t. .. 4 . . ness per foot ~utsidi. ’ ) . ..3 .3 .. .. ..... . g 0 . ... .. ...... per ft. 6 17 ... . .. . .. . .. verse ...0 . .. . ....... alloy ‘less :eels s 1 . X . .... . .... 5 . . 3 . . . . in... 0. . . .. .. .. 9 .0 00 2 .... . 0 4 3 . .. .. . 22 8 4 . 42 42 42 s42 .. . 0.. . . .328 P R O P E O RP T ( I EI t Sc Schedule No. ... I .. . .. 0 . 00 181... 239 4 . 0..... . 703 3 902 3 1 01 4 00 1 ... 2 ..F n E Inside surface per ft. ...

7...0 1580 0 177 1960 0 0 0 0 0 C C 0 0 C C ( ( ( ( 0 0 .250 .69 . 4 . . . .4 0 130. ft.... 6.33 2 5. 7.......0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)9. . 7. . . ... 5. . 0 153 .. lb ) lutside e ..... 6 6 6 6 . 0 . 0 136 .. 6 6 .... .. .0 666. 5.3760 .. .. .51 . ... d of tipe 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 ft. mv wt. 19. ..F n E l ’ ) Weight iesigna lion n i t w s a Veight i a )er ‘Oot b.45 . .. 6. .... 6. . . . 6.. ... 6. .20... 6. .66 .8 672. .. 2 2 2 k ? 4 4 4 140 160 . . . 7. . 0 .. . 6. .. . ..2 660... 0 0 0 . ...41 .14.64 . ..... 1 .329 P R O P E O RP T ( I EI t Sc S a a tain!ss eels P o . 2 2 2. 6 . .. 0 169 0 186 0 0 99 0 119 138 . ...59 .. i .54 .. . 6... .56 . . .125 ..0 0 0 0 .. . .06. .48 . . 677.9 0 127.. 6..4 80 134.28 1 n u ‘ 2 I 1 2 .. —— 7. 7.. . 0 0 0 0 .2 2 2 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 . . q.5 654. # . .68. I . .62 .. 6.. . . .53 . 1 .58 .0 0 5.8 649.. 0!9. . .. 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 ! 6 ..61. .. urfa~e er ft. 0 0 0 0 141. . 0 . 0 0 . ... 6 .. ! 2 2...

). ... . . . q .. . . .. . . . . . — a . . . . .. . .tl-l . . . i . . ... - - 0 N m q 0 ! . O - .* . I — .?30 X2 x: .. . w w z q I A-* l-lmm I * N. . . . . .. . . . . . . . u) q . . . . . . .... . .! ... . . . .. . . . *. . . .). . .

.

2068 . Sq.2618 .2443 .205 1. 7/8 7/8 1 .555 .362 1.4185 .1417 .2225 .2356 1.441 .2003 .2330 .1964 .2618 .1296 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 q .129 .2121 .1909 .168 1.2618 .060 .730 .3436 . 136 1. Ft.5675 .755 .2618 .004 .2618 .159 1.2042 .5945 . \ W Tubing Constant c OD A ID I I L L Ft.1[ 1 .176 1.2618 .105 .229 I .6362 .2291 .2029 . K’all O Do Tubing T ness E x I w r n a l h Inlernal i S c u S k rf u T .741 .1977 .790 .23(M .075 . Ft.050 .1536 .482 .775 698 717 736 I.5153 .110 .2179 .149 r.2278 .332 PROPERTIES OF STEEL TUBING Sq.850 .765 .144 1.1911 .4717 .780 .880 .4006 .4418 .2618 .333 1.6082 .750 .3669 .1633 .135 .602 .890 .124 1.050 .046 1.507 .4596 .1518 .085 .055 .4477 0 .2618 .2291 .6221 .247 1.700 .429 1.522 .I . Per Ft.830 .810 .900 600 653 689 745 764 804 844 885 927 949 970 992 1.4902 .2618 .2952 .282 1.870 . L I c Metal Area (Transverse D Metal Area) “ .1833 0 .2701 .125 .065 .3076 .rh a ef c f oI a r e ec [ e i Area Per Ft.3848 .370 1.2618 6 .095 .2618 .150 .649 .5411 .918 .604 I I ] .1772 .235 1.266 1.1492 Liquid velocityin feet/second : pounds per tube per hour Cxs g l S gravity w F= C o cu H r Et X E e! C s I H yN A AS N !T TG I T E I I .4778 .831 .055 .2: 73 .2618 .

186 3 .196 5 . 1 [ 1 9 . .1 2 4 . . 6 ~ . I — . 6 835 1 0 35 5 . 6 . 1 . 10 9 .5945 . ( . 310 . . 38 9 3 . 2 42 7 4 .4 2 9 .5 64 . 4 1 4 . 6 . 9 . ( 5 .19 4 o 29 . 53 0 . 57 l3 3 5 1 4 8. [ . 2 .2 2 9 [ . 1 9 2 74 4 [8 4 1 47 5 5 9 —8 [ 2 4 4— .2 . 6 49 . 0 .6 . 1 7 1 8 . 3 83 .266 3 5 2 5 .1 1 7 2 4 0 32 5 . 2 3 . 6 8 . 0 . 0 . 3 4 .1 93 .8 35 — 6 . 33 . 1 .5 . . .5 . 3. v g f w . 863 .1 2 2 5 . 5. 64 .8 g 7 [ 6 5 5 7 28 5 [ 5 1. 9 7 4 0 5 7 0 0 1 0 1 0 . 53 1 1 2 — 6 46 I . 310 5 . . .3 1 . 24 4 4 1 8 8 1. . 5 5 0 3 49 [25 4 . 318 6 . . . 8 5 . 3 3 5 4 I. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . I — I 1 . . l .[ . 69 6 .6 5 8 . 0 . 1 . [ . . . .4 1 — 0 c 22 21 4 21 6 1 90 11 4 11 2 2 0 26 5 01 0 09 4 s g l 9 7 7 w A A A Cxs F z 1 7 1 C o ou H r E t X E e C s I H yN A AS N f T TG I T S P t Sa 3 . 1 1 1 1 4 1 8 1 9 1 3 1 6 I. 8 3 7 — . 6 8 . 0 .2 4 5 .1 3 4 .269 1 ! 692 8 I . 8. 3 65 . . 413 I . 98 ~ 5 . 98 [I. 787 0 . 889 8 . I 0 0 0 0 0 I0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 I~ I6 . 0 7 0 6 6 . .[ 18 I 1 . 36 [ . L 1 [ i I I 1 ‘ S .2 [ 36 4 . 53 . 36 8 .269 9 9 . 463 7 . . 0 0 . . . . I .2 2 4 3 . . 54 .6 = p 8 4 . 364 8 . I.1 1 2. 0 74 . 7 29 . 984 6 .065 [ . 6 1~ 2 2 1 6.035 ~ . 0 82 3 . . . I 1 . 3 6 . .6 . . . 16 .3 4 2 9 6 2 3 . 4 88 2 25 2 2 0 0 [ 0 0. . 53 . .2 4 3 . 1 [ 1 3 8 .27 . 87 . . 339 8 5 .Area E S per I S L L I L I i8 I I /8 /8 /8 /8 1 /8 i8 /8 !8 !3 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4 [ [2 13 14 1 [ [7 18 19 20 ~ 1 1 12 13 [4 15 16 i2 I0 . 93 1 3 .6 8. 92 4~ 1 . 3.6 5.14 6 8 . 685 4 . .777 740 .16 15 ~ . 43 5 4 7 . 35 5 5 7 1 01 5 0 5 1 7 4. 5 4 . 4 8 .16 9 85 . .26 .1 9 1 4 .— 94 .2 5 1 . /4 ‘. .2 . 64 5 —.I6 . 03 666 . 2 W o m 2 8 1 8 — 4 9 6 9 6 9 9 1 1 3 1 f 6 8 8 8 6 8 9 2 8 9 9 3 7 9 — .16 9 2 . 4 5 2 0 5 1 5 [1 39 5 0 1 2 1. .601 5 6 . . I1 . .16 53f .263 8 8 . . 83 1 . .269 2 . 19 3 — . 24 1 01 7 6 8. 0. . . . . . .333 PROPERTIES W T BWG ness OF TUBING w L C W ( L S M v T C Inches C“ — ID V . . 49 2 . 20 .1 3 ~ ~ 0 . . 366 . . 637 2 . .113 8 . 13 9 5 . 69 9 00 9 3 5— 1 18 5 . . .2 1 [ 7 2 .~[5 .i 1 t n 0 l . 8 06 . .16 3 1 . . 562 . 488 7 7 . ee 4 s 0 es T E U T E I .263 8 3 I144 90 9 5 34 4 3 1 5 0.3 5 . 217 . . . . .19 .6 1 65 . 12 8 2 6 . 4 6 24 2 3 1 4 5.2 7 7 .9 62 9 .1 3 0 3 .6 .1 [~ 8 1 6 . 97 3 5 . .4o7 65 .: l/4 17 19 20 1/4 /8 8 ~/8 )/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7’/8 7/8 1 1 I [ [ 22 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 [8 19 20 22 . 30 5 01 1 12 9 34 5 9 1 0 4.6 48 4 0 . 0 ~1 4 3 3 8 4 55 6 1 3 3[. 2 5 18 3 1 28 4 4 1. 8 3 8 . 43 3 3 .26 7 . .1 2 9 . 1 2.6 .

334 H F c f H S T v e o so s a m em l r ae d sn d l i a f i el m l ueld it m hpe s rao e si u d am a l s r d o se s e o m w m ol h n d la y i . r a l o v i t lg On the following pages the data of the most commonlyused heads are listed. G E IL G A H F o h r be u m t a t e -t w tdd es l d n s h e nd h he e s lo t ae oefr l a lw vd i at g t h e n h t g e h e h i n et h t a i ot c s h d k a h sc e th a c rteo t r n C ld eP i lno U h g a& G3 d o E r e . me R b oa s FA ea d a o wm s N T l ecy o e ln e ssf t ds r u e c r t d i o n . F f o h l a r t e mh . h o e 2 f l a a d n ia g n O s ie h d nf n hec e d m dhi s o ph d eh ee sr i ca ra l d s . Thedimensionsof flangedand dishedheadsmeetthe requirementsof ASMECode.e 3 3. t ae i t cdd sh k a s he ba h ur e t — t n n -t l w i es e l hd h d es d t a a n g e . W V E O IH O O LH G ES Ht A Ta b U ES M p A E 4 e De bg Fo i S lp n e 3n e i as n De Fa! S 1e w g g 7 6 n e 4 SURFACE OF HEADS See page 425 . T u l s he o u s n t afg r e la tl ai n g n g hf e etc l sl h 2 ih f i : pIo 1 se oi i s dnf a r l /c . 2 i p r ha ce e t xh i e a m c c ni ed se p ah p s u e r w it c s a s rl t i fr e l a ta ie n dg g h h et s . av r l me a g ee s u t ss e eb e u r r w lu a h se l m ii l i e s y l po t h e tr i c h a l l a a d n ih g n s e e h da e dd ds .

3 5 5.34 1. 3 7 5 .4 36 9 1 1.3 6.3 503.875 7 3.5 56 8. 3 06 7 . 1 25 . 3 0 72 . 356 02 5 .4 0 .3 67 . 1 75 .41 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 8 18 .750 6 2 2 .56 1. 4. 59 3 8 .875 2 2 5 .6. 2. 4 510 . 4 78 . 7 1.25 0 00 0 72 3 55 . . 2 00 8 .3 8. 4 083 . 3 020 . 2 50 8 .40 1. 4 301 . 55 4 24 24 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 . 3 556 . 7 5 1. 1 42 .1 1. 6 3 1 . 4 301 . de f e tS l e &ar M n se ha ed ds .5 8 1 . 2 556 . 4 810 . 4 306 1. . 1 55 . 6 3 9 5 15 4 R )1 14 . 4 815 . 083 . 508 07 5 . 65 1. 46 .500 1 1. 2 00 8 . 50 3 .41 1 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 . 6 1. 1 25 . 1 . 3 020 . 2 5 0 . 6 5 1 . 8 3 7 . 2.7 5 1 .44 1. 2 0 72 . 2 556 5 02 0 72 . 52 1. 7 1 . 2 50 8 .188 5 3 0 .6 2 1 . c i f sto o d cA l ro f em i r n u p d tl ore an e s r s n s Mns i r = ~ t = w A N M D G I E ES D &H ~n m u a i c n k fi ~ lS l & e ud a f Ee gs mr k o ln o m e m s i l s nn . . 2. 1 05 . 3 05 . . o s ed io p F& di D ht e se h fa h fd o H E M I S P H E R I C A L h = i L(R) = i d o e E L L I P S O I M= D A L f au k .54 8 R )1 1 5 5 1 6 1 8 .1 5.335 DIIU EN SIONS OF HEADS n D D A F S L D S Y n d eo ih n d nr ih x M U B I O T S L T SEA H B D L N E E D= i h d i s ao h i me m e d i ts ep ae h ee r l r il c i a fnpl s a u d t d i s as o iA m . 1. 1.063 5 52 3 58 4 07 . 4 88 . 5 5 % 3A T 8 0 0 6 0 0 0 39 4 0 3 . 3 6 1.1 1.1 2. 4 875 . 1. 1. i a m l u AE D D 1 M E L I NI S 1 N O LN C S H E N WALLTHICKNESS 3 L( r h M L( r h M L( .1 3.3 5.6 9 . 56 1. 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 14 16 18 20 22 24 M L (R) r h M L (R) r h M L (R) r h M 1 / 8 2 1 1 2 2 R ) . 1 5 . t h sa o d i d o d iA i eu f S s l &a fM n h s a e u h i af e s o ddrf im es n u t s l doe a n pt re e r s n s a u r lr e .

2. 03 03 63 3 63 6. 7 0 54 0 9 .56 24 24 4) 2 42 24 0. 8 . 1 63 63 63 3 63 6. 6 5 1 . 4 5 0 1. 3 7. ) .5 0 0 66 2 . 5 61 . 2 5 . 6 9 1 .5 9 3 85 1 . 2 3 . 7 7 1 . . 6 9 1 . 5 4 01 .6 . 5 3 . 8 3 . 3 . ? 4R .5 7 5 6 0 . 6 0 3 56 0. 7 21 .6 21 . 5 4 030 0 5 . 7.6 1 .375 2 3 62. 6 5 1 . 8 2 5 5 3. 5 4 63 6 5 .3 .~ 2 2 42 5 0 6. 5 0 2. 7 2 1.72 7 . 62 62 62 3 .2 2.375 0 0 3 0 .4 74 5 . . 2 45 4 .5. 4 .69 4 54 05 05 5) 45 2 5 6. 7 1. 7 1 7 21 .813 84 . 6 1 . 7 5 6. 7 5 8 6. 0 8 9 .813 5 01 . 6 9 1 . 2 0 . 7 2 1 .. 3 0 0 . 1. 7 3 5 . M L (R) r h M L (R) : M L( r h M L( . 5 0 0 0 5. 7 7 1 . 1 7 32 30 R 30 2.3 65 3. 02.7 0.3 5 0 0 3 .000 5.2 2. 7 6 8 1 . 2 1 . 2 .625 7 5 2 . 6 4 0 7. 7 0 0 34. 5 2 63 6 5 0 0 4 3. 01 9 3 8 1 .7. 28 3A % 5/8 24 2 2 . 7 7 1 .2 5 .875 2 62 2. 6 2 1 .6 1 .7 1 6 91 .7 7 . 1 1 . 4 . 4 .72 4 0.125 0 0 . 9 84 8 . 6 9 1 .62 84 4) 84 44 8 48 5 0 2.8 1 . 7 2 1.72 .727 2 1 .9 1 . 5 4 03 0 5 0 0 .8 1 . 5 1 . 4 2 0 . 6 4 2. 3 0.7 0. 1 7 2 2 .6 1 .3 0.3 0 03 7. 6 . 3R 2 .48 5 24 2 7 0 4 . 8 1. .6 3 .3 2. 5 16 3 .6 7 51 .9.125 5 2.7 3 6 91 .3 5 0 8 8. 3 .3 1. 3 . 3 8 8 .3. 7 2 1 .2 6 5 . 2 . 7 1. 6 91 .5 6. 56 0 . 5 .6 5 46 3 8 .5 9 . M L( r h M E r h M E r h M L( r h M L( r h M L( r h M L( r h M m1 4 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 4 1 3 2 5 1 3 2 5 1 7 2 5 1 3 2 6 1 4 2 6 1 z 2 7 1 4 3 8 1 5 3 8 1 6 3 i0 1 Y T 1 .625 5 22 5. 1. 7 2 1 .3. 5 .500 .375 0 35 75 5 . 5 . 1 6 01 . 0 2 . 0 6 91 . 5 7 21 .6 1 . 6 i 6. 1 . 6 9 1 .3 5 32 7 5 0 0 .2 . 7 8 1 3 .375 1 . 6 51 . 6 51 . 2 0 2.3 0 5 0 0 2 5 5.625 1.75 3 3 .3 2 6. 5 . 0 8 3 . 7 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 6 l% 2 1 l.2 6.6 3 7 5 46 .3 . 5 0 5 0 2 5 0 2 . 7 34 7 .2 5. 7 1 .3 5.375 1.3 0 5 0 5 .3 0.3 5 0 12 2 5 2 5 .625 5 6 58 8 6 . 6 .4 5 0 .3 5 3 0 . 7 1 1. 6 1 . 6 5 1 . 6 9 1. 5 2 . 4 . 2 7 7 34 . 4R . 0 0 34 7. 08 5 . 7 51 . 6 1 .8 8 6. 8 17.0 1 .3 0 0.9 2 3 8 7.5 8 8 21 . 4 . 1 1 . 1 0 0 . 0 2 5 3.3 5 23 2 5 0 3.9 1 .000 . 7.3 2 0.8.625 5 2 6 2 5 63 3 . 7 51 . 3 3 .6 6 3 6 .5 . 51 .000 8 27 5.6 0. 7 3 .65 6 24 2 2 .000 5 3 0 . 6 2 0.6 5 1 . 6 4 . 8 4. 1 . 6 91 . . 8 1 5. 34 66 . 6 0 7. 6 91 1 . 1 .125 0 18 21 .2 3 7 5 . 7 30 30 30 1.625 . 7 5 24 5 0 0 .9 1 .063 . 5 01 . 5 . 3 7. 6 2 1.9 6.2 6.2 1 .72 1. 5 0 0 1 05 1 . 5 0 . 6 3 7 .8 8 2 .5 7 0.7. 7 55 0 .5. 5 . 0 30 30 3 03 3 2. 6 2 63 6 5 4 0 0 3. 4 01 . 6 1 3 46. 2 2.3 2 0 0 0. 1 3 .125 7 8 . FR 2 .3 .4. 8 7 5 0 2 . 3 1 85 7 5 3 8 .3 7 5 .3 9.50C 0 44 3.3 6.7 1 .3 9. 5 2 0 5.2.3 2. 4R . 3 5 1 . 1 . 4.7 0.438 8. 3 03 3) 03 3 02 0.336 D I M E N S I OO NHEADS S A D I M E L I N I S IN O LN C S H W D ~ F E N S E L S S i T A H I C LK N L (R) 26 . 6 5 1 .2 2 . 5 . 7 21 4 0 5 3. 6R . 7 2 1 . 0. 9.5 5. 5 5 .375 0 5.875 . 6 9 1 . 3 3 63 3) 63 6. 4 4 0 7. ::125 7 0 0 8. 2 3. 7 21 1 . 3 0 7 5 2 5 00. 0 0. 6 9 1 . ) 43 3 03 03 43 6.438 5 0 7 5 0 39 9 . 55. 5 01 .1 7 5 . .4 0 3 3 2 6 3.3 .1.

5 21 .188 1.5 2. 4 81 . 0 [ 1 .6 6. 0 8 0 7 5 5 . 5 2 . 5 1. 4 4 .8 8. 0 8 .563 1 3 4 7 1 3 4 6 1 3 4 7 1 3 4 7 1 3 4 3 .6 8.5 2.5 0 0 5 2 . 0 87 10.4 . 3 7 .4 . 4 6 . 4 4 .48 1 4 4 4 84 4 48 6 .1 . 1 .8 1 2 3 5 1 . 1 .39 3 32 L (R) r h M 30 R 4. 05 5 5 5 1 . . 3 9 3 6 4 .337 D D E D I T A E ENS IONS I A M R OF HEADS M D I M E L IN I S 1N O LN C S H WALLTHICKNESS 2 21A 17% E N S l% 3 26 28 L (R) r h M L (R) r h M L( r h M 30 30 4. 3 1 63 6 3 3 6 5. 078 05 5 . 4 4 3 3 6 3 6 6 + 5. 3 3 6 6 6 5.7 1 3 . 1 5 3 0 0 7 . 1.8 1 3 . 6 1 . 4 01 1 .7 . 3 1 1. 2 38 20.063 1 1 .500 6.52 48 4. 0 1 6 .4 5. 8 2 1 6 .250 9 1 . .4 ) - 4.6 5 .36 30 4 6 1 .56 5 4 1 1 0 6 3 0 0 0 2 0 5. 03 4 6 . 4 1 . 45 45 8 .8 1 8.438 8 1 . 4 61 . 4 1 .46 42 4. 0 2 0 88 . 6 0 2 7 . 4 4 8 84 .500 9. .7 4.875 5 . 6 0 2 6 .44 1 4 4 4 24 4 42 6 .7 1 3 .7 9 . 1 . . 8. 5 21 . 4 01 . 0 8 0 7 5 6 . 5 . 7 8 .875 5 . 1 3 72 . 0 1 83 . 7 5 . 4 1 . 5 8 1 .7 3. 03 . 02 5 . 3 1 63 6 3 3 6 5. 5 6 8 . 1 0 3 0. 5 2 . 5 4 1 1 . 1 5 3 0 8. 2 5 0 15 01 .7 1 3 .5 8. 4 1 . 5 2 . 5 5 9 . 1 .4 . 3 9 5 0 3 3 6 0 0 8 4 34 36 38 40 42 48 5 8. 0 8 0 7 5 5 . 3 .875 1. 5 6 0 2 . 7 6 . 2 0 0 5 0 3 6 8 2 0 0 5 56 3 1 4 2 0 0 . 5 6 0 2 . 0 0 3. 5 11 .5 0 8.4 . 0 8 0 7 5 5 .500 9. 3 0 7 2 5 9 . 3 5 6 1 08 1 9.875 6.125 1. 1 . 0 1 0 8 8 1 . 51 0 03 8 1 1 .500 6. 6 2 5 8. 7 0 5 6 3 3 1 . 1 8 [1 1 1 70 . 4 61 1.313 1. 7 . 11 88 . 4 .375 1. 07 05 . 1 .54 1 5 5 45 5 45 45 6 .6 4. 3 7 5 07 . 1 . 1 6 5 0 9 6 6 5 0 0 6 3 5 3 9 6 6 6 5 0 0 0 0 3 3 9 6 6 6 0 0 5 8 3 3 9 6 2 2 07. 4 6 +1 . 6 0 2 9 8 . 9 4 . 4 6 . 0 7 5 . 6 2 . 5 . 3 1 . 3 .

5 1.72 . .75 7 5 1 51 .625 02 . 7 51 . 1 1. 7 2 . 7 51 . 5 304 51 1 . 1 1 2 1 2 0 120 120 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 6. 7 2 1 . 8 51 1 57 .7 2 1 . 91 78 . 1 1 0 1 1 4 1 11 40 1 4 1 41 7.750 8 . 1 . 7 1 . 7R .6 8. .6 0 0 5 0 5. 0 5. 7 5 1 . 1 2 5 6 . 1 9 6 1 1 1 6 8 1 % 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 L r h M 1 126 L (R) r h M L( 6R .4 7 5 3 7 5 4 . 6 51 7 . 7 7 1 .000 i0 0. 3 23.6 5. 7 2 1 . 2 033 78 .6 7 5 8. 7 2 . 51 17 .01 1 0 8 1m 0 81 80 0 81 r r 8. 0 20. 7 71 . 7 5 5 . 7 5 1 . 3 51 7 . 9 56 5 16 .4 5 0 . 1 . 1. 5 0 0 5. 7 1 7 5 1. 0. 1 6 1 1 1 7 2 1 1 7 2 1 R 132 . 91 8 . 0 0 C 0 04 0. 0 0.5 51 . 2 51 04 .563 . 5 31 56 . 7 7 1 .6 8. 4 33 1 3 .000 0 4 4 0. 0 0 5 0 0 6 . 3 21. 1 1 C5 . 12 8 .4 C 0 4.6 5.5 0 5. 67. 75 1 86 . 0 41 45 84 . 1 . . 27 5. 2 2 8 .7 2 5 6.8.5 2 5 0 9 . 1 2 5 1. 7 7 1 . 7 5 3 7 5 3. 31 38 .5 4 1 . 5 0 0 86 3 31 0 . 7 5 1 . 5 . 01 0 0 . 8 51 56 . 2 51 11 0 . 7 21 . 8 82 12 . 7 71 . 7 71 .4 2 1 . 2 78 0 51 . 7 2 1 .5 0 0 5.250 5 2. 7 3 04 61 1 . 7 71 . 87 7 27 27 7 27 27 2 74 5 0 . 7 2 1 . 7 1 . 7 51 . 7 5 . 3 7 4 . 7 01 65 . 7 2 1 .6 . 8 5 . 9 .75 5 1. 0 0 5.4 3. 8 01 1 . 7 5 1 .4 0 . 333 89 . 0 . 8 7 5 5 . 7 51 . 1 .500 6 8 8 2 12 .6 7 1 . 3. 7 5 . 2 5 1. 2 5 6 . 7 21 . 2 5 . 7 2 . 56 . 2 81 76 . 51 . 71 1 .625 5 27 5. 81 71 9 . 7 2 1 . 8R . 7 1 . 1.6 7 5 . 3 4 . 7 . 7 1 .75 1 . 7 5 1.5 6 1 . 7 5. M 66 6 60 0 6 06 6] 06 6 . 7 5 1. 3A 1 1 11A I .6 5. 7 7 1 . 51 86 .500 16 32 8 82 1 1 .4 7 5 3. 0 8 5 0 8 . 7 1. 7 2 1 . 8 7 5 65 .8 0. 9 864 . 48 48 4 8 47 8) 47 47 1. 9 . 01 2 01 9 2 29 0 2 9 20 1 01 20 5 . 7 7 .5 2 1.338 D I M E N S I OO NH S I N DIAM ETER D E C C LK A H N DF E E L S S S S W T A H % I 9“6 6 L( 4 r h 1 M 1 7 L( 4 1 . 9 31 25 . 3 35 6 . 1 . 1 2 6 2 . 1 . 7 7 1 . 7. 1 0 33 . 1 2 5 1 2 5 2 5 .727 5 1 21 . 61 78 . . 6 01 25 . 5 01 2 5 . 9 08 17 . 6 51 5 6 . 7 5. 1 5[1 .4 7 7. 1 31 1 . 1 . 08 4 48 48 8 48 8) 48 5 .4 3. T . 69 9 69 9 69 6 69 69 6 6 . 7 1 .563 7 8 . 3 1 . 8R . 2 22 . 1 .) m 120 1 2120 . 7 1 .5 2 5 5 . 7 21 . 7 1 .7 . 3 01 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 5 . 7 71 .625 56 02 1 7 . 7 51 .250 0 2 7. 7 5 8. 7 5 1 .5 2 5 1 2 5 5 . 7 1 . 7 51 .7. 9 01 85 . 1 2 5 6 . 8 7 5 5 . 7 2 1 . 6 28 . 1 21 11 6 :5 . 1 .6 0 1 9 1 8 . 8 81 5 6 . 7 2 1 .6 7 5 8. 7 5 2 5 . 7 1 .1 01 8 . 5 81 1 . 0 0 ( 4 . 7 1 . 0 0 8. 5 91 91 . 7 2 1 . 2 51 0 9 . 8 7 5 5 .75 1 .7 6. 7 8 17 7 . M 1 L (R) 7 4 : 1 M 1 8 L( 5 r h 1 M 1 9 L( 5 : 1 M 1 9 5 . 8 303 3 8 . 1. . 5 . 5 5. 1 5 21. 3 01 1 6 . 1 3 . 83 77 . 8 7. 7 2 1 .6 7 8 7 5 6 . 12 78 . 1 . 6 .4 5 0 74 5 0 . 1 2 5 1.9 7 0 1 3 6 1 04 . 5 51 65 . 26 7) 26 7 26 66 6 26 4 . 1 .8 3 .4 1 1 . 3 21.000 0 8 8 . 4 833 31 0 .5 0 0 5 . 5 23.727 1 . 11 38 . 1 4 20.7 2. 3 81 78 . 0.4 3 1 . 9 51 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 2 .7 . 7 2 . 7 71 .4 7 5 0 1 3 1 3 .625 5 2 6. 7 2 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 1 .4 0 7. 3 1 17 . 7 5 1 .5 05 28 . 1 2 6 .250 5 7 0 . 09 69 0 9 09 08 9 09 5 8 7 5 8. 7 5 1 . 6 . 6 51 31 1 . 1 01 1 . 7 5 1.

1. .72 1 .875 53 01 5 15. 7 2 1.750 2 07 . 1 2 12.52 1. 4 . 1 31 0 . .7 0 78. 1 31 7 . 7 1 . 31 2 0 1 5 15. .750 1 3 [3. 59 5 . 0 8 3 2 5 2 0 5 0. 2 1. 1 l% 1 60 4.72 1 7 1 . .41 . 7 3 00 . 59 6 5 . 8 7.188 . 5 1 M .125 6 . . 7 2 1 1 ( 01 120 R * 2 L ) 2120 02 21 I 1 r 9 8 .250 59 5 7 . 2.7 2 5.875 85 7. . 6 2 5 5 . 2 8 8 . 0 8 18.5.250 . 7 5 1 .6 1.125 1 6 2 . 9 1.500 5 6 0.125 . . 8 7 7 5. 32 1 .750 h 1 . . 88 . 818 2 12 . . 9 32 0 9 . 1 1 . 3 4 . . 8 6 16. 9 6 9 .7 : r 1 h 3 8 .500 . 7 21 2 1.5.250 1 12.339 DIMENSIONS A D OF HEADS E N S D I M E L IN I S 1N O LN C S H 23A ] 3 60 Tir L (R) . 1 . 7 2 1 .750 0 27 5 .586 5 1 2 1. 96 9 69 69 96 96 96 9 96 L( R ) r 78. 7 1 19 . 5 0 6 . 66. 1 01 1 01 80 102 201 1 01 2 20 102 m 6 .000 . 6 1 . .125 . 6 91 1 .72 1 . 06 M 1 .8. 8 .8. 81 M 6 1 .875 5 . 8 1 91 .125 1 5 5 .48 1 .6 0 5. 7 1 .69 7 7 72 7 2 72 * L( R ) 6.625 0 6.6.7 0 .8.6.7 5 114 h 1 9 20. +--l’+ . 14. 5 m I WALLTHICKNESS T 2 21A 2% 6’0 60 6 . 7 1 6 21 .7. 2 1 . 4 2 . 6 1. 0 3 21. 21 .6 8 7 8. 0 20. 2 .250 2 7 5. 2 1 . 0 60 . 7 2 1. 9 0 19.250 0 59 7 2 .8. 6 9 ~ 7 8 7 8 7 7 87 78 78 7 8 L( R ) .72 1 1 ~ 8 1 108 0 108 R * 0 L ) 7 . 1 2 20 . 8 31 09 . T I I -L + 1 1 0 0. 1 7 17. 2( 2 1 . 02 7 7 23 32 . 2 1 7 .7 2 6. 12.750 0 27 11 10 31 0 12. 59 .125 . 0 . 00 3 5 5 . 0 82 69 . .7 5 2 5 7 . 7 1 .250 0 5.000 6 5 . 6 9] 1.6. 1 2 22.6. 7 2 78. 41 1 . 7 2 1. 5 2 3 2 .46 1 .250 5 9 4 .8 08. 2 56. 81 2 3 11 81 . 2 1 5 2 5 102 h 1 8 18.500 . 5 0 14.250 5 . 7 2 . 14.313 21 . 5 8.7 2 6. 7 2 1.250 00 . 9 5 7 6 5 .6 0.875 55. 1 M 1.625 3 1 3t12. 0 6 5 0 5 2 4 0.50 1 1.250 5 59 1. 0 5. 3 1 3 38 . 2 51 0 . 6 21 1 7 1 .58 1. 1 52 69 . 6 1. 6 91 1.000 5 4.69 9 09 9 90 9 09 F m * 6 .5 5 78.875 5 1 [ 1 .312 M 1 1 .000 6.500 M 1 7 1 . 5 1 M 1. 1 1 7 1 4 14. 0 13.8.7 5 96 : 1 1 7 .500 55 05 0 r 90 h 13 .063 35 81 1 . 0 0.62 1.750 12 31 .875 3 3 6 6 0 .125 .7. 8 8 48 84 48 8 48 8) 4 84 L( R .250 59 r 66 h 2 . 6 0.688 3 1 . 2 1 .6 0 0 108 h 31 1 9 19. r 6 . 1. 6 2 1.69 1. 7 7 2 1. 1. 7 01 0 . 1 2 7 1 5 .6 5 .875 8 6 76 58 r 59 6 . 25 5 r 84 h 1 2 41 .54 1 7 1 .5 26. 12 1 .65 8 8 48 r 8 48 8 4 84 84 E . 4 6 5 0. .000 0 8 08 C0 .54 . 9 60 .8. 2 2 2 25 .72 .6 0 0 0 86 7 5 . t1 2 5 01 0 .7 5 0 C r 120 h 2 2 1 21. 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 3 M 1 .125 1 18 M 1 5 1. 5 66.250 0 5 . . . 1 3 6 3 14. 1 3 21. 6 5 1. 8 0. I I . 02 80 .125 M 1 1 . 7 1 17. 1.65 1 1 1 11 41 1 1 4 114 114 41 E 69 6.4.188 . 7 2 1 . 5 0 30 . . 5 01 1 .938 13. 9 1 3 8 .750 7 7 r 1 5 3 13.72 1 . 2 52 60 .188 . 82 1 6 2 2 22. 52 r 78 h 4 . 1 . 5 0 13.938 . 7 21 1 7 1 . 7 8.250 . .60 2 1 7 1 .750 0 8 .72 1 . C 2.250 5 2 6.7 5 2.250 5 . . 82 10 23 02 . . 8 60 .72 1 .938 M 1 1 .250 59 5. 5 8 5 0 4 0.72 . 2 0. 8 30 M 1 .500 60 4. 7 2 1 .438 0 0*12. 7 .625 67 2.250 5 6 . 5 7 5 6 8 0. 31 4 0. 1 2 51 5 .8 0 132 h 2 3 23.250 .500 3 9 . .58 6 6 6 66 6 66 66 66 66 66 L( R ) . 7 2 . 5 58 1 6 .72 1. 3 2 20 .

0 7 0 5 6 5 .5” 3.1250 0. T A A H 231 23 1 23 1 5 7 5 3. 8 32 15 . 0 8 .E W 2 ‘ 21 23A 31 2 3 5 7. 5 7 5 0 3 o4 5 o3 7 2 . 5 20 . 2 31 23 231 1 . . 1 3 0 9 . 7 1 ) 31 1R 31 8 .3750 0. 5 9 . 5 52 32 7 2 1 .8 82 . 23 1 8 7 . M L( 1 8 2 1 1 8 2 1 144 .EQ’D. 5 28 .6250 5 0 0 . lD .8 38 .2500 0. 4 3 3 8 .8 7 . .D. 73 . 7 2 .5000 0. 7 5 1 . 1 23 9 .7500 1.8 32 . 7 2 4 E L S S 1 .O .8 3 32 o3 7 51 31 2 7.0625 0. 7 0 5 . 3 . 7 21 .8 52 1 7 . 7 3 5 . 1 . 1. 2 31 5 7 3. 0 7 0 8 0 0 5 7 0 “ 5>>T. 32 38 1 . 52 51 1 . 52 . 52 1 7 . 7 21 . To 1“ 1“ To 2“ 2“ To 3“ 3“ To 3.8 7 3. OVER 150” I. 3 o2 72 .8 3 2 . 7 1 R ) 1 31 3 1 8 . 56 5 3 7 5 .~ 13A l% 2 2 3 3 5 3 7. 7 2 .5” To 5“ excl. 7 21 .1250 1. 23 1 2 31 8 .8 7. S e y e .n ”O sv up . 0 d e f er ) ) s “ i 0. 3 0 0 7 5 022 7 2 3 2 0 5 326 7 2 [38 . 02 81 .e i u d r 5 n F *S I 4 O O W p m e i c tn i h i i f (mc r y k u e N D O 4 O ti a Ov R S O E ID u . M )IAM SEE 3 ) 31 1 3 7 . 0 5 .6 n 0 ” NTE F S . 3 78 . 7 51 . TOLERANCES WALL THICKNESS (APPROXIMATION) * OTHER TYPES MINIMUM HEMISPHERICAL . M L( 144 .1875 0. I C LK N : p ~ ‘ 1 $ E : R ]3~ 5 lx L( 1 8 2 1 1 8 2 1 1R .2500 0. 7 3 7 5 . 7 0 5 0 0. .THICKNESS UP TO 150” I. 5 2 .5” 4. 33 2 3 1 . 23 7 .3750 0. 3 1 . 32 3 56 . 8 % 1 l% l.8 7 5 . 52 2 . 1 . . 7 21 . 7 1 1 .8 7.D.500 0.8 3.8 5 7.0000 nq m weu i s o i HSh . 7 5 1 . 3 52 . 0 7 . ” 2.1250 0.5” To 4“ 4“ To 4.340 DIM EN S1ONS DIMENSIONS 11AM tTER D OF IN HEADS I N C H E S WALL THICKNESS 5/8 L( % 1R . 5 7 3 5 51 . 5 5>> >> 5 & . 0 1 0 . incl. “ “ “ “ “ 0. 7 21 . 7 5 23 2 3 0 7 . 32 9 . 3 02 86 . .3750 0.1250 0.8 5 7. c m o 7 ”Ol i u O . 7 5 1 . M ) 31 31 3 . .6250 0 0 0 0 1 .8 7 38 5 7 .6250 0. i 56 . 5 7 0 2 . 7 2 1 .6 e sml “O D i r “ u” l t p i heh m ri b mi t n i C tt e t o seh d d .8 0 5 4 52 69 7 21 3— 03 3 . 5 02 25 .5000 1 2 5 . 7 51 . 7 21 .8 5 7 0 58 . 52 7 8 1 .8 24 .8 e O O UU N Dr p. 5 7 0 5 0 . 7 1 23 1 1 23 5 . 7 51 .8 P D( I E T d m l” i D sr h d e H su ” pn 0 n D t 9 . 7 5 3 8 25 . 4 82 . n n g . 0 5 4 816 .

6./ Other finishes may be furnished by agreement between user and manufacturer. Raised faced flange shall have serrated finish having 24 to 40 groovesper inch.3. The surface finish for flange facing shall have certain roughness regulated by Standard ANSI B16. &“’cED 1 J CONCENTRIC SERRATED FINISH SYMBOL USED IN PAST PRACTICE . require special finish beyond that afforded by turning.5.5-6.5-6.3. /ANSI B 16. The cutting tool shall have an approximate0.3.5.3/ Surface symbol used to designate roughness ~ is placed either on the line indicating the surface or on a leader pointing to the surface as shown below.06 in. The numbers: 500 and 63 indicate the height of roughness. The finish of contact faces shall be judged by visual comparison with Standard ANSI B46-1 . or larger radius resulting 500 microinchapproximateroughness/ANSI B16. studded openings. /ANSI B16. The roughness is repetitive deviationfrom the nominal surfacehavirigspecifieddepth and width.4. The center part of blind flanges need not to be finished within a diameter which equals or less than the bore minus one inch of the joining flange.341 FLANGES FLANGE FACING FINISH In pressure vessel construction only gasket seats of flanges. letter “c” the direction of surface pattern: “concentric-serrated”. etc.4./ The side wall surface of gasket groove of ring joint flange shall not exceed 63 microinchroughness. grinding or milling.3. 1.

0 22 . d . . T t 5. d . 2%6 . . 8 d 0 n c o rb v o A e B 6 rN e et d . 3?46 . . a m t ec ro o im a u m sl f o s n ot le r y dg e . 4 15% . .66 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 .342 1 l F S 1 A 2. B d 6. I 1 F A A P E C F IA D NIE M G G O E KN E S D O N A B O L T T D IA N I RO N BLIND N G . H 3 3 6 59 63 78 J 86 ‘/2 9h6 2 s%6 I1~6 0 ‘! 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 8 5 0 5 5 6 6 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 38% Y88 0 1%6 0 0 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 5. 0 3 . . 3%6 . l e o n sh g b td on he i u sl n c f t od l s u o d t e h e o c hi r g o h e w t n f . 41%6 . 1 6 i rh a /f n ii i ea s n 1 cie c l . 91%6 0 12 . . . 5%6 .07 7.98 5. 6 18 . r l n t i a m e t e r s . 7%6 . 1%6 6 1 3 1!/’s 3 5 1%6 5 1% 1%0 136 0 1Y6 0 11!46 0 11%6 0 1% 0 2 T b 2 2 3 0 0 ? 0 ? . 7 7 8 8 1 1 1 2 2 2 o 2e 2 2 4 5 6 2 8 2 1 8 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 5 2 5 2 5 3 5 . l f a p n s g i 2o i e2 2 sz pa 3 2r e 6e sn . S y 5I 1 . . T d 4. 2%6 . M s s 3. 6 Z8Y2 . rn c l s h e es n . h o a o 1 i ll l r e at t/ n r b s hg e 8 oe a . 2 24% . . 8 19% . . F l 7.. . 2 14% . du de e s d n i m eC n D as J i o n sn . l i se n l eo s n s WELDING a t se l a et ln o l en o . A 3/4 B E G 156 1Y2 11%6 . . 4% . bg6 . d S t 1 A e v 8 e a a i i 1l s a lA t ba . F a S d i T A N A D B A N R1 D S 6 r ’ 5 m ea l ni is i n o . l b a tno d gi rme e s s en s u h id o o n o s w n SLIP-n ON o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e e d . .n m fe y e re lr ot d u s a l . 8 3 . 4 Z6~8 .05 6.

343 .

S y 5I 1 .i ea s n 1 cie c l . .n he i u l e o n sh g b td o sl n c f t od l s u o d t e h e o c hi r g o h e w t n f . . l f a p n s g i 2o i e2 .09 c D 1 1. 8V8 . .m sl f o s n ot le r y dg e . I I--’l 5 i m ea l ni is i n o . 1 6 i rh a /f n ii . 2 sz pa 3 2r e 6e sn . 7. . g u t g G 1 !/2 r u E h h ‘ b H J A B 1. d S t 1 A e v 8 e aa i i 1 l s al t A ba . 4Y8 . r l n t i a m e t e r s . . I--’l F A A P E C F IA D NIE M G G OE KN E S D O N A B O L T T D IA N L e T h H n to I RO N BLIND N G . . . 2 25% . 3%6 315A6 .90 2 2Y2 3 3112 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 To be 1~8 2~8 2Y2 2% .ss -n o t e h s e p r se w c i i s s f i e e d . 10M . 28~8 30M 0 32Y6 6 8 3 0 . 156 17~27 7 20Y2 23 0 25% 0 28 0 30~z0 33 0 36 0 38% 40% ! 43 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 8 1 8 1%0 1%0 1!4 0 1%6 1 3 3 5 25 0 0 20 21/2 0 0 2% 0 2% 3% % 3% % 3% A 4 163L 6 19 8 21 0 23?48 . 4 27% . l i se n l eo s n s WELDING a t se l a et ln o l e no .n m fe y e re lr ot d u sa l . at t h o ao 1 i il l r e / n r b s hg e 8 oe a .. 8 d 0 ~ c o rb v o A e B 6 rN e et d . a m t ec ro o im a u . du de e s d n i m eC n D as J i o n sn . d I . l b a tno d gi rme e en s u h id o o n o s w n . 51A 5% . .344 3 S 1 A 2 M s s 3 T d 4 T t 5 B d 6 F l 7 F a S d T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S6 . rn c l s h e es n . 0 12% 2 14% JA 3 8 5 90 5 5 6 .

345 L A 2 W l N l . ni c g n i e g k c t u Lr e o er n l s n ot ln hi a g a sev a ato r r i s eln p a d eb le c r d e r . 3 J . A P EC O u F I A DNEI t s G GO E J N E S M i d e IR Bolt Diameter . . . b oa r d so ma e e ma da t jn n u a o f w w d e. 4 5 6 I I S a t l o F M .ength Bore K 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 % % % M 3 N 1 1y 5 5 9 2 Z 3 3I 4 5 6 8 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 9 93A 101A 11 11Y2 12M 1 ly2 2 2 2 2 2 3 .

i r af i n i n as i n e c. . . l i se WELDING s a t se l a et ln o l en o . 4 1% 9 11%6 5 11%6 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 6 0 5 4 4 7 7 . . . . .n m fe y e re lr otd u sa l . . . l b a tno d gi rme e s s en s u h id o o n o s w n n 6. . . . i d i m e C nD s a i Jo n n s n . 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 . 4. S sn . . . . T l e o n sh g b td on he i u sl n c f t od l s u o d t e t h e o c hi r g o h e w t n f . . d . . 3 6 9 3 8 5 90 5 % 5 % 6 15 6 1T~z7 20!/27 23 0 25~2 0 28 0 30% 0 33 0 36 0 2 6 0 8 8 0 0 0 6 3 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 2 s 26 27 Z1H6 7 2% 8 3Y8 8 3%61 131H6 . . .y 5 I . d 2. . . . B d i a m e t e r s . 1 . . . . h o ao 1 i ll l r e at t/ n r b s hg e 8 oe a . 8 d 0 A P E C F IA D NIE M G G O E K N ES I RO N BLIND D O N A B O L T T D IA N N G . . . . . . .346 4 l F T H m ea ni i s i n o rn c s h e es n . 3% 1 4 2 4% 2 A?/2 2 7% 2 2 8?/8 8% 2 4 7 5 6 6 2 8 2 1 8 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 5 2 5 5 28%6 5 30~6 3 38% 40% 43 . . M ~n l eo s n s 4 s S t 1 A e v 0 e a a i i 5l s alA t ba . F l o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e e d . . odl u e d s et d 3. z . . . 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 . a m t ec ro o i m au msl o f s n ot le r y dg e . i a m e D i a) m e Outside t ee r t f b L e no H g to hu Diameter t t T h r a oP u oH g h i of nu a o f H u bFlange W e l d i n g J A B c D % 1 1H6 3 1!4 7 1% 9 E G H J 1 1!A 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 2 2 3 Y 4 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 . . A d ‘i 7. . . r l n t 5.. F a S n l F A f a p n s g i 2o i e2 2 s z pa c o rb v o A e B 6 rN e et 3 2r e 6e d .

347 .

at t/ n r b s hg e p8 oe a . D i a p z B / . l i sd e n l eo s * n s W s a t se l a et ln o l en o . . ‘ 7 F l f a p n s g i 2o i e2 . rn c l s h e es n .70 m ‘ . ee r t o u ~ ~T ~f h bs i ~ c t hD e L t e r no H g H t t o h r afoP u o g h i o nu lT a o F H u b r e e Fia l a f l n B s W e l d n g e G J H D E c 2 2 2 8 1 1%6 1. d L ’ s S t 1 A e v 0 e a a i i 5l s alA t ba . S y 5I 1 . 2 2 1 4 6 9 3 6 7 5 8 % 3 4 .% % 6 1 6 2 3 4 : 8 o 2 4 6 8 .09 z~6 1.32 z~8 4V8 11h6 ‘ 3/4 1 Y ~ . sl o f s n ot le r y + dg e . 2 sz pa 3 2 r e 6e sn . .k r l . he i u sl n c f t od l s u o d t e t h e o c hi r g o h e w t n f . y E y : 3 9 y % S F A P E C F IA D NIE M G G O E K N ES I RO N B L I N A D O N A B O L T T D IA N N G .348 6 S T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S6 . 8 d 0 a n c o rb v o A e B 6 rN e et d . — M 4 ? M a m t ec ro o i m au m . i d i m e C nD s a i Jo n n s n . G v $ Q h m m g u . 8 IY2 6 8 8 4 ‘%6 11A 1 1 1 . t $ T l e o n sh g b td on . i o n B i i A m a o D m i a m e r D i a e t .n m fe y e re lr ot d u sa l . I l-El + 5 A J t 1 A d i m ea l ni is i n o . n + t ~ + d i a m e t e r s . 1.. odl u . 5 F l b a tno d gi rme e .s s en s u h id o o n o s w n SLIP. d . 5 B h o a o 1 i ll l r e .nON l o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e e d . 1 i r af / in i n as i n 4 e c.e d s e _ t d : _ .

349 .

350 .

351 .

6 0 5 4 4 7 7 6 2 2 8 8 - z~6 2Y2 2% 4% 4% 5% 6% 73? 9 11 !/2 14!/2 17% 1g% 21% 23% 25% Y2 1 1!4 1% 1Y2 15% 1% 2% 7 1% 19 4 9 21/2 2% 5 5 3%6 4% 6 41H6 7 7 % 3 4 5 6 8 1OY2 1 2Y8 31% 3Y8 4% 4~8 51A 5% 6Ys 7 8 7 5~8 6%8 7~8 8 --. . . .4 . l i a m e t o H u a P o i o W e l d i e n n r f b t t f g J A 1A B c D 1!4 1% 3 1% E G 1Y2 1% H ‘/8 1 1 IM 1!42 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 . . - 3 — . . l i s~ e n l WELDING eo s nH s a t se l a et ln o l e no . . . h o ao 1 i ll l r e at t/ n r b s hg e 8 o e a. . d S t 1 A e v 0 e a a i i 5l s alA t ba . . . -. 0 2 . .352 1 S 1 A M s s T i T t B d F l d T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S 6 . . -. rn c l s h e es n . a m t ec ro o i m au m sl f o s n ot le r y dg e . odl u e d s et d d i m e C nD s a i Jo n n s n . . . 1 i r h af / in i n ae s i n 4 e c. . l b a tno d gi rme e s s en s unh id o o n o s w -n o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e e d . . -n m fe y e re lr ot d u sa l . I r’1 5 i m ea l ni i s i n o . ~ S F A A P E C F IA D NI E M G G OE KN E S I RO N BLIND D O N A B O L T T D IA N N G . l e o n sh g b td on he i u sl n c f t od l s u o d t e h e o c hi r g o h e w t n f . r l n t i a m e t e r s . . . I d .

5 B . at t/ h o ao 1 i ll l r e n s e 8e b r hg o d i a m e t e r s . i se n 4e c c . o ld u J b i i n c u i ll ueM d n t e s 4 T l eo b hn d o gn .353 1 L d 2 M s s 3 T W N i m ea ni is i n o rn c s h e es a m t ec ro o i m au . ni c g n i e gk t u Lr l ot ln ha ig a sev a ato r r s i eln p a d eb o r d e r .m sl f o s n ot le r y S t1 e 0 e 5 l A . — No. n. -nm fe y e re lr ot d 1 i r h a f / in in a .i t e l n h t tc o f l s h eo c i r g o h w t n f . A v aa i i s a l t ba l i s en a t se l a et ln o l e no . n ( s i l oo e n w s h c i 6 D i m e M . Bolt S F A P EC F I A DNEI G M GO E J N E S I % i r c l e L M C K 1?4 4 Bore N 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 ! 4 b 1 9 % 1!4? 2 21/2 3 4 12 5 6 8 5 1 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 9 1 % .e n gl etd a b oa r d so ma e e ma da t j n n u ao we o er n l s n w d e.

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355 .

IR39 13 R 1 3R R 6 .8. eh . R R 0 %0 0 2 2!4 & 2 z ~ z & — ~ .. 5/ / R e s a l s tu 0I n cc ri 01 e b n 0 . . iii R z R 0 Rj6 0 R 0 e R 0 R R R22 R25 R29IRU ~R36 iii 0 .0 ]R ~R I R R .<2 ?42 %2 %2 X2 :{6 %6 .32 IZ 5/ /:2 !<2 X2 %6 %6 3/ ~15 3/ ~.356 R J F 4 N P S % x 1 1% A P P R O XD I M I AS T B T E A E N TF C W L EE A EN NG o m 1 i i % ? i I n 3 p z % a 5 I l e4 e % % X2 P 0 r I0 6 D i % . 5 5 4 0 ‘/2 3A 1 ...1.. 6 7 7 7 7 8 R R 1 Pm S i 1 i4 9 3 1 2 6 0 d)” t i n i a p l — 5 R40 0 0 s0 R0 . . 0 R : 5 R0 z 5 0 8 R e 0 “R52 Ri9 R64 R68 R7~m rii55_ R43 R48 40iR R . 1 5 .32 5/ /32 ?/ $31 5/ 132 % 1/ ... 0 I 09 si t a n “ 005 $ 5/ 2 % % % J<z :{2 5/ /32 5/ . R . ! R38 1 1 1 6 R 6 5 3 5 R 9 ‘R R 6 6 5 3 9 R 5 R R 6 6] 5 4 R 0 R 6 7 .. .{6 ?{6 X6 ?’(6 X6 ?{6 %2 3<2 X2 5/ 42 g? 3<2 %2 X2 YE % ~S 5/ /32 %2 $’6 %2 X6 5/ /12 %2 5’2 X5 % z % 20 22 24 x – % J(2 X2 % % %2 %2 X x X6 :’(6 X2 X2 X6 %6 — %2 X6 Y8 z – — – RING NUMBERS NominalPipeSize 150 3 0 9 1 2 o 3 06 . . ] R37 Rio iii iii R .. g 0 I52 e s J % ....{2 s/ (32 5/ ... /16 % x 2 2% % % x % x 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 .. 5 5 I . R 4 R0 R R 4 IR 4 R R0 R R 4 4 4 R IR R I 4 R60 0 R R 5 1 4 R 5 4 R 1 R R 5 4 2 ..32 %* %2 .a % RI !<2 7/ /32 X2 7[ ~42 7/ /32 7/ /12 %2 7/ . . E N R.

50 0.00 6.50 1 1/4 1.00 25.25 16 1 8 15.75 1.75 16 1 1/8 8 16.00 1.25 0.62 8 10 7. SIZE TPI 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 5/?3 518 5J!3 518 5/’8 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 718 1 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 13 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH E F 0.00 30.75 1.25 18.25 15.94 1.75 15.88 5.50 0.50 10.31 1.12 1.50 23.62 12 10 10.62 4.00 12.00 5.50 3/4 1.25 20 1 V8 8 18.62 4 1.25 8 3/4 10 3/4 8.50 4 3/4 10 2.38 1.75 3 SIZE ~lCK (BORE) B 1/-2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 In 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 TAR 1.50 32.50 9.88 4 5j8 11 4.00 16.94 1.00 STUD ‘F OD CIRCLE CJMI 2.50 2.88 3.94 1.75 2.50 22.00 11.75 1.00 25.25 4.31 2.00 24.62 5.25 3.00 3.00 2.94 1.25 6.50 6.25 12 2.50 1.25 9.25 29.50 15.75 1.12 1.75 1.75 24 1 1/4 8 23.50 1.00 8 2.75 5 2.00 17.56 2.75 3.25 4 5/8 1.50 16.50 8.12 5.75 1.50 0.00 24 1 1/4 8 27.50 2.69 2.357 A S’1’UDDING OUTLETS All .62 13.00 3.50 1.50 1.31 2.50 3.00 1.00 7.25 14 2.50 2 1.88 2.75 18.44 OD 3.88 1.75 14.25 8 314 5.12 1.00 19.88 4.50 10 3/4 6.75 1.50 7.88 8 10 7.00 1.75 1.50 2.25 32.00 7.88 3.25 0.00 27.00 6 2.00 11.00 10.75 3 1/2 1.50 28.75 1.69 2.00 2.56 2.00 10 2.50 20 1 1/4 8 21.75 1.94 1.50 20.62 4.50 7.75 1.75 1.12 1.31 1.50 3.31 9.50 1.75 12.50 1.12 0.75 20 2.50 3.00 17.00 2.75 2.75 1.75 23.75 1.88 4.00 23.12 2.38 1.75 2 ID 1. SIZE ~lCK (BORE) TAR B lt2 1.94 1.19 .88 8 3/4 10 3/4 5.75 1.31 1.19 7.00 24 1 In 8 TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH E F 0.75 4.00 2.00 OD 3.50 4 5111 11 2.50 0.38 12 13 3.00 13.25 2.12 1.00 8 5i8 11 4.94 1.12 1.50 1 li2 1.75 3.00 10.31 8.12 1.94 1.31 2.69 11 2.12 5.25 0.75 4 1.62 5.00 3. SIZE TPI CJMI 2.25 0.25 20.50 2.00 6.00 27.00 2.00 7.50 36.12 6.75 1.75 3.00 ‘F STUD STUDS OD CIRCLE NO.50 1 STUDS NO.25 0.75 2.88 2.75 1.69 2.50 2.12 1.50 25.50 21.00 3.75 1.69 1.50 0.50 1.00 12 7/8 9 12.75 1.00 17.75 1.50 1 1.62 11.12 1.00 3.25 21.25 0.00 2.56 16 18 2.50 2.00 1.50 7.75 2.94 0.50 8.50 10.75 3 1.50 9.69 2.19 8.00 22.00 5.75 2.50 6.00 21.88 2.00 27.

94 3.00 / 10.12 1.25 27.25 4 3.25 9.88 5.00 NO.69 1.00 4 4.25 6.94 1.31 1.75 13.19 2.44 2.75 15.50 16 21.94 1.75 3.44 2.62 13.25 20.19 8.81 1.88 4.00 2 m .00 CIRCLE CJMI 1.50 6.50 20.88 4 6.50 20 20 20 20 3/4 3/4 7/8 7f8 1 7/8 1 7/8 11/?3 11/4 11/8 13t8 1318 13/8 1 u2 2 DEPTH E 1.31 8.50 1.75 ‘F O R S T S T U TD U D T 3/4 1 1 1/4 1V 2 2l 3 31 4 5 6 8 12 14 16 18 20 1.50 13.50 1.19 1.00 4.62 4.50 1.50 9.00 2.31 1.50 23.88 3.69 1.75 0.00 20 24.06 2.44 2.25 1.00 22.44 2.75 12.38 22.50 r 8.06 / 2.00 29.50 1.50 8 7.00 15.88 6.38 4 4.62 12.19 2. SIZE TPI D 10 10 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 B 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 TAR 2.44 1 2.12 0.50 1.25 2.00 29.25 33.50 1.00 14.00 3.50 4.75 21.00 3.62 3.00 20 22.00 6.31 2.12 5.94 2.50 7.75 27.12 6.88 3.50 7.50 8 7.25 CJMI 3.25 16.19 3.75 23.50 27.50 11.19 2 3.31 4.50 2.50 11.31 1.00 25.69 3.19 2.62 7.06 2.75 2.31 10.44 3.00 25.62 5.00 23.75 18.75 2.75 15.00 6.94 2.38 1.06 DEPTH F 1.00 19.75 2.75 1.94 1.31 1.50 8 9.75 2.44 2.25 7.31 1.00 3.00 16.00 2.00 8 12.358 SIZE ~lCK (BORE) B l T OD A r3.94 3.31 1.19 3.94 1.88 2.50 2.88 1.12 1.75 1.50 4 4.88 3.88 9 SIZE ~ICK (BORE) OD ‘F O S T S U T T U D D HOLE S A CIRCLE NO.44 3.50 35.50 24.50 3.00 18.25 1.88 1.94 0.00 2.75 1.44 3.69 2.12 1.94 3.121 5.25 2.12 1.50 12 15.50 10.00 2.62 4.31 2.69 2.75 2.62 4.44 3.50 8.88 2. SIZE 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24 1/2 5/8 5B 5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 D HOLE S A DEPTH P DEPTH E F I 13 1 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/4 1318 11 1518 1 1718 0.50 12 18.75 2.00 2.50 1.50 3.62 9.00 28.88 2 5.94 0.25 2 5.44 8 3.62 1.25 8 11.31 2.75 2.00 37.00 8.19 2.00 3.44 2.44 2.00 2.12 5.50 21.50 10.00 2.69 1.75 2.19 2.50 2 2.50 1.75 17.31 2.50 2.19 7.44 3.25 32.75 5.00 16.

25 4 10 3!4 1. .19 3. .00 14 5.50 12.94 3 3. .00 1 6 1 .75 46.88 4.31 2. 2.44 2 2lr2 2.50 5. 9 1 .88 4.06 2. 0 . .50 12 1518 8 12.00 16 31/2 STUDS STUD ‘F OD CIRCLENO.12 1.25 HOLE DEPTH F 1.50 36.75 15.06 5.31 2.31 OD 4.75 1. SIZE TPI CJMI 10 3/4 1. .00 8. 12 5 0 12 8 0 28 58 8 4 .00 STUDS STUD ‘F OD CIRCLENO.00 32.50 1.00 f. 8 .94 18 6.00 22.50 16 23/4 8 23.75 5 8 7.31 11.69 3.75 2.75 5. 12 6 7 .94 6. 5.44 6 8 3. .75 4.25 2.50 8 1V-2 8 8.00 38.00 23.50 9. 0 T .0 24.31 1.50 4 9 2. . 2 4 4 5.00 2. .75 4 4 2 6.00 30.50 19. 9 8. .00 3.oo . .50 12 1318 8 10.25 .00 2.69 1.25 .50 2.25 14.75 8 .62 6.50 16 2 8 16.75 16 3 8 27. 2 .75 . SIZE TPI CJMI 1.25 25. 02 12. 2 5 21.00 12 1718 8 15.31 10 4.44 2.31 1.75 .38 4 7B 8 1 2.00 3. .50 16 5. 3 7 9 .62 3.50 1.56 5.00 8.88 ~ SIZE ~IcK OD (BORE) TAR B m TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH F E /1 /1 11 1 /1 1 F1 /1 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 .44 3.25 5 0 .00 16 21/4 8 18.2 54 9.62 10.25 7.31 1.00 4 7E 9 2. L 04 12.12 7.44 1 11/4 2.75 19.19 1/2 2.19 9.12 5. 46 1 2 2 .38 08 .75 16 21/2 8 21.38 3. 4 7 7 /.12 1.75 2.25 39. . 98 1 1 6 1 .56 12 5. . . 5 9 4 4 4.19 4 5 3.38 1 TAP DEPTH E 1.M 4 9 3.00 9 8 10.00 2. 2 . 6 . 5.38 20 7. 17.12 4.00 8 8 11/4 6.62 15.88 3. 4 .88 2. . .00 26.19 3/4 2. 2 5 5.359 SIZE ~lcK (BORE) TAR B 2. 4 4 8 8 3 4 .75 3.00 4.50 5.50 27.88 6.25 1 5 / . .75 2.81 3.50 4.12 4.50 29.50 8 7/8 8 1 4. . 10 10 3 5 6 5 6 8 3 1 11 1l 2 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 4 5 .38 3.50 32.88 4.50 4 9 3.50 12.75 8 3 6 30 0 75 1 5 5 11 1 110 1 11 110 5 02 6 52 27 m 0 2 1 1 9 9 0 8 0 8 8 8 2 8 9 8 8 8 1 14.50 8 8 7.50 8 8 1Us 5.50 .12 4 4.44 11/2! 2.

.

.000 I 16. DiF1 mension Fz applies to heavier weight caps. 18’A 60 . . 2% ...840 3/4 1 0 .. 9 2 2% 2% 6% 7% 8% 4% 5% 6X s 7% 2 2% 2% /3 2% 3 3 3% 1 4 5 I 6 7 3 1 t 6 3% 4 5 6 31t8 1 / r 6 5 93/16 3yz 3Y4 6 2 12’5/1( 5 1 68 1 - 8 1 8. 24 .26 and 30 in.. 1 l 1 /02 / 0 ’z7h6 1 1 1...000 12 0 10!4 . F 5 3. 1% 5 1 8 f l 1% 1 45°LongRadiusElbow IY2 3 0 11 1!4 / l8 4 1 6 % 2 ‘“\ A- / 1% 4 7 6 3 2 3 5 33116 / 18 ~ 2 8 174 % 5 7 2!/2 % 12 3 53‘5/16 / 1% 3 3% 4 05 90°ShortRadius Elbow 180° ShortRadiusRetun \.750 I 15 I 6fi I 203k 0 5 8 6 1 7!4 243/8 12 8% 28 14 16 18 20 . . 30 14 1 21 24 27 30 ./’ [ / ‘ WELDING FITTINGS ANSI B 16. .. 3 6 1 1 9 1 3 72% % 6 7 F. .625 12. 36 . are not covered by ANSI B 16. 1.500 5.()()() 30.()~ I I 27 I 8 9 1 1 IIK 36 30 33 36 39 45 12% 40 13YZ 44 15 16 @ 52 i Cap 22 24 26 30 z~. .. m E .. uz w t i m s h a io c k s np l e 3 sr s a le s2 g 2e e .750 14. R oElbow a d n i 4. . (n / — D -1 Nominal Pipe I A Dimensions D i a A m Be 1 . . 10K . e applies n s to i standard o .500 4. .// / . n and X-STG.... Welding fitting material conforms to SA 234 grade WPB. ~ 1/ % . 3 ..000 ~(). 1 . 45 6% 7% 7 8 9 1 1 ] 24 I 10 \ 6 32 18 20 18. . Sizes 22.000 12 18 21 125/16 5 /4 153/8 1 I 10. 7..361 90°L 63 . ..563 6 4% 5% 6 7% . .315 1 1 2 2 1Y2 718 23/]6 ./ a 180°Long RadiusElbow 3 A 3. caps. 0.9. 2.000 4.. .()()() ~40000 26.9 All dimensions are A in inches. 8 lfi .. 518 90°LongRadius Reducin2Elbow– size c t 1 5 5 e r E 0.

– % % % . — 8 % % 8 Eccentric Reducer /8 8 8 4 % 4 18 8 / 3% . 4 3.000 3. 3 3 2% 2 1Y2 1 .26and30 in.050 1 1% 1% 1% 1718 1718 17/8 1 2% ‘i .500 2. Forwallthicknesses seepage322. 11 .660 1. . ..375 1. Concentric Reducer i % 8 3 8 8 8 1 % % % — h / ! 8 ! J % 8 % % . .660 1. I 3 3 3 3 ~ / L— J .315 1. Sizes22. .. 1 1 ? ‘/2 1?4 1?4 4 1% 2 7 1!4 7 / 8 1% 2 1 1% 1 % 2% 2% 2 1!4 1 1 1.840 1.875 2.arenotcoveredbyANSIB 16.. - J .. 3/8 3/4 ‘/2 ..500 2 I 2 2 1 . 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 0 8 3 9 3 3 . . 4 41 8 4 3 4 9 3 3 .500 2 2 1 . 3. 2. ANSI B 16. 4. - 1 WELDING FITTINGS 1. 1. .050 2.050 .7 31 7 31 i0 7 / 5 : 4/ 5 4 0 1 3 .315 1.675 1. 18 i . Dimensions Outlet % Nominal Pipe Size I Outside Diameter y ~ z 1 1 1 H 1 1 11 1 . 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2!4 3 3 3 9 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 2ti 2!4 2% 2!4 2% “ii “ 2?4 2Y2 Reducing Tee 2!4 I 2Y2 2% z I ..315 3. .900 1.7 3 7 3%0 4 4 .660 1.840 . . 8 8 2 1 7 % 3% 3% 2 2 1 4. . Tee .900 1 .9.840 1. 8 ” .375 1 .. .050 .315 1. . 3?4 3% 3 3 3 4 k k 0 2% 3 2?4 “3% 3 2 3i 33 3 23 7 36 2% 3 0 3 3 3/ ‘ /“ 3/ 3 / 3 0/ h’ ~ .9 Alldimensions areininches Weldingfittingmaterial conformsto SA234gradeWPB.875 2.

500 e 2 8 6 5 .625 6. .750 8.9 Alldimensionsare ininches Weldingfittingmaterial conformsto SA234gradeWPB. 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 H 47 47 4 % 7 47 4 % T 47 55 55 55 ‘ 5 % 4s 4 % 5 7 6 6 J .500 2 2 6 5 . . J r‘1 . Forwallthicknessesseepage322. 5/ 5/ 5 3/ 51 5 5 1/5 s/ 5 “ 31 3‘ 51 5 / 57/ 5 / 5 5 ..750 10.—.750 8. “6 5 5. 8 8 8 5 83 : : 12 10 8 6 5 .625 1 1 6 4 11 11 6 1.625 5..—.563 4.500 4.500 12.625 6. 1. 9?4 9 0 1 6 0 0 1 4 0 2 ] 1518 111/s 0 13 1 3 0 “ i0 2 2 c 18 1 Eccentric Reducer 8 6 18 16 14 12..750 10.. 4. 14 14 I 1 0 1 0 7 1Q 5 710 5 0 0 “i0 0 1 0 s 1 / 1 1/ 3 1/ 8 6 1 1 1 } 1 8.—. 1.— —.625 5 1 1 1 . ~ . / r J ‘7 1 8 6 6 5 7 2 2 6 3% 1 4. 1. 7 7 7 7 . .000 12 12 12 12 13% 13X 13X 10% 101/8 13!4 13 13 14 14 14 14 “ ii” 15 .26 and30in.F — u T u 1 I Nominal Pipe Size 5 Tee Outlet 5 4 3 3 2 ~ 2 6 5 4 3 3 2 8 6 5 4 Dimensions Outside ~ Diameter 4 5.500 4. D Concentric Reducer 12 0 0 10 10 1 10 5 1. H – “ 6 + 8 3 6 5 7 7 2 6 + ? R e GJ dT u c ~ i G 8 e n g 4.625 18. . 7. . Sizes22.—. 4 2 0 7 7 8% 0 8% 8% 8Y2 8!/2 1 1 61/8 6 8% 0 8 75/8 7?4 7% 10 9% 9 8 8Y26 6 6 .000 16. . 3 63 /8 /8 8 /8 8 /8 18 /8 5 8 8 /8 8 1 / .—.000 3..000 14.750 8. .625 6. ANSI B 16. 1.arenotcoveredbyANSIB 16.000 3. 2 3.625 6.363 WELDING FITTINGS G —. - * – (= -1..563 4./ .500 4.000 10.9.

364

WELDING FITTINGS
ANSI B 16.9 Alldimensions areininches Welding fitting material conforms to SA234gradeWPB. Sizes22,26and30in.arenotcovered byANSIB 16.9. Forwallthicknesses seepage322. )minal Pipe Size 18 Dimensions Outlet 12 10 Outside Diameter 12.750 10.750 G 13% 13% H 125/8
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Concentric Reducer

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365

FACE-TO-FACED1MENS1ONS OF FLANGEDSTEEL

GATE VALVES (WEDGE ANDDOUBLE DISC)

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GLOBE AND ANGLE VALVES < &
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FACE.TO-FACE DIMENSIONS OFFLANGED STEEL

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c. w i i m t o p c d t f c r m b d m d w r T w oa p f t t p o L o i A . For ASME flanged and dished heads: 1?4 inch straight flange.” “0. The weights of shells shown in the tables refer to one lineal The weights tabulated in columns foot of shell-length. For hemispherical heads: O inch straight flange. the given diameter signifies inside or outside diameter. weight of 2. T s m s C 7. To obtain the actual weight of a vessel. 4 5 The weights of the heads include: A.374 WEIGHTS 1. All weights are calculated with the theoretical steel: 1 cubic inch= 0.” are the weights of shell when headed by “1. whichever is greater. S. The tables on the following pages show the weights of different vessel components made of steel. For ellipsodial heads: 2 inch straight flange or the wall thickness.28333 pounds. S. B. This wilI cover the overweights of material which corn-es from the manufacturing tolerances and the weight of the weldings. 3. add 6’ZO to the total weight.

L . . E & 9 6 2 9 6 2 9 6 2 9 0 6 1 2 2 9 3 6 5 3 6 9 1 9 69 29 8 9 5 9 3 90 1 92 0 93 9 95 97 96 92 94 97 90 92 05 I S S A SH 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 02 20 13 3 23 33 33 34 . I. L s ‘S A . L E 6 S S / L EL s[ . 21 38 44 51 78 84 1 1 1 8 1 04 1 11 1 28 244 261 278 2 94 3 11 81 4 5 52 6 32 7 22 8 93 1 93 1 03 1 23 1 4 5 1 2 2 2 2 49 0 4 1 5 2 5 5 3 8 2 6 2 2 I. 1/ M . IE 1 4 6 4 2 5 9 6 2 6 8 7 3 7 8 8 8 4 9 19 14 10 15 10 1 6 2 1 1 3 1 67 1 3 1 29 5 25 0 21 6 2 2 7 2 9 3 3 591 3 3 52 3 1 14 37 6 3 0 3 5 8 37 49 9 5 8 4 45 1 7 H M D P . L s[ 23 28 34 49 54 60 85 90 1 6 1 1 0 6 1 1 2 2 7 1 32 2 58 2 63 2 3 19 4 75 4 31 97 6 53 7 49 8 9 25 1 21 1 27 1 23 1 9 1 5 1 1 2 7 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1~ 1 1 1 1 1 41 26 82 30 24 44 65 68 07 82 48 96 8 10 10 0 1 2 1 12 8 24 4 25 0 37 6 39 2 40 8 42 4 0 53 65 6 277 0 888 480 1 912o 6 34 1 I 152 5 16 8 1 84 24 39 43 5 8 5 5 61 785 12 100 100 119 128 10 2 10 3 21 4 28 6 30 8 47 0 5 2 9 5 4 5 61 6 8 8 2 0 1 96 2 7 17 3 0 9 8 8 0 2 5 10 4 11 6 13 8 14 0 15 2 14 6 266 26 8 10 28 26 36 46 58 51 65 0 7 6 8 1 0 3 1 11 1 10 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 5 2 5 0 27 4 39 8 3 1 2 4 3 7 5 5 0 6 7 4 7 9 8 7 10 2 8 31 5 18 53 12 74 15 96 181 8 1 13 9 145 1 168 3 4 2 3 9 4 4 81 0 47 2 2 39 6 8 40 4 2 85 8 0 40 4 3 3 6 4 9 3 6 6 6 3 6 7 5 . L E E H L L . 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 1 1 1 10 10 11 22 24 36 37 49 50 62 74 85 97 1 8 1 0 1 2 1 3 15 I76 I8 8 s‘ EL SA &1.375 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D ‘ E 1 1‘2 ~ T A H 4 I CLK ” N 5 D . 32 48 53 51 67 75 72 80 98 1 99 2 1 0 4 16 3 18 1 9 0 1 6 2 1 5 4 1 2 5 1 0 0 1 9 0 2 8 0 3 2 1 3 2 4 2 7 4 23 30 32 3 1 3 0 3 5 4 5 E H .

: 0 291 . H 38 57 67 86 1 5 I5 1 04 13 1 43 2 62 281 2 91 3 20 3 49 3 79 4 08 5 86 7 84 8 92 1 10 I . . 30 48 56 74 82 1 0 1 8 06 1 24 1 32 1 50 2 78 2 96 2 1 34 32 3 50 3 34 4 18 6 02 7 16 9 1 10 1 34 1 68 1 2 1 1 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 2 4 3 8 4 2 6 1 8 6 5 7 & H I CLK ” SA E & I 1.. E & 4 3 3 2 1 1 0 9 09 28 48 57 76 96 15 24 92 60 58 0 46 A D / E I S S 1 1 A SH 0 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 6 7 7 2 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 ? 2 2 3 3 3 3 04 40 1 4 42 2 5 53 35 4 3 M .376 W O W S T A H 8 EL H s. . 4 . 5 7 3 0 7 9 . . . 5 7: 4 1 48 2 34 1 86 42 4 1 4 3 61 7 1 2 9 89 9 2 0 2 7 7 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 8 6 4 4 5 7 2 1 8 5 5 6 4 3 5 5 8 3 1 1 4 9 8 7 2 5 . E L E 6 E H . / L E E H L . E 1 1 1 2 ’ 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 42 36 84 50 26 74 60 8 98 1 011 12 2 413 14 6 815 50 1 216 29 8 4 31 30 3 6 46 82 5 8 1 6 7 34 8 05 1 82 6 9 2 1 04 5 1 38 4 1 57 1 70 9 6 1 01 2 1 24 8 . 4 9 0 9 : : . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 25 26 27 39 41 54 66 79 81 93 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 5 8 0 s F L . . 9 676 7 06 :1 6.L .L . 7 5 65 73 81 99 17 15 13 11 09 1 27 1 35 1 43 1 6 11 9 8 1 7 9 1 5 21 1 25 8 29 6 33 70 4 3 1 32 3 54 4 496 39 5 4 71 4 14 5 56 5 9 59 5 32 7 0 3 7 2 M P D 0 3 5 2 6 0 7 8] 0 9 1 02 1 24 5 1 4 1 1 6 7 1 9 4 1 3 1 4 2 1 7 3 1 0 4 3 1 7 7 1 1 2 8 5 0 2 2 8 5 0 3 0 8 3 6 3 5 3 0 4 0 4 9 4 25 05 05 05 7 6 6 8 1 5 1 9 8 8 H N 7 D I. . . . .. 42 48 65 72 82 0 91 110 1~ 22 134 5 14 1 15 4 16 27 7 25 0 28 9 36 32 46 5 8 56 1 73 7 83 6 98 17 9 2 12 15 157 120 25 3 26 6 24 9 S s L F 22 33 45 50 65 0 3 7 1 2 8 9 1 3 6 12 0 13 4 16 5 13 6 12 7 13 8 26 9 20 22 35 9 1 47 7 50 6 93 76 5 8 691 2 912 1244 1876 1808 1430 1452 1885 2817 . 2 3 . L S S / EL s.

77 8 .377 WEIGHT OF SHELLS 8C HEADS W D V E I S S A SH 1 M . 47 58 78 99 10 110 121 142 262 283 204 334 355 486 417 447 649 851 1 73 1 15 T A H 2 S I CLK ” H D I E 50 68 0 77 1 99 12 0 13 1 14 4 0 16 5 17 0 28 1 29 8 20 6 22 0 33 0 34 N 9 L E 6 E L S L F. 24 3 !98 6 !61 8 4 !35 2 !09 6 !62 8 ~ 16 2 2 L 46 68 0 8 12 04 1 26 1 48 1 260 282 04 2 36 3 58 3 80 4 12 4 54 5 86 5 92 7 28 9 1 64 1 10 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 2 1 8 2 4 4 0 6 7 8 3 0 9 5 4 1 S S / L I 9 1 3 5 7 9 01 23 45 57 89 01 23 45 77 99 75 71 771 933 8 296 6 559 6 12 0 6 75 6 9 38 3 3 02 8 66 5 20 9 2 84 3 49 E E L HEAD L E 4 5 7 8 1 9 12 13 14 15 16 27 28 29 20 31 32 45 59 62 85 98 11 15 18 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 7 1 4 7 F L 3 2 43 4 6 85 70 0 8 21 94 2 1 63 14 8 15 0 16 2 17 4 18 6 20 8 21 0 22 35 8 48 51 0 64 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 0 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 05 50 16 62 26 73 37 74 L E1 & M H 0 71 82 1 2 1 3 14 14 15 16 26 1 47 1 68 1 78 2 99 2 20 41 2 61 2 33 2 25 3 17 3 0 19 4 2 67 86 90 1 1 11 7 30 1 65 1 1 90 1 21 1 52 1 96 20 2 2 66 03 2 2 53 1 93 2 35 7 2 42 49 1 3 13 62 3 7 0 76 4 3 3 1 90 7 4 9 6 4 5 8 3 9 8 9 0 13 2 17 3 10 144 148 2 31 2 25 208 282 356 78 2 1 67 81 1 1 9 94 24 1 1 10 4 2 1 ’ 3 1 0 66 2 5 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 2 6 48 8 71 03 0 35 78 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 4 7 6 9 7 1 9 7 1 6 2 9 8 8 9 1 5 7 9 31 4 42 4 53 4 4 6 4 85 5 5 9 8 57 2 2 5 4 59 5 7 5 3 61 8 2 63 65 9 78 3 70 3 0 8 6 6 6 4 6 9 6 5 7 1 7 0 1 0 0 3 3 0 3 4 3 7 2 03 2 2 8 34 2 67 4 8 7 7 3 0 8 4 72 5 2 8 8 0 0 6 84 8 1 8 8 7 0 7 6 6 2 329 6 383 3 436 5 7 6 6 04 6 9 9 69 1 5 3 9 4 62 3 . 00 4 . / L H . 41 1 . 83 6 .&D 33 48 55 0 64 5 1 7 9 2 9 5 14 3 15 3 16 5 17 18 0 7 20 6 21 7 22 23 0 6 24 38 6 42 5 5 55 6 49 8 32 0 9 26 2 .

/ L E E L H I ? L 5 7 1 8 12 1y 3 15 16 17 29 2 21 23 34 35 37 48 52 66 80 14 18 1 2 1 6 10 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 8 2 6 0 4 D 1.4 4 6 9 6 4 366 3 2 1 46 9 57 0 6 0 3 4 9 5 8 97 2 5 5 2 5 3 1 0 9 4 0 1 35 7 0 7 8 5 0 8 2 17 ~ 1 1 1o 0 7 5 5 6 0 6 38 1 5 7 2 8 8 2 9 17 I — .378 W O W S T A H 8 EL 3 . 4 4 5 6 0 3 1 7 3 1 5 5 7 0 9 4 2 8 4 2 7 6 9 0 102 3 116 5 181 7 185 0 140 3 16 44 298 9 293 2 237 5 222 9 1 3 3 1 83 3 8 39 . ~ E H S L ‘ 6 0 0 7 0 9 1 1 34 1 56 L I .L & H I CLK ” SA E &I1 96 19 1~ 3 16 19 0 13 2 16 2 3 19 5 23 2 76 0 20 23 4 26 7 20 23 0 2 36 2 36 0 46 2 46 2 5 46 1 7 568 0 1 1 6 0 56 ~ 66 4 2 8 0 5 66 2 9 0 76 6 4 4 1 7 6 77 0 77 5 87 9 87 5 97 9 0 2 6 0 M 0 D P 8 1 83 90 17 1 1 1 1 4 H N 1 L E S S D Y E I S S A SH 5 M .L 5 3 5 65 1 9 8 2 4 6 9 1 6 5 8 1 7 18 3 11 2 1 1 3 2 5 24 1 2 0 5 3 2 7 3 6 8 3 3 0 4 1 4 5 4 9 7 1 3 8 3 71 EL A E I & 8 2 7 2 1 6 3 1 56 o 7 9 5 0 2 45 7 9 0 4 3 9 6 3 5 7 7 11 0 53 1 4 96 2 4 8 4 1 39 3 7 17 51 05 0 49 84 29 64 00 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I4 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 06 70 17 72 28 4 2 45 06 6 81 7 2 80 2 14 15 4 6 16 18 8 30 19 21 2 42 2 23 6 85 2 36 0 27 3 41 8 5 45 69 0 7 63 0 97 22 1 814 1 564 1 09 8 1 31 6 1 2 73 2 16 8 2 4 59 2 92 0 2 6 35 2 )8 3 3 2 79 3 1 57 4 54 77 9 1 1 04 17 1 31 ’64 287 2 01 3 24 3 58 4 81 4 24 5 58 5 91 6 24 54 8 1 94 1 44 1 4 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 4 0 4 2 4 4 5 4 7 5 0 5 2 5 4 5 7 8 -4 63 8 8 1 ~ 11 7 13 2 ( 7 1 1 8 1 6 0 1 1 8 11 1 40 8 1 9 ~ ~ 8 6 11 1 1 2 1 2 5 28 2 6 7 1 8 2 6 6 2 1 5 2 6 1 2 2 8 3 2 1 3 31 46 4 7 5 3 5 ~ 6 6 5 4 7 7 8 7 8 4 8 8 3 9 8 2 1 4 3 3 5 3 5 6 3 5 8 9 4 0 4 7 1 1 6 5 2 7 0 6 3 6 9 4 2 12 8 1 2 5 1 0 1 4 0 9 0 12 3 57 1 92 1 2 56 21 2 15 2 2 39 3 54 08 3 3 63 15 6 27 1 29 6 31 5 35 48 0 41 5 55 9 59 4 9 63 67 3 80 7 16 1 13 5 1 9 1 2 2 3 3 3.

1 7 2 9 14 16 8 1 6 9 1 1 25 3 25 27 5 36 8 31 7 0 3 4 1 4 0 4 3 1 5 5 3 7 5 2 75 7 3 9 1 2 12 2 3 16 7 1 53 1 78 25 3 25 8 21 4 30 9 33 4 31 9 42 48 L E 6 E H S L F 57 1 60 3 6 8 5 14 7 16 3 18 10 2 11 5 43 0 9 25 2 27 7 28 30 6 32 8 34 45 3 50 9 6 46 8 011 1 563 1915 14 8 18 1 11 4 25 7 28 ~0 22 43 4 03 6 1 4 8 2 6 S 3 L EL .L 3 1 7 8 9 16 1? 33 1 0 I5 9 288 05 2 333 60 3 4 07 35 4 5 72 6 29 77 6 704 861 1 23 1 15 1 7 0 0 3 1 9 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 1 3 3 5 8 0 6 3 2 3 5 0 5 5 0 1 I & E 7 4 2 09 16 34 61 89 16 33 61 88 25 53 90 S / A D ~ E I S S A SH 3 M . / L E E H L .379 W O W S T A H 4 E L i. 7 8 1 13 15 1 6 18 1 9 1 2 23 24 36 37 39 41 42 5 4 69 8 3 18 13 18 13 17 22 ~7 2 3 3 3 4 2 7 1 6 ? L 1 1 1 1 1 2 ~ 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 I (JZ 0 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 0 8 80 1 9 9) 21 0 1 30 31 1 1 41 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 40 26 83 15 0 ~ 17 18 4 10 6 11 8 23 0 25 2 26 4 28 6 39 8 31 0 33 2 57 8 62 4 77 0 0 922 6 1 74 2 181 6 1 69 4 10 12 1 656 2 2 2 4 2 0 13 6 27 0 49 3 81 6 33 9 0 5 3 7 7 2 6 1 6 7 4 60 1 9 3 669 5 8 68 5 7 5 721 5 9 7 7 4 76 774 9 3 8 6 2 74 ~ 83 826 5 8 1 5 3 4 81 8 7 99 4 3 97 0 5 15 4 13 6 8 8 9 2 7 4 3 1 18 4 1 4 1 58 6 5 9 05 9 580 6 7 2 0 6 52 878 4 5 2 930 7 0 8 7 3 982 2 5 1034 6 0 0 3 1 1 4 1086 3 2 6 4 5 6 8 6 81 7 05 7 2 ~ 0 8 9 5 9 1 1 8 1 53 7 0 3 7 28 5 8 8 5 4 0 63 6 5 1 5 5 2 5 7 35 5 11 2 5 1 5 0 13 8 0 9 7 18 8 19 9 8 12 2 2 51 1 04 8 5 9 8 42 2 0 5 0 4 5 1 5 4 6 4 8 92 5 17 6 1 10 2 2 69 2 54 8 0 4 9 65 6 2 3 7 .L 2 6 8 9 04 1 20 1 4 1 6 272 8 29 4 1 2 40 3 76 3 02 4 4 48 94 5 20 6 66 6 7 1 2 60 9 12 8 1 6 1 4 2 2 2 3 3 0 2 2 0 4 8 6 6 9 5 & H I CLK ” SA E 1 &I 10 16 12 18 0 14 2 10 4 26 6 22 8 28 1 24 4 20 6 36 9 32 3 38 6 34 9 30 0 48 462 3 1 7 5 45 8 2 2 52 M 0 D P 90 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 4 1 5 7 11 2 53 2 6 9 1 2 4 4 2 8 9 2 4 9 5 2 3 3 5 5 3 1 9 3 8 3 5 4 4 2 7 49 5 5 5 0 H N 1 D 3I.

380 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I S S A SH 7 M . 0 8 0 11 0 13 0 15 8 0 2 0 21 4 30 0 37 1 40 0 45 590 640 790 740 890 E 1 1 01 21 41 61 91 21 41 81 11 41 81 21 61 A E E H L I 2 8 13 15 17 19 11 23 25 27 38 30 42 44 56 58 60 75 91 1 6 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 8 3 9 4 0 ? L 1 12 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 }2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 0 5 47 2 46 9 86 1 17 0 2 19 11 4 6 13 25 8 0 27 29 2 4 31 32 6 34 8 46 0 2 48 54 8 79 4 95 2 0 160 4 1 6 72 18 2 9 1 724 10 36 2 896 2 43 7 2 8 1 3 7 4 1 2 3 0 5 36 9 4 4 8 4 5 :~ 4 9 4 12 0 1 3 3 1 2 7 1 7 0 1 0 25 9 5 2 9 4 2 2 0 28 5 7 2 6 31 2 38 5 3 8 2 3 6 0 3 8 4 8 1 49 52 5 0 6 0 7 2 7 6 8 3 8 0 9 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 1 8 1 5 01 950 41 1 31 2 1 1 5 01 5 1 1 8 71 9 2 1 4 1 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 4 2 2 5 0 8 8 0 4 5 4 1 7 1 2 2 7 2 2 2 8 2 0 9 100 11 0 121 1 I 85 1 3 1 I }2 1: 31 143 1 3 6 3 0 4 0 4 1 4 1 52 5 92 6 3 5 5 1 5 8 0 7 1 56 3 9 17 4 67 7 1 5 17 7 6 10 3 6 13 9 7 27 85 20 24 21 28 25 22 9 1 6 1 5 0 3 34 2 8 1 9 24 5 2 0 84 4 5 13 3 8 5 8 9 57 6 11 2 2 13 3 6 6 8 3 94 6 3 7 9 28 8 2 9 6 1 3 4 9 3.L 8 0 1 09 1 27 1 46 2 75 2 93 z2 2 3 51 4 80 4 28 5 67 5 16 6 54 7 03 8 52 8 10 1 86 182 1 8 0 2 0 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 0 4 6 2 7 9 9 2 5 0 8 9 2 7 4 3 5 2 8 E &I1 14 13 11 10 0 29 27 4 26 7 25 9 24 32 5 31 8 30 1 38 5 37 8 46 2 44 5 401 8 5 3 64 6 027 6 81 8 7 45 709 86 4 93 9 99 5 1 50 11 6 17 3 13 0 19 7 7 9 2 6 2 0 0 1 4 8 T A H 8 SA M D P 0 I CLK ” H . 23 40 2 9 8 0 17 2 01 3 4 55 5 4 8 3 I . 3 9 9 5 14 70 1 9 7 1 1 1 7 3 7 2 2 5 7 2 9 9 3 5 1 3 2 3 3 1 4 5 2 4 7 2 9 5 5 1 5 1 3 6 8 9 4 8 9 4 16 5 8 10 1 41 07 51 83 82 19 62 05 ~ 6 61 03 97 0 0 1 2 2 83 8 94 4 4 4s 14 4 35 2 9 0 0 1 1 E H SS 1 60 ~ 6 3 8 7 15 1 17 9 19 111 7 13 7 25 1 27 8 29 319 334 3 35 47 6 49 3 3 51 8 6 7 7 8 30 0 9 92 19 55 11 18 19 71 1 134 2 89 8 2 951 32 5 5 93 5 0 53 0 4 13 9 8 74 4 . N 1 D I. / L E L I. 3 L [ L E S S 5 EL .

148 171 193 216 239 262 284 307 330 352 375 398 420 443 466 489 557 625 693 761 829 897 965 1033 1101 1169 1237 1306 1374 1442 1510 1578 1646 0. HEMIS 104 125 153 178 212 242 277 311 350 397 448 500 562 614 677 741 953 1191 1457 1749 2067 2412 2783 3181 3606 83 102 122 150 175 202 231 261 294 338 373 412 452 495 539 597 749 931 1134 1357 1590 1851 2134 2435 2758 100 132 170 212 259 310 366 427 493 563 638 7! 7 801 890 984 1082 1404 1769 2175 2624 3114 3647 4221 4838 5496 6197 6939 7724 8550 9419 1100 1077 3819 1164 1141 4268 1228 1205 4743 1292 1269 5175 1356 1333 5697 1420 1397 6243 1484 1461 6815 1549 1526 7411 4057 3099 4535 ‘3462 5038 3843 5498 4246 6053 4667 4809 9712 5243 10609 5697 1I 544 1486 6633 1554 7241 1623 7874 5108 10329 5571 11282 6053 12276 .s. HEMIS 98 118 144 168 200 228 257 288 330 374 421 471 523 579 .381 WEIGHT OF SHELLS k HEADS WALL THICKNESS DIAM.s. 12 14 16 18 ~o -)? 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 139 160 182 203 224 246 267 289 310 331 353 374 396 417 438 459 523 587 651 715 779 844 908 972 1036 0.&D. /ESSEL 1*8 SHELL 1. 124 147 169 192 215 238 260 283 306 328 351 374 396 419 442 465 533 601 669 737 805 874 942 1010 1078 1146 1214 1282 1350 1418 1-1/16“ HEAD ELLIP F. 637 698 897 1121 1371 1646 1945 2270 2620 2994 3394 76 93 113 139 162 187 214 242 273 313 347 383 421 460 502 556 698 869 1059 1“268 1496 i 743 2008 2292 2596 2917 3258 3617 3996 4393 93 124 159 198 242 290 343 400 462 528 598 673 752 835 923 1015 1318 1661 2043 2465 2926 3427 3967 4547 5166 5825 6523 7261 8039 8856 SHELL 1. 117 138 160 181 202 223 245 266 287 308 330 351 372 393 415 436 500 564 628 692 756 821 885 949 1013 HEAD ELLIP F.s.s.&D.

E I.8 L E L H s. E E H L . 160 9 1 0 1 1 2 ~ 4 2 6 2 9 2 9 7 3 1 8 1 3 4 7 3 5 4 9 2 2 0 5 6 52 7 6 4 9 6 0 2 4 7 6 4 9 7 0 8 4 9 8 2 10 14 0 1 97 1 65 S L s F 3 6 9 1~ 6 1 8 1 1 6 1 1 3 6 2 6 2 0 28 0 4 5 31 34 4 36 8 49 8 4 1 2 4 5 1 6 5 6 9 6 5 6 1 9 1 8 90 7 7 1 3 184 6 132 9 139 3 0 2 77 6 L S S 3 EL s. H 17 1 42 1 8 7 1 03 2 2 38 74 3 4 19 45 90 5 6 45 1 7 0 6 86 9 31 1 87 1 52 1 28 1 4 1 0 0 2 6 2 2 2 5 I . & H I CLK N L E 6 E H .382 W O W S T A H .L . 11 15 1 29 3 23 6 27 8 21 1 35 4 8 39 33 1 37 6 41 0 45 4 49 8 4 33 570 7 M P D 0 1 0 0 1 4 3 1 8 3 2 2 9 2 7 5 2 3 6 2 9 8 3 5 3 3 2 1 3 9 1 3 7 4 4 6 0 4 5 1 4 4 1 47 H D . 15 18 10 13 25 27 20 32 35 47 49 52 64 67 79 71 1 9 1 6 1 3 1 0 S F L . 1 ” 1 SA E & I 1.L . E & 7 2 8 4 3 7 8 0 4 3 69 ’ 05 30 85 21 6 6 1 1 70 6 21 1 / A D / E I S S 1 1 1 1 1 Z ~ 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 % 9 9 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A SH 0 1 / M . E 1 1 1 2 2 ( 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 32 9 45 1 17 6 80 1 12 ) ~ 25 27 4 29 6 32 8 0 34 47 2 49 41 6 8 54 56 0 2 69 8 60 8 9 32 4 1 050 16 78 1 18 1 32 1 66 2 80 2 24 3 58 3 9~ 4 36 5 70 5 24 6 78 7 32 8 06 9 50 1 14 1 88 1 1 1 3 2 2 5 2 4 7 0 6 4 5 8 5 4 6 1 9 0 3 2 0 511 55 3 63 4 5 0 9 7 8 6 95 1 7 77 3 0 3 89 8 7 4 2 92 8 3 8 9 9 0 14 8 6 4 1081 1051 6 7 18 1 7 1 8 1 10 8 2 1 8 2 12 5 14 3 16 1 18 0 10 9 8 6 7 9 4 1 6 1 2 16 1 2 1 9 3 3 4 5 6 6 3 2 5 782 5 45 09 4 64 7 29 2 8 9 9 0 1 0 1 1 01 2 1 03 11 3 1 24 21 5 1 36 31 6 147 1 512 3 6 2 7 9 3 9 18 25 2 5 1 22260 3 4476 2 99 4 3 0 920 3 6 5 55 3 1 62 86 4 5 79 4 2 32 3 4 2 13 5 3 84 5 4 54 6 5 26 4 2 1 6 92 8 8 7 26 3 5 8 40 0 8 2 9 64 4 0 9 89 0 2 42 62 0 3 9 7 1 4 50 9 9 4 8 5 0 8 3108 2398 4732 23 9 1 5 29 5 2 5 7 7 5 7 4 3 24 0 2 337 0 0 6 30 3 3 1 9 6 5 8 6 8 4 2 5 6 5 0 6 6 6 2 2 3 4 5 5 0 39 8 76 64 7 34 2 1 52 5 0 6 1 7 7 6 94 5 757 3 8 13 0 9 77 81 3 2 3 99 6 57 3 16 4 75 60 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 7 1 6 3 7 5 05 2 0 71 04 2 0 13 7 6 78 5 6 41 28 6 1 15 8 7 46 4 3 11 44 3 3 17 1 19 4 6 1 99 7 7 18 8 00 7 4 0 6 95 7 4 61 0 7 1 1 0 8 5 9 7 66 6 0 31 6 2 9 2 6 8 1 8 8 46 0 8 11 2 7 0 3 2 3 4 8 .

14 2 14 1 6 18 J 0 22 2 4 36 3 8 40 2 4 44 5 6 68 61 0 2 7 4 92 1 8 14 04 1 87 0 16 60 1 44 2 52 8 8 2 32 2 4 0 12 0 7 8 9 3 266 7 8 3 9 4 0 1 17 14 20 27 34 31 47 7 54 1 51 67 24 7 81 6 97 12 4 19 1 17 8 1 8 8 2 1 8 2 3 3i6 0 8 3 8 9 4 92 4 95 5 $8 69 2 T A H / E L 4 SA E &1 1 04 2 5 8 l 4 8 2 6 0 4 9 5 0 0 581 I CLK ” H N 1D ]I. 1 L [ ..L 27 1 EI & 10 38 66 4 9 22 50 08 46 84 22 70 28 860 351 932 6 E E H L : ] z? 7 A 1 1 0 1 0 3 5 8 1 3 36 49 41 54 57 69 72 75 87 1 5 1 3 1 1 2 9 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 0 1 1 2 0 M D 12 16 20 25 21 ~7 33 31 32 8 47 45 6 45 9 47 5 54 56 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 ~ 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Q 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 19 ~ 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 5 3 3 7 4 4 52 152 6 1 056 7 50 0 1 8 55 4 4 9 5 0 7 56 9 53 0 1197 59 3 1281 5 7 9 15 4 7 9 2 17 1159 5 12 12 3 1 513 1 8 557 2 1 8 92 2 4 1 37 3 3 7 72 0 1 2 2 3 9 6 18 13 95 2 19 7 4 3 9 5 5 5 6 5 2 2 84 3 59 4 6 0 4 3 0 63 1 4 2 6 54 7 8 8 43 7 0 34 2 6 14 ( 2 05( 8 851 5 1 7 98 9 8 33 8 9 77 61 12 : 41 68 3 86 2 66 4 05 10 4 01 8 0 1 3 1 04 1 1 5 1 26 2 1 7 1 37 3 1 1 4 32 3 7 5 4 4 44 5 3 1 5 5 6 056 4 7 s6 1 2 85 5 0 95 1 ! 8 0 1 61 C5 7 16 3 7 14 3 16 1 0 16 2 16 1 5 15 15 6 016 3 0 2 16 3 11 4 1 58 4 5 9 56 4 6 168 5 7 6 9 2 6 7 70 7 ( 31 03 ~ 2 2 7 7 8 2 41 1 ( 6 8 0 0 16 5 1~ 88 81 8 762 2 16 3 9 11 9 086 9 56 / 9 11 49 7 3 6 8 6 S 68 5 5( 8 2I 3 5 0 37 ( 7 01 85 5 5 0 4~ 0 9 8 9 49 7 2 4 01 1( 6 426 6 2 .383 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I S S A SH 1 M . 5 18 9 4 1 o 2 4 2 0 2 6 0 1 5 1 6 4 8 0 61 4 9 14 7 13 26 8 23 1 24 0 8 37 1 34 2 9 44 3 L E 5 E H S L ‘ 150 170 10 4 34 1 260 291 318 340 377 400 439 553 582 67 1 68 4 74 7 95 1 15 34 15 28 3 01 4 L S S / 1 EL .

384 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E 1 1 1 1 1 Z ? .[L . 40 1o 4! 1 35 8 3~2 10 9 18 0 1 16 0 60 14 6 13 1 8 11 2 4 11 5 11 6 j 77 107 3 12 8 8 1 2 9 6 5 6 5 6 3 5 6 6 5 4 27 5 8 8 4 4 9 8 48 5 8 42 ~ 0 ~8 75 6 52 5 5 69 ~ 5 44 0 64 90 ~ 1 C6 62 2 1 39 ~ 3 0 2 41 8 9 56 2 6 1I3 96 9 0 47 8 4 01 72 7 4 9I5 1 0 30 2 58 6 0 4 60 1 01 9 9 1 4 4 3 ~9 4 5 26 0 3 9 : 427 4 1 1 5 85 i 9 66 0 4 7 6 8 9 5 62 1 ~ 85 817 3 2 645 45 9 8 2 f ~ 5 12 1 3 0 . 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1~ 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 I S S A SH 0 . . 1M 3 . 9 1 0 8 1 3 z 6 6 6 2 9 9 3 2 3 6 5 3 9 3 4 2 4 4 5 8 5 8 4 6 2 1 4 3 699 775 0 7 857 6 0 941 4 3 16 6 25 1 45 1 04 2 2 8 3 2 3 4 3 1 4 4 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 sS 16 5 9 8 8 2 5 3 8 5 2 1 4 6 7 6 0 1 3 3 1 56 5 5o 43 6 06 7 3 79 02 0 8 111 3 15 0 6 14 90 3 17 94 2 25 2 27 1 23 0 33 9 39 8 3 8 3 9 L sI S S / 1 EL . N 1D L E 7 E H I . 5 6 8 7 ~ 7 5 8 0 9 4 0 8 0 3 1 9 2 5 2 2 3 4 5 5 1 6 17 1 9 0 2 1 3 2 3 5 35 8 8 48 1 7 40 5 6 52 9 6 64 3 5 76 7 4 88 ~ 3 90 7 1 22 2115 7 1 73 1 E . s L ‘ A 1 1 2 2 2 ( 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 ] ] 21 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 06 6 7 8 72 62 8 2 52 3 43 0 3 33 4 5 6 7 8 14 2 04 95 4 85 6 76 72 3 4 80 0 18 0 8 4 64 5 1 76 2 1 64 1 5 47 3 14 5 9 1 0 6 21 5 12 3 8 76 9 7 06 0 10 1 0 2 7 8 80 I8 7 696 9 5 5. L / E L s. 15 2 8 4 1 1 1 6 ~ 4 8 27 ) ? 0 2 3 3 4 6 3 6 49 8 2 4 0 5 2 5 7 4 5 60 6 3 6 8 76 0 7 9 2 1 8 28 14 75 1 6 90 16 42 146 5 16 205 234 383 423 462 502 661 0 72 0 89 969 1 38 1 18 7 19 1 1 2 2 3 77 5 0 5 2 6 3 5 1 1 7 8 9 EI1. & 16 2 45 2 7 5 2 04 2 33 3 3 73 3 22 4 62 4 01 4 51 0 0 5 9 5 5 280 5 781 6 372 6 974 6 758 833 8 91 1 94 T A H 8 SA M P 0 D 32 1 1 79 2 26 2 89 2 45 12 3 3 84 3 68 4 56 4 47 4 43 S 42 54 5 52 7 52 9 67 1 3 7 3 3 8 0 0 8 90 6 9 13 1 2 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 4 2 4 1 4 2 6 5 0 0 5 I CLK ” H . 22 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 39 8o 41 01 3 62 3 434 9 2 5 4 4 7 9 6 9 5 0 1 4 1 1 6 3 32 59 77 05 24 6 E E H L : 19 ~ 1 25 28 21 34 37 40 43 6 5 9 5 61 74 87 0 8 93 12 11 10 28 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 0 .

D 2 1 5 2 9 2 2 4 5 2 1 1 3 1 8 3 5 3 9 3 3 7 2 4 1 1 4 9 1 4 1 2 5 58 57 63 61 D E H s L ‘S 0 17 8 0 4 2 7 3 0 1 5 4 6 7 3 0 7 4 7 7 4 0 84 87 50 84 L EL sI. E & 44 7 1 4 8 1 4 8 1 4 8 0 1 2 5 3 8 4 1 A N L E S S E E H L L . 77 1 20 24 37 31 44 57 61 74 87 91 1 4 1 8 1 1 1 4 1 8 2 8 2 8 387 7 3 90 7 4 93 7 5 97 6 01 8 7 7 96 8 7 8 90 1 I. 1 / M . 11 14 28 21 34 37 40 44 57 50 63 76 80 93 96 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 9 9 8 8 3 0 S ‘ II.L . T A H . 3 28 20 6 9 22 34 3 36 7 1 38 5 40 9 42 4 44 0 56 58 6 50 0 1 62 1 7 65 2 3 67 4 0 79 5 8 85 0 91 5 1 7 1 14 7 1C 4 16 2 12 0 18 8 14 8 SA I CLK 1 ” H M 0 P . 8 70 1 9429 6 6 2’ 2 717 8. . 6 0 9 1 2 30 3 5 3 12 2 3 7 17 8( 2 : 4 9 1 {4 3 3 1S 1 (5 (2 (9 37 0 2 5 2 3 1~ 9 7 ( 12 1 0 ! 32 8 2 4 3 1 2 2 38 4 25 6 636 84 6 . 14 2 6 2 2 9 2 4 6 1 0 9 2 7 6 4 9 8 2 6 2 9 8 2 6 6 8 9 2 162 410 13 6 8 26 29 0 232 36 4 639 42 8 055 58 2 4 62 6 56 8 78 81 0 3 5 8 1 2 1 7 840 1 43 3 8 2 1 14 47 9 2 3 1 1 5 0 ’ 3 6 816 5 3 3 29 72 392 728 4 73 04 630 5 3 16 6 4 82 2 5 46 2 6 C0 1 6 64 1 7 . L L s[ . 66 1 98 1 30 2 3 72 24 3 66 4 08 5 50 6 22 7 84 8 66 9 1 38 1 10 1 03 1 95 8 8 2 1 2 8 7 0 6 7 IE &1.6 6 9 1 {2 1 33 8 17 1 35 8 4 6 24 3 0 7 9 S5 8 1 1C 8 1 1 5 7 26 1 5 1 90 8 7 2 55 7 7 8 2 1 9 1 { 6 8 76 1 78 38 5 ( 41 0 19 8 7 5 7 6 2 6 911 1 2 (2 2 7 8 S 36 8 E 9 6 22< 3 11 4 0 5 2 0 7 1 3 6 9 9 ( 4 8 9 0 63 : 3 32 5 32 1 ~( 1 z 10 37 7.385 WEIGHT OF SHELLS tk HEADS W D ‘ E 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 2 2 2 2 I S S 0 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 A SH .9 0 6 3 5 7 4 4 7 3 6 5 4 7 1 8 8 9 3 90 1 1 1 6 1 5 1 0 1 2 i3 3 1 9 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 0 2 9 2 2 87 5 32 87 82 77 2 157 6 4 0 22 3 2 1 3635 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 5 C 5 2 29 22 5 23 171 23 5 7 24 9 4 56 1 5 6 5 2 5 59 4 56 54 2 6 61 61 62 6 6 6 6 2 3 4 5 01 6 17 07 11 8 12 21 0 4 5 6 5 2 4 6 5 5 7 8 ? 5 4 7 48 6 8 9 4 6 8 1 8 ?4 9 94 4 0 8 1 2 14 0 1 0.2 E L . 0 8 9 1 .

9 7 33 79 25 71 7 2 3 8 9 3 0s 8 1 7 8 4 5 0 4 6 2 E & I 66 9 2 38 84 10 66 12 68 24 80 47 13 89 4 55 4 31 A I 1 E E H L L 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 90 1 1 7 1 05 2 2 1 1 09 2 5 61 3 1 3 97 72 7 1 4 41 72 82 83 93 94 2 2 2 3 3 9 3 6 3 3 8 0 8 0 5 4 4 84 5 28 6 62 7 07 8 42 1 0 9 4 9 9 9 6 5 9 18 18 0 5 7 7 22 8 5 6 9 7 19 8 6 1 35 2 9 5 7 5 0 11 45 8 3 0 9 0 6 1 49 7 0 1 18 4 5 2 8 1 1 14 1 8 2 4 1 22 0 8 5 12 9 9 18 2 8 2 14 1 15 14 10 3 4 5 6 7 3 2 2 5 3965 7 3 8 4 4 4565 9 5207 2 5 7 7 0 5892 22 6 7 3 3008 2 43 53 0 64 4 6 7 8 9 0 96 5884 7 65 4 73 9 8 14 1 7 6 8 2 3 2 3 3799 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 6 11 15 7 10 9 14 5 18 0 7 6 4 8 4 2 7 2 08 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 09 11 0 2 21 22 2 2 33 2 4 2 5 7 94 8 05 5 9 04 6 0 1 6 1 17 4 9 87 41 33 51 79 5 1 15 5 1 51 2 8 64 1 0 99 9 89 6 4 12 5 8 18 8 8 6618 1 1 0 7 2 3 3 8 18 9 9 75 1 85 6 6 ‘7388 8 16 24 2 8 29 4 0 86 7 8198 27 0 21 6 1 6 120 9 8 9 31 4 8 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 96 1 25 1 8 7 324 3 3 8 41 2 4 2 5 1 9 5 0 2 07 9 9 21 3 3 429 6 7 1 9 2C 4 3 28 5 9 2 6 6 1 7 3 10 13 8 01 59 8 41 8 6 4 11 84 19 689 67 51 1 9 2 6 5 2 91 7 6 6 7 4 5 !2 I0 2 1 3 4 17 2 4 6 1 98 5 523 28 1 6 1 35 3 7 2 7 8 21 29 7 1 73 9 3 0 .L .386 WEIGHT OF SHELLS tic HEADS W D ‘ E I S S A SH 1 M . L L 13 27 20 34 37 41 44 57 51 64 78 81 95 98 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 5 6 6 0 1 18 2 1 4 1 24 6 8 28 31 0 35 2 38 4 42 6 45 8 59 0 62 2 66 4 79 6 8 83 0 86 0 [ 1 86 2 11 2 65 3 00 4 55 4 00 54 6 09 7 74 58 8 1 33 1 18 1 03 1 97 1 2 9 9 2 0 1 6 5 T A H / E L IE 1 50 2 2 8 5 3 29 34 6 39 0 44 9 48 43 9 58 6 52 2 670 8 621 472 6 1 714 8 765 716 851 1 97 13 3 17 0 8 6 5 4 5 I 8 SA CLK ” H M D P . 1 6 4 2 1 7 2 7 3 2 4 4 3 1 9 9 5 3 5 48 48 9 8 48 3 9 5 52 55 63 67 4 6 0 3 6 0 4 1 D II 1 3 4 28 6 21 0 35 34 9 8 2 4 3 6 4 3 9 5 5 6 3 4 6 7 3 7 0 5 4 8 8 9 17 1 16 5 N L E /1 E H s L ‘S 18 6 1 2 8 25 7 29 4 33 7 8 36 406 431 573 2 57 9 6 4 2 7 8 3 71 1 8 50 6 9 91 S L S 1 6 EL [ .

387 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I A S S SHELL 1 M E L 25 29 23 36 30 44 58 51 65 79 83 86 90 1 4 1 8 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 0 1 3 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 3 E L 19 2 2 42 26 6 2 80 34 37 41 45 59 62 66 70 84 87 0 912 1 1 41 51 62 72 93 03 14 24 [ . 1 07 244 392 339 497 54 5 601 7 69 8 36 9 13 T A H / 4 SA I& E1 72 2 1 39 37 4 9 34 2 42 7 49 3 46 9 54 4 51 68 0 I CLK ” H N 1 3 D I . . 2 26 0 21 4 39 8 36 7 2 4 6 44 7 9 5 0 3 5 7 6 1 77 9 8 1 5 2 97 9 613 11 7 71 3 0 L E 6 E ‘ H ‘S 2 19 8 23 3 27 5 31 5 35 2 39 7 42 0 56 0 50 9 64 4 7 8 8 7 2 9 860 8 01 9 15 32 L [ . 5 I8 3 1 C 5 98 9 026 97 21 7? 166 6 ( 4 1 1 1 3 2 9 4 2 8I 1 7 . 17 1 56 2 14 3 53 3 22 4 71 5 39 6 98 7 77 8 1 55 S S / EL E & 87 26 64 13 42 91 69 18 77 0 35 L H ? A 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 01 1 12 2 2 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 00 1 22 3 0 M P D 8 6 1 3 23 04 2 78 3 5 39 0 4 3 34 4 4 2 4 5 9 5 6 9 5 57 68 63 4 7 0 7 5 3 2 6 0 1 1 8 9 2 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 0 7 66 1 98 3 632 1 96 713 2 1 3 9 9 785 1 0 0 7 856 1 7 7 2 1 5 3 5 2 3 838 3 95 9 1 7 19 6 11 4 13 2 16 1 18 0 10 0 12 1 1 44 041 1 43 732 1 2 4 624 1 0 4 305 1 9 0 5 97 7 89 4 4 4 6 01 3 68 4 35 0 0 4 3 7 94 53 13 73 35 1 0 53 8 2 3 66 0 2 26 70 5 8 3 49 0 0 4 73 5 1 7 4 1 1 5 97 2 6 11 3 7 25 5 8 50 6 9 76 3 13 4 1 8 1 19 1 7 73 7 126 0 2 4 1 897 3 8 14 0 8 20 0 8 1 6 1 1 3 0 6 13 1 6 23 1 9 2 4 6 2 3 6 0 15 3 1 38 2 1 2 0 1 4 4 3 4 12 11 16 11 14 4 5 6 7 8 2 35 1 49 6 48 8 51 8 66 3 4 5 7 8 22 6 7 43 1 3 63 5 9 74 9 6 94 1 3 5 5 98 7 6 52 9 7 17 0 8 72 2 9 37 5 1 8 71 C 8 42 6 81 :7 9 55 8 6 5 91 44 0 64 2 11 (0 2 77 0 7 2 21 87 3 86 1E 5 c 3 8 024 1 5 8 26 9 28 1 2 229 3 8 25 2 92 9421 ! 23 96 2 2 523 C 4 4 3 5 70 1 C9 76 0 2 6 4 9 7 4 8 C 1 46 8 4 3t6 7 9$ 52 1 [87 1[ 4 78 3 00 41 16 1 5 6 0 92 6 71 2 6 63 2 81 i 3 5 4 Z 0 40 6 4 01 1 ( 55 2 6 16 1 2 07 2 7 [ ’3 97 1 465 2 35 32 6 2 47 1 4 08 2 2 31 C5 572 5 9 2 41 22 0 827 2 5 18 3 6 1 2 50 50 29 2 5 J 4 9 16 2 .

2 ~ 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 I1 1 \2 1 1 I4 ] 7qo 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1840 1 1 0~ 1 ~1 0 2 ~2 ~ 1 7 3 3 ( 8 96 41 18 7 4 0 1 21 8 43 18 8 0 6 7 8 44 1 712 9 84 6 4 2 1 31 1 0 6 3 1 0 9 1 0 6 84 8 2 1 5 3 6 94 9 1 45 1 4 2 1 4 9 4 7 1 5 5 6 3 0 4 9 7 3 7 8 00 81 61 2 1 12 2 42 6 43 204 1 1 1 2 4 1 28 1 4 2 4 3 7 2 7 0 6 3 1 8 4 5 2 2 6 8 2 0 5 38 4 2 6 3 1 4 4 7 40 8 6 8 64 6 ’8 9 2 9 0 1 2 4 3 5 8 0 4 1 5 6 3 7 1 5 5 8 4 1 5 5 3 5 1 5 6 ~5?8 9. 4 6 5 13 8 0 6 64 0 8 1698 6 1 7 95 8 1 3 8 9 96 5 1947 8 4 0 66 11 2071 6 1 2 4 25I95 3 o 98 2319 02 4 5 2443 2567 58 76 4 6 1 8 7 0 1 8 2 9 0 2 0 4 9 1 35 ~ 0 5 0 3 4 06 3 89 5 86 7 4015 23 0 4552 00 2 5123 28 55 8 )76 9 97 3 7 6 ~ 5 27 2 3 48 4 4 79 1 4 90 6 2 7 27 1 5 4( (7 ) 2 6 2 ( 8 2 8 9 2 ] 64 30 f 7 0 0j 4 g 6 0 8 1 2 6 3 7 4 8 5 3 12 5 1 3 2 6 1 92 4 1~ 8 326 ( 2 52j 1 6 ( 1 3 1 62 j 17 1 54 0 9 4 i 38 5 7 63 2 24 6 6 22 2 01 5 2 1 5 3 23 32 ~ 9 2 0 0 1 1 5 82 6 1 2 9 1 2 I4 9 4 6 8 ~0 4 4 . . M . ~ob 48 D 4 E I S S 1 12 A SH 0 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 . 1 5 6 : 1 5 0 1 9 7 8 6 8 9 0 2 1 9 I.388 W O W S T A H & H I CLK 1 N L E S S D . s ? L H 8 9 41 9: 64 2 5 86 48 39 21 2 Z 3 5 6 7 9 3 7 2 6 0 4 8 2 7 2 3 4 6 8 9 4 4 9 9 4 5 8 7 ?1 .L . 21 8 2 3 2 8 3 7 1 7 3 43 5 5 4 9 2 53 60 7 2 7 1 8 6 4 8 E H s ‘S 20 9 9 7 3 7 9 0 9 6 3 1 50 71 72 53 14 18 43 18 33 L . 9 2 3 33 7 33 4 23 43 6 1 43 8 3 5 4 5 3 0 63 63 0 SA M D P Z1 1 A & 08 E E H L i 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 1 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 5 7 6 8 . EL . 2 ( 8 J 13j ( 2692 8 7 4 28 8 6 I6 ) 0 ~940 9 4 9 7 I [ . L EL si. 1 0 24 i 28 32 36 40 44 4 ~ 5 8 62 8 66 0 70 2 84 4 98 0 6 92 1 8 1 63 0 3~)g I 7 2 2 3 7 4 4 4 9 5 5 6 1 8 9 0 18 E &I1.

L L 21 2 25 4 39 6 ’8 34 48 O 2 42 57 4 51 6 65 8 79 0 84 2 88 0 4 92 1 6 2 10 86 1 14 0 [ 9 25 2 20 6 34 7 41 0 8 5 3 64 1 5 7 78 8 6 1 9 3 16 1 66 1 9 1 2 1 4 1 7 1 E L IE 3 14 3 57 4 09 4 52 505 558 6 10 6 73 746 7381 8012 6 8844 8 9 567 9 94 97 2 [ 25 9 3 5 1 51 61 5 37 3 11 4 5 19 2 2 17 0 SA MP 2 16 2 80 3 51 3 34 4 43 4 36 0 54 56 8 68 7 6 2 7 3 78 8. 2 7 1 : 1 21 41 36 3 2 6 2 1 2 2 3 15 C 5 2: 7 1 5 1 3 02 3 1 5 [0 4 1 4 ( 11 6$ 94 .L 2 20 3 1 5 4 9 6 5 7 2 6 5 9 7 7 3 8 4 1 9 2 9 10 7 10 5 13 1 10 1 91 2 72 21 3 23 4 38 8 32 1 46 6 50 0 E &I 6 4 2 9 0 4 0 9 6 7 5 3 0 3 1 7 91 5 72 4 54 1 2 3 36 7 18 8 90 1 72 5 1 3 0 3 54 0 1 4 9 8 8 2 7 I E E H L L A 1 1 1 1 J 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 9 2 4 3 3 8 4 7 4 1 5 6 5 69 7 4 8 8 92 16 11 15 19 14 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 J 15 2 81 2 36 4 79 4 21 73 5 6 22 71 6 18 7 6 8 4 1 9 90 16 31 11 62 5 1 73 75 10 6 15 66 0 1 51 52 46 9212 4368 0 1 3 4 1 2 2 0 255 6 15 28 89 8 91 4 36 9 1 4 22 9 0 3 452 5 52 6 53 7 6 5 90 0 1 82 01 6 3 7164 01 6 6 0 4 8 3 ( 8 335 1 5 4 4 8 3 1 12 9 6 1 4 1 640 1 5 7 1 4 6 79 6 1 1 0 4 1 4 9 2 5 : 8 2 4 : 2 7 4 0 38 8 1624 ! 7470 8 34 1 5 5 7 2 41 1 3 0 2 6 9 1752 4 87 4 7 2 . 31 04 21( ( 42 1 4 252 2 3~ 3 73/5 E H S L ‘ L E L S S 4 EL [ . 95 0 2 2 2 2 2 9 6 1 1 5Z 9 9 6 6 0 3 1880 52 3 4 [2 6 6 6 8 7 82 2 0 9 5 16 1 4 2 2 0 2008 7 7 2 02137 8 2265 03 9 4 12393 2521 26 1 7 1 22645 5 22 56 7 74 8 00 8 31 6 9 9 8 8 0: 1 2 89 92 1 0 6 13 2 1 8 3 84 2 9 16 6 6 1 2 1 7 84 2 3 9 18 3 7[ 3 69 0 6 1 1 O 2 1 3 22 $ 3 3 3 3 2 27 5 22 1 6 42 7C 7 22 9 3 2 9 4 0 8 ’3 8’ 5 9 I [ 7! 6 14 1 8 [3 91 9 7 64 6 1 6 8 2 89 1 6 1 0 6 93 7 5 5 1 0 1 7 3 10 9 51 1 0 21 3 1 ? 0 6 7 9 1 5 7 93 7 4 150 5 2 0 ? 57 1 6 8( 9 8 84 3 6 90 9 88 1 8 70 31 5 31 02 04 50 81 2 0 72 2 0 08 4 0 9 3 6 0 57 2777 38 1 9 1 32906 3034 41 1 9 2 62 1 4 9 8 5 54 1 1 12 1 4 3.389 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D ‘ E I S S A SH 2 M .I 40 3 99 3 37 88 4 30 4 5 86 6 34 7 76 8 22 70 2 9 6 1 24 2 1 72 12 18 5 16 .1 88 91 T A H I C LK “ H N 2 1 D .

T 1 6 3 . 1 8 . 30 . 5 . 7 1. I C 3 0 D 4G 7 5 . . .T 52 .3 G4 8 9 r . H 6 12 T 23 . 23 . 1 . 9 . 4 1. LL . . 10 . . T 53 . 8 8 . 4 30 1 0 X 8G 2 . 11 . 0 . R . L 3 C . 1 . T 1 1 2 3 0. 1 4 . I . 0 1 2 1 S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S I C 0 3 0 D 0G 7 0 .9 1 11 11 12 SCH. 50 0 0 G 5 0 X I 0 4 .0 .4 . 4.T 11 . 0 .3 . 00 . . 1 . 0 6 .3 . 2 9 . 3 . 0 6 . . T 52 . 5 . 6 2. 6 . 6 3 . 1 9 . 160 XX STG 0. 80 . 5. 00 . 7 8 . 1 . 2 . 9 70 7 4 1 0 1 0 3 7 0 1 0 5 9 4 0 . 84 10 I 2 I STD XS S 1 X S I .O70 7 3G X 5 I D 5 1 6G 0 0 8 . 10 X G 0 30 40 . T 1 3 . 1 . 40 3 3 G X 0 .T 72 .0 2 . 9 4 . R S . 2 .2 0 D 0. . 3 5 I 1 3. 3. T . 8 . 5 1 . 40 83 1?4 C 21 . 2 6. 2 6 . T 72 . H 6 32 . T 32 .390 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS I N P S . 1 . 4 . 3 1. 3 3 . . . 3 1 0 2 .1 . 6 . H 61 4 . 7 0 . 4 0 .0 5 . 0 2 S XS S 1 X S I C 1 . 3 1. 20 . 62 . 7 2 .0 3 . T 94 I I I I I 2 I S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S . . 0. .T . 1 .T . 84 . 50 1 G 8 X 0 4 D 1G 0 1 . 00 . 4 . 1 34 . 7 I 16 . 8 1 02 . 05 0 . 90 . 7 2 . 2 6.2 1 D 0G5 . 4 9 I . 8 . 6 5 . H 6 73 . . I E L B R OE W T U R M . 0. 45 . 03 . 3 0. 1 . R . 4 3 . .8 . 62 . 2 6 0 .8 2 6 0 . 7 1 . 8 3.T 21 . 4 5 . 6 . 7 . 1 . 3 . T . 4 1 . 5. 0 3 0. 80 1 G 0 X 1 2G 1 3 .0 . 1 0 . 3 61 .154 C 3 .0 . . 5 0 . 0 30 . H 6 . T 64 0 4 D 0G 9 1 . R K . 2 . H 6 42 . . H 6L 3 T 1 5 . . 1 2 . 0 . 4 . . . 2 . I I .C .1 .T 31 . T 11 . 0. O 1. 06 . 01 0 . 3 7 . 81 . . 53 . D IW I S XS 1/2 O I N O M P A GP W N A ~ E 1f O T H Z E . 50 . 2 3. 9 . 31 . 0. 8 8 . 6 5 . 5 .0 80 . 1 0 3 8 2 7 0 . T . T E 5° 8 9 P 4 0 ° 8 0 ” 9 I 0 1 0 1 NL L St . 15 0. 62 . 2 4 . R L . C 2. 1 1 . 8 2 . 0 .

5 1 5 4 8 . 4 2 8 . 45 8 3 5 7 0 . . 0 1 .337 . 2 .8 2.6 6 5 . 14 .7 1 07 8 1 . . 0 . 6 83 1 5 01 8 1 0 95 1 2 1 7 2 0 2 2 6 1 2 3 0 3 0 4 4 5 5 7 5 . R OE N 1 T ml n 1 1. 9 1 . 00 C 8 .3 0 1 3 0 5 . . 15 . 4 5 3 0 . 3 5 0 . .0 04 .2 4 3 . . S . .39 . 0 0 C C . .T 1 3 . 52 . 85 . 6 C C 0 .4 .0 8 SCH. 0 6 5 8 . . T 2 T . 18 . . H 63 6 . 1 2 52 . 8 6 . R . 30 . . 8 5 0 5 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 3 8 3 4 1 0 2 7 2 2 2 6 3 4 5 0 5 1 6 0 6 8 4 . 4 . 2 4 4 .6 0 1 .438 . . 1 .1 0 60 . 1 0 3 . 0 5 8 . 6 14 2 0 2 .1 3 8 8 7 C 1 5C ( .1 0 2 0 5 8 . . 1 3 . 5 0 03 8 7 . H 6 5 8 . H 4G T. . . 83 . 4 B TW U R T° 8 0 0 1 1 8 . 5 4 5 .1 0 8 . 5. 1(3 7 . . .6 2.0 7 3 . 6. 12 7 . 3 6 90 D 1 5 G 10 9 1. 5 0 7 7 . 8 8.0 4 0 112. 6 . . 7 5G 1 4 . 3 9 8 . . 38 0 0 . 2 S 3 S S 6 X S S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 X S S S S x s o 2 3 8 2 2 . . .1 2 40 .0 n I . 82 . 0 5 4 5 0 . 4 8 5 0 6 0 7 6 2 7 2 0 2 8 0 3 9 5 2 0 5 2 0 1 5 2 0 3 8 4 0 4 0 0 4 5 5 2 1 .0 2 7 .875 7 G T C C T ’ t . 13 . . . 5 6 . 1 . 3 S XS X S S XS S C S 1 X S S XS S C S 1 X S S XS S 1 S 1 X S 1 H C 92 . 6 . 20 0 6 .674 T 2 2 . .5 0 5 2 . H 2 3 . 9 ( 05 .2 2X 7 G D4 5 1 G7 2 0 20 7 0 3 . . T .7 .500 C . . . . T . I 1 8 1X 2 G 6 . . T G 4 8 2 4 8 3 0 8 4 4 7 4 9 6 6 4 0 .0 0 1 . R L .T 3 4 C . 0 0 . T 3 7 1 2 . . H2 H3 D4 5 ) 3 2 5 02 6 4 . .812 H 46 C . . 0 06 1 . . 95 .4 3 . 7 9 . 4 5 3 5 9 1 6 0 5 7 10 100.T 2 3 . . O EI N G I 1 4 N N A P Z r M 0 F AO T EI E H ?lPE I N E M 9 L St K % L . . 11 62 . 2 0 7 6 .8 9[ 10 ( c r 5 .593 H 05 C . . 45 . 5 0 0 . 5 . 7C . 8 5 . 4 7 02 0 5D 8 2 3 0 5 . 6 4 6 . 0. . 15 2 . 52 . 4 6 6 0 .5 1 6X 3 6 . .2 0 1 .7 2. 19 2. 63 8G 2 1 6 . 1 7 . . 84 . . 6 . 4 3 6. 47.3 2 5 3X 8 G 2D 9 8 3 8 G3 4 . . 2 2 0 8 3 4 7 4 1 .0 8 1 . 8 0 11 30 . .T 2 4 . 4 7 . 13 15 24 20 20 269 20 8 46 7 5 0 4 40 8 .4 C . . L L .531 H .718 H 26 C . 4 0 0 0 . . . 0 .1 5 6 I R .906 H 67 . . 4 0 6 . D 6 2 4 . H 23 5 4 7 . 4 7 8 . 0 .391 — WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGs N P S . 70 . .0 5 .0 . 5 1 0 2 . 4 . 1 6 4 5 0 5 H C 1 2 . R .237 ’ 1 1 T .. . 8 5 03 6 . 2 2 C . 2 9 . 1 7 8 . 3 7 6 .4 2 0 1 X2 .7 . . 3 . .

T H7 5 . 857 89 . H8 6 1 8 H 0 . 04 5 00 6 52 6 63 8 06 289 1 7 1 . R . . .3 2 2 3 3 5 0 1 0 7 0 0 5 0 9 1 D 1 C 1 82 . H 4 1 . . . RS . . 23 6 . H 6 . L . .3 50 5 30 7 7 8 00 8 0 1 60 1 80 1 81 40 52 0 0 2 02 0 1 01 3 . 5 1 . 1 43 .2 X2 0. .2 08 7 6 5 00 3 6 2 6 8 5 8 9 8 0 1 0 1 4 3 16 12 20 23 5 2 0 3 2 5 4 1 5 7 8 20 10 1 67 2 2 5 1 6 2 2 0 0 2 9 33 369 1 5 5 2 9 43 76 10 41 7 0 2 3 1 3 6 6 1 ( c S I . H 2 1 . 3 2 2G 2 . 0 3 6 2 78 5 1 0 0 1 7 .2 08 3 . 1 3 . 1 .3 1 6 . I Z [ E \ q 4 . 7. 0 0 1 . 83 . ) H6 5 H 07 7 H 28 8 1 . H6 7 . P S E L B R OE W T U R N O M . T . H 4 2 H 5 3 H T 6 3 5 4 8 T0 H1 6 . 80 S S S S 1 C 120 C 1 C 1 C H3 3 H4 .1 . H8 . 2 3 4 5 5 9 50 7 0 8 7 1 3 0 1 0 1 90 1 0 310 72 3. 7 1 . 1 2 05 95 4 . 1 1 .1 5 6 m 4 2 0 3 0 3 2 2 4 24 05 7 n 13 29 25 2 0 4 3 3 0 1 68 1 1 6 7 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 77 19 42 8 7 4 0 ( c 10 o S S S S S n 8 1 1 1 1 C C C C C t . 1 H 4 1 . 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 4 0 4 4 6 0 0 . 5 . . . . R “ H K . . H3 2 . . .6 1 5 0 1 0 0 3 0 7 03 19 22 2 0 6 3 3 6 47 5 2 2 25 12 24 46 89 36 6 0 4 5 78 . 9 02 . 301 54 1 0 9 . 16 . H5 4 6 5 . 23 0 . .1 0 1 . H 4 1 1 .392 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS NOM. . P 9 I P 40 E 9 0 1 5° 8 T ° 8 0 ° 1 0 N A L L ) IE S G N A ” I ’ I O N P E 1f L St . S I 1 C 2 C 3 SC C SH 6 C o n t . 12 1 . R L . H 01 1 1 . 3 1 5 1G . H 1 1 . 3 . . .2 1 4 2 8 2 6 2 6 3 4 0 2 3 2 6 4 4 05 7 56 0 06 3 09 0 12 18 15 12 20 22 0 2 9 3 3 8 4 5 1 7 4 7 2 0 6 65 1 12 1 30 1 68 1 2 1 4 6 21 3 2 6 3 3 7 2 3 7 4 9 1 1 4 0 01 44 52 76 14 41 9 9 4 5 1 5 40 6 5 0 1 S 1 S 2 S S 4 XS S 6 C C T C C SCH. .750 1 . 1 . 9 1 . D5 .1 .1 4 2 5 .1 0 5 . . . ) . 1 1 .H ! 1 6 . 64 .7 0 2 . 3 1 . . R . 154 06 . . . . H4 3 . 8 2 02 . D4 3 . H 6 14 . 90 8 10 1 40 1 41 0 0 61 2 0 1 S 2 S 3 S S 4 XS S 6 S 8 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 C C T C C C C C C C . 003 1 7 .

2 . 2 H 6. 3 861 2. 3G 3 . 2 5 3 7 3 8 14 15 ) .3 G4 . 8 0 2 6 0 0 5 05 1 10 96 00 1 5 1 S 1 S 2 S S 3 XS S 4 S 6 S 8 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 C C C C C C C C C C . 2 1 H 2. S 1 C . 3 . S 6 C 5 2 H 3 H T7 X S1 5T H 15 H 18 .6 5 0 7 0 0 9 0 1 0 1 2 D 20 32 46 1 0 2 1 5 2 0 0 2 3 3 9 2 1 C 0 8 4 43 6 19 8 75 1 33 157 6 7 2 9 27 0 40 6 50 66 50 90 43 43 4 34 0 43 5 78 87 89 10 56 1 73 8 15 SCH. S 2 SC S C H . 5. 3 H 5 . 58 . R E N O M O M . 0 O 20 4. 2 H 4 . O E . D 1 M I G p N‘ A T ! E IA O N: l L : O K I ZT EH o 8 C C 1 1 n C H H C C t . 3 . 5 0 1 1 0 1 7 1 3 0 2 0 2 6 0 0 2 5 0 33 3’ 47 05 0 07 4 06 7 08 0 0 78 1 2 1 5 6 1 8 0 1 0 4 1 2 9 2 0 9 3 7 6 5 2 1 17 3 49 4 61 5 02 6 13 6 5 7 5 48 9 1 21 8 4 5 9 26 21 9 32 0 5 48 6 40 9 50 64 81 42 8 5 2 6 3 3 7 2 1 5 31 9 39 58 9 68 0 72 28 ~ 90 36 14 37 15 87 6 47 20 .393 W N P S ( c S S S S S O P A F L . 2 1 H 4. . ) H 18 1 . 2 1 H 6. q q 4 0 33 3 6 1 9 03 2 0 9 54 : L: . 8 4 H . 1. . B R OE W T o T : U .. 7. 2 4 . . .2 3 5 1 7 3 0 1 5 0 1 1 6 0 2 1 9 5 7 2 0 5 78 2 7 7 3 1 5 33 2 9 4 6 00 42 4 48 5 4 41 7 0 . H 0 19 1 H 0. .80 S S S S 1 1 1 1 C C C C 1. 1 O 1 . 1 1 . . S 4 C .5 . 5 .0 . 3. 9. H 17 . D2 3 . 2 52 . 5 H 1 . f 4 5 2 3 1 8 8 0 34 07 9 5 3 4 1 45 .031 1 1. 6 . 573 08 5 0 O9 054 067 431 1722 1146 1021 22 { c o n t . 12 H 4. 4 .. 7 3 T . . 3 . 7. T 9 5 . 1 1 H 0 H 2 H 4 H 6 209 .8 : . 1.1 2 . 1.

! q 6 2 8 5 % 2 4 5 7 4 2 5 8 0 n 9 3 7 0 n ~ )c o n 22 . .3 .. 5 0 2 2 0 D 7 2 0 3 6 0 4 7 0 5 8 71 6 0 3 01 9 4 03 6 01 2 06 8 04 4 1 1 0 6 52 0 3 0 3 20 4 7 85 87 1 2 2 3 03 6 9 85 5 19 1 17 16 1 8 28 7 27 7 9 4 2 44 5 5 0 3 7 02 54 92 16 26 1 8 93 1 0 39 62 8 59 8 62 90 1 41 1 35 1 79 0 0 9 7 4 17 98 80 41 2 3 4 6 5 26 . 4 1 H 4. . . T .4 6G .. 15 16 16 17 2 S S XS S S S S S S S S 1 C 2 SC 3 4 6 8 1 1 1 1 C C C C C C C C . 3 1 H 2. . 62 83 13 14 15 15 16 16 5 7 5 1 7 0 3 1 0 3 6 5 2 6 8 8 0 2 j 5 5 7 3 2 0 2 5 8 7 4 13 J 9 16 3 9 6 01 64 9 77 8 0 5 5 5 30 . . . . -.7 . t . L H K . . DU w R E ’ 1 ’ U M . 3 15 . . 4 2 H 6. 99 3 119 3 158 5 6 7 9 1 7 4 0 6 1 306 2 3 5367 1 7 488 0 1 16 1 22 1 930 44 1 4 . R . .8 1 . 2 H 6 H T9 . 5. . . 3. H 15 H 16 . 1235 59 1 8 2 6 5 0 0 2 . I P E I ’ 1 4 5 1 L 9 L 0 ’ ” 8 0 ” 9 0 ° 8 ’ 1 N L S . . 8. . . R . . R S. 2 H 0. 0.394 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS N P S J O O M . R L . 5 2 .P V A ) IE S I G I1 F I O P N A ’ E ’ I Z [ E L1. H 29 1 H. 21. m r .

. 3. .1 7 0 . 2.3 0 05 .2 5 7 01 .395 W 150 Ibs. 10 0 7 .0 . 11 0 22 0 3 4 5 6 7 0 9 8 19 . .5 4 .6 71 94 1 1 . 3 8 1 7 1 0 2 7 2 10 0 .0 .. 0 9 1 0 5 15 1 34 2 11 7 . . 40 .0 15 1 10 10 10 .5 30 . 7 . 7 6 .1 5 06 .1 8 9 5 .1 0 1 40 2 80 3 40 00 3 70 4 5 20 70 4 96 1 150 1 08 70 5 . .0 . 0 3 4 5 6 8 10 1 1 1 2 3 6 . 3 .5 6 .0 2 . 2. 10 . 0 0 7.2 0 6 . 510 0 . 1 0 .0 7 9 8. 1 0 .0 . 6 .0 7 2. . 40 5. 8 . 1 . S P N S TO U L V D I S E P L N 1 % 2 2 2 2 4 .1 3 4 5 7 2 2. 3 3 .4 9 .7 7 4 . 5 5 25 20 25 35 40 .0 . 1 0 2 02 3 06 40 0 50 5 80 4 2.0 4. 5 1 0 5 7 . 1 1 . 10 15 1 . 10 .0 1 254 278 324 220 72 1 2 0 280 5 1 3 0 6 3 5 9 8 9 9 5 5 8 18 120 20 22 24 26 30 155 159 2 2 3 1 1 2 325 70 2 3 34 9 4 433 1 4 9 5 1 7 8 1 5 3 6 82 260 270 375 439 1 470 4 600 1 4 4 6 I I .4 0 .0 . 0 .3 . 30 50 1 2 2 3 2 4 5 8 1 8 6 .0 . 0 .2 0 9 1 .2 7 4 2 5 .4 . 2 4.05 0 10 0 .0 3 .0 1 2 1 1% 1Y2 2 2% 3 2 5 8 9 6 1 1 1 . .5 2 .0 2 . 6 06 .2 . 0 6 . .0 0 . 2 .1 14 25 27 32 8 2 9 7 3 6 2 93. 8. 0 10 . 0 8 .4 . 20 . 7 . 30 . 6 65 . 0 . 20 . 1 .1 5 02 .0 3.8 10 1 . 20 . .3 1 . 8 5 . 20 . . 0 8. 4 0 0 . 6 . 3. 15 . 0 4 6.2 0 07 . 0 7. 0 . 0 5 .1 4 8 0 6 4 4 8 2 19 17 1 10 2 22 7 3 94 3 . 1 . S O L I O F 300 lbs. . 1 .8 7.0 3. 11 20 8 1 14 5 1 .

0 7 0 .0 .0 8.57 10 20 25 25 35 . 10 .0 0 30 . 3. 41.1 . 33.0 0 9 . 1 6 . 0 6 8 .4 6.5 6 -0 8 0 .0 .0 0 2. 3.0 2. 0 0 . 1 . 86.2 0 5 . 40 1 51 . 4 0 0 . 2 0.5 3 3 -0 4 . . . 10 .2 5 3 . 0 7 0 .0 0 0 . 0 20 4 30 8 . 8 7 60 3 . . 4. 7 152 156 242 23 3 6 6 5 60 0 77 0 3 3 4 5 6 8 3 8 4 5 9 4 95 3 1 16 2 5 . 10 .2 8 8 6 .1 4. 2 .2 7 00 . 10 .0 9 7 5 .1 5 05 .0 .7 1 1 10 2 . 10 . 0 . 29. 29. 0 9 . .37 . 10 . S O I S O J 4 L 1 L 3.0 . 35 . 3 4 0 5 0 8. . 26 3 3 5 398 5 6 6 4 6 9 1 1 2 139 .80 9 090 0 50 2 1 20 9 1 2 3 8 3 4 5 6 8 2 0 1 . 44. 1 0. 1 . 0 . 68.0 2 3 4 6 9 2.0 . 3 5 3 5 8 9 2 0 1 J 7 . 2. 510 . O I N P S N G T h % 1 l% 2 3 3 4 6 3 3 4 5 8 1 1 2 1 5 2 1 3 4 3 1 4 . 0 . 30 2 . 8 1 10 .4 6 30 3 . 20 1 .45 0 2 3 3 6 10 8 .0 06 9 8 3 1 7 3 1 1 1 2 ! 294 3 4 4 1 2 1 32 39 . 10 . 20 231 80 295 20 378 40 10 9 1 1 14 1 2 1 1 2 2 24 26 30 416 41 7 5 6 7 3 9 1 15 114 3 1 80 16 8 24 29 9 37 1 6 366 4 0 0 2 6 5 6 8 5 3 8 8 481 3 1 555 83 690 0 7 7 99 90 1 0 9 15 0 1 564 67 2 1 81 4 5 17 6 119 527 69 80 95 1 71 14 62 . 02 09 00 0 9 2 6 1 7 4 . l% 2 V/i 3 8 1 1 2 0 .0 5 .0 5 . 8 8 .5 1.0 2. 1 . 0 7 2 7 9 0 5 19 9 1 61.4 8 .51 6 . 20 . 10 10 . 1 . 10 . 10 . 60 2 .1 9 8 . .0 . 01 .1 0 10 10 21 36 1 7 . 8 .5 .0 .1 7 0 . 0 5 0 5 .396 W O l I P N F 600 lbs. 43 0 35 .

.3 5 .1 8 . E O E 3 L $ CL N G S D T IK O . 1 0 4 . 30 7 . 940.0 0 4 .10 5 .0 6 .0 07 1 0 I . 40 2 .433.3 2 05 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 1 1 2 1 2 4 4 9 5 8 1 1 2 3 3 4 6 7 6 9 1 5 3 8 1 0 1 2 3 9 3 1 11 8 37 34 62 58 1 . 2 0 5 z 1500 l E D E I 3S L P ~N CL . 4 5 4 .1 3 1 9 2 0 45 2 6 7 5 9 8 2 130 . 2 4 . 3 30 08 1 0 .0 . 2 3 1775 1 82 6 52 1650 0 5 9 00 02 00 7 0 0 9 3 0 1 2 2 39 3 0 5 5 1 3 1 2 3 21 6 8 7 5 2 0 55 5 0 30 2200 2 93 . 80 8 . 7 3 4 16 11 3 4 2 0} 40 0 10 . 18 26 47 4 68 82 1 - . 0 ~ 1 06 27 0 1300 570 5 00 1 7 2 7 7 5 2 1 5. . 02 . 70 I 6 .5 7 0 0 . 04 .37 . 2 4. 20 .1 3 . 70 6 . .2 0 8 . 9 . 1 0 0 1?4 2 2%? 3 1 2 3 3 . 6. 1 2 4 6 7 0 4 4 6 . . 60 0 .5 10 0 .7 3 . 1 3 40 4 .1 0 5 . 3 0 2 0 8 . 25.040 91 199 9 299 7 1 6 361 2 . Z FLANGES 9 l E E W N 1 .250 1335 9 . 1 0 5 .60 13 4 12 ( 16 37 0 5 50 7 40 9 9 9 4 — 303 .8 .5 0 0 65 .0 6 .5 .397 W N P S O I I M P . 1 8 : D IK T . 3 0 6 .2 4 .0 . 1 . 30 30 5 . 9 . 10 0 4 . 6 0 3 10 9 . 9 20 4 . . 5 8 ~ .0 0 2 16 9 8 5 1 66 1 50 10 97 9 98 5 12 9 15 84 4 54 6 03 0 4 7 0 7 0 670 5 949 4 .1 ) 6 9. V L U N i 6 6 7 1 7 7 8 1 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 4. 0 . 10 2 . 6. 7 0 . . 4 I 09 2 1 9 . 26 3 . . . 30 9 . 10 0 5 .

6 02 . C . ( 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 . 1 k 5 1 5 14 24 37 57 06 40 ‘8 6 9 0 15 20 45 66 36 24 48 36 28 68 5 0 40 30 40 20 3 3 5 3 5 4 1 8 5 2 5 2 1 1 1 20 2: 24 2( 30 .( 83. 0 7 . . . 9 08 . 0 3 4 5 6 8 IC .C 94. 0 0 0 0 .C 52. 2 6 .1 0 2 8 3 5 5 5 8 5 . 0 1 . 2 . C . . 1 5 .398 WEIGHT — NOM. 1 . SIZE - OF FLANGES 2 O E L E l I L C rP N .D O Ku E L D E 3 I . 0 1 1?4 2 2?4 3 1 25. 2 3 3 5 8 2 . 0. 3 6 .L s C P L NI D K S : N 4 3/4 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 2 2 8 1 .27 !10 \23 185 925 300 1 2 3 5 0 6 . . 30 30 0 . 2 9 .C 38.( 7 .( 28.0 42.( 55.1 0 0 . ( . 0. . 0 0 0 .

8 0 3 8 1 2 5 8 0. Per Lb. It is based on Weight 41. .0041233 .65625 . . per Equivalent G S G . .15625 3 3 1. 8 0 4 52 1 2 15 . . . I.014974 .5 47. .399 Manufacturers”Standard Gage for S S This gage system replaces U. . 3 1 2 .59375 . 3 ( 0 ?1 4 . . . .5 12. . . . it is advisable to g a g M E S S M E S S 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I . 4 0 .5 26. . .0058594 . . . 2 0 . .65625 2. T E G S 8 1 9 1 1 12 13 14 1.5 7 60 5 5 .0187 . .90625 1.0049913 . . .4 00 .013238 .28125 2.0071615 . .0575 . .0172 .5 9. .0157 . .5 10. . . Standard Gage for Steel Sheets. 7 0. .0 . .0247 . .5 13.71875 . 2.0217 . G G S O S S T S Lb. .5 62.0045573 . Galv. .56250 .0134 4.0785 .027127 .84375 .03125 . . . .53125 3. 1 05 0 6 5 18 4.2 8 21 5 8 .5 38.1 0 . . . . . . . .15625 1. .0516 . .022786 .0635 .0062934 . .011502 .0202 . . 1 1 I. . . . I . . 2. . .5 1 3 52 1 24 85 . .5 42. .5 52. .0142 . 00 .78125 .82 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness. 7 1 0 02 2 5 3 2. .018446 .40625 2. .6 5 2 .5 14. .90625 . . 1 . .0456 . 2 . . . 18 5 0 9 .0080295 1. .S. . . . .1084 . . 5 0 .96875 2.0039062 .016710 . . .0054253 .5 16 17 18 19 20 1 9 8 72. . 1 0.90625 3. . In ordering steel sheets. .6 S .0710 .0396 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 2 26 8 52 8 8 32 8 4 2 18. 69 5 0 6 . O Lbs.020616 . . 2 . . 4 42 1 2 45 .0934 . . . I0 9 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 I . .5 11. . .5 30.031467 .5 9.0276 . .5 7 0 16.65625 . .5 34.

2 . 7 31 . . 5 1 6. 3 .1 % 5 .8 5 22 85 59 91 . 49 .2 2 0 8.3 5 .2 . 6 1.7 2. 41 9.3 . 7. 6 9 931 2. 3 4 7 . 9 2 2 . .4 . 3. 652 . 26 .6 . Inches Foot ? .1 0. 4 5 7 9 0 2 3 5 7 8 0 1 3 5 6 8 9 1 3 4 6 7 9 1 . 4 . 2 89 2 6 2 2 8 . 1 4 13 . . 01 11 11 21 31 41 41 51 61 71 72 82 2 9 02 02 12 22 32 32 42 52 62 63 73 83 93 93 24 . .1 770 [ 531 1 391 1 1. 8 37 8 3 0 . 7 .1 % 9 .7 . 1.1 % 3 .1 .4 .8 .? 2 . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 . 51 :. 3 .82 .8 . 3 05 3 33 .1 .1 6 2 . 2 4. 92 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 8 1 4 7 0 3 6 1 6 2 7 2 8 3 8 3 9 .1 6 00 14 . 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 ? 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 .1 80 1 0 51 1 21 7 21 0 3 31 5 31 6 221 (. 5 11 . 6.? 2 . 4 2 2.7 8. 3. 3 .1 2 7 .5 .9 .3 .5 .6 % 0. 7 64 . 5. 32 .9 . 5 0 ..400 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Thickness. % 1.4 . .3 .7 . . 2 1 8. . 99 .7 . 4 1. 0 2 9 8.6 . 0 1 0 1 . 4 . 7.7 . 62 4 .4 . 2. /. 9 16 .1 3 01 52 1 8 . 6 02 . 8. 3 2 7.8 2. 5. 2 01 2 38 .6 .3 . 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 . 51 5 .9 . 9 . 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 . 2 .1 9 601 7011 45 11 1. 9 9 .6 . 5 53 .8 .9 2.9 . 36 . 4 .1 9 . 61 8 2 5 9 3 6 0 4 8 1 5 9 .1 2 1 .. 2.8 . 82 9 .1 5 2 .5 .4 . 4 . 6 3 7 1. .5 . . 61 0 . 4 1 . 2 3. .1 9 .7 2 .4 .1 8 91 1 .8 16 . 12 .1 3 3 . 2 . 1. 8.6 . 4 96.1 .6 . 31 (.1 % 00 1 6 . 41 3. 81 . 9 53 23 .7 2 . % 2.8 8 3 . % 4. : 3 2 7. 8 2 (. 6 27 . 5 36 . 21 5.1 8 0 .3 . 5 1 1. . 6 16 .4 . 3 38 . 2. 92 . 2 92 .9 . 51 2 . % 7. .1 9 3 . 4 03 . 3. 8 2 3 . 4 0 . 4 88 . 6. 4 18 4 31 5 45 5 58 6 61 6 84 7 97 7 01 . 7 1.1 . (. 92 7.7% 6 . .8 . . 3 81 4 9 4. . 5. 39. . 3 .1 . 9. 9 1 8 .2 0.7 4.1 .9 1 . 71 5 .6 . 1 1 Y1 .4 .5 .5 .1 .3 . 1 73 4.1 2 7 .1 0 10 1 01 64 6 6 . 2 5.7 . 0. 574. 54 . 8 5 5 .0 2 . .1 % .2 .1 . 699. 2 2 3.1 25 2 . .5 .1 4. 8 6 . 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 6.. 1. 3 3 3 4 1 . 3 71 4 . 8 14 7 7 7 .8 5. 0. 2. . 85 .1 .1 2 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 6 . 2 4 7~ 5 . 4 1 . 4 4 .4 .2 85 2 64 . 4 1 8.1 .2 . 0. 8 69 .9 .1 6 0 2. 1 . .9 .9 8. 2 4 . 9 08 .2 . 3 92 3 8 1 . 35 . .2 . 537.1 2 01 % 22 1 2 .2 . 51 0 .2 1 . 3 9 5 0 6 2 8 4 .8 2 . 9 40 8 9 3 . 61 2 .1 0 01 % 02 1 6 . 63 . (. 9 7 1 .2 .7 4 . . 7 3 3 9 :0 .1 4 21 1 . 3 0.1 % 5 .1 I I . . . .5 . . . 2 8 7 . 62 . 7 45 .1 63 . 61 8 . 8 2 $.1 8 6 . 090 8 61 7. 36 . 5 8 521 1.9 .5 .2 2 .8 .4 .4 . ‘idth In. . 41 36 51 87 02 37 53 88 03 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 7.1 7 4 . 3 4 5 5 4 9 7 4 2 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 . 21 8. % 9. 4 0 . 4 59 . .9 . 7.7 h . 6. . 7. 15 .8 0. 7 88 .1 . 3 .1 0 601 1 901 3 211 4 611 5 911 3.9 . % 5. 5.9 6. 2 65 2 0 5 .5 0. 2 7 2.1 1 . 4 39 .1 A 411 8 . 4 93 67 20 94 . 8 40 .1 5 6 . 3 66 .6 % 8.: 91 . 82 4 .2 . . 72 6 . 41 5.1 1 .1 4 .8 J .2 2 . 3 3 . . 21 . 3 75 .6 9.3 .3 .8 % . 5 . 31 0 . . 71 4 . . 62 1 . 7 67 .2 2 .7 . 31 4 9 91 1 31 3 72 5. 7 2 8.1 9.8 % 8 . 4 50 .1 % 201 2 . . . 8 1 .0 .0 7.7 . 31 4.8 . 5.1 5 . 9. 51 .1 5 . 1 2 5 3. 11 . 7 .9 2 .1 4 6 . .0 4 . 5 1 61 6 2 7 2 5.5 . 9.1 . 9 8 1 . 31 3. 2 9 13 .5 .0 8 .3 . 4 3. 3 . 5 92 .1 7 1 611 4 . 811 C 8 1 % 31 . 8 8 .1 . 98 . . 41 5 .1 8 . . 4 1 6. 3 7. . 2 5 37. 89 .3 0[ 1 . 1 8 50 8 801 4 101 1511 8911 4321 1 621 1. 51 3.0 8. 6 92 .2 . 6 4 1 90 39 9 54 1 89 1 05 1 30 55 8. 5 78 . 4 2 5 1 6 1 . 3 1 6 . 0 ~ 4 3. 41 4.1 4 9 .6 . % % % 15<6 1 % ‘ % 1 . :.

8. 7. 3 7. 2.1 1 2 1 %5 4 1 3 21 27 4 1 4 21 %9 5 2 . 8 41 . . 4 46 . 3 22 0 2 2 . . ! . 73 0 . 43 4 . 2 28 9 2 8 . 75 . 1 9 . 2. 02 %. 05 5 .1 o. 32 32 32 42 42 2 42 5 ?2 52 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 0 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 72 72 82 82 92 92 0 3/ 03 13 23 33 33 43 53 63 74 . 93 . . 03 . 6 ~ 6. 4. 7. 2 9 . . . 0 50 . 96 . 52 .. 77 3 3. 74 4 . 5 35 . 48 68. 85 .36 3. 01 Y 0 1 4 2 . 5 2 .0 $. 54 5 . 75 5 3. 9 36 . . 9 1 . 1 0 1 13 4 . 3 3 3 3 8 3 8 4 03 13 4 23 3 2 o. 16 . 7 37 . 95 4 05 . 24 .86 5. 9. 7 1 1 5 2 . 24 . 7. 04 . 88 . 0. . 7 22 . 1 . 1 : . 13 7 . 63 5 .7 5. 2 1 5 52 5. . . . . .1 5. 0 4 . . 51 0 .[ 3. 17 8 . 22 8 .. . 8. 16 5 . 6 33 . 6. 94 . 3Z 4J . 24 2 .9 6 . 02 9.1 . 1 1 4 2 . 75 . 6 39 . 1. 75 .56 4. 8 . 6. . 0 2 83. 8. 82 %. . 5. 84 7 . 42 2 6 42 . 1. 55 . . 1 6 1 1 9 31 . 7. 56 C . 04 1 9 8 6 5 3 2 0 9 7 6 4 3 1 0 8 5 2 9 6 3 0 7 4 . 1. 6 7 ( . 92 2 . 34 . 5. 34 7 . 1. 04 0. 1. 9.1 3. 72 2 . .. 74 . . 4. 2 47 . . 18 1 . 48 4 . C. 8 26 9 . 5 ~ 31 6 ~ 4. 53 9 63 6 73 3 83 1 93 8 03 6 13 3 23 1 44 8 54 64 74 84 94 04 14 25 5 3 0 8 5 3 0 8 4.05 2. 37 . 5 ~0 . 64 8. 54 3 . . 84 9 . 76 2 7 . 4. . 46 6. 84 . 0. 3 36 125 128 22 2 33 5 33 8 43 1 43 4 53 8 63 1 63 4 73 7 83 0 83 3 93 7 04 0 04 3 14 9 34 6 44 2 54 9 74 5 85 1 95 8 05 4 .8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 . 6 (. 7 . 53 . . . 1 49 .. 66 . 8 2 4 . . . . 9 2 2 7 2 . 9 ~1 1 . 6 7 9 1 . 73 0 . 0 34 . 1.95 1. . !1 % 5 3. . 7. . . . 9. 04 8 .9 4. . : . 1.o . . 5. 5/6 8 8 9 9 9 19 9 1 . 7. 35 . 4. 7. 96 . 4 4. 72 2. 8 X. 44 . .69$ .. 64 . 1 .4 9. . 53 4. . 03 83( 4 . 9 30 . 1 511. 2. . 35 . 32 9 . 63 73 84 94 04 14 24 44 5. 13 . 53 9 . 1 23 9 2 6 . 5. 74 5 . 5. 2. 11 Y 2 2 6 2 . 91 1 . 9 6. 34 7 . 2 4 6 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 35 5 52 5C 65 7 2. 2. . 1 01 01 ” 11 11 11 7. 0. 3~ 7 42 1 53 5 . 63 1 . 65 6. 82 7. 9. 4 7 : . (. ( . 9 42 4. 5 44 . 52 62 72 72 9~ 1 ~4 o2 7 12 0 12 3 z2 7 22 0 23 32 9 43 6 53 2 & 39 73 5 83 1 93 8 03 4 13 0 23 7 34 3 44 0 54 64 74 84 94 04 15 25 35 45 5 55 75 96 16 36 . 5. 19 7 . 2 31 3 6 42 %.9 o . . . . .66 4.4 C. 43 3.2 7 1 . 8.96 9 1 2 4 4 2 . 6 6. 8~ 4 . 78 08 . 6. 2~ 0 . 12 . 1. 45 . 46 . 16 7 9. 4 55 . 2.09 1 . : . . 1. 14 8 9 0 0 7 2 1 1 8 1 8 1 8 3 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61 1 1 1 81 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 5 7 2 1 2 52 %. 07 .1 5. 5 . . . 1. 6. 3 . 45 .3 9. 92 0 . $ . . 67 . 33 . 16 . . 7 . 54 . 78 8 . 6 ~ 5. 1 1. 3 1 8 62 %. 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 33 %.1 4. 3. 6. 1 5 0 1 7 31 . . 8 32 . 7 43 . 11J6 3% 6 .401 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Foot ‘idth In. . 1 58 . 83 5 . 1 . 54 6 . 3. 21 5 . . 6. 8. . 0 25 3 . 26 . 9. 53 z. 17 . 6 .3 9 5 . 02 5 . 63 6 . 2. .5 5. 25 . 8 . [ . 1 Y. 44 8 . 1 81 1 1 31 .1 0 1 ?. . 2. 6 54 . 94 2 . 7. 8. . 93 . . 3 2 . 7 ~ 8.8 (.5 . 1. 0 8 . 03 1 . 2 2 6 2 . .5 1. 9. 93 6 . . 28 . 54 ’ 9 33 . 65 . 3 41 . 3 $. 0. 7. 4.95 C 6 . 55 . 23 t 23 .2 ).2 :. 6. 3 57 . 84 4 . 57 . 4 4. 7. 7.75 6. 92 2.1 1..8 4. 5. 51 8 . .8 . 2. 1 3 . 45 . 03 . . 1. 13 23 23 33 . 9. 26 36 46 . 9. .2 3. 37 . 3. 9 7 : . 86 . 97 5 . .. 66 .5 8.. 95 .7 3. ( .2 $ . $ . 48 3 1 0 8 . . ( . 9. 5.4 { . 8. 76 86 . 72 6.5 :. 7 2 9. .3 3. 55 . 3. 45 6 . 44 3 . 4 30 . 4. 32 3 . . 6. 1 . 6. 36 2 56 7 76 2 97 7 17 1 7 t 57 1 88 ( 8.5 7 4. $ . 52 6 21 2 9 31 2.9 . 83 1 . 8 2 7.25 3. 2. 2 43 . 26 836 . . 74 6 . 9 . 1 . . 3. 1 . 4. 2. 0 ~9 . 6. 72 9 . . 7 .8 0 5 . 99 . 18 . 94 4 . . 15 . 8 9. 12 3 . 3 4 4 0 . 4 5 6 7 . 9. 3 .8 7 $ . 7 ! . 4. 92 8.

26 8 .9 .7 1 . 06 9 . 0. 2 9 Z . 1 60 . . 3. 6 1 . 9. 49 5 . 68 3 . 7. 1 7. 6 102 17 27 38 48 58 68 78 78 88 98 09 19 1 6 .9 .5 l . 1 70 7 . 30 21 21 11 01 92 82 72 62 53 53 13 33 54 74 1 . 1 C1 6 1 3. 8 . 69 . 0 7 .1 1 . . 1 81 . 9. 97 0 .6 1 . 8. 10 . 9. 9 0.3 1 . . 79 2 8.6 1 6 .6 1 5 . 2.2 5 .9 . 6 1 3. 2. 9 0. 1 81 .6 6 . 75 . 117 . 8 0.9 . 3. 4.0 8 7.96 .1 5 1 . . 1 128 <. 1 1 t. 3 5 5.1 5 . 36 6 . 4. 87 2 . . 3 7 8 .8 . 59 4 6. 6. 5 . 8. 5.3 0. 8 6 9.95 .4 7 . 1 4 1717 4 1 21 1 41 2 1 1 .4 1 . 29 7 3. 7.8 6 . .0 5 .5 9 2. ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 13 13 23 33 33 44 44 4 5 6 4 64 7 4 8 4 8 4 94 04 05 15 1 5 25 35 35 45 55 55 66 7 6 76 g6 ~6 9 6 06 0 6 16 27 27 37 47 47 57 57 84 84 94 04 14 24 34 45 45 55 65 75 85 95 05 06 16 26 36 46 56 56 67 77 7 % ‘ 0. 9 6 0. 173 211 ( 1 3 411 2 1 4 4 21 4 1 K !21 $ 1 7 41 41 51 51 44 54 74 95 15 25 45 65 76 96 16 26 1 94 1 1 1 14 1 3 1 35 1 5 13 7 16 7 28 7 179 191 204 207 3 211 5 214 7 218 0 221 2 224 4 228 7 231 9 235 1 238 4 241 6 245 8 6 9 1 4 .5 7 . 0 6. 5 1 6. 28 . 1 3 90 . 4. 8. . 5 6 7. 48 6 .1 31 .3 1 .402 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Poot T Inches {idth In. 6 3. .1 32 63 1 2 . 58 4 .8 . 81 1 3. 1 . 1 126 . 48 . 1 9 7. 128 5 153 166 8 140 115 1 1 1 1 8 0 1 8 156 3 1 .54 . 17 9.99 .3 7 . 09 . 7 0. 6. 2. 4. 6 9 3. 2 119 . 0 1 . 5 122 .3 1 .9 8 3. 6. .2 7 .7 8 . . 5.3 6 . 8 1.1 31 8 7 . 14 16 1~ 11 13 15 17 19 1 . 20 . 1 1 4. 9. 575 .5 .1 01 ’1 ’2 12 82 52 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 1 . 2. 11/6 6 ? % 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 % 6 6 6 7 7 7 .1 . . 1 70 3 4 . 91 61 . 1 124 1. 3. . 7 6 8. 1 $ 1667 3 1 11 . 96 1 . 1 40 . 4.4 .9 1 2 .4 1 1 6. 8 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 9 8 6 4 %’ . 0. 2. 1 6 1632 3 1 C0 . 1 2.5 6 . .1 9 9. 1 10 .65 .1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6.3 89.1 8 8..7 9 . 1 40 .1 1 . 40 .2 1 8. 7 3 8 4 9 5 2 5 7 0 2 5 7 0 2 5 8 0 3 5 8 0 3 5 3 1 1. 1. 28 38 58 68 79 89 09 19 2. 7 1 5 . 5. 19 8 .4 6 .6 7 . 0.3 . 7. 6. 88 1 .8 9 4. 2 6 1.7 1 . 98 0 . 1 90 . 1 4 41 . (. 1 7 . 9 7 . C 1 $ 4 5 6 8 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 50 80 20 51 81 21 51 2.8 5 . 4 90. .1 50 4c . .8 . 1 6 6 1 77 1 97 2 17 3 27 3 48 4 68 4 88 5 98 6 18 6 39 7 49 8 69 8 89 9 99 9 .5 1 . 1 f. 1 82 1 22 11 2 13 3 15 18 10 12 15 17 19 12 14 16 19 11 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 1 . 5. 29 1 .1 7 . 1 8 6 . 7 7 7. 1.7 . 1 I . 89 . 9 7 . . 1 1 5. 1 1 1582 3 1 S0 . 4 9 ( . 2.5 1 . 4 7 4. . 17 9 . 5 1 . 4 1 . 2 8 9. 1 (. 1 211 82 0 3 0 . . 5. 1 2 1682 4 1 11 . 1. 8. !. 2 1 . 1 3 1617 3 1 90 .1 1 6 1 6 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 . 2 5 4. 8 1 9 1 0 1 1 1 182 194 06 27 185 198 187 201 47 67 190 204 193 196 199 202 2057 208 7 211 8 214 8 88 207 08 210 28 214 217 58 79 220 99 223 226 19 230 39 <.8 1 .1 [ 9 . 50 . 9.7 6 . 7.8 8 . 4 5 6. 80 0 . 9. 9 7 C .6 . 40 . 8 7 3 . ~. 28 7 .6 1 9. 1 49 8 . 0.7 . 673 . .1 82 9 1 5 . 09 .3 . 6 7 1 . 5 1 I 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 37 57 68 88 8 0 8 2 49 9 6 89 09 1 2 1 4 1 4 6 9 2 5 7 0 3 6 8 1 4 7 9 2 5 8 0 3 . 3 121 4.0 . . 1.1 1 . 1 2 0.

. 9 17 . 14 1 . 1 1. . 2. . 71 2. . .403” WEIGHTS OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Foot T ? 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 . 6 15 . 15 1. 1 01 . 41 9. 2. . 14 0 . 51 . 6. 0. . 16 0 .0 1 9 . 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 [ 1 1 1 1 1 546 67 77 77 88 98 98 08 18 18 28 28 38 49 49 59 69 69 79 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 0 0. 0 1 8 . 4. 5 18 6 . . 10 . 1 21 . . 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 312 315 3 11 3 12 3 3 4 4 13 15 16 17 4 18 4 20 4 21 5 22 5 24 5 25 5 26 5 27 5 29 6 20 6 21 6 22 6 25 7 28 7 20 7 23 8 25 8 28 8 20 9 23 9 25 9 28 0 21 0 23 0 1 1 1 26 28 21 23 592 60 2 80 2 00 2 10 31 51 61 81 02 22 32 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 61 :. 12 0 . 1 42 . . 1 1. . 4 12 5. 7 71 81 91 01 11 21 31 51 61 71 81 91 01 11 21 31 3. 1 81 .1 1 6 . 3. 1 61 . . . 1 1 . . 10 0 1. . 01 01 01 11 11 11 11 11 21 21 21 21 21 29 29 39 49 59 69 7 1 8 1 8 1 1 9 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 0 1 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 19 0 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. 81 3. 7. 12 .1 1 3 . 1 62 0 1 82 0 1 02 ( 0 0 0 1 23 1 43 1 63 1 83 31 8 42 9 4 21 4 22 4 24 42 5 2E 5 21 5 23 6 25 6 27 6 29 7 21 7 23 725 728 820 822 824 926 892 002 10 2 302 60 91 21 52 82 13 43 73 04 34 65 95 25 56 76 07 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 722 032 333 743 043 453 753 063 463 773 1 73 4 83 7 1 4 8 83 93 93 93 87 312 37 319 78 325 18 332 59 338 09 344 40 351 80 357 21 363 72 370 12 376 53 383 93 389 44 395 84 402 25 408 99 49 80 30 81 32 72 23 73 14 65 15 56 06 57 98 2 9 2 6 20 22 2M 25 27 29 I I . 8. 1 41 . 8. 13 0 . . 1 0 0 1 6 . 17 1. 18 1 .. . 91 . . . 9 .1 1 8 . . .1 1 5 . 8 11 . . 3 15 4. 5. 9 9 .1 12 1 10 1 19 17 16 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 0 8 7 5 4 2 1 9 8 6 3 0 7 4 1 8 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 % %6 1 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 10 11 11 12 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 21 21 21 21 1 4 6 9 41 41 41 41 41 41 52 52 52 52 52 62 62 62 62 62 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 0 2 3 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 5 7 52 52 52 62 62 62 62 72 72 72 72 72 82 82 82 82 82 92 92 92 472 67 2 872 972 182 382 482 682 8 9 1 3 82 92 92 92 08 28 39 59 79 99 10 30 50 70 91 11 31 51 62 82 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 7 1 5 9 3 7 0 4 8 2 6 0 3 7 1 5 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 1 2 2 50 233 70 236 90 239 21 242 41 245 61 249 81 252 02 255 22 258 42 261 62 265 93 268 13 271 33 274 54 277 74 281 94 284 14 287 35 290 65 293 8 2% 0 300 303 2 306 4 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 11 32 52 82 02 23 53 73 94 24 44 65 95 15 35 66 8 0 3 5 7 0 2 4 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 6 9 1 4 6 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 0 2 5 7 0 2 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 7 . 16 0 . 11 1 .

21.379 5 1 3 8 3.79 38.+ 0 4 8 3 . 01 .31 18.404 W ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES CIIA 3/16 C P 1.o9 11.542 6 4 3 6 2 3 0 1 2 2 2 .383 .58 66.25 2 17.1 6 ~3.734 .25 5. 0 81.42 —— 30. . 222 7.97 79.53 . 53 .822 5.520 2 1 4.22 52.23 3 31.50 46.11 4 4 5 5 .507 .626 .661 3 3 4.723 .668 .00 11.138 8.563 6. 32 52 62 82 ..85 43.05 47.:5.261 .704 .72 1 0 1 18 1 .37 35.02 26.00 40. 1 .010 8..441 .052 1. .43 27.03 28.71 16.407 3.020 5.39 12.56 63.097 1 1 2 7 0 5 1 .125 .03 9.54 40.90 5 5 35.344 9.11 61.348 .87 5 5 6 6 32. .00 12.1 1 1 2 2 0 1 2 3 .670 8 8 7 2 3.852 . !7. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 .133 6.3! .785 7.079 2 0 4.03 20.07 18. .87 60. 32.845 1.19 ~13.24 21.252 ..885 8. .90 42.08 37. 7 3 3 33 . 52 6 .129 3.23.31 7 7 8 8 16.469 8 5 5. 9 0 6 8 5 5 6 6 1.00 4.41 0 1 35.9996. 03 . 0 2 5 92. 3 .58 45.938 3.57 57.36 59.21 53.006 5.890 .85 8 5.85 72.262 : .24 65.31 75.59 34.26.875 6.46 6 .207 2.858 10.600 6 3 4 7 5.869 .501 .60 37.43 49.45 68.90 :25.738 1.638 8.033 7.265 6 9 3.348 .28 49. 74 .8W 1.50 9.9343. 2 .92 44.560 4.q3 ?5.512 0.86 18.00 .726 3. 11 2 .00 8.172 8 4 34 4.8453.511 .55 1 0 . 23.43 38.77 5 20.99 44.39 .35 55.16 6 6 t 42. .30 74. 5 3 9 1.225 3.463 7.51 7.22 58.18 42.26 i2. 2 4. 6 5 1 4 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 5.77 50.103 2.126 1.? 8.845 .915 1.313 6 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6.681 .50 12. 7 2 5 72. .93 40.43 39.340 6.03 32.79 25.130 1 1..8046.627 11 0 2 1 3 11 7 8 1.506 5.1 1 !2.282 . 3 19.64 14. 1.2875.215 3 3 72 6 9 2.056 .6E 22.07 19. 2.20 52.10 26.126 .120 8.00 5. .356 8.344 .5: 23.99 9 89.72 33.:: 7 50. 2 4 .048 6 5 9 1 5.54 .556 .: 14. 10 1 41 40 . 6.92 29. 17.03 26.983 5 6 5.530 6.42 50.35 0. 1 0 15 2 .2 1 7 . 9.06 7 6 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 27. 3 4 4 3 .6263.153 .01 4 40.477 8.731 7.86 40.06 22.93 21.2 7 8 1.42 1 .63 71.23 22.56 52.315 .66 9 85.55 30. . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .28 4 3 33.50 8.10 55.93 3 3 1 3 4 4 4.587 4.25 4.503 2.978 ..911 4 5 5 6 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 .5U 20.223 .57 13.16 [1.391 1.05 3 7. 52.07 9 0 .282 . .0767. . 1 1. : 1 .426 3 .188 .50 5.26 13.16 6 1 30.496 8 8.1540.09 35. 3 0 .59 50.02 20.24 16.79 6 48.50 4.350 2.75 49.42 32..02 1 0 1 10 1 . 01 1 .223 .56 77. .5. 30.130 .39 18. 4 3.52 23. 3 1 9 .19 57. .50 i 1.255 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 .50 700 7.87 11.25 0 37.07 28.71 .814 7.04 56 2 2 2 2 5.910 2 5 2 52 6 2 2.916 2. 5 0 2.06 36.941 1.8783.8187.67 43.39 70.40 5 45.774 .38 10.17 4 8.00 9.93 46.199 10.53 26.72 83.00: 6.08: .239 . 1 1 8 1 .019 4.88 40.38 3 0 .765 1 6 6 1 4.46 14.612 .80 . 1 50 .011 10. 6 3.03 5 .256 0 .04 9.50 10.014 0 8 0 5 3.06 52.20.00 6.468 .75 5.893 0 0 3.06 58.06 51.02 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 24. 1 06 .8591.76 32. 9 4. .84 49.375 .12 31.87 1 I I II 8.956 7 . 0 26.367 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 T .55 38.70 35.0056.038 9.043 1.16 $1.734 10.683 z 2.217 9 .2[ 3 38.72 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 ‘ 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 24.043 10.605 9 1 1 1 1 7 $ 9 1 1 1 .25 $ ~ 29.37 2 18.55 [3.26 63.125 .64 16.59 55.517 7 8 2. 11 1 2 2 2 .06 14.977 3 8 6. 19.87 23.60 35.005 .508 7.2660<28 6 51.50 !m ‘ 5 318 .43 8 81.0379. 1 1 . 1 .196 .80 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .833 .60 3 8.211 50 430.319 28.010 9<401 ~.668 .2 60 3 . 3 4 4 5 2 .25 24.75 6.754 ! .24 56.13 11.028 6.956 1.230 7.598 5.00 10.94 8 7 .087 .73 11.04 30.08 .139 0 .88 6 54.77 12.12 12.20 46.29 16!68 .170 .74 6 7 7 7 22. 18.421 1T /7116 1% 1 %6 - A ?486 ‘1/16 - m .758 7. 21.48 3 1 38.299 2.816 9.157 1.469 .6. 2 3 7 1 3.72 46. 3 1.900 .704 2.

405 W iLL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA C . 1 ! 02 84 96 113 11 1 : : . 9 32 4 34 3 : : 3 3 — 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 48 64 8 f 9 8 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 .1 272 51 6 21 682 71 21 082 8 129 145 161 177 193 209 225 2 1 01 6 11 31 9 41 662 282 992 3 1 01 8 11 5 31 252 972 682 302 1 0 .1 6 91 8 7 8 21 9 01 7 5 9 01 0 . 3 4.1 : 8 0 1 21 9 1 2 9 31 5 21 3 81 3 9 51 41 231 61 1 1 541 1 :1 941 01 35.7 . 9 . 1 7 2 w 3 8 5 6 z 9 : 9 11 21 41 51 71 81 01 21 31 51 01 0 :1 1 01 2 01 .1 11 11 4 21 7 21 0 4 21 31 7 031 341 741 051 451 862 162 572 10 70 41 02 73 44 15 15 46 17 98 69 30 01 82 53 34 15 96 77 48 39 10 91 . 81 3 1 01 65 0 062 :1 . 7 : 7 . 8 71 5 11 11 8 . 1 71 4 1 :1 0 . f 7 7 : : : 4 6 4 6 3 5 4 6 6 . .% 9 8 9 8+ 9 80 1 9 % 1 91 1 % 1 9 1 1 1 i 1 1 3 1 1% 1 1 i 1 1% 1 1% 1 7 --1 —4 18 14 19 14 10 14 11 14 12 01 z 01 3 01% 01 4 11 4 11 5 12 % 12 6 22 % 22 7 22 % 22 8 3 i 3. 5 5 7 7 . % P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS ‘ h ‘ & 2 2 2 2 2 2 & 2 2 2 2 % 3 3 3 3 : 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 .1 ! .1 11 11 462 9 1 11 872 :1 1 .1 0 21 8 41 552 372 092 812 2 1 01 21 0 41 862 682 492 212 1 1 :1 31 3 42 16 08 802 7 2 :1 5 1 7 11 3 52 47 39 20267 1 286 1 99 3 51 8 2 6 7 79 —~1 6 2j3 11 8 .274— — 01 0 21 0 42 062 082 102 122 143 42 362 482 402 522 643 01 21 2 01 2 :1 5 42 662 792 ~812 932 053 0i ? 5 31 7 43 563 52 8 2 092 212 3 11 9 32 52 172 402 622 843 063 11 3 .2 1 62 482 702 022 253 573 0 11 42 4 62 782 012 433 753 083 2 21 42 62 092 412 843 263 683 42 21 8 72 392 722 243 673 193 52 072 602 123 653 173 603 22 7 22 52 382 902 433 053 683 103 9 32 52 582 212 833 463 183 713 1 62 882 512 243 863 593 224 32 32 3 62 092 823 543 373 003 834 42 4 62 392 123 953 783 513 334 6 42 72 502 433 353 283 014 944 82 8 4 .2 7 02 733 763 693 524 554 52 0 82 013 043 013 003 134 164 52 2 82 313 443 473 503 634 664 52 4 82 623 753 883 014 144 274 6 62 92 823 053 283 424 654 884 2 63 93 24 264 494 82 1 3 :2 0. : .63 :04 :34 764 105 72 203 633 073 404 944 374 705 0 1 2 3 ‘4 5 6 7 ! 7 8 0 2 0 8 2 8 4 8 6 9 8 9 01 21 41 1 . 6 8 8 8 ! 8 6 9 8 8 : 0 9 7 9 7 1 9 7 9 7 2 1 7 1 7 1 3 8 1 8 4 1 8 1 8 1 5 8 1 9 1 6 9 1 9 1 7 9 1 9 8 1 1 1 1 9 1 4 5 4 5 53 5 % 6 5 54 64 % 6 :5 7 6 7 % 6 . — — . 87 96 28 472 78 872 29 282 79 792 20 192 71 60250 21 2 612 23 022 73 522 34 032 85 5 2 45 03 9 63 — 5 163 . 5 5 5 2 6 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 : 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 : 8 8 8 9 9 7 8 0 1 : 6 .1 11 31 51 01 8 0 01 3 01 11 5 11 2 :1 21 3 5 21 8 31 1 31 4 41 78 99 19 41 61 1 !1 31 61 81 01 1 01 4 01 1 :1 2 11 5 21 8 21 21 1 4 31 7 31 041 341 651 952 4— 7 6 8 9 .— . ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 ! 1 1 ? 1 1 ! 1 1 Y 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t ! 0. 3 . 3 3 3 3 % 3 : 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 5 : 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 1 3 3 4 4 : 4 . 6 77 8 % 8 7 8 8 . 01 0 7 I 01 1 8 01 2 1 3 11 6 2 11 9 2 1 4 2 33 21 73 8 131 24 531 64 941 05 341 45 751 96 151 36 56.1 t 663 78 273 39 783 90 383 51 893 11 403 ?2 013 33 513 04 124 65 J34 36 344 96 954 67 554 38 264 09 874 70 484 41 194 12 794 83 405 53 015 24 72 05 43: ?6 145 57 0 1 4 0 8 1 2 1 6 2 02 43 93 34 74 25 65 16 66 07 58 0: 5 00 60 11 62 22 73 4 94 45 06 67 1 49 69 91 11 L 1 71 01 21 01 0 .

‘/4 = 5/16 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 E & m 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 % 3 3 3 0~ 02 02 12 1K 12 12 1~ 22 22 22 22 32 32 32 32 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 32 42 42 42 52 5? 52 52 62 62 62 73 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 EIE 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 33 33 43 43 54 54 54 64 6 380 J435 386 7442 8 399 8456 8 9 9 + 0 1 1 9/16 / % 4o 61 91 12 33 533 733 933 243 443 653 953 163 364 674 874 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 1 943 243 553 853 06 36 67 97 28 58 89 10 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 55 55 65 65 5 5 5 5 E G % & 69 69?A 70 ?Oti 71 71% . 1924 995 5 1 8 — 29 13 3 8 6 9 8 39 15 7 49 16 5 8 8 1 9 5! 1 3 7 0 9 3 9 9 1 % 9 0 3 9 7 2 2 1 0 0 8 2 9 9 3 1 0 1 9 3 6— 1 0 3 9 5 1 3 0 4 3 4 9 20 6 8 9 1 4 1 0 5 7 5 9 72 5 6 1 0 0 7 8 3 5 11 1 0 8 0 0 [ ‘/16 4422 7 6 4 3 ? 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 4 4 4 5 6 ! 8 9 0 2 3 5 6 8 9 1 .:!4 73 73!4 74 74?4 75 15% 76 76% 77 77% —— 193 1 199 2 2 207 210 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .3 5 ? 9 2 4 6 9 .1 4 7 9 2 .406 W ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES ‘/16 C P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS .66 77 885 6 5 3 1 73678 2 87 285 0 5 9 44689 97 2 695 5 5 5 15701 7 1 8 1 Q0 005 0 7 98 0 76713 60 505 5 d 46724 7 7 8 9 21 915 0 17736 ~ 7 6 8 9 82 325 6 36 8748 ~ 8 598 8 75 8 308 8 47 9 25 8 218 7 57 0773 ~6l 66 8 128 7 67 1 06 9 7 2 6 8 56 9 6 6 3 9 96 9 6 7 4 0 46 9 6 5 7 1 86 9 E x 7 6 7 39 7 6 7 49 2 6 8 7 7 69 7 6 9 7 7 0 7 7 79 7 1 8 7 89 7 2 8 7 99 7 3 9 1008 8 0 8 8 1 1 9 1 8 2 0911 981 4 771 8 10521 112. 2 2 !2 2 E I2 ~2 2 % 2 2 3 K 3 3 3 m 3 3 3 9 0 0 1 % 5 6 6 6 477 7484 6 2 545 4 553 7 1 5 9 14 14 24 24 2w 34 34 34 4 z 44 44 55 8491 3498 8 505 9 :512 9519 0526 5 0540 1548 1555 5 2570 35 3 585 1 6 6 6 561 6310 7 569 . 6404 7 7 577 63 2 7 585 93 6 7 593 24 1 7 601 55 6 8 3 9 7 617 26 3 7 626 56 7 7 634 87 6 1 68 6 8 651 48 078 6 ?9 4 8 668 10 8 ‘3/16 1 ~ = g 4 344 88 1 855 2 13 565 0 2 83 3 4 854 49 3 275 8 83 7 4 364 9g 4 975 6 94 1 4 864 50 3 8 0 1 ~ 3 0 7 5 04 8 45 3 2 1 3 6 95 8 1 9 8 6 36 2 4 5 4 6 2 87 3 9 0 6 3 7 9 27 4 6 6 78 4 0 3 6 29 4 5 9 2 G 0 60 5 1 5 7 7 10 6 6 1 + 76 61 6 8 544 4 6 7 2 41ii55 67 5 475 1 5 7 4 12.

-. . I 309 I 411 I 537 + . I 305 I .407 W iLL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA 18 C %6 % 7%6 ‘A ‘/16 ?8 ‘‘\16 P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS I I 3/lfJ ‘/4 ‘% i3/16 ~8 ‘5/16 1 7 7 7 2 . 2 8 3 2 2 ! 3 4 4 t 4 43 5 .l 703 712 883 894 993 804 . 3 .904 1005 813 823 926 1029 832 936 1041 842 947 1053 785 I 3 3 3 3 373 377 ‘-1 497 502 5 5 6 6 3 7 1 5 1 3 5 2 w .5 55 65 65 & 592 i 600 4608 9 % 5615 6 6 639 6 ++ 267? 40761 : 846 3 3 ?686 717 8 8 3694 027 7 8 4 3703 427 2 8 9 712 801 28 7 8 2 39 9 730 8 7 8 3 49 8 47 18 79 1 2 3 5 6 7 39 10 1 1 72 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 7 8 9 0 1 2 4 8 . 5 6 ? 97 29 $ 6 1 79 1 1 9 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1570 417010 183231963 3 8 2094 9 5 3 3 5 4 8 2 1851 0 51 2 2 49 15869 1719 1 8 1 8 1 9 1 9 T 1 1 8 2 9 2 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 8 9 2 2 1 9 1 8 2 4 1 2 2 0 2 1 1 8 6 2026 2170 2045 2192 2065 2213 2086 2235 1 7 8 0 2 4 2 2 6 2 8 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 .

408 W .LL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES ~lA 3/16 ‘/4 I 5/16 I ‘/8 7/16 C P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS 1/2 I ‘/16 ?8 1‘/16 3/4 ‘3/16 % ‘5/16 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 l 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 6 6 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 6 0 7 76 6 6 0 7 6 87 6 0 8 6 88 6 0 8 6 89 6 1 8 6 80 6 1 8 6l 8 6 1 8 7 2 8 7 1 8 7 83 7 1 9 7 94 7 1 9 7 5 9 7 1 9 7 6 9 7 1 9 7 97 7 1 9 7 8 9 7 1 9 7 99 8 2 1 8 0I 69 79 19 89 89 99 99 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 Y 1 2 1 ? 2 1 3 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 5 1 ? 5 1 6 1 Y 6 1 1 7 7 1 8 1 1 8 ! 1 9 9 1 0 1 0 ! 2 1 6 3 1M 1 7 3 4 1% 4 1 8 5 1H 1 9 6 6 1M 7 1 0 7 1% 8 1 1 9 1Z 9 1 2 0 14 1 3 1X 2 1 4 2 1M 3 1 5 4 1 4 4 1 6 5 1 z 6 1 7 6 1X 7 1 8 1 4 8 8 1 9 9 1% 0 0 1 0 0 4 8 1 8 1 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 3 1 0 4 1 0 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 9 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 6 1 1 6 1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 21 9 3 0 1 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 8 2 1 6 1 7 1 7 1 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 6 0 1 1 5 11 9 11 4 11 9 2 1 3 21 8 2 1 3 2 1 7 21 2 21 7 21 2 2 1 7 2 1 1 3 1 6 31 31 1 6 31 1 31 31 6 31 1 6 31 0 1 41 6 5 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 7 3 21 9 2 1 5 3 1 3 1 1 0 7 3 1 1 3 31 1 9 31 2 5 31 3 2 31 4 8 3 1 5 4 41 6 0 4 1 74 1 8 3 41 9 9 41 0 6 41 1 2 4 1 2 9 4 1 3 5 5 1 4 1 51 5 8 51 6 5 5 1 7 51 1 8 8 5 1 9 4 5 1 0 1 6 2 8 1 9 4 1 9 0 4 1 1 6 4 1 2 4 4 1 1 3 4 1 4 9 4 1 5 6 41 6 4 5 1 7 1 5 1 8 9 5 1 9 7 5 1 1 4 5 1 25 1 3 0 5 1 4 8 5 1 5 6 6 1 6 4 6 1 7 2 6 2 8 0 6 2 2 9 8 6 2 1 6 6 2 2 4 6 3 2 7 2 2 4 0 7 2 5 8 7 67 2 7 5 7 2 2 9 3 7 2 108 8 5 5 1 6 5 1 7 5 5 1 8 4 6 1 9 3 6 1 1 2 6 1 2 1 6 1 03 6 2 0 46 2 956 2 877 2 787 2 79 7 2 607 2 52 7 2 53 7 2 448 2 458 2 378 2 2 3 8 8 2 3 9 8 2 21 8 2 29 2 2 239 2 24 9 269 2 27 9 2 2 28 9 2 20 0 40 7 2 4 2 7 2 5 3 7 2 54 7 2 56 7 2 67 8 2 7 88 2 7 0 8 2 81 8 2 92 8 2 94 8 2 0 5 9 2 17 9 2 2 8 9 2 3 9 9 2 41 9 2 52 9 2 64 0 2 7 5 0 2 0 2 9 7 0 2 0 8 02 19 31 0 2 1 2 42 1 2 54 75 1 2 97 12 1 2 08 2 2 20 0 6 2 8 2 7 8 2 4 9 9 2 60 9 2 8 2 3 2 0 3 9 2 2 5 9 2 4 6 0 2 68 0 2 89 0 2 2 11 0 32 0 2 6 4 0 2 86 1 2 1 7 1 2 3 9 1 2 60 1 2 92 1 2 13 2 2 2 2 4 5 2 2 7 7 2 2 0 8 30 2 2 3 2 62 3 2 9 3 25 3 2 5 6 32 3 2 9 8 42 2 0 6 2 3 1 2 1 0 7 0 3 0 9 2 7 22 3 5 0 1 2 2 2 2 6 6 02 7 2 2 2 0 8 1 2 2 4 2 2 3 0 1 2 7 6 2 2 71 1 8 2 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 7 0 3 2 4 5 1 2 ’3 12 8 6 2 2 8 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 8 2 5 6 0 2 2 9 7 42 0 1 2 2 4 9 4 2 4 3 2 2 0 1 4 2 8 5 3 2 6 3 4 2 2 7 3 2 1 5 5 2 7 8 3 7 6 2 5 2 1 0 32 3 8 52 5 2 32 9 0 52 4 42 5 2 52 0 5 42 1 4 62 4 74 2 7 6 6 3 9 3 9 42 4 8 63 1 4 0 2 0 6 3 8 3 5 2 2 6 7 3 3 8 4 5 4 2 3 7 3 2 652 9 673 8 52 6 8 7 3 7 0 6 08 3 3 3 2 3 9 3 5 5 3 1 7 3 8 84 4 0 4 1 2 4 7 4 4 4 6 5 1 8 3 5 8 0 5 5 5 2 2 4 5 9 6 6 6 8 6 3 0 6 1 2 6 8 4 7 5 77 3 97 1 17 8 38 65 8 4 78 2 9 8 0 1 9 8 3 9 669 4 89 3 0 0 8 5 5 3 05 1 2 5 8 5 5 6 7 5 5 9 6 3 1 6 1 3 6 96 8 7 7 9 7 6 5 27 3 4 7 2 6 8 1 8 8 0 0 8 9 3 8 5 7 7 6 9 6 2 5 4 0 4 60 4 8 0 4 1 0 3 3 35 3 8 30 9 2035 7 1 6 0 5 9 4 8 3 8 3 2067 2083 209 9 211 5 213 1 214 8 216 4 2181 219 7 221 4 2231 — 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 148 1671 1683 1696 1709 1722 1735 2 233 0 235 8 236 6 238 5 240 3 242 2441 0 246 8 247 9 9 8 7 7 6 6 6 256 5 2585 2605 2625 264 5 266 5 268 6 270 6 272 6 2628 2649 2670 2692 2713 2734 275 6 2777 279 9 282 0 284 2 286 4 6 288 8 290 293 0 2 295 4 297 9 2 298 5 8 303 2 3055 307 9 310 2 312 6 315 0 317 4 319 8 322 2 5 0 3165 31!30 321 5 324 0 3265 329 0 331 6 3341 3367 2 339 341 8 4 344 0 347 3338 3364 3391 3444 347 1 349 8 3525 3552 358 0 3607 3635 3662 369 0 371 8 3702 3731 376[ 378! 381[ 384t 387: 390( 393( 396( .

84 2 2 4 6 3 11 Y 3 9 8 2 3 8j 4 4 7 2 7 4 6 9 0 22 12 39 4 2 4 67 3 4 3 9 3 50 2 3 6 7 5 4 6 4 7 4 7 1 0 0 3 12 30 4 2 5 87 3 8 5 9 3 12 2 3 3 9 5 4 6 7 8 4 8 4 0 8 4 12 32 4 3 7 97 3 2 7 0 3 64 2 3 1 2 5 4 5 3 8 4 0 6 1 6 52 2 2 34 3 91 7 3 58 0 3 2 6 3 3 8 4 5 4 5 1 8 4 1 9 1 4 7 22 2 4 5 3 1 27 3 19 03 88 ) 3 44 3 2 3 66 4 68 4 ! 1 2 8 22 2 6 5 3 2 48 3 3 2 0 3 30 3 3 4 8 6 4 4 6 9 4 5 4 2 0 9 22 2 7 5 3 4 58 3 7 4 1 3 92 3 3 1 0 6 4 4 8 9 4 6 7 2 7 0 22 2 9 53 6 78 3 1 51 3 4 543 92 6 1 4 49 4 . 2 5 82 3 0 8 2 6 82 3 5 2 8 2 6 8 9 2 7 4 9 2 8 9 92 9 5 9 2 0 1 9 2 1 7 9 2 2 3 9 2 3 9 02 4 5 02 5 1 02 6 7 0 2 7 3 02 8 9 02 9 5 02 0 2 12 1 8 12 2 4 12 3 0 12 6 4 12 5 2 12 12 6 9 22 7 5 22 8 1 22 9 8 2 0 42 22 1 0 9 9 2 9 4 2 94 2 8 4 2 8 7 3 8 9 9 4 2 93 7 4 3 7 ! 3 47 7 6 00 2 6 2 86 2 91 5 3 1 7 3 3 1 0 3 4 6 2 1 5 7 3 6 4 7 7 4 2 0 7 2 2 8 2 7 2 1 5 3 4 7 3 8 3 0 3 1 8 2 4 5 9 3 4 4 8 8 1 3 02 78 2 45 9 2 2 3 7 8 3 35 0 3 8 0 3 6 5 1 3 3 4 9 8 9 4 6 3 0 0 3 5 0 1 8 5 2 2 5 3 . 8 3 0 37 2 3 8 6 4 3 2 4 9 8 6 50Z 61 3 2 !57 38 4 3j3 ! 3 1 3 g j 23 3 Il 0 6 4 ) 6 8 4 60 2 52 3 2 6683 7 4 8 1 3 81 3 ( 9 7 3 3 I 3 6 4 1 9 9 2 7 12 2 5 42 8 0 3 6 3 08 3 6 32 1 3 6 9 4 3 9 5 6 4 2 1 9 98 1 2 453 2 9 1 6 3 48 9 3 9 4 1 3 4 1 4 3 8 7 7 4 3 4 9 7 01 2 4 6 4 2 13 6 3 7 0 9 3 4 6 2 3 1 3 4 4 8 0 7 4 4 6 0 51 1 2 .409 W DIA 3/16 I ‘A 5/16 I ~8 ‘/16 C ‘/2 ‘/16 5/8 P ‘ 1/16 Y4 13/16 ~8 15/16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 3 8 8 3 8 8 4 8 8 48 8 48 8 8 4 8 8 4 8 8 4 8 8 4 9 9 4 9 4 S ’ 9 4 9 9 5 9 5 9 9 5 9 153 153ti 154 154% 155 155!4 156 156% 157 157% 158 158!4 159 159!4 160 160H 161 161% 977 1302 1628 19532279 2604 2930 3255 3581 3906 4232 4558 4883 szog 983 1311 1638 1966 2294 2621 2949 3277 3604 3932 4260 458J 4915 5243 989 1319 1649 1979 2309 2638 2968 3298 3628 3958 4287 4617 4947 5277 996 1328 1660 19922324 2656 2988 3320 3651 3983 4315 4647 4979 5311 1002 1336 1671 2005 2339 2673 3007 3341 3675 4009 4343 4671 5012 5346 1009 1345 1681 2018 2354 2690 3026 3363 3699 4035 4371 4708 5044 5380 1015 1354 16922031 2369 2707 3046 3384 3723 4061 4400 4738 5076 5415 1022 1362 17032044 2384 2725 3065 3406 3747 4087 4428 !768 51095450 1028 1371 1714 20577399 2742 3085 3428 3771 4113 4456 4799 5142 5184 1035 1380 1725 2070 2415 2760 3105 3450 3795 4140 4485 4830 51755519 ‘52075555 1041 1389 1736 2083 2430 2777 3124 3472 3819 4166 4513 4860 1048 1397 17472096 2446 2795 3144 3494 3843 41924542 4891 52405590 1055 1406 1758 2109 2461 2813 3164 3516 3867 4219 4570 4922 52745625 1061 1415 17692123 2476 2830 3184 3538 3892 42454599 4953 53075661 1068 1424 1780 2136 2492 2848 3204 3560 3916 42J2 46284984 53405696 ~ 1075 1433 1791 2149 2508 2866 3224 3582 3941 42994657 5015 5374 5732 1081 1442 18022163 2523 2884 3244 3605 3965 4326 46865047 5407 5768 1088 1451 1814 2176 2539 2902 3264 3627 3990 4353 4715 5078 54415803 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 14 3 1 1 5 3 1 1 6 3 1 1 7 3 1 8 1 3 1 9 1 4 1 0 1 4 1 1 Y 1 1! 4 1 1 3 4 1 1 4 4 1 1 5 4 1 1 6 4 1 1 7 4 1 8 1 4 9 1 1 9 5 1 1 0 5 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 7 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 0 9 1 ? 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 f 0 1 0 1 Y 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 1’ 1 4 1 1 4 1’ 1 5 1 1 5 1 1 6 1 1 7 1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 Y 2 2 1 21 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 ? 5 1 1 2 6 2 7 1 ! 2 9 14 21M 2 15 21 X 21 6 21 X 31 7 3 1X 31 8 3 1+ 19 31 i 31 0 31 j 3 11 3 1z 4 1 4 1 j 4 13 4 2% 4 24 4 2% 4 25 4 2% 4 2 6 4 2 ~ 5 2 7 5 2% 5 2 8 5 2 j 2 5 2 9 5 2X 2 0 5 2% 5 2 1 5 2 4 5 2 6 2 2 4 6 4 1 0 52 1 5 2 2 5 2 2 5 2 3 52 4 52 5 5 2 55 2 6 62 7 4 6 2 86 2 9 6 2 9 6 2 0 62 1 6 2 2 6 2 3 6 2 3 7 2 4 7 2 57 2 6 7 2 7 72 7 7 2 8 7 2 9 7 2 0 8 2 1 8 2 1 8 2 2 8 2 38 2 4 82 2 5 8 2 6 8 2 6 9 2 7 9 2 89 2 9 9 4 9 7 2 57 2 6 0 7 2 1 6 7 2 8 2 8 2 9 7 8 2 0 3 8 2 1 9 8 . 8 9 2 5 1 2 2 2 05 3 8 9 8 3 57 1 3 1 6 4 4 7 5 7 4 4 3 0 4 0 2 2 33 32 2 15 3 0 08 3 99 1 3 78 4 4 5 7 7 4 4 6 0 4 2 4 3 1 4 3 2 2 3f3 2 2 9 3 3 1 1 3 3 0 4 4 3 9 7 4 4 8 0 4 4 7 3 0 53 2 2 4 6 3 43 9 3 7 3 2 3 9 2 5 4 1 1 8 4 4 0 0 4 6 0 3 8 6 32 2 66 3 6 59 3 15 2 3 54 5 4 0 3 8 4 4 3 1 4 8 2 4 6 7 3 2 2 76 3 9 7 9 3 56 2 3 1 6 5 4 8 6 8 4 4 5 1 4 1 5 4 4 9 32 2 86 3 1 89 3 98 2 3 88 5 4 6 8 8 4 5 8 1 4 3 8 4 2 0 4 3 3 07 3 3 0 0 3 40 3 3 4 0 6 4 5 0 9 4 5 0 2 4 6 0 5 0 1 4 3 3 17 3 5 2 0 3 82 3 3 0 2 6 4 3 2 9 4 6 3 2 4 8 3 5 8 2 4 3 3 37 3 8 3 0 3 24 33 7 4 6 4 1 59 4 6 5 2 4 16 5 7 4 4 3 3 47 3 0 5 0 3 76 3 3 3 6 6 4 0 7 9 4 7 8 2 4 3 8 6 55 4 3 4 67 3 2 7 0 3 17 3 4 0 8 7 4 9 9 0 4 7 0 3 4 6 1 6 3 64 3 74 7 3 58 ! 1 3 64 43 7 0 7 4 7 1 0 4 8 3 3 4 I 9 4 6 53 4 98 3 7 01 3 01 4 4 32 7 4 6 4 0 4 9 5 3 2 6 6 EIO06 2 7 53 5 08 3 0 21 3 53 4 4 05 7 4 5 6 0 4 0 8 4 5 5 9 7 0 9 53 5 28 3 2 31 3 05 4 4 77 8 4 4 8 1 4 1 0 4 5 8 2 7 8 0 53 6 38 3 5 51 3 47 5 4 39 8 4 3 1 1 4 2 3 4 5 1 4 7 7 1 4 5 8 i 4 ’ 4 8 1 4 5 7 3 3 2 5 1 3 3 4 5 4 8 7 9 9 0 2 8 52 6 53 7 69 3 0 82 3 41 5 4 73 8 4 1 5 2 4 4 8 5 5 8 0 8 4 4 69 3 9 2 0 1 4 0 4 7 0 7 0 1 9 2 1 2 5 1 5 8 2 8 0 2 1 3 2 4 6 2 7 8 3 1 1 3 4 4 3 8 7 4 14 3 5 2 4 9 5 5 2 8 5 6 0 5 0 3 6 4 6 6 9 9 6 3 2 7 7 5 7 2 7 7 6 0 8 1 3 8 5 6 8 90 9 5 2 9 0 5 9 5 8 0 1 0 5 3 0 0 6 1 1 6 9 1 2 1 .

22974 4 9 2992 4 1 61 4 6 1 2 2618 2 3366 4 0 3010 1 41 5! 53 16 2 2634 9 3387 4 1 61 5 43 5 1 3029 1 3 2650 6 3407 4 i 2 3047 1 51 5t 43 16 4 2666 3 3428 4 6 3 3066 1 6 5 33 p ! 3449 G 2682 4 23 6 1 6 5 M 43084 3470 2699 4 1 6 1 5 13 1 6 4 3491 7 53103 2715 T 1 6 1 1 1 17 11 1 51 72 % 91 62 031 53 171 43 3 11 3 9 1 1 1 5 7 1 2 9 2 7 3 3 7 6 7 5 1 4 3 0 3 2 5 4 1 6 1 1 8 1 8 5 2 9 2% 7 3 3 5 7 7 6 1 6 3 9 3 4 5 4 1 1 61 5 9 1 2 9 2 9 8 3 3 2 8 7 8 1 8 3 9 3 6 5 4 f 9 16 1 91 5 2 2 i 9 3 9 1 9 97 3 9 1 3 8 3 8~ 5 1 1 72 6 8 4 9 3 6 2 2 0 2 0 0 4 8 1 14 2 0 0 1 7 1 2 1 7 2 0 6 0 2 3 3 2 4 1 2 2% 1 4 8 2 34 1 1 72 6 2 7 3 0 2 4 3 2 2 1 2 4 8 4 44 2 0 3 1 7 1 2 2 6 2 1 6 0 4 4 5 2 2% 3 43 7 8 52 64 1 1 7 2 6 3 6 3 4 2 78 4 G 2 4 6 2 02 2 4 58 1 7 1 2 2 2 62 4 0 6 3 1 3 4 9 2 % 54 8 58 94 1 1 72 6 3 9 3 4 1 2 4 2 3 6 4 9 5 9 14 2 0 8 7 !2 5 1 1 3 2 6 4 3 6 3 4 3 2A 7 5 9 1 34 2 0 9 3 3 3 544 z 1 1 72 6 2 6 5 2 m 4 2 12 4 8 09 3 0 3 4 7 1 7 1 2 7 4 2 2G 9 5 9 4 64 2 4 6 1 1 4 4 1278 7 1704 2129 5 2555 2981 .LL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA C 5/16 P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I ‘ / ~ 8 2 5 1095 1460 1 2 2 12!320 53285 9 3650 54 1102 1469 1 8 6 2 2 2 5 74 29383 33050 3672 1108 1478 1 2 2 2 53325 1 3695 84 8 7 29564 1 1 5 1487 1 2 2 63346 3 3718 04 1 8 5 9 ---.4 6 3 7 7 03 3 1 4 4 8 59 4 17 1 73 7 ? 1 2 2 1 3 4 5 6 3 4 9 0 2 5 6 3 3 4 1 9 1 1 7 3 7 2 2 2 6 2 8 4 63 4 2 0 13 32 5 4 0 31 8 9 J/4 ZE % ‘3/16 I 2 I 15/16 I 1 I TT 1443 1451 1459 1467 I 0 4380 50 4 4 3 10 7 60 4 1 20 4 1 4 1 7 4 1 7 4 1 8 4 8 4 2 8 5 2 8 5 + 15 01 2 24 1 11 6 5 4 4 7 9 3 3 5 9 5 9 5 3 4 4 5 3 7 9 7 3 4 0 5 4 i 7 9 9 95 4 34 0 1 1 5 4 04 3 0 6 5 4 64 5 0 0 5 5 04 3 4 47 9 4 05 8 5 1 14 755 3 4 35 3 1 7 5 4 1 5 06 2 5 6 6 = 7* 6 8 2 5 46 1 : 25 6 5 0 2 55 8 17 1 m 5 83 7 7 5 5 3 9 7 5 5 02 4 8 3 8 5 5 7 9 0 3 4 4 42 4 6 m m p 7 4 5 1 1 0 5 4 5 5 7 7 5 15 9 4 3 5 5 6 8 0 5 1 7 5 5 5 4 8 8 3 5 25 9 0 5 5 1 4 8 6 5 2 3 x 3 65 8 9 6 5 326 9 6 6 85 9 2 5 63 6 0 6 5 9 05 9 5 3 5 93 7 6 0 35 E 9 2m 8 3 6 4 55 5 53 7 0 1 6 1 9 6 75 5 84 8 6 6 0 4 3 1 481 2 5 214 91 6 25 1 0 5 8 75 2 0 7 1 0 2 1 5 2 1 5 5 4 6 7 0 8 9 9 47 4 a 5 4 1 5 83 5 6 3 3 9 2 7 7 6 7 6 5 5 1 5 2 56 9 6 9 6 6 7 96 4 9 6 9 61 5 5 9 9 5 5 8 2 26 1 3 1 5 6 9 0 ~ 2 2 4 8 5 1 6 3 0 4 4 6 7 2 5 5 6 6 7 6 6 1 9 8 86 3 0 3 6 2 8 5 6 9 8 6 006 9 1 2 3 1 99 ~ 6 1 3 7 19 3 4 2 5 53 27 6 6 86 2 0 39 5 7 9 9 9 4 7 8 6 2 2 2 0 6 5 8 4 1 0 5 6 6 2 9 8 0 2 3 4 4 5 8 6 36 6 13 8= 5:6 5 6 8. 6 6 2 26 2 8 5 5 6 1 5 2 6 9 2 57 0 8 5 8 3 % 8 4 7 G 5 0 6 6 7 6 6 G 5792 6238 6684 7129 I 181 ] 1367I 1822 i 2278I 2734 I 3189 I 3645 I 4100 I 4556 I 5011 * 186 186Y? 187 187X 188 188X 189 189fi 1 1 1 1 1924 1935 1945 1956 1966 1977 1987 +1998 2406 2418 2431 2444 4 2458 4 2471 2484 4 4 2497 2887 3368 2902 3386 2918 3404 2933 3422 2949 7 3441 2965 8 3459 2981 9 3477 2996 9 3496 5 2 0 8 + 5 9 9 3 1 6 4 i -9 2 1 6 9 9 $ .3407 3t 4 1 7 1 2 2 5 7 2 8 1 2% 1 5 3 5 4 9 3 3 7 4 8 8 2 9 5 61 ”12 i 17 ] 22 11 5 4 79 5 85 12 301 2 15 1 3 3 444 36 4 4 B 4 4 17 1 73 7 ” 0 2 2 1 3 .410 W .3 8 3 0 5 8 9 1 2 6 53 51 1 8 6 91 5 9 6 6 4 6 5 21 9 9 5 6 3 2 4 0 7 41 = 84 a 1 7 36 8 6 9 0 6 2 4 6 6 06 5 6 6 3 1 9 9 3 9 6 7 5 9 : 1 .

411 W ILL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA K 3/16 ‘A 5/16 ~% 7/16 C P WEIGHTS IN POUNOS ‘/2 ‘/16 5/8 ‘ ‘/16 3A ‘3/16 ~8 ‘5/16 1 .

. 1 . 5 9 0 . . . 42 . 41 . 3 9 . 8 . 4 . . 4 4 8 7 59 1 . : 2 7 . 5 7 5 . ~2 . 4 1 . . 0 0 0 1 1 1 6 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . 2 2 23 24 2 2 3 3 7 0 4 7 0 4 7 0 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 4 1 5 . 1 7 . . 1 9 7 . . 21 .8 A 1 R 3 S .6 36.2 3 254 7 9 1. . . .1 34. 81 6 1 8 6 3 . . 6 . 0 9: . 4 8 8 43 09 3 3 . 3 : .3 1 . 3 8 0: 5 0 2 13 14 9 . 0 1 . 1 4 . 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 . 91 8 . 3 1 .4 1 2 W W Length U Inches B u a et h a D i e a rh n xn d ie ap a o Bm i eI % % s i qh ug s o p o d1u t n t o ne 1 8 1 4 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 rc l n es d 0 n s n s h f te % Y2 9 2 1 8 2 47 1 2 54 5 2 62 9 3 3 3 3 79 97 0. . 3 2 3 03 3 53 4 94 4 35 4 76 4 17 4 57 4 08 . 4 . 1 . . 5 3 B 8 a .1 1 3 3 4 : 7 5 3 6 4 9 7 . 91 31 61 01 31 401 . 49 8 3 4 9 4 0 5 33. 2 229 47 . 6 0.1 2 246 3 8 01 4 .0 9 8 9 :5 9 . . . .5 1 4 . 8 8 . 20 21 . 3 3 262 1 : . 2 . 0 6 0 9 1 2 2 5 2 8 3 3 3 3 32 72 13 64 :4 5 8 76 16 67 :8 8 89 20 01 93 74 55 .5 . .5 ~ 1 . .6 4 89. . 6 .5 78. 2 . . 0 1 2 237 58 01 4 . 7 6 9 .7 8. 1 44 0 . 4 . . . . 4 75. 4 7. 12 . . .1 .6 1 1 1 :6 1 . 4 . . .3 03 3 78 48 3 9 . 3 3 271 5 . 1 . 12 . 5 8 1 9 : 7 3 0 : 1 2 2 3 8 4 5 5 5 5 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 3 6 7 8 9 1 % 1 4 1 7 1 0 % 61 2 . 8 1 .3 8 9 1 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 5 7 9 1 5 9 3 . 4 5. .5 2 9 5 5 . 1 2 n Si f 4 5 5 0. .8 . 3 . . 212 . . . 9 .1 0 . 0 .7 1 2 213 16 . 5 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 .4 1 . .6 6 30 7 6 8. .7 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 Per Inch \dditional N 1 8 1 1 1 . 1 3 9 2 42 2 7.2 2 3 2 93 2 64 2 35 2 05 3 76 3.01 2 0 2 40 2 81 2 11 2 51 2 82 2 . 22 5 22 6 32 7 32 8 6 32 7 42 7 4. 3 6 0 4 7 1 5 9 2 6 0 3 7 1 4 8 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 .2. 31 1 6 9. 9 7 3 . 11 7 . 4 6 9 7 2 8 3 2 9 :1 1 11 41 71 01 41 1 7 1 1 1 7 . 6 0 . .i nHn u Ae i NI sx 2 h da B1u t e 8. 61 . 22 . 3 1 . .9 1 . 3 7 1 . . 51 2 . 91 1 5 . . 5 . 3 7 53 3 1 :5 5 3 4 . 61 . 1.5 8 7 .7 8 09 81 62 43 35 16 97 7 . 6. 1 206 0 . gsd o t n This table conforms to . 0 .0 1 . 4 9 4 9 4 9 5 0 5 1 6 2 . 61 . 7 .1 . .5 1 3 1 . . 0 9 7. 2 221 26 .0 1 . . . 81 4 . 43 . .7 . 32 . . 4 4 77. 7 1 . 31 12 91 6 .3 1 . . 31 . 61 . 9 72 429 7 52 8 52 9 :2 0 12 62 2 73 3 83 5 83 7 93 03 1 . . 6 6 6 29 6 80 6 80 5 42 6 .2 37. 51 6 6 6 6 79 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 I 90 \: 3 6 1 8 1 1 % 1 1 % 1.5 B 0. : 3 74. 4 2 1 . 1 . 22 32 . 2 . 1 . . 42 . 4 32 . .

2 b b 5.2 4 0. 3 0 57 .0 05 . 9 6 1.4 46.7 0 . 7 0 18 .3 1. 01 . 02 . 3 3 4 5 9 0 1 6 4 6 0 3 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 1 6 5 4 7 3 0 0 0 2 8 3 6 1 9 C 1 RC E O U W P EL D I 2 3 6 l l 00 00 00 .4 3 3 1.413 W O NOZZLES W A W i ( N eN l tF d Sa el i h R aen I i c n n g P nf g ok r c e ia n d g fT Q a R ue b o f i el r ec n r c k e ) S 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 CLASS 150 Y 6 9 1 2 4 6 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 300 11 2 12 25 4 7 1 1 0 2 32 264 316 63 8 72 0 1 84 600 13 15 4 6 6 5 1 5 1 5 1 4 5 2 25 3 85 5 75 6 11 9 108 1 9 3 900 1 2 4 7 0 120 0 27 5 38 0 56 5 71 0 99 0 1 3 3 8 2 1 4 6 8 3 1 1 0 1500 18 3 7 0 0 1 250 365 675 955 75 65 5 7 5 9 5 4 1 NOZZLES for Quick Reference) S 3 4 6 8 C 150 2 4 7 1 1 2 2 4 5 7 1 300 4 6 1 11 26 44 59 84 1 4 1 0 1 S % 6 6 5 1 2 22 1 39 0 5 75 6 05 8 26 100 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 8 900 771 1 07 2 00 4 11 2 6 1 4 96 1 1 9 1 0 2 0 2 0 5 5 N 1500 1 12 36 65 1 6 1 6 0 0 0 9 G 2 6 2 8 1 S 3 1.

e 3 m r % M i n 7 o . .o u N m%ni 1 ce .414 WEIGHTS OF PACKING P S C % % % % ~ x x 1 1 l l l 2 3 3 4 T T S d 3 c o ah n f d et 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 % 6 n tr e s e ae cl o d hi n t o ei m t rc U aa eS t S l ut r ho e C n e w f ea 4 5 5 6 6 5 I E oP Cu Fnu e d bo s i o r c t R Z A S R EC H I I G N P RG A I I L N N TL A C A R B AM R B N R C I E C L AO S N I C A EO R B S E L T S A T L T OP E N 1 9 7 1 6 5 9 3 7 6 4 % % 2 2 x 3 3 6 3 6 1 7 2 7 5 4 4 7 3 . 4 72 7 6 5 5 4 w e o h ic 1t C 0e g a s h ri e t t p bse e ro cf o e n e o n tm lt a e g n h S e t t aa e ilf n rs l o1 5e p A 2 % l pl 0 u.0 8 4 8 h o o t iet v . . 4 05 7 4 . FOAMGLASS M G F F w m e O I L F A M NW E A I G L RO A B S A S LO S E S R L 9. 1 c h od a eo s i j e a g n eo i v c s r ae a il 8 s g t st n d e w 0h f e l we i d cg % hs c aha k t et a lt b i f n s n m . 4 3 2 45 2 2 2 3 8 3 2 3 6 0 3 4 3 0 1 5 3 4 5 2 2 2 4 9 1 2 9 4 1 4 . 1k l e 5r WEIGHTS OF INSULATION P C A LS C I O L I PU C N IU C M A U FD E T S BO E 1 I R OC 2 T . ho go ri s b d t ee u d r e sc e . 4 67 5 7 .

......g ... ........ ~ .p .. n.3 ......c ..o...e .... 2......... ....... ...... .............r . ... 6 1....... i.. 8 ........ .85 P h o a s ........ .... o 4s e 0 1 n E e .5 T e .... ...8 m A l p c o u h o l r ...... . ... ..l a gl. ... .................... 5 3 e to 7. .a n o tl..2 ........... ... .. ...k B c r o .. ..6...... .... . .. .................. t e e 1 r S ...... ...... .. .2 Cadmium......... 6.......... .... r m t l a9 nd e ( s en t )j :7: lt : : j ..... 2.... i...... jo ..... .... ” ” .. 0 3 .. ............. 6 Mica..... ..... ... .... ....... ....92 T a ....... .......... ... 6 ............. .....6 S ................89 C C d a i s u l r p h i d b e ..... .. ......... ... ........ i ................... ....... c .... 2 3 ..... y .....c7 .T ...5 ..... ............... t Iridium.. I s o ......... . 9....y .. ...... h a l t ... ....e .... ..P ........70 Earth....3 o n .... i m o.. . 1..... ...... ...... ........ ........ ....0..e ..3564 Air. u ........... 2 C .. 22..2 l.......... ......0..... .42 C o t to . .. c 8 t 1.... ..............78 Cyclohexane ..... . a W s a . .8 ...... .1 0 . A. .......... 2....97 Limestone .. u m .... ............... p r r i 7 e c s 9 k s e . n .0 .............. ....94 Emery . 0.70fjrl Sulphordioxide ..0 .............. . . e . ..... nP .o B ........... o ................... t . ............ ..........0 e n t a [ s o . .. 1.. xa .. 8..... .k ..............l .. .. .........).92 Sandstone Slate....... ..l 9a 2 s2 s M e( Fr ... ... .. ...............9 P l ...0 . ......... ..... .. .......... 1........ . .. h” ....... ....... . Magnesium.........l cB ..................... 2 5 Tin.r ... 1.. i.... ......l....... ....O.. 6 0 ... ..... tO ane 7 ........ 0.... ..o n. ........... .. r 9.n .0 M a n ..... acid . t ......... . ..6 u m ... .... ...b u t a N .... .0 n t a N .. .... i... 6..... .... ....0 l......... Coal.......... ..... 2 0 6 Gold......... ..... a 2n i 2 0t e M o l .. ...... ..“ ... eP . ...i . .................... ().. .... e ...0 h e x a ........ . g a n e 7 s e . 18.. .bituminous ........... h .............2 ......... ... .06 l c o m h ..8844 Asbestos.0. .. . 0 . . p e ... i 7 n ....... ....... SPECIFIC GRAVITIES METALS 62°F........ 2 4.. e ........ .b .......... .. .. . .h .. ... .. .. . ....0 o d i u ... ..x.. 2.. ......... ..... ”1r0 ” ”u ” ” s ” e .......... ... .....c a s tr.......8 N NitricAcid ...... .......2.........e ... 3. .....r . 7 ....................... ... ....... ........2 . 8 . z.o...... o x. ..72 .. . .. 2... ~” a... ....!.. ............. .. n .. ... .. ........1............ 8s a t 1 r 7e r i T i ...c .........0.. 7 ‘ ....h l u r r ..... 4...... ..2 . s ........... Pm 9 p h c o 1 r iM i c ....... 19.... .. 0 Whaleoil 4 c .. b 6 4 .2............ S ...7 .0. S... 0..... ....5 ......0...2 Lead. ....... . .5844 ... .... ...... .....2 I -w r r . .. ...... B 8 r 7 6 5 r9 C 2a C 3O C 4O C 5O C o1 A s p.... ... ... j j Cobalt..... . ... .8 ... 8 g .. ........ e...... 2.. t.. .. .... .... ....... y b d e 1 n u M m 0u a c ird . ... .... .......8 GASSES32°F......... ......b . ............. ........0 Propane ..... ~ ... ......... .... ..n6. ..648 C a . ..h y .... ....... ..0 ..0... 8...... . i l 1 v0 ...2... ... . n6 ... 2......... ~......... 0....... l ..50 Ice . ......... n .. t 7 .4 Nickel...a ..... 7.......... .. . 3 7 l i i 0 v I e s. ............e.............. 11..fjz3 Antimony ....... a . ...d i m e t ...... . .... .r.. .S .. ... ... ..... l 8........... . ~ ” ”5 0 ” 0~ ”~ ” 4 ” ................60 ...z50 Aluminum ....r ..... ... a.............. 0... ........... i.. e 5 ... ............... 3 ...... .. . .............0..... 9 . ...... .... o .... .........7536 SOLIDS Barium ...... .. . ........ ” : ” + < ”2. ya d. . a t i n2 u 1 m ......... 4 .7834 MISCELL~NENJS Bismuth .n . ............. .........0 0 . ”p ow ............... o .. .2 . i a .............o.....l.... ............. ....... ........ a ...° 4. ... ..2..... 2.. ..~ ~ o~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ t [1~”~ ..... ......76 h Gypsum a ... ..... ... ....... .....5077....z0.. ... . . 9.........s 0 e i e C d .Z . x .. .............................. ......08 1 ..... 3 ....dry.... ......535 Benzene . 6 .. 1 Taprock... .o u.. m...... ........m e t h . 0 B ............ e .......ON Soapstone Ethane .... a.. 1 ...... ........... l l u r i 6 u Sulphuric m ........... ..7 . .7 W .. .... ........ ................. .................... .... 6 6 ma 6 ..... ........ . ... 8. ... s d 7o n 28r y Steel ......................0 h .. s ................... .. ....... -... a ... c fire...... ........ ........0 ............ ......i c ............. 0 ................. .. ... n ........ . . ......y ......... P o t......... . C . .n e n .... . 9 0 1..... .. .......7..t 7u . ..781 Methylcyclohexane ............b u ............ ............0 ..... nC e n ... . .... .3 C h ... w a .. . .... t . g 1 s -t e 8 1 n .... .... .... a s s 0i u O . p h t 0...... . ........ . ................ .... .......... .... 0 . Charcoal... . . n...... . A.. n .. ......... 3... ..... 1.. M .. .......... .................. .... ha.......... “ ..... o .. ..... 8 6 A .. ........ .87l8 .............. .. .......... . . ........ 0 ...t 1 ... s .. e .... N-octane . .. e ...... ....... ...................m o ... io ....1 .........1 ..... . . e ..wa e t .....0 .............. a ... 4 4 L I 6 Q F U I 2 D S ° c ...... .a ..y .. 9 Bromine .... ..d i m e t h y l b u t a n....................% . 2. 7 7 . ...... Toulene. l . 6.a6 n... ....... ... O....... 2... ..r8 ..r.....d 1 ....... ...... l . ...... ... .... V a .............. ...a 0 c k3 r ............. ........ ..... .. ....... ... .......... .. 7r L i o n s e i e d l ..... l....... Sulphur ... e 4 2 r....ho o 0 “ sc :p......... ....... 0 ....... ............. .... nd .. ................G ......... . ......... n a d i 5....... 6 3 3 1 o .. :Z. ...... . .. ............ ........ ..... a ........ .. ..3 Z ... d H ...........o ... Z .. a x H ....pd d Vinegar Quartz.. ..342 K e ....... 8.... l c i 1 u ~m . 2 2 ..... 2 d .... .. n t a l 1 u Rapeoil m 6 ......... p..1 .. 9h a r a 1 l3c i .. .e .. ....... ..n .............. 8. ...... . ........ .... ...... N .. ......... 5 .... ..... G .. 3... 8 7 0 Palmoil .7501 Water vapor . r . t a n i 4 u Tm u r o ................ .. e... Z ......... . : ........ . . . 0. .6 T u ....84 Mortar..... Copper..n . e . .........618 Methylcyclopentane ....... 1 . 7p e 3 h 0........... .... HYDROCARBONS 60/60° F......50 Concrete G a s o l i n e .....................m e t h ..r .. 1 6 0..... . ................. . 9. e . . . o ...0 .. ....... .~ N-butane .. ........ ...........70 Cyclopentane ............t. . ... e ..Fluoricacid 0n h........ r ........ ..... .....71 a a cr i d ..... 6 8 8 2 .. ” 1 ”9 ” . ....... ..... 0. 0......... r o1 l 2 e 0 i u Mm .... 2....... ...7740 “ 2 Boron . ......3 I . B o r .... 0 8 9 4 2 0 i a .........c 0 i0i Brick.......... ........ 3 l ......... .. ... ... ... . ..d i m e t h y l c y c0 lopen .... ... .. .5O77‘cetY’ene ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~„ 0920 ~~~bituminous ...E 3...... ....... r o m i6 u m . . .8 1. o........... Uranium .....

00 31.7 211.1 259.95 1o.49 2.98 1.66 0.6 8.37 27.25 0.3 19.58 37.5 4.9 5.1 1. HEAD* Cylindrical S1-iELL/LIN.6 0.85 7.9 335.04 5.5 86.3 7.6 6.9 55.9 78.6 350.94 14.2 67.5 174.8 47.12 1.84 11.29 w o Water lb.40 8.87 8.4 162.11 11.4 523.9 211.2 38.6 95.3 72.5 268.4 112.0 80.3 56.7 23.74 0.7 63.00 20.46 40.7 9.93 18.416 V I.3 95.47 0.0 744.67 89.00 9.27 26.1 3. 0.FT.5 647.40 1.08 0.8 2.5 3.71 2.30 0.30 18.7 155.4 11.9 413.3 33.9 177.4 13.5 376.53 6.32 17.9 58.6 70. 8.5 44.1 7.87 0.6 23.6 15. 0.83 9. 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 Cu.14 0.1 0.23 122.3 0.3 601.2 4.8 839.0 94.8 1.4 1. of Vessel S A H 2:1 ELLIP.8 28.9 44.14 Water lb.6 1021 1360 1765 2244 2802 3447 4184 5018 5957 7006 8171 9459 10876 12428 14120 t *vo]ume within the straightflangeis not included .3 35. 0.99 15.9 65.36 0.88 5.91 3. w o t .3 4.00 23.24 2.9 19.27 41.14 0.0 2.26 1.62 13.5 248.3 21.5 302.91 6.50 20.1 Gal.5 979.0 Bbl.2 1134 1303 1489 1692 Bbl.11 103. 0.4 713.23 5.53 0.2 130.19 0.5 27.42 16.2 50.1 226.44 0.86 1.9 330.63 0.0 119.31 0.9 220.47 31.0 36.0 1.4 0.02 0.9 777.44 15.00 1.50 4.0 103.06 0.04 0.0 424.9 16.2 287.19 0.0 846.56 0.2 190.8 28.6 32.7 4.55 2.9 530.12 2. 5.31 27.2 Gal.35 65.8 127.57 22.9 8.Ft.24 0.3 1.0 146.9 8. f in.32 3.30 4.98 19.76 0.0 185.0 10.7 710.03 7.17 12.9 113.4 475.96 12.2 16.0 3.03 35.2 587.37 83.6 12.55 1.33 12.6 3.9 151.2 52.09 36.8 1.83 50.2 0.7 41.39 0.11 0.8 5.7 2.04 6.Ft.D. 0.2 2. 49 67 87 110 136 165 196 230 267 306 349 394 441 492 545 601 784 993 1226 1483 1765 2071 2402 2758 3138 3542 3971 4425 4903 5405 5932 6484 7060 Cu.83 3.1 501.98 62.99 1.

19 ~ 0.83 7.60 75.66 3.70 11.88 1.74 55.33 *VO1umewithin the flange k not included .96 5.12 0.61 9.26 1.50 38.80 110.7 441.6 229.87 28.5 261.5 398.16 75.1 171.65 0.10 20.25 5.56 56. i n Gal. Cu.Ft.88 62. 7.7 826.49 0.60 23.07 12.09 4.33 7.22 16. 0.35 97.8 325.67 19.83 12.0 160.86 6.86 32.07 8.HEAD* G-d.34 25.5 117. 12 ~ ~~ 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 3’2 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 0.07 15.07 0.30 54.7 130.94 1.02 17.2 843.11 4.9 1100 1391 1775 2216 2649 3249 3799 4590 5257 6065 6773 7915 9214 s 16.82 1.71 7 I V I .36 22.37 0.00 28.65 22.07 12.58 0.62 0.51 52. M S HEAD* E A H HEMIS.22 0.5 134.64 1.09 0.95 38.3 178.34 0. 0.30 1.73 43.07 6.33 19.57 wt.95 7.26 0 0.03 0.60 37.32 108.08 17.02 0.55 0.49 51.4 309.49 40.00 39.9 224.19 72.23 0.56 42. of Water lb.53 83.08 13.29 0.10 16.5 244.07 0.47 0.81 102.63 34.88 1.55 71.05 0.33 31.4 134.4 13bl.40 101 132 167 213 266 318 390 456 551 631 728 813 950 1106 Bbl.65 0.11 0. 1.91 1.2 207.0 147.09 2.06 1.64 6.08 0.98 4.14 44.15 0.63 53.96 1 3.91 80.27 I 0.21 9.2 519.86 13.92 24.21 1.04 2.0 537.7 166.12 15.8 423.70 12.20 0.00 2.00 19.48 1.98 46.2 452.29 10.76 10.59 0.33 4.41 3.8 303.06 70. .6 191.73 0.88 30.38 0.9 628.14 3.88 2.7 127.8 671.80 3.1 348.78 4.8 190.12 7.15 68.42 0.80 16. 0.50 0.1 319.7 1046 1489 2043 2719 3530 4488 5606 6895 8368 10037 11914 14012 16343 18919 21752 24856 28241 0.54 ] 17.31 9.32 28.30 1.16 0.12 0.96 73.40 80.0 605.2 1003 1203 1428 1679 1958 2267 2607 2978 3384 of Vessel !.62 26.98 62.05 0.07 3.47 35. of Water lb.75 3.15 2.98 5.61 2.9 371. .Ft.10 1.14 60.83 .30 14.6 255. 0 wt.76 23.54 52.3 700.67 23.66 84.73 2.37 0.68 5.29 0.45 2.80 2.9 i 4. i Cu.1 454.90 89.14 8. A S DF &D.97 125.30 10.00 27.66 100.57 9.

055905 .029481 .072147 .58915 .223507 = 1053.114646 .061449 .155779 .5 .267578 .262863 .141361 .076393 . Proceed to the right until the coefficient is found under the column headed (5) which is the third digit. Oin.’21 .014427 3 4 5 6 7 8 .10 .18 .317016 = Liter COEFFICIENTS H/D .152659 .098638 .75/10= . ft.004773 .140345 .030772 .00s742 .103275 .0598!50 .101414 .o~4496 .174825 . ft.028842 .27) in the column headed (HID) in the table below.165233 .004421 .022703 .173753 .264039 .123382 .043129 .111773 .067147 .170546 .198814 .018141 .7854 x D2 x L Find the partialvolumeof the cylindricalshell Totalvolume: 0.22 .066323 .078975 .5501 .022115 .070469 .138320 .261687 .lh~~ig .266397 .000600 .144419 .107973 .4 X .112728 .199922 .135296 .001445 . The coefficient of 0.108920 .080709 . multipliedby 28.12831O .100486 .000151 .O4241O .17538 .1.254652 .071307 .134292 .036789 .05 .223507 Total volumex coefficient= partial volume 4712..5’2315 .l&5639 .001692 . Gallon cu.25CU.19.133291 .122403 .275 Refer to the first two figures (.105147 .012920 .046782 .180212 .017593 9 . Oin.275 is found to be .038867 .24 .062253 .023894 ..149554 .00 O .043852 .02095.119477 .30 .018692 .032081 .1845.028208 .005503 .089545 .095884 .026331 .ft.013417 .31 .265218 .086866 .009625 .063062 .166292 .7854 x 102x60= 4712.50 1 2 .093153 .15 .049017 .23 . ft.063872 .s7 .046043 .039569 .079841 .036104 .075539 .059054 .067972 .269942 .75 ft.08 .154737 .032740 .159963 .120450 .191102 .127321 .019813 .192200 .4 cu.271126 .023296 .049768 .5347 .058262 .004077 .047523 .088650 .256992 .480519 = U.051283 .181294 .083332 .273495 .099560 .000ooo .25fj165 .187820 .202141 .145443 .164176 .035423 .153697 .000429 .272310 .132290 .033405 . TOTALVOLUME:0.085094 .163120 .418 PARTIALVOLUMES IN HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS t t o Partialvolumesof horizontalcylinder equalstotal volumex coefficient (found from tablebelow) 3“ EXAMPLE ‘E HORIZONTAL CYLINDER D = 10 ft.1.z68760 .034747 .143398 .025715 .124364 .052044 .055126 .04 . cu.054351 .044579 .041694 .148524 .17 .167353 .087756 .16 .030124 .130296 .109869 .176976 .168416 .260512 . S.015459 .069633 .156822 .094061 .137310 .175900 .2.146468 .008310 .12.129302 .006267 ..026952 .113686 .078112 .147494 .104211 .012432 .092246 .25 .157867 .131292 .259338 .001212 .253483 .274682 .255822 .07 .197709 . H = 2.0203g2 .169480 .050524 .186729 .110820 .’201031 .1060.06 .037478 .188912 190007 .09 .007886 .oo~223 .040273 .115607 .084212 . multipliedby 7.074686 .139332 .118506 .053579 .002800 .178053 179131 .010534 .102343 .196604 .20 . L =60 ft.121425 .096799 .19 .203253 . Coefficientfrom table: H/D= 2.

903201 .522914 ..345799 .9~4~(jl .35 .95614S . .38 .3~~8~l .409904 .64264] .446587 .MM645 .944874 .888227 .435178 .382274 .332678 .951732 .421261 .5(j5~ .872679 .912244 .Tii .8985S6 .42’2.5 :35.518!) .873667 .301O2I .473269 .923607 .819788 .41~42fj .S38987 .~j:]$.5 1 li900-K\ .50..%5:{532 .897657 .346220 .959019 .659946 .9095.882462 .966..953218 .716987 .608956 .482176 .706207 .842133 .470725 .597 .961829 .’296198 .549606 .597650 .+19998 .533090 . 4 5 6 7 8 9 .55 .3697!)0 .960431 .X8918(I .433911 .383526 .901362 .74417X .91 .92 .8. .5 .881494 .X16537 .939352 ..~~147(-j .R20N.5635 .7S779.708969 .79 .) H/’D O 1 .52506 .308545 .5633 .86470’4 .319219 .805600 yoml .844221 .309492 .33.703802 .718180 ..7418 :)5 .x4 .559754 .5~o~69 .956871 .90502!3 .320439 .459283 .!302283 .7.43137s .!-)15788 .630210 .883428 .728874 .914906 .922749 .558486 .(351 310 .534362 .284207 .:16108’2 .2!3M5(i5 .Q~~~$~ .283013 .:]8102+ . .77 .507640 .~74’21i .929531 .488542 .863698 .WvW2 .886314 .708610 .57 .597 .876618 .372282 .861680 .502 .937747 . -.61 .349926 .967260 .952477 .892027 . .394S08 . .610210 .8:17934 .562288 7 .893913 .968576 .X11(-M .601423 .S57622 .51 ..406125 .348690 .343751 .5114.831584 .869704 .63.51 .867710 .739488 .87857.919291 .576212 .X5965.521642 .~ .4S5995 .508913 .511s 1 .767356 77876.858639 .39 .950983 ..730058 .71.S .949476 .277058 .310705 3~1660 .’294995 .mOOOo .647598 .9 .910455 .928693 .371036 .714599 .362325 .925314 .877.59 .!-363896 .fii .906847 .5.2S1820 .895789 .4:12645 .393.571154 .498726 .458012 .892971 .916668 .684434 .418736 .%23024 .’W7X(XI .~%547 J9674? .679561 .347455 . .3449%5 .37 .5134 .962522 .896725 .76 . .727690 .450394 .H62690 .336363 .5 .447S57 .905939 . .93~0~8 .931198 .501274 .6!5501.841(R5 .622725 .935313 .497452 .(WI .944095 .437712 .84X37R .520 .X43178 .x3 .825175 .914021 .954690 .5 .583789 .%+27 .776493 .28659/3 .s .506 .i94.814361 .871690 .847341 .891080 .:3~532~ .445318 .813271 .469453 .874653 .81 .x~731~ .940150 .:: .7.3314.801 1x6 .672226 .(.927089 .7! Ui(ii4 .936128 .S08XW4 .572418 .36 .55 .817622 .959727 .399834 .5 .866709 . .561021 .82 .763909 .740662 .940946 .58 .958306 .856602 .2~()&?7 .494906 .945649 .285401 .313134 .!)41738 .3082S0 .70 .77.596392 .936938 .460554 .832647 .397320 .797859 .297403 .753.%54557 .483449 .547068 .585051 .56 57 .333905 .536904 .588835 .4719!97 .691720 .(icl 6.933677 .835824 .8:~~i08 .947956 .%51476 .702.jl i .595 .!%5253 .948717 .5.71 .384778 .524186 .Iii .53.484722 .91135o .918419 .463096 .548337 .419 PARTIAL VOLUMES IN HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS COEFFICIENTS (Cont. .66 .553 .56119 .812180 .921025 .76.887272 .90 .965927 .947190 .407:384 .311918 .846303 .396063 .4~.496179 .58 .S:30.868708 .943312 .768.5793 .3YI104 .:{74778 .7X .9.920159 .359840 .5421 .638918 .3872X? .84941:1 .307068 .444050 .358599 .963211 .52.3.50 .927853 .5 .667322 .510186 .900440 .80 .696562 ..61397(I .!)07754 .357359 .884393 .%)6741 .X18706 .475814 .821947 .59 .s~~387 .7627X+ .

97 11.!)7 .!KX)O(M.985573 .7%3 .97.9(.!-)4 ( /1 2 D3 4) 5 6 7 8 .!)98788 .!?99212.976106 .998048 .!3!)3340 .!)!W.980750 .9778%5 .r)xiotu) .9!39400 .989466.5~~~.98401.9!)’2114 .) H .5 .996896 .977’297 .990375 .997?00 .9S:34S.999721 1.!)XS().974897 .98 .9s6. 0 0 0 0 ( M ) .974285 .Wmol .999947 1!) .985060 .979618 .WM530 .995923 .979045 .!)76704 .989924 .!)96581 .978467 .999849 9 .997493 .980187 .994966 .997777 .99I‘2.00 I .973048 .504 .5 .!)98:30s.!)70.!)!)1(}90 .Wii.9!)6257 .5X.420 PARTIAL VOLUMES IN HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS COEFFICIENTS (cont.999571.994119 .!l(}!)Kifi .!)82407 .{}!).5.wlw!) .!)w2.96922S .5.5.579 .!13 . .5X .YI.5 .990%21 .ww .993733.971792 .994497 .992939 .5 .972422 .!)s1:{0s .986081 .973669 .99 .!)!)5.982!)48 .95 .984541 .5:{() .

) L * .421 P A R V T O I LI A H U OL MR IE Z C S O Y N L T A N I N L D E R S ( p e r R c een o lt D aa gi t e at i Vmo oen t l eu f r m e .

.021390 .24 . ft.0 Two 2:1 Ellipsoidal Headson Horizontal Vessel Total Volume: 0.137.020916 .008129. .003006.002308 .0009~ .024847 .00085T .00066S.m~~ .01 .ms:~~~.S.004672.01!3620 . ft.09 .001993. .006691 .009377 .506 CU.000583.009057. ft.000075.0000oO .006968 .5 .001069 .142969 .27) in the column headed (H/D) in the table below.025879 .75/10= .000108.001844. .150663 .001304.185281= 48.8X .0033R9 .00753S .000191 . Find the partial volume of (2) 2:1 ellipsoidal heads of a horizontalvessel. .4 2 2 PARTIALVOLUMES IN ELLIPSOIDAL HEADSANDSPHERES D I 0.000242 .Oe.027462 . The total volume of the two heads: O2618 XD3 = O2618 X 103 = 261.019069 .0944 D3 O.000760.141883 . .u Sphere Total Volume= 0. .004444 .05 . Oin.019983 .002646.023336 .00379.008742.140799 .~~szs .026402 . .144059 .5 .ooOOM .275 Refer to the first two figures (.032473 .04 .006-i19 .000298.01 lM7 .WMN15 .08 .010368.03 .021869 .ficientfromtable HID= 2.0195~:3 .006153.0031%.0017m .317016= Liter COEFFICIENTS 1/D . .020447 .146Z18 . .06 .018176 .031897 .0243:]S .022842 .5236 D3 2 3 4 7 s 1 9 5 6 O . .003589.004zzz.oao360.000003.10 QAQ Two 2:1 Ellipsoidal Headson Vertical Vessel Total Volume= 2.025360” . multipliedby 28.010709.9719 14!)554 .029642 .00 .00’2143 .2618 D3 Partial volumesof ellipsoidalheads and spheres = total volume x coefficient (in the table below) EXAMPLE: D = 10ft. Proceed to the right until the coefficientis found under the column headed (5) which is the third digit.Gallon cu.185281 Total volumex coefficient= partialvolume 261.002474 . The coefficient of .026930 .00.0004Z9.008433.031326 .~~lz .022353 .. ft.028000 .02 .ooO02i.480519= U.033053 . .75 ft.028542 . cu.011764.00514~.275 is found to be . . .030760 .01105.030198 .001431.029090 .145152 . H = 2.007250.001184.023835 . multipliedby 7.~503 .8 CU.148449 1:18042 1:.000146 . .009702 .m15G~.56S .010032 .147347 .5638 . . .005893.OM’831 .

35 .59 .188S82 .161912 . .272240 . .627728 .596951 .453560 .876096 .630637 .395686 .199827 .677957 .763541 .201031 .526988 .697579 .931392 .327703 .835802 .921425 .346250 .73 .885225 .370817 .157376 .604314 . .408954 .201056 .623356 .522493 .908171 .571779 .720976 .854848 .692~4 .781474 .63 .598425 .712776 .292727 .899811 .403049 .704512 .376644 .656618 .369363 .397157 ..768711 .54 .323456 .329122 .594000 .928954 .313597 .734497 .60 .284484 .50 .870906 .479005 .809912 .605784 .634993 .559872 .800173 .176974 .468519 .689207 .287224 .902631 .755720 .561362 .549428 .288597 .446093 .254826 .632090 .495500 .614587 .61 .912685 .753096 .78 .933793 .174626 .573265 .167648 .693400 .552414 .537469 .39 . .41 .437148 .579202 . .653750 .435659 .~fj~lgz .766130 778940 .:{4 .516 . .42 .588089 .164198 .43 .568805 .31504)1 .525490 .711403 .714147 .203<522 .179334 .905418 .5281 .567318 .447586 .777669 .510499 .56 .935373 .820666 .491000 .824201 .696188 .586610 .880187 .458044 .378103 .302421 .769997 .862432 .523992 .570292 . .938483 .88S206 .919708 . .5 .866695 .707273 .930584 .83235’2 .32 .897913 .903564 .727760 . .4970W3 .716884 .76 . .330542 .353441 .917976 .78.708652 .465524 .540461 .336235 .443110 .414870 .74 .599898 .81 .936157 .187679 .860281 .683594 . 0 . .507500 .37 <38 .547934 .558381 .307996 .467021 .305205 .645118 .77 .503000 .786515 .607254 . f .474510 . 4 .294106 .555399 .349122 :363557 .291348 .808704 .420798 .528486 .356325 .595476 .19615.375185 .71 .843750 .894073 .27 .2084s4 5 .85.626272 .690606 .757029 . 9 .668037 .882213 .673714 .33 .602843 .486501 .492500 .610190 .450572 .391278 .556890 .3fXM61 .326286 .535972 .686403 .715.511999 .441619 .400102 .404524 .680778 .878148 .501500 . .747823 .426735 . .624815 .482003 .929771 .531481 . .5S5130 .452066 .849337 .911790 .5 .407477 .285853 .483503 .166495 .751781 .319222 .618976 .190088 . . .228718 .928134 .506000 .922277 .494000 .918844 .8z .784000 796478 .767422 .344815 .15625(3 .750464 .395413 .863502 . .17~~~9 .289972 . .867753 .925648 .639339 .322043 .550921 .821847 .529984 .601371 .283116 .40f3000 .886222 .853752 . .564341 .9369:36 . .331963 .381024 .53 .392746 .665190 .538965 .324870 .760943 . 1.703129 .648000 .611656 .257483 .382486 . .857031 .388344 .84 .~0599~ .70 .~:]1289 . .887216 .462531 .75 .913576 .461035 . 6 .21348.456.797712 .834655 .488001 .464028 .872992 .476008 .40 .514998 .926481 .57 .850446 .532979 .743846 .705894 .2097:30 .184086 .845994 .58 .372272 . .66376.633542 .874030 .434170 .93771’2 .416351 .729111 .17.93~19f3 .662338 .423 P H/D .29 .534476 .915348 .341950 .52 . .780208 .165345 .582167 .431195 .655185 .357769 .401575 .386878 .432682 .296871 .594r . . .218526 .884224 .629183 .210979 .516497 .339090 .520995 .701744 .517997 .51 .44 .5259 .2416CA .449079 .90449:1 .694795 .317813 .422281 .591046 .871951 .232578 . .5 .773843 19792 .583649 . .909082 .910891 .473012 .920568 .725052 .637891 . 16!I!W3 .428221 .900755 .676544 .617514 . .917103 .684999 .891155 .672297 .379563 .359215 .844873 .730461 .519496 .859201 .851551 .270889 .366458 .811118 .544946 .764837 .893104 .682187 .413390 . .865634 .738516 .640785 .343382 .197377 .608722 .660910 .36791O .163054 .362109 .666614 .80 .580685 .352000 .354882 . .295488 .861358 .620437 .347685 .417833 .309394 .28 .58956S .258815 .901695 . D COEFFICIENTS (Cont.509000 .303812 .79 .423765 .72 .613122 .642231 .459539 .504500 .56 .896958 .306600 .848226 .55 . .62 .477507 .312194 .’212231 .389810 .577719 .20228S .36 .726407 .675130 .498500 .927309 .373728 .5X5(X3 .383949 .337662 .546440 .18.513499 .776396 .649439 .340519 .852653 .934585 .687806 .543451 .652315 .198601 .906340 .350561 .670878 .923126 .398629 .429708 .898864 .864570 .500000 .869858 .739851 .621897 .679368 .659481 .881202 . 1s1705 J937Z() .1734.553907 .541956 .549 .650878 .394216 .754410 .576235 .737178 .334810 .741185 .565830 .26 . .83 . .742517 .186479 . .168804 .419315 . .31 .646559 .) O 3 .574750 .616051 .723695 .812321 . .281750 .299643 .923971 .562852 .333386 .833505 . A 1 R V T O 2 I LIN ELLIPSOIDAL A U L M E HEADS S A SPHERESN 7 8 .444601 .787769 .1781.64 .489501 .823026 .298256 .877124 .316406 .698969 .890176 .914464 .480504 .410432 .895038 .658050 .896000 .310793 .214741 .892131 .798944 .5799 .411911 .365007 .53 .438638 .643675 .907257 .883220 .636443 . .909988 .710028 .700357 .592523 .191’296 .244280 .669458 .320632 .875065 .471514 .

. .{)7 .9{19143 .j .99769z .!)s35.!)s47!)1 .!)(jtj%li . .99062!3 .54 .WW9N3 .J71 .!)!)S1.9!). . .9!).!-)9s816 .j .567 .001 .!)H96:{2 . 1 .!XI1871 . 1 . .9S920 I .!kl:]i(j-! .l. .9~yyj7 . .!)93:. + 6 7 8 9 .l .998931 . .5:VZ3 . 9 .f)SS2:3[i.50!).!)X1:{S() .9973 .!):. . . . .50{)4 .S(} O . .!)9.70 .s47 . .!)~I$J24 . . 1 .f)~~~(j~ . . .!)99809 . .{)8. .997SS2 .992462 .!)!)9240 . .!IWLX(). 1 i( . . .9s71 .56 .9w:J32 .9!W943 .992169 . .091.9%{126 .9%S94.9!)S007 .526 .998:300 .~)f)(j~ofi .98996S . .-. S .{ \ i .!)S7S74 .!)!) S4:17 . . .9X6374 .94 .!)99040 .986757 . .WXWIX).WXW54 .!)S5986 .q~om)~ .5 . . .j:j.999(L!O .!)4 .997177 .!)!) :.!)S()()17 .OS~~(}~\ .9S:N69 .993. .f)(j:l . .q~ .581 .!)-ll. .!10!)!)73 .gj . .!)(j(j:](j~ 1.q~ .\.) H/D .9!W. .5S.424 PARTIALVOLUMES IN ELLIPSOIDAL HEADSANDSPHERES COEFFICIENTS (Cont.()()(XM)O .5778 .!l.5. .WLHw .56 .999417 .999497 . 1ti.!)%359:.~\)4107 .5.53J .!J7!J.J)9~750 .!194S.999997 .997.{)6 . . .WJ9:1 .5 .!)S0477 .<)~. .56 .999702 .!)96994 .~q. . . . .!J9W’5S .9!)1’2.Wl!lfi!)ti .99 1.09 .!NW89’2 . .994(jlj .999925 .!)!)ti~11 .9s7507 . ..-)O1 .9!)3032 .!)S0!):11 .9!)(X311.999952 . 2 3 4 5 . . .9S3L94 . .

. 5 1 . . 21 . 1 . . 20 . . 7 . 4 . 77 . . 0 1. . .0 8 . 5 10 . 32 .3 6 . . . . . 1 21 1 46 1 61 2 87 1 3 0 3 27 4 42 5 68 5 83 6 08 7 23 8 49 9 64 1 . 1 . 56 . 1 70 . 04 6 1 9 1 1 2 23 36 38 41 52 55 67 70 83 9 . 20 . . 5 1. . . 17 . 7 65 . . 89 0 0 4 2 2 8 4 0 6 2 0 3 5 7 1 2 7 2 3 8 9 . 8 0 9 . . 3 0 2 20 . . 0 . . 4 . 1. 7 . 1 . .9 7 . . . 50 . 10 .x D) Di n h e . 19 28 24 35 42 56 6 6 72 82 91 16 15 12 13 1 . . 49 .9 3 . 3 55 . . . . 1. 1 . 0 1. 2 . . . 14 . x 59 D 2 8 71 X . 28 .0 7 . . . 2 0 1 4 5 7 71 0 . . 0 0 5 9 90 . 6 . 1 0 1 84 2 41 0 . . 1 .425 A * O D u a S Iu e a er n e t fc i t l f u i d o tgeh t u d ) ar n hb ee sl ( S qF o straight m r e isnot e i an flanges r i c a lA : S M 1 eE H m W s l tC y s l i i nd d 2 e F i d i d S l l il p F s l ol ia a d anp l gh n e i a m eperht eE e r e r c H e a s eh e ea d a d d Lineal Foot H e D a iH d H* of Vessel 92 8X 0D 2) 7 ( 1 0 x D ( c n. . 8 3 5 9 0 0 7 1 0 6 10 . . 1 . . 0 4 9 4 0 6 3 1 9 8 7 7 8 0 1 13 44 8 0 33 71 32 80 54 12 88 68 42 . 20 ~ ( ) . . 9 2 6 0 5 1 6 3 0 7 5 1 3 2 2 4 2 5 7 2 9 2 5 7 1 6 9 6 7 8 6 0 6 8 6 0 8 6 0 9 1 2 2 3 4 0 5 0 7 8 9 5 0 5 2 2 .5 2 . . 3 . . . 1 5 1 7 5 3 2 2 0 5 8 . 6 .0 5 . . . .4 17 . 30 .9 7 . .0 1.7 3 . 35 . 1. . . 9 . 1 0 . . 7 70 . . . . . 2 . 0 50 . 35 . 2 1 5 8 9 2 35 85 33 89 43 05 64 32 07 80 62 50 7 2 2 3 8 4 6 4 9 3 0 5 1 6 2 9 2 8 4 7 8 2 8 8 85 32 8 . . . .1 1 . 20 .) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 0 1 2 4 5 7 8 0 1 3 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 6 7 . 10 . 02 15 14 17 26 20 38 32 40 46 5 . 3 . . s D 0( ( .0 6 . .1 . 10 . 8 . 1. 2 . 5 . 60 . 40 . 9 1. 0 1 1 . 10 6 9 1 9 0 23 5 21 6 .0 4 . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .D W D g : . 2 . . . . 9 . . ~ 1 1 . . . AF 3 . . . 5 . . . . . . 10 11 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0000 ~ ~ . . . . . . . . 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 . . . . . . . . X . . . i 2 I 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milli- m 1 1 1 1 1 l Decimal M . . . o . 6 . I9 1 1 . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 2 D INCHES In. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 . . . . . . . 1 2 I M II L L I TEMQ EU T H I V E A R L E N T S Milli- e ‘ c meter i 9A D m ” ea . . . m 7 7 8 9 cl i i Decimal a -m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . 5 6 . . . . . . . . . .

h o u h .Thefractionsandmultiplesoftheunits are made in the decimal system.km MEASURESOF LENGTH UNIT: METER.310 cu. 1000 gram is one kilogram. U unit O M meter meter2 meter 3 gram second degree Celsius M symbol m equivalent of 39. m z Z ~ 1 centimeter.yard 0. a l6 3s i a r n e d s l i o n e r m c d D h k M c k 1 1 t l 1 g 1 i i i a o o a m l t .000m= 1 kilometer.Eachquantityhasonlyone unitandall baseunitsare relatedto eachother.196 sq.035 Oz second O“C = 32°F 100”C = + 212°F Length Area Volume Weight/massl Time Temperature MUL~PLES AND FRACTIONSOF UNITS S y m prefix b o m m c d d h k m i i e e e e i e k n I l Unit Multiplied by k n ]r 1 1 t 1 ( o I ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 N i.427 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT This systemhas the advantagethatit is a coherentsystem.lm .1 kg 1. u n d2 1 t e t 0 h u n 2 t h o 3 u m i l 6 a EXAMPLE:Unit of weightis gram.37 in 1. mm = 0.yard 1. dm = O. cm = 0.01 m gs ~ ~ 1 millimeter.001 m *not used in practice I *1 decimeter.

m2 T LLJ < ~ 2 o+ ~ -J ~ L L o r ~ *I sq. cm2 = 0.000 g = 1 quintal.001m3 0.000 g = 1 kilogram.428 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT 1. dg MEASURES OF WEIGHT UNIT: GRAM.000. kg 10 g = 1 dekagram. g centigram. centimeter = cu. 1 = cu.01 m2 1 sq.001m2 i p r a c t i c n e MEASURES OF VOLUME UNIT: CUBIC METER.001m3 1 g= 1t t G 100. cg = 0.()()0.01 g milligram. mm2 = 0. centimeter.000m2 = I = I = 1 a* MEASURESOF AREA UNIT: SQUARE METER.000. dm2 = 0. q 1. decimeter. millimeter = O.000.001m3 0.lm~ 0.000.001 g $ ~ I ~~ ~ ~ 1 L E o~ G ~ ~ -J &L . mg = 0.0001m2 1 sq. hl = 1 liter. m3 1 hectoliter. millimeter.

6 102 . meter. m 31416 kilogram.m 1 0 .4 10-2 10 1 10-5 10-3 10-1 1 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-’2 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-3 Cg 108 107 105 103 102 1 10-1 mg 109 108 106 104 103 10 1 EXAMPLE CALCULATION Weight of the water in a cylindrical vessel of 2.9 1 1 1 m10 m10 10 m 0 1.416.416 liter. kg (The weight of one liter of pure water at the maximum density (4”C) equals one kilogram.0002 x 10.5 1 ..s 10.1416 x 1. 1 31.1 0 .4 1 10 p 1c 1m I 1m 1 1 1 1 0 1 p 0 0 0 0 3 - MEASURES OF AREA k h m a 2 a 1k 1 ha l 1 m 1 1 1 1 1m 10 0 10-’ 1 0 1 1 01 ’ 1 1 01 201 4 1 .6 0 0 2 4 E 3 m 3 0 2 0 0 R O EL S c U M F m 1m 1 hl 1 1 d 1c 1m 1 10-1 h 1 1 10 d 3 m l m m 1 33 0 0 1( 0 0 1( 1 2 1 32 1 0 0 3 6 5 3 1 1 1. 6 1 20 1 0 1 0 1 m 40 0 20 1010 0 1 6 4 0 2 0 m 1 8 6 4 0 4 2 0 1d 1c 1m 1 1 1 1m0 1m 0 10-10 0 m M 1 a 21 0 1 0 1 0 .s 10 .5 1 1 0 -8 1( 1 -3 0-6 1 3 0 3 0 -6 3 3 t It lq 1 kg 1 dg lg 1 Cg 1 mg 1 10-1 10-3 10-5 10-6 10-8 10-9 MEASURESOF WEIGHT dg kg g ~ 105 106 103 10 105 102 104 1 102 103 10-2 1 10.8 10 .) .000 mm length: 3.9 1 0 .3 1 . . 8) 1 0 6 -1 .1 1 0 . A O S LU c m R E mm EN S p G mm T F H m m k 1 km l ~ m 1 & 1 1 0 1 0 .429 4 M S M E d O M .416 cu.000.1 z 0 . 1 0 .000 mm3 31.21 1 1 0 .41 20 .000 mm inside diameter and 10.J 1 2 0 . 41 2 .2 104 1 107 m1 0 .6 10 .5 1 0 1 0 .8 10 1 0 ] 1 z 0 .000 = 31.6 10 .3 1 -3 1 0-6 1 0.0 (1 1 11 2 0 21 0 E A O S VU 1 1 3 1 1 0 1.4 .

00 6.00 50. 1:500. 1:100.15 4.600 2. i The n National g Board t of Boiler and Pressure * Reference: M Vessel Inspectors.50 40.00 80.30 8.called Renard Series(R1O)of PreferredNumbers.The symbolfor millimee n r n ib e s o o d he o t )d o r da w Hw h t o ei n t w n fg e n oe sv l .00 5.00 31. 2.00 The recommendeddiameters are based on a geometricprogression. g Scales @Metric Drawings: enlarging the object. 1:50.150 1.000 Diameter in inches 66-72 78-90 96-120 126-156 Diameter in millimeters 1. 1:5.000 2. 1:20. 1:200.50 16.00 25.00 Diameters in API feet 70-80 90-100 120 140-163 180-200 220-240 260-300 Diameters in meters 20. 1:1000 a i with k Metric.00 63.500 3. 1:10. 5. 20 times reducing the object in proportion of 1:2. r el h r o ters.250 . . Diameters in API feet 10 15 20 25 30 35-40 45-50 60 RECOMMENDED TANKDIAMETERS Diameters in meters 3. mm (no p s D i b hs m o a h t ea n s 5b di do l a . w m r w l aA h w e D n i I n M n g L E e s N : A S II O M LN I L S R L I M E T EE o ii o n m s ig lv l i m i e m t e a tx s ep yri n rs m ee b t s ese 1r e s 1 d m ( e 0.430 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT RECOMMENDED PRESSURE VESSEL DIAMETERS Diameter in inches 24-30 36 42-48 54-60 Diameter in millimeters 630 800 1.00 12. 10.5.* Dimensionson drawingsshall be expressedin millimeters.00 10.

431 1 I 2 0 v i I 1 .

’32 .

433 .

434 .

435 I I t I t I II I I I I II I .

436 . II 2 I t II I II I II I I .

@ r.437 I Oulclcnm -me -F I 00 - r 4 m ‘]“ T ‘“ * A G - - c i 0 - 0 r-l 0 w) 0 e 0 0 0 0 w.m m 0 0 .

438 — h — — — * — m — N — . I 1 .

439 t i 5 .

440 1 1 r t I 1 1 : I I I . .

89011 79 0.0174533 0.5759587 0.73303 83 0.85521 13 0. .50614 S5 0.4886922 0.3490659 0. .10471 98 0.3 .0872665 0.62831 85 0.4537856 0.3316126 0.4188790 0.8377580 0.55850 54 0.47123 89 0. .8726646 0.69813 17 0.06981 32 0.6 57 58 59 70 71 72 9 0 73 6 2 74 4 4 0 .4 .80285 15 0.1221730 0.5 .3141593 0.7504916 0. 2 2 2 4 8 3 1 9 7 3 9 4 0.9250245 0.01229 2 75 6 2 76 7 2 9 77 6 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 ’09 ‘lo 135 9 136 S 6 137 0 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 1s3 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 4 7 — — — — — .9424778 0.6457718 0.715S850 0.09773844 0.59341 19 0.6632251 0.366S1 91 0.7853982 0.01745 RADIANS ec so 1 1 — 0 2 3 4 0.95993 .6806784 0.0349066 0.1396263 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 i2 .7679449 0.4363323 0. 0 0 5 6 7 8 9 [0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 .54105 21 0.9 .0523599 0.2 .8203047 0.3839724 0.9075712 0.99483 77 1.4014257 0.6108652 0.5235988 0.441 CONVERSION TABLE – DEGREE D D e E w 120° 121 122 [23 [24 125 [26 127 128 129 130 131 9 132 5 2 133 8 134 6 1 7 2 0 GT e R e A E E D s — M o S I i A n N O uS ~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S te 0 0 1 DEGREE = + = 0.

4 0 5 1 r 8 a 4 03 d 0 r 7 a5 6 d 0 r 0 a1 ”6 d 7r 0 6 s 2 a1 ’ 6 d ag 2 nr o lm 5i 4 a 3i 1 a 4i 8 a 4i 3 a s e v e 8 . h 1 a . . d d 2 eie 6 o l Fu t t i r ao a n bo :b a = . 0 r .3 1 f 5 1 1I 8 2 O 1 E 1 X C S A M P L E S o h 8 a2 3 n t 7 gr. 4 I 0 8’41”. 5 O010‘!8 1 I1 O 00 0’41“.r n 5 a t g. 5 5 d 1 i4 2 3 5 01 8 4 00 2 3 0 0o 4 8 6 2 5 2 6 2 a 47 n78 2 8 5 7 0 1 26 31 71 6 ” ’ ” ’ ” ’ ” ° ” =2 8 = 8 2 2 4 °4 ’ 04 ’ . . 0 .9 6 2 3 00 6‘52”. = = .4 229010 ’39“. . 75 . n n n n e o s e 0 t > ° 4 30 6° 30 ’ ’ s s s s ~ 2 C S 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 14 6 . .2 114035 110 27‘33“. .3 1043 ‘Q7“.442 C R 1 R R a d A A =~ D n T D T I 5 = D I A 7 – D A E G N R S E R 7 t E O 8 E S E S Ten- .6 171053 ’14“.6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ’29“. . 0 = =0 .N D 2 E 9 G5 Thousandths i Tenths a iiundrcdths s 1 2 ’ 5 ’ 6 o ~’ j O0 0 “. O 1701 I ‘19“. 6 ea 4 d ° i ’ ”a o n l Fu t t i r o o a on p o :b p ol m s a ei tn ge 8 26’ 3 3 = = = =7 1 0 0 .

0 0. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 :: 56 57 58 .01667 0 0.7500 7667 7833 8000 8167 0.. o 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 0 o 0 DECIMALS OF A DECREETO MINUTESANDSECONDS ‘ “ o“ o 51 52 53 ‘ 30’ 30’ 31’ 31’ 32’ 33’ “ 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 0 0333 0500 0667 0 o’ 028 056 083 111 0 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.i: 16 17 18 o.9 722 750 778 806 0.1: 46 47 48 o% 0 18’ O“ 18’ 36” 19’ 12” 19’ 48” 20’ 24” 21’ o“ 21’ 36” 22’ 12” 22’ 48” 23’ 24” 24’ O“ 24’ 36” 25’ 12” 25’ 48” 26’ 24” 27’ O“ 27’ 36” 28’ 12” 28’ 48” 29’ 24” 30’ 0“ ‘ and “ 0.: 41 42 43 0.01250 278 306 333 361 0.01111 139 167 194 222 0.9167 9333 9500 9667 9833 1..5833 6000 6167 6333 6500 0..5000 5167 5333 5500 5667 0.} 13 0.% 91 92 93 0.% 10 20 30 1.: 86 87 88 45’ 45’ 46’ 46’ 47’ 4.6667 6833 7000 7167 7333 0.% 60 70 80 2. 4333 4500 4667 4833 0.% 21 22 23 o% 26 27 28 9’ 0“ 9’ 10’ 10’ 11’ 12’ 12’ 13’ 13’ 14’ 15’ 15’ 16’ 16’ 17’ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0..00833 861 889 917 944 0.:: 36 37 38 0.8’ 48’ 49’ 49’ 50’ 51’ 51’ 52’ 52’ 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” O“ 36” 12” 48” 24” o“ 36” 12” 48” o% 31 32 33 0.01528 556 583 611 639 0.00 009 o’ o“ O.00972 01000 028 056 083 0.8333 8500 8667 8833 9000 0.32 96 97 98 1.443 CONVERSION TABLE – DEGREE MINUTESANDSECONDS TO DECIMALS OF A DEGREE .000 0 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 :.01389 417 444 472 500 0..% 0 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 :: 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 % .1667 1.% 76 77 78 O.’b 81 82 83 0.: o 54’ o“ 54’ 36” 55’ 12” 55’ 48” 56’ 24” 57’ o“ 57’ 36” 58’ 12” 58’ 48” 59’ 24” 60’ O“ 66’ O“ 72’ O“ 78’ O“ 84’ O“ 90’ o“ 96’ O“ 102’ o“ 108’ O“ 114’ o“ 120’ o“ ‘ and “ .?) .005 250 001 002 003 004 o’ 4“ o’ 7“ o’ 11” o’ 14” O’ 18” 0.:\ 36’ 0“ 3’ o“ 39’ 0“ o% 6’ 0“ 0.

444 + ‘mIwl o & o d- . .

445 .

............ .. ................. :ubic feet ........... ................ x 2 8 fl 0 8 e& 3 e2 n t ........................................... ....... ..... .......................... ... i m e t e r s .......... ....... ............. ...... ... l ... ... . a ... ..... ........................ ....... ............. ...................... ........... .... .... .................. ....... ............................. ............. ... . .......... .................. ....................... ......... ........ ................... :ubic feet ............ .. ................ ......... 3 9 3 7 n t ........... ................ ............ . ......... ...........446 C ( c c e e c F o Fn fv ea m or cs e t i t se o r t o n t a or itnh S sn dm a g s e r hd yert s st r A e t f ie E e f1S3 c m 8e ........... .................. .... .. .. .................... ................. .................................................................................. ........ ........ .............. ... ..... .................... ............. ...... .............. 0 T M U L T I P L Y B Y B T A T O 3 ... ........ .............. ................. i m e t e r s ............ .. ....... ..... ..... ............. ....................... .................. . ............................................. .......................... .. ................ ............ ................. ....................... radians ............................................................... . ........ ....... ........ ........ ....... ... ......................... statute .......................................................... ................................... .... ........... meters meters meters ........................... ........ .......... ....... ...... :ubic feet ............. . ........................ ........................ ................. y .............. iters .... ..... ................. .... d ............ ................................... .................................. .. ....................... ....................... .

..... Beam Formulas............................................................................ DesignofWelded Joints .............................................. 452 4...................... DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES 3...... 461 7..................... Bolted Connections........ 455 5.........447 PART IV................... CenterofGravity .. 458 6.............................................................................................................. ExampleofCalculations ....................................... 463 ................................

Q BENDING -Y s = . in2 S~ = Allowabletensileor compressive I =Moment of inertia. psi s TYPE OF LOADING stress.67I2 = ! . in-lb M* = Allowablemoment. tensional load is: Area. 1=42. in3 EXAMPLES p-p J . The required area of bolt made from SA-307 B steel to support a load of 15. si S~* = AlIowa t le bendingstress. (psi) S* = ~.000lbs. 1= 10.:i..67. s~~ = Allowableshear stress.L.67/4 = 10.psi A =Cross s e c a t i i r o n e n a sl a 2 . S = $ = 5~~0 = 10. A = 2 x V4= 0. Y Z = Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber.000 p s s~ s . P A+ COMPRESSION P A. in compression.psi. ~ = Shearstress.000 X 60 = 60.*~51’~~o~=0.000 lb. and d=4 axisof moment on the base. TENSION . Z= I/y = 42.in-lb P =F o lb r c e .4 ..000 Ibs. PA = Allowable force. bar made from SA 285-C steel due to 5. (psi) mm Section modulus d If dimensionb =2 in.psi AR = RequiredcrosssectionalArea.67.75 in’ > J2~ P/2+— Q Double SHEAR P[ A – p (in2) 2ss~ M = P/ (in-lb) MA = ZS~ (in-lb) M (in3) zjQ= sr-- The maximumbendingmomentat the 60inchesfrom the support: sup ort of a cantilever beam due to a loaJ of 1. Z=Ily = 10. lb =Tensile or compressive stress.5 inz s~ .psi. p ( .000 Ibs.448 S A S F T DEFINITION OF SYMBOLS s~ = Bendingstress.000 in-lb.67 in3 axis of moment throu h center. acting at a distance of M =Pl = 1. in double shear: AR =~ = A 2s. in = Section modulus. = $:in21 s = + (psi) PA = AS4 (lb) p (in2) AR = — The stress in a 2 x % in. m A p Single PA = AS~~ (lb) AR =$~~n2) s~ = ~A(psi) ~P P = 2AS~~ (lb) To support a load of 11. ..5 in2. in4 M =Moment. the required area of steel bar m f a S 2r sd 8 io t e 5 e m p s ) ~i > P AR = — = E = 0.335 in3 z=~ b u SECTION MODULU s y .

600 psi (using leg dimension) same as fillet weld i 1. tensile .TEEL Bearing Shear Compression rension (except pin eonneetion) Bending ~hear Bearing (on projected area of bolts i s W E oh c J L o e n n ea c t n i r o TD N E STRESSES ALLOWABLE STRESS SOURCE CODE 1. shear on throat 2. s t r American Institute of Steel C o n s t r 5 e n g t h O D S EI Full penetration groove weld tension. compression.600psi (using throat dimension) 9.80x 1 tables UCS-23 0.66 x 0. tension parallel to axis of weld or compression on throat same as for the steel welded American Welding Society 13.40 x n ) T 1 x E F L FOR NONPRESSUREPARTSOF VESSELSANDOTHERSTRUCTURES UCS-23 Notes } Specified minimum yield stress Min.60x The values of 0. Plug or slot weld .60x 0.60 x 0.600psi same as for the steel welded Fdlet weld.449 A TYPE OF STRESS & JOINT . tension transverse to axis of weld. shear Partial penetration groove weld 1. shear on throat 13.

D . . I= .707 I Z =(0. . .408d A = Y= ~= ~ + + r = 0.: ... :: . . I= Z = a 2 Z = 0.: .S77 d . . i s t a a n [ ec i ’ . E& Z = r = 0.....577d A = h “~~ . z =n i ’ A = bd I= b f = Z = a r = 0.289 1 y 1----1 a a r = 0.118 a~ r = 0. : .289 a r = d A = I = Z =~’– Z = / \ /“ \ E!h ‘ ‘ I A = bd - a — K a b — ~ a :“.:. .. . —’:” .. a . ~~ :’ “i Y y = Yzd I Z – d u k b L a \@ ‘= A = ‘~ bd A = az . . :. - Q ..”’ Y + b2 r = 0. ~~ = e n a Y =.289 U2 A = a y = 0. : y = .289 + w A = ( b ( +4 a +b 1 ( 2 a a a y = Y2d Y= I = 1 I= Z= r = 0. .. ::.- - P D E F I O Y T I MO SR xx e f t i i ir n A = A ON S I i zr 1 = B N O I J F j r Radius of gyration.118a’ – 12 -r = 0.289 d - Z = r = .

...: fj Y z = r y = != ... ~ + 7 1= IGi 1 = R’( r z = R’[ r r = O.:..-...:.h (b – t) Y = Z= d r = 0. ...451 P D A O SR T Y I M O N Br z O c x f { ii r be .. in..:. .. / f w u r = e f n n R Y S c A = [ eo t c w t h ai ol‘ i n l y wl R i 1 nh d e e r0 ~ .. - . :. d I= Z = 0. :~.:..........:.... .:. .132 E s d 6 A = Y= I Z r A = y = i = [bd’–h’(b–O] /12 Z /4 = bs + h( ?.:. y = ? .:::.:...:.. Y .. A = Y= d I ~ L a i 5z = r ! 3 A = bd . :.098(D4-d4 )/D r F L ® + ..:: ::::— b—t) dA = 4 ~ .. A = ~= : ~– [ i = -(a z =I E = F I O N SI z .. :. + A = 2 1 : i ~ .. ..: ..:... .4 A = . 1 = Moment of inertia. . O = LF S Section modulus...... . b – ((l?d + a)+ dz > 1 ...........

Determine the center of gravity of the rectangles and determine the distances a b and c to a selected axis (x – x) per endicular to axis y – y. and calculate the areas of each. -i o s x -+A. a n B= gr l 14 s e sf : and C= 12 square inches and for the distances of center of gravities: a = 1. The center of gravity may be determined gy calculating the moments with reference to two selected axes. (A. 4cj- hc t f . To determine the distances of center of gravity to these - Y h c1 . ccl+ 1 . y = 16X 1+ 14X5+12X 9 = 4462in. e For arqas w c n h symmetrical .circle. (Axis y –y) To determine the exact location of it: 1 Divide the area into 3 rectangles . C) 2.=3 ~ = 16x 4+ 14x 1+12x 3 = 2. Calculatedistancesx and y by the formulas: e t i ( c \ .etc. : b. gravity 3.. b = 5 and c = 9 inches.t bl. t n a c y – e s x iy 3. x I Y -+ . Calculate distance y to rocate the center of o r m u l a : by the f y = Aa+ Bb + A +B+ C A s sf u a mo rr i eon c e t g Aa= 16. rectangle.71 in. (A.g” ~- b a x Y EXAMPLE #1 The center of gravity is located on the centerline of symmetry. B. areas ass uare. coincideswith ‘he center of gravityof symmetrical 1i h geometrical center of the area.=1 5 = 4. C) 2 D a d t t e c r me o ig hn .452 C G E ‘ center of gravity h of an area or e body is the point through which about any axis the loment of the area or body is zero.‘A Y x x = AuI +Bbl + Ccl A+B+C y = Aa+Bb + Cc A+B+C P A a L c b x 1’ t a —al Y X A# M E and c. ac. a x e s : 1 Divide the area into 3 rectangles . and calculate the area of each. x t%e s al. . 16+ 14+ 12 The area is not symmetrical about an axi:s. a o or whichare r e t Ymmetrical about one axn only.r o e ta r e v e eli r d i sn a t hb aa n c t c a de x es na. B. the center of gravitymaybe determinedby calculation.62 in. y = 16X 1+ 14x5+12x8 16+ 14+ 12 16+ 14+ 12 s sf u a mo rr i eon c e g t A a= 1 a n B gr=14 l s e sf 6 CE 1 s n qi2 u na f a c dd = r ih 2 s n oeeto a s n e o g n r a a t= v 1 ibe=t c= i r 9: e sf 4. If a body of homogeneous material at the center of ravity were suspended it would be balanced in all directions.. 25 Y I c C.

PART OF CIRCULAR RING b from center of gravity to center of circle is: b = 38. l e s e s e sd n } •ir o h FRUSTUM OF CONE For a solid frustum of a circular cone the formula: a = h (R2 + 2 R + 3 rz) 4 (R2 -i.6366 r r b 1 C l=$kl R r SEGMENT OF CIRCLE The distance of the center of gravity from the center of the circle ~3 r3 s a i n is: b = — A 12 A = 3 in which A ==area of segment. r sin a b o! ‘T E a d e e s g s r e sed of i w Ah = i sector. c n ih e x p i r For the area of a half-circle: b = A r + 3 T = 0. ln e e l o t i th f i ym s n n is pn i he don e dg i c 1 = ~ (a + 2 b) ‘D m 1--- f! J-- IEd 3 (a+ b) a + e = ~ = h (2 a + b) 3 (a+ b) 2 b a + ) 3( rA a T /< 4 @ b SECTOR OF CIRCLE Distance b from center of gravity to center of circle is: 2 rc = r2c = 38 ~g.4 C A O G T T w f t ” T T p R c I E r h \ A \ E a L B ‘ c A N G L E e o g hn r i a ta t e v i e n itr e t rh of sly e AD c itsa it e o nn e BE.6o02r F t a o ao srh o a i c e irx er a t c f lh ef : b = 2 r + T = 0. c e ut Hence. h l a ra = ha+ 3 o t .4244r For the area of a quarter circle: b = 4 & X r + 3 T = o.Rr r2) T l o o c t h ac P t e oi g o h en r n o tta by: – r c v e f eo isr nh tu f oi y a r R + c f f frustum of a cone is determined 3 I * d h( 2r ) a – 3 (R+ r) . r h e I Br R A P E Z O I D D 7 c e o g hn r i o ta t v el e ji r a l r AB a i l DE.197 ‘$~$a & h A a in e x gpi r degrees. bh the i isides s BC c eand A h c The t p e r Cp e n d d ii c .s u l t a t cr e o\ g o hn r t any ta m v e of e the i r sides t is f y one equal too t hh p e i e h ri p r e gn t d t i h side.

7 14 8 0 1 ( 0 0 1’ J 9. x 7 o O O 0+ ’ X1 0 + 2200.700 46. 7 Ibs.880 X 2’ + 1800 X iO’ + 800 X 102’ + 600 X 2’-6” + 600 X 97’-6” = Ibs = 50.760 78.017. q 17000 lb 1400 lb 1 l 9 x 2400 x ~’+ 24000x 27’+ 100ox 49’ + 1 = 4 7 7 1 0 .4 C EXAMPLES A 2r-o”- O G E 1 1 -o = 0 0 I ’ “ I lb lb 80 Ibs 75000 Ibs ’600 Ibs b x I 2’-6” 1800 lb 600 lb 78880 lb x= = 75000 x 50’ + 80 4.900 =—= 47.935’ = 50” – I 1. A[ weight: x .1/4” B I 108’-0” t’ 6’-0”– 5’-0” 42’-0” (24000 Ibs) ~ 2’-0” I 56’4’)” (17000 Ibs) 9 2’ * 2400 b 1900 lbs s & = 1000 Ibk + t .14’ = 46’-1] ’16” .

= ~m 12 = = M — x t 1E 54 = w= WI 3 At free end. lb.b) At free end. Cantilever fixed at one end . e c n n . at t a ra X a n oo f m io l e r n c n t x b e= fD . Arnu = $& Ax – 312X + X3) t =~ 6EI ‘2’3 a P II p . Amu = ~ -j b Whenx>a Whenx<a A = Pb2 (31 _ 3X – b) AX = p – ‘)’ (3b – I + % x 6 E R = V = Vx = Wx Wi 3I E Cantilever fixed at one end – Uniform load over entire span R A support. = P t When x>a = – a) Y Pb3 R (31 . i . l14max = ~ — W12 t Mx= ( !– 4 4 + 1 At freeend. o c o o n r c le ncl t or aeA t ae f dD b de f i . P X = 1 x 1 A free end.4 B D E r I F T Y I M O ! O O W’L F = S load. O = + — Z2EI . V v w e = = = E = = = = = F I O N SI N B P= R M F u n i d fi o s trl r mi b l ou y t e n i lcx l e e i l p s . A W13 W12 A a= & & x () – x 1 xr free end. = l.Concentrated load at any point R= V=P b A support. t i o = Cantilever fixed at one end – Concentrated load at free end K R ~ A s u p R V p= P o M X P r = tt = . = 8 W14 A = - 2 E + ! 3 1 _X I E Cantilever fixed at one end – Load increasing uniformly from free end to support R R V=w -+- Vx=WA A support.

456 B 5 F O 1 n x t ’ d . unequally spaced from ends + P2b ~2 = + P2(1. e = RI X n 1 B W x ah e n > but x < (1 . O= — 24EI m . = — t < h W x M 1 e ~ 4 R2 l Ao x < h1 P = — am 4 ‘ ‘e ‘ d ea A 8 /( 1 . P2 V=P cw deo t n hq c s eu l n ot ao er a l qa t s e uddpf a se a l r. c l = x<a h MX= PX e =W a R A center.3X2– az) but x <(1– Q) = ~ At ends.b) MX = RI x – (X – a) ) a both ends Uniformload overentirespan R = ~ 1 = WI - l V=W —-j ( 2 V ) P – 1 ‘ c e ‘ n ‘ W t M ~ ( .x x) e m r t. Max when a >b MX = — e < Pbx a A o. Arnax =~ W x h = — e (3f’–t 4a2) :1 I ’31a – n3a2 – X2} B 1 When X>u AX (3h . 12 RI x P Supported at both ends Concentrated load at mid-span R] = R2 = v = P/2 1/2 P Pl A load.b) RI = V1 = PP I 1 a b Whenx when RIQ1 Ml = RI a = – PI – v but X h M2 = R2eb Max w RI R1 W x<a h M.’ j a = center. e =nx– ~ E 1 B 6 1 W S P 3 = dI 6 E n– 4~ 3 2 X X/ 1 x ’ i —a 1 u p a pb o e r Max w o dn tc e l t o Ce n d n t ta h ra ao spt e d oa n Pb a < b h R~ = V/ e =— A n l o = 1 nt d a RI x m 1 b R2 = V2 = — W x h 1 i 1– b~)s ~ when a > b A rnti = — A l 2 &> 3 ~bx W x<a h Ax = 3(1’ e –n b’ –X2) A ends. 6 = Pa 2EI(1 – a) 8 Supported at both ends Two equal concentrated loads. 91 =– & (2al = + — + $ t - –3a’ ) 7 S u p a pb o e r T o t R e nu d tn a RI x P.Arnu= ~ * Ax + ‘ ’ At ends.

p e = o e ~ r n(lx t – s X2– . W14 = 3 = — (1 .~) x< e> + b) u n = ( – a – t X = hb a ‘b I At x = a + ~ 2W w =RIX When x <a ~ ( I – a)2 When x>a but Mx = R W x h b) > = e( –a n + e x =. = =— 1 x total length or A = .er and M.X)2 Both ends are overhanging Uniform load over entire beam R = V{ + V2 = w(a + l\2) VXI = WXI V. M = A (61x– i2 – 6XZ) .l~lR 2 x F ends Uniform load partially distributed over span’ (2c a< h = e= ~ n + b) c Max w lvlaxwhena~:V W Mmax O =~(2.e~. M = $ t M. d W At center.. \ 8 $ W ~ ‘ M. = W(X– 112) For overhang. 1 = e ~.. B A e s t u wp ~ = = ~ A support. . xx < h A RI a+ X pd a t n P - – F 12 p 1/2 a ib R= o C o en n ct d el n d ta h rm ao s ti e dd a - s $tte.3541 WP M C 6 R. t . RI .IIII1] ‘ R A e M = W/2 V n = x+ = -7 w x( t ) \ / x A 3 I m x u I!! ‘ ‘ 1 J s center.457 B o .. ~ V 2 $ ‘ i \ / <. a’) – 4 x t a a Whena M . (4x / – n 1) = & A = 4 ~ Fixed at both ends Uni~orm load over entire span \ R = V = / II[i .

in. tc a e a e vc t c l e o en t t b r d iri c o ei d at a c y . over 1/2 3/16 3/4 ‘/4 ‘/2 %6 ZY4 % 6 ‘/2 6 5/8 * Weld size need not to exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined Economy of filletwelding 1. For carbon steeI joints commonly used maximum allowable static load 9.458 D GROOVE-AWELD a u Groove w W J FOR STRUCTURALMEMBERS s i a ac a f t m l e t d o t b m t j F g W t s o t FILLET WELD S of w ‘. % w oi d 4 xln 0n e= “l 2 40 “eI lg t d b The strength of the welds is a function of the welding procedure and the electrode used. I-1---J%’ face . the volume (and costs) of it will increase with the square of its size. wi pt lr a el n l st v y e t lef rt st e d o a l hyc r g h r c si o ete e r e a ve o t ne eg tr h / Allowable Load )# x a t a m lp l lo h eo w r a :% a o x b 1e ll ae f . in.600 (9.. 2. lt e a hhat s sp de t r noi a oesn v c i r m i y a pd cl e d oi ns f s in e er d v .707 x leg dimension K root MinimumWeldsize* \ Thicknessof the thickerplate. The size of an unequal-legfilletweldis the shortestdistancefrom the root to the face of the filletweld. A o o w s f p Increasing the size of a fillet weld in di~ectproportion. Throat dimension= 0./ . Use the minimumsizeof filletweldrequiredfor the desiredstrength.c d ea s i i s do li oebw y l n e.. b u e throat The size of an equal-leg fillet weld is the leg dimension of the largest 45° ri ht triangle inscribed in the cross section of the wel8 .. .6 kips) lbs f W er 1 square inch of the fillet weld leg-area. Minimum fillet weld size.w e l d i t i o n . or 600 Ibson a %6” le x 1“ I Fo e C o m L b o i n ae S s h a t e b r e ao e nt n v e c t Io i r b i a ola tl y e m e t h o d d d s s o rd r si s s t niddr o gt e n e sa cr s l cu l e o nsm a t b d r ec ii oo c n am g b s ... L p 3.

000 Ibs. Eips per lin. in. ~ . w = =— f 0. W =<W~2 + WJ2 = d ~ 2 + 0 = v kips per lin.l e eg a rr = B e m n o d k mi e n i ng V e sr th k i ec i a a l r p . The length of the weld is all around 8.25 kips per lin.35 kips per lin.37 Fillet weld size.24. (from table) SW= ~= ~= 12 in’ 9. The length of the weld 12 inches (6” each side) and the load 9 kips. inch of weld w~ = Bending force on weld. $ EXAMPLE #2 Determine the required size of fillet weld.75kips per lin.-rd7 D ~ A W V = J subjectedto bendingmoment. f o 6 wi s k a l e p l li d e nd e a l ii o nw n e ea c l l h t p .AR BENDING RESULTANT FORCE: W = ~W.5 inches and the tensional load 20 kips. kips per “ “ COMPRESSION VERTICAL SHE. inch Resultantforce.2 + W22+ W32 EXAMPLE #1 Determine the required size of fillet weld. w = — =— = . W f = A l l lo o w w$o b9 elk a e p m . in.247”..in2 FOR STRUCTURALMEMBERS = Length of weld. use K“ fillet weld f 9.’ 20 —= 8. s = Avera e vertical shear on fillet s P = Allowable concentrated axial ? w weld. o w 2. use X“ fillet weld . inch Bending Force. inch. W 2.5 A.. 20. -P.= ddL n o p . = F wi l l d eil m e iel n ts i d o l ~i .6 . = ~W= ~ = 0.000 lbs 3’ M 3x9 = 2.. ~ = — 12 w Shear ForceW. & 62 Section modulus.

stress Y --b Y 1-l x s .v b I S ( 1 d ( = t~ b + o p 2 w d ) b ) Y I d A‘ ~ I Y b t x . b + : W d . x + S 0 hi l d 1 dx 1 – x . t -. = —6 d s ‘~ z I S = b W d L — — b iY S ( S— ( d ( =t~ + d o 4 p w m W 4 ) ) 3 b ) b ) dl ( + d o= — t t o 6 x(2b + d) i r — + I I + b x r at bottom) (max. o e m t ) x - SW. ~ d w 2 .x PROPERTIES OF WELD OUTLINES 1 I d2 s.W = ( ( – fm d (2b + d) 2 o ~ t t o m ) ) + a o b a o r xt c t .460 DESIG~ OF’ W J x—.

461 E C A X .

The weight of the vessel is 20...~= %6 h.000 lbs 1 = 120 in Assume pin joint The load on one beam: Moment: I d 10’-0” P M =—= 4 10.000 in-lb l Required section modulus: z=!! S* Assuming for allowable stress.000x 120 4 = 300.1794 in - .000 = 15 in3 20.---= =---.647psi A I Deflection: A A 48EI = 10. A vertical vessel is supported by two beams.000 I The section modulus of a wide flange 8WF 20 is 17 in3 Moment of inertia: 69.000 X 69. = .000.000 17 = 17. SA: 20._-.000x 1203 ~ 48 x 29.000 lbs M Sz=—= 300.2 Stress at the center of wide flange: 10.000 psi..E C EXAMPLE #2 A X I . I : b I : Section modulus: z= 300._= ==------=--.

y 4 z D 8 T S B m 1? l y1 l 4 45 4 8 L /E D y I BOLT HOLES shall be ~16° larger than bolt diameter. 0 046 . 6 . 37 lL o wo a e n s l i o h o w a e a Sb d Da 4 g. 9 2 9.1 3 23 .463 B C FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS REQUIRED LENGTH OF BOLTS NOMINAL BOLT D I 1 % REQUIRED BOLT LENGTH = i GRIP+ D1MENS1ONS BELOW. 81 954 3 8.0 .0 n 6 vi 3 7 1/ 23 . 1 7 56 634. — E T D m m m R 4 8 o z 3 g 3 / 1y 1 1/8 1 1% 1 1 y2 1 2 ‘ 2 1~ ~ 2 ~ y . 0 51 07 . :A T S 1E W H R AE 2 W S RO / 7 n A S H / * N y W ” I1 7 h SE H R E 8 c e R s S A . 7e . ALLOWABLE LOADS in kips SA 307 unfinished bolts and connected material: SA 283C.73 .2 4 5. 1 l .0 s . 1 82 1 1 94. l e 4d o n n li e 3 s o 6 r n u n s . 7 1 25. 5 39. 9 9 . SA 36 Nominal Diameter o B T A A l i T A L S l o eS n t i r l s r i el e a ba i f t e s 0 .21 1 0 2 . / I 1~ 6 8 1f 1 7 1 1i 1~ 1E 1 1 l 1~ 1 1%6 1 I1 1 1y16 f ?46 1 1l 5 / 1 6 1 1 2 1Y 1 7 ‘ 2/ z ~ 8 1 ~ 6 1 6 MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE AND SPACE The minimumdistancefrom the center of bolt hole to any edge BOLT DIAMETER 7 5 MINIMUM EDGEDISTANCE A S 7 1~ H E 2 AA R R / 3 7 4 OT O DL E 8 4 L / / . 4 2 9. 1 73 61 . 8 b. SA 285C.0 4 24 .5 8 1 85. 6 l . 0 12 e 7. 1 5 1y / 11 4 l 8 1E / y 2 . 1 62 2 4 9 .

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......... ............... .....MISCELLANEOUS ... ........... ....... 466 1...... Boiler and Pressure VesselLaws.... List ofOrganizations Sponsoring or Publishing Codes.... 479 6....................___~~_~~~fi~ti................... ............. 494 ...... 483 7. Index ti_~.......ti............. .........................................~~~mu~~tiomofiu..ti........... 470 3.. Codes..................ti............. ti..... Definitions .............~... m...........o...........Specifications............................~................. Abbreviations 2...................~~~............. 476 5..............PARTV......... Literature........... Standards or Specifications Dealing with Pressure Vessels ........... 474 4. . Standards........ ....................

13-1950ABBREVIATIONS .I-I941 ABBREVIATIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC & ENGINEERING TERMS ADDED: ABBREVIATIONS GENERALLY USEDON VESSEL& PIPINGDRAWINGS AnchorBolt AmericanInstitute of SteelConstruction Allowance Allowable AmericanNational StandardsInstitute AmericanStandard Association AmericanPetroleum Institute Approximately Asbestos AmericanSocietyof Mechanical Engineers AmericanSociety for TestingMat’ls. k w d e T cc x H a T .466 A COMPILED:From 1 ASAZ32. A B B E B L B O B O B Bt U v C e l oo P t o t rK a rT i h n e o i r Cr v V a l c e AB AISC Ccw cfm CFW CG CG cm % %to% co CONC CPLG CORR ALLOW COUP CRS g Cse ALLOW ANSI ASA API APPROX ASB ASME CounterClockwise CubicFoot per Minute ContinuousFillet Weld Commercial Grade Centerof Gravity Centimeter Centerline Centerlineto Centerline Company Concentric Coupling CorrosionAllowance Coupling ColdRolled Steel Carbon Steel e t R t bu bo . w n e e i i i t ASTM AVG bbl B B B B B B b B B Barrel R B We B i G n W i r m Wire C e t C n to c l t e C e n C T C u C l iD n Cu t F u c df p f eC l o c Pt i o Cm o Tt H Cm W u Wn c k e t T D o w n D t ue i r s mD h a l D oE u E i t H e D e t E ve e l D l d W g h a DIA m c o s ri e g o m e b t l v a i c CA Gauge Degree Centigrade Corrosion Allowance DIAM DIM DP Diameter Diameter Dimension Design Pressure . ASAZIO. FOR USE ON DRAWINGS 2.

LLA LLC LLSD LR Ls LWN m MB MK MAT’L MAWP MAX MH MIN MK’D HighLevelAlarm HighLiquidLevel High Level Shut Down Hot Rolled Heat Treatment Inside Diameter inches Including. Forged Steel Foot. Ellipsoid Equal. Feet Cubic Foot Fillet Weld Gram Gage Galvanized Gallon Gage Glass Gage of Outstanding Leg Gallon per Day Gallon per Minute Grade Heavy Head Hemispherical Hexagonal Handhole Hole HLA HLL HLSD HR HT ID in INCL INS INT JE kg 1 lb lbf lbs LC LCV LG LG Lin. Included Inspection Internal Joint Efficiency Kilogram Liter Pound Pound Force Pounds Level Control Liquid Control Valve Long Level Gage Lineal Foot (Feet) Low Level Alarm Liquid Level Control Low Level Shut Down Long Radius Low Stage Long WeldingNeck Meter Machine Bolt Mark Material Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Maximum Manhole Minimum Marked .467 ABBREVIATIONS (cont. ft. Equally Et Cetera External Fahrenheit Face to Face Flanged & Dished Flat Face Figure Finish Flange Far Side. Elliptical.) DT’L DWG EA EH EL ELEV ELL ELLIP EQ ETC EXT F F-F F&D FF FIG FIN FLG FS ft FT3 FW 13 GA GALV gal GG GOL gpd gpm GR HVY HD HEMIS HEX HH HL Detail Drawing Each Extra Heavy Elevation Elevation Elbow Ellipse.

k PROJ PSE psi psia psig Millimeter MillionStandard CubicFeet ThousandStandard CubicFeet Manway North New& Cold NormalLiquidLevel Number Nominal NationalPipe Size AmericanNational Taper PipeThread NearSide Not to Scale Overall OutsideDiameter OutsideRadius OccupationalSafety and HealthAdministration Ounce Ounces Pressure PlainBoth Ends PressureControl Pieces PressureControl Valve PressureIndicator Plate Projection PlainSmallEnd Pound per Square Inch Pound per Square Inch Absolute Pound per Square Inch Gage RAD REF REINF REPAD REQ’D RF RJ RTJ RV s s/c SCF SCH SCR SCR’D SDV SERV Sht.468 7 ABBREVIATIONS (cont.) mm MMSCF MSCF MW N N&C NLL NO NOM NPS NS NTS OA OD OR OSHA Oz Ozs P PBE Pc Pcs Pcv PI —. SF SHT SM SMLS so SPA SPEC SPGR SQ SR Ss s-s s/s STD STL STR SUPT SYM T&B TC TBE Radial Reference Reinforcing ReinforcingPad Required RaisedFace RingJoint RingType Joint ReliefValve Schedule ShopCoat StandardCubicFoot Schedule Screw Screwed ShutdownValve ServiceSheet StraightFlange Sheet Seam Seamless SlipOn Spacing Specification SpecificGravity Square Short Radius StainlessSteel Seamto Seam Standard Steel Straddle Support Symmetrical Top & Bottom TemperatureControl ThreadedBoth Ends .

) Psv R TEMA THD THK TI TLE TOC TOS TS TSE T-T TW TW Pressure Safety Valve Radius Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association Threaded.- ABBREVIATIONS (cont. Thread Thick Temperature Indicator Threaded Large End Top of Concrete Top of Steel Tube Sheet Threaded Small End Tangent to Tangent Tack Weld Thermowell TYP USAS VA VOL v WG ~ OUT WP WT XH XX STG Typical United States of America Standards Institute Valve Volume With Water Gallon WeldingNeck Without Working Pressure Weight Extra Heavy Double Extra Heavy Double Extra Strong .

1990 Spec 12D Specification for Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. 1995 I I I Iv v V V V I x X P M N H N R B R P R W F R B S P B p P E R C o f C C a o P 1 D P o N V P P O o H e B 2—A e u i b V a f I B R f —D Q P I Components British Standards Institution (BSI) 1500 —Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the Chemical. Petroleum and Allied Industries (advanced design and con struction) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) B-51 -h41991 . Petroleum and Allied Industries 1515 —Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the Chemical.Code for the Construction and Inspection of Boiler! and Pressure Vessels TANKS American Petroleum Institute (API) Spec 12B Specification for Bolted Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. BOILERS ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.SPECIFICATIONS PRESSURE VESSELS.470 C STANDARDS. 1982 .

1990 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. 1988 Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded.S S S 1 Std 620 Std 650 Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Prop duction Liquids.CODES. Low-Pressure Storage Tanks.1OM-1985 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe . 1988 S f U N N A D N N N N L 1 5 S t S t W A L U L W A I T T ( f f ( F F n a a C C a b n AWWA Standard for Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage 3 5 5 F P F L L A &C P P G G ( L S a U r C a H G P l PIPING A B B B B B B N —1 —1 — 1 — 1989 —1 —1 S P F C L R P G P P P I a T P w P ( R P 1 A P S e Piping Systems m r Gas Transmission and Distribution HEAT EXCHANGERS E S s J M 5 E J w 1 A A a I P G a tt E x PIPES American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI B36.19-1976 Stainless Steel Pipe ANSVASME B36.

20-1993 E D o a a F F F F w F T P A R F M The American S A f T a M (ASTM) 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards.5 1988 ANSI B 16.14-1991 ANSI B 16. Systems and Specifications U S b S — B a P V L S o B a P V L C C a P ( R S a R a C . 10-1992 F ANSI B 16.04/Structural Steel. SPECIFICATIONS F FLANGES. Concrete Reinforcing Steel. Sheet.CODES.25-1992 B ANSI B16. and Tires — 135 S M I U S S C B P C o B — 1 C ( O I n ( o t Steel Structures Painting Manual Volume 1. and Wire. Tubing and Fittings.11-1991 ANSI B16.STANDARDS.9-1993 ANSI B 16. Pressure Vessel Plate and Forgings. Wheels. AND VALVES E a V W P P S F a O G T F a F S a S F A G S f S a N P P B S B a L I u American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI B16. 95 Standards Volume 01. 131 Standards Volume 01.03/Steel Plate.O1/SteelPiping. Good Painting Practice Volume 2. Steel Rails. Section 1 Iron and Steel Products Volume01. Strip.

1) .473 CODES. SPECIFICATIONS Environment P C o Federal Regulations. 198840.STANDARDS. Protection of Environment.Parts 53 to 60 (Obtainable from any Government Printing Office) r A S o C E (ASCE) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE 7-88 (Formerly ANSI A58.

:.:. . beobtained fromthejurisdictiomlauthority ortheSociety. Law5Rules andRegu.TABULATION OF THE BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA JURISDICTION Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida I II NNNN YYYY YNYN YYYY YYYY YYYY YYYN YYYY YNYY XV VIII(1)VIII(2) XI NN YN NN YY YY YY NN YY NN KEY:ASMECode SEC I P 1 ( B o o 1 1 w i ) Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana I o YYYY YYYY YYYY YNYY YYYY wY Y a Y Y Y YY Y Y YY YN Y y N VIII(l).:t$.::.JRCE: T c o h nt d a b e io u n ls Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pemsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia YNYY YNYY YYYY YNYN YNYY YYYY YNYY YYYY YNYY YYYY YYYY YYYY YYYY NNNN YNYN YYYY YYYNNY YYYY YNYY YYYY Y N YY NN N Y YN YY YN YY YY YY YY NN NN YY YY YN YY N N N Y tionandvari~ces inthe m ::.Lawdoesnotcover *-Onlyportions of Codeorcall jurisdiction Y y Y N y N N SOl. [t doesnotlistalltheexemp- laws and regulations.::5:::0.n ..:n:. More detailed information is avail:::5u.::5. .Pressure Vessels V e s VIII(2)-Pressure XI-I n Is n e s r p ve N Y u c l e Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska YYYNNY YYYYNN YNYN YNYY YYYY YYYYN Y Y Y YNYY YNYY YYYY YNYN YNYN NN YN Y Y* N YY N Y N N N..:n:::.ation~ CoP~right 1994 uniform Boilerand PressureVessel Laws Society..

. N u c l e Y N Y-Required byLaw N. lawsandregulations.O:::. Louis County District of Columbia YYYY Y N Y Y YNYY YYYY YNYY YNYY YNYY YNYY YYYY Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N y y YN YN YN YN YN YN YN Y Y N Y ‘Urther ‘nformation.Onlyportions of Code orcall jurisdiction SOURCE: Thiscondensed tabulation of o dataistaken fromSynopsis B L ao P R a a ir V e l n s ee s R u w e g l us n l ae N Detroit Los Angeles Memphis Miami Milwaukee New Orleans New York City Omaha YYYY YYYY Y YN Y Y N Y N N Y Y YYYY YYYY Y Y Y N YNYY Y Y Y Y Y y Y Y YN Y N N :::::i.Lawdoesnotcover *.::.:urJn.’. Joseph St..: .:: ::O. Louis Seattle Spokane Tacoma Tucson Tulsa UniversityCity Dade County JeffersonParish St.:.::.e.::..may be obtained fromthejurlsdlctlonalauthorl~orthe socie~ Y Y Y Y .475 TABULATION OF THE BOILER OF T JURISDICTION Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick New Foundland & A U 1 11 YYYY YNNY YYYY YNNY YYYY Y Y YYYY YYYY Y N P S (continued) V A C L IV VIII(1) VIII(2) XI YY NN YY NN YY Y Y Y Y YY YY Y Y Y N Y Y Y YN YY Y YN YY N NN YY YY N N N SEC I P B o o w i l Labrador Northwest Territories Nova Scotia Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory Albuquerque Buffalo Chicago Denver Des Moines Y N Y YNNY YYYY Y Y Y YYYY YYYY Y Y Y YNYN YYYYNN YYYY YYYY YNYN IV-Heating Boilers VIII(l). . Moredei n f oi ar m v a a tii tai]~d u t n S o S dc yh i e n e o t St.C:.Pressure Vessels VIII(2)-Pressure Vessels XI-1nservice Inspection.

NJ 07652 (201) 368-9100 ENGINEERING & SAFETY SERVICE hMERICAN INSURAN CE SERVICES GROUP.C.ONCanadaM9W 1R3 CE COMPANY COMMERCIALUNIONINSURAN OF AMERICA 1 Beacon Street Boston. PA 19103 (215)299-5585 AMERICANWATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 6666WestQuincyAvenue Denver.Y. NY 10036 (212) 642-4900 F U S n ot iA a tm S e te t ar I d e n ni d s(s c a tfUa rai d tS s u At ne S K* p t 1r A im 9 Se o t r 6 aA i rns c o s d 6 ao( a c nr i A d a ts i S o n A ) ) d AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE 1220L Street.476 L S S ~AME& ADDRESS O O P D W C P A PA S P O P V 4MERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING 15Eisenhower Drive ~mmm. MA 02108 (617) 725-7304 CSA . 10017 (212)705-7722 AMERICANSOCIETYFOR TESTINGANDMATERIALS 1916RaceStreet l?hiladelphia.D. NY 10038 AISG. FL 33135 For Orders Only 800-334-9353 ASME ASTM AWWA AWS BRITISHSTANDARDS INSTITUTION* 389Chiswick HighRoad LondonW44AL *Bfitish Stmdwd Publications areavailable from The American BSI N a StandardsInstitute t i o n a l CANADIANSTANDARDSASSOCIATION 178RexdaleBlvd. 20005 (202) 682-8375 API AMERICANSOCIETYOF MECHANICALENGINEERS 345East47thStreet NewYork. INC.N. INC.O. New York. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE** ANSI 11West42nd Street.CO 80235 (303)794-7711 AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY P. Northwest Washington. Rexdale. \5 John Street. New York. Box 351040 Miami.

1725 Jefferson Davis Highway..20210 (800)344-3555 S 5 E I A N S E TN I L T U K T E 7 0 OakwoodRd. D.. 3 PfmgstenRoad. INC. CA 90601 (310) 699-0541 THE NATIONALBOARDOF BOILER AND PRESSUREVESSELINSPECTORS 1055CrupperAve. UL UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 2100 Second St.Northbrook.. E UBPVLS Louisville.IL60047 (708)438-TANK T T STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL 40 24th Street.LakeZurich. NY 10591 (914) 332-0040 U N D E R W R L I T A E B R O S R A T O I R I E SN.C. 6th Floor.W.W.N. Pittsburgh. PA 15222 Telephone: (412) 687-1113 Fax: (412) 687-1153 TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS 25 North Broadway. Tarrytown.C. S. INC. KY40243 (502)244-6029 . NY 10591 HEAT EXCHANGE INSTITUTE. Batteryrnarch Park @incy. 3 3 IL60062 (708)272-8800 C SSPC .. Washington. Tarrytown. Suite 240 8 E E N S R S U DR E ST Y . 20593 (202) 267-2967 U V 3 N I B F OO A I R P M LR E L S S SA O E C W LI N Evergreen 0 Rd. Mill CGA EJMA F ICBO Whittier. 0 .O. MA 02269 (617) 770-3000 (800) 344-3555 O C C U P A T I S O N A AA LF E T N H E AA D ML I N IT S T RHA T I O N 2 Constitution 0 Avenue. Cleveland.L N & AA D D M R EE O S S A B B R E V I A T SPONSORING OR PUBLISHING CODES AND STANDARDSOR SPECIFICATIONS DEALING WITH PIPING ANDPRESSURE VESSELS COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION. D.. Va22202 (703) 412-0900 EXPANSION JOINT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 25 North Broadway. Suite 1004 Arlington. OH 44115 (216) 241-7333 I N T E R N A T I C OO N N A L F E R O E N C E B U I O L F D F I I NC G I A L S 5 S Workman 3 6 Rd. 0 Y D NBBI NGPA O Washington.ColumbusOH43229 (614)888-8320 NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION P. 1300 Summer Ave. Box 9101.

L S S NAME& ADDRESS O O P D W C P A P A S P O P V ABBREVIATION USEPA WRc UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY 401 M Street.W. Washington. NY 10017 (800) 548-2723 ASCE . D.C. 20460 WELDING RESEARCH COUNCIL 345 East 47th St. 47th Street New York. S. NY 10017 (212) 705-7956 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 345 E. New York..

Inc. OK. Mahajan. 1 John Wiley and Sons. Bickel and C. New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. K. 1973.B. Strength of AZateria/s. 10. S. 1959. New York. ASME. S. .LITERATURE 1. New York. Pressure Vessel Design Handbook. New York. 1985. Analysis. Pressure D V D . Inc. W. Young. ASME. R. 1967. New York. Brownell and R. 9.F. Design of Process Equipment-2nd Ed. 14. 7. Harvey. Bednar. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume III. Macmillan Publishing Co. 2nd Ed.. Roark and W Y F f S 1975.H. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume I.E. Marcel Dekker. Springer . New York. Inc. The Stress Anaiysis of Pressure Vesselsand Pressure Vessel Components. Vessel Handbook Publishing. ASME.. J. Soedel. 1970. 2. 4. 5. Stresses in Shells. Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels 2nd Ed. 12. Ruiz. 13. S. 1976. W. Theory of P[ates and Shells. Flfigge.H. (Out of Print) 6. A4cGraw-lYiii Book Co.Verlag. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. 1955. Vibrations of Shells and Plates. 1974. 1972.. Gill. Process E a S 5th Ed. Materials and Fabrication. M. Tulsa.J. Timoshenko. 1986.P. New York 8. Van Nostrand Co.K. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume II. Timoshenko. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.. Components and Structural Dynamics. 2nd Edition.. L. H.S.. 3.. New York. 11. Pressure VesselDesign and Analysis. New York. 1981. 1972. D.

McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1974. . M.. Houston. 1987. New York 20.IL.TX. Theory and Analysis ofPlates. 18.. Kohan. Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment. 1961. . 1987. Bulletin No.Sheet Metal Drafting.NY.New York.Houston.15. Taylor Forge& Pipe Works. 16. Forman:PressureVesselComputerPrograms. E n g C l e lN w io of d f J s . P r e n t i c I e . R.Pressure VesselSystems.TX. Hetdnyi. 1984.Hydrocarbon Processing. B. Tulsa.Inc.PressureVessel HandbookPublishing. Jawad & J. M.New York. Szilard. . AnthonyLawrence. . Betterley. Farr. M Co. OK.H n a l l c. 21. 22. Gulf Publishing 23. Inc. F. H. 19. John Wiley & Sons. (Collected 1968..1995.1974.. L. Chicago.McGraw-HillBook Co.i Design s Manual. Design of Flarzgesfor Full Face Gaskets.TheUniversityof Michigan Press. M. BeamsonElasticFoundation. 45. 1 Foundation Design 7 Handbook . Ann Arbor. Do eR s Pressure n s n Vessel . R.

— 10 Fracture Properties ofMaterials.24 HeatExchangers. Rotation of.—6.—6 dl ys s . —6 Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels. —12 HubFlanges.—12 Heads. —9.—9 ElasticStability.—8 Concrete forPressure Vessels. —6 Elevated Temperature Effects. 11 LocalStresses inVessels. 24 FlatPlates .—7 Conical Heads andReducers. Theory andAnalysis of. Design ofi—4 .—3 PipeLoads. —3 Buckling ofShells.—12 LegSupport forVertical Vessels. —6.9. Stress Analysis of—8. 24 Economics ofDesign andConstruction. Stress Analysis of.Formulas. —3 Stresses in.—6 CreepEffects.—4 Hydrogen Embrittlement.— 6 LowTemperature Materials.12 Fatigue andincremental Collapse. 8 Modular Construction.—6 DeadLoads.—4 Rectangular Tanks. Stress Analysis of. —9 Nozzles.Formulas. 24 HighTemperature Materials.Conical Section whenHalfApex Angle isGreater than30°. Fatigue andIncremental. Analysis of. Flanged andFlued. Stresses inVessels Exerted by. —4 Flanges andClosures.—4 PipeSegment.—6 CastIronPressure Vessels. —7. ShellandTube. Analysis of. —7 Deformations inPressure Vessels. Stress Analysis o~—8 PipeSegment Expansion Joints. Development of. —9 CodesofVarious Countries.—7.—8 LimitAnalysis andPlasticity. Stress Analysis o~—8.—4 Foundation Design. Formulas.e e O C n y d l iS i nh n de r g l i l c s af . 9 Division 2 ofASME CodeComparison to Division 1. —7. 10.—6. StressAnalysis.— 10 Elliptical Opening. —12 LugSupport forVertical Vessels. —8 Cylindrical Shells.— 11. l — Flange 1 4Design &Analysis.—3 Design ofFlanges. StressConcentration.481 S COVERED BY THE WORK(S) LISTED UNDER LITERATURE ( B B n u T r m t th e b w e fo d e r rh se wk at r( s l o is u ei b) n h jt e g c ht . —8 Nozzles.— 10. —11 PipeBends. —4 Materials forVessels.24 Membrane Stresses. —9 Expansion Joints.—8 A e n n o aSmooth.Formulas.— 6 Perforated PlatesandShells. —7 PipingSystems. 7.. —8 PlatesandShells . —12 Cracks.—9 Floating Heads. —6 ofFlatandCurved Plates . —6.—4. —6 Corrosion. —4 PipeSupports at Intervals .— 10 Lobed Pressure Vessels. —6 Composite Materials. i s f Flanged andFluedExpansion Joints.Formulas. —4 External Loads. 16.— 11. —7 Discontinuity Stresses. —20 Fracture. —6 Fracture Mechanics.— 15. —12 Cone. —9 Non-Bolted Closures.24 Nozzles.—24 Collapse.24 External Pressure.—4 Bolted Joints. LowStress.24 Flanges withFullFaceGasket—21 FlatClosure Plate. —9 Oblique Nozzles. —12 Computer Analysis ofPressure Vessels. —9 LocalLoading. 11 Plasticity.— 6 Corrosion Resistant Materials.9 Mitred Bends. —4 TallTowers. —3 Elastic Stress Analysis.— 6 Plates. —9 Brittle Fracture. Analysis of.— 7.17 Nozzle Thermal Sleeves. —6 Buckling. Intersection Stress Analysis. —11 Dynamic andTemperature Stress.—4 Dynamic Stability. —10 Plastic Collapse.—18 Prestressed Concrete Vessels.—9 Rectangular Tanks. —8 Fatigue.— 9 Flange Design. —3 Earthquake Loads.— 4 TallStacks. 11. —4 Ligament Stresses.23 LowStress Brittle Fracture.

—6. —4 Vertical Vessels Supported byLugs.Design of. 24 Sliding Supports forHorizontal and Vertical Vessels. —7. —11 Support ofVessels byLegs. Designs ofTall. Analysis of.—7 Stresses inFlatPlates. —3 Thermal Stresses.24 Formul~—3 Stacks. — 7 f S. R e i n f oo rO c p e em n e i n2 nt g R S u i p p on ~ — g2 R o o t H a F tl ai n u o g ne S aD d o e d s~ 2 l ie — . . 7 Tanks. Anslysisof—6 TubeSheetDesign. —3 StressConcentration.—4 Temperature.—4.— 4 ShellsofRevolution. —7 Spherical Shells.—10 Temperature Stresses .— 24 7 n . —14 SheetMetalDrafting. — TallTowers. f— b 4 inVessels by.— 9 ThickShells.—4 1 Vibration. u o V p 4e pb Lso s ur4 6 S u Lugs.14.—7 WindLoads. 4 Design of.g S e A i n as l y si i s c 11m s . Vibration of. —7 Welded Joints. Analysis of. 24 .—7 Wind-Induced Vibration ofTowers.S U B ( J c E a Cz T f hS u e d ) etg t l sf s . 9 ThickCylinder.—6 Shallow Shells. Fixed.—4 Induced byFlow. TallStacks.—4. —9 Stresses inHorizontal Vessels Supported byTwoSaddles(Zick).—11 WeldDesign. —12 Wind-Induced Deflection ofTowers.— Analysis ofTallTowers. —7.—6 StressandStrainDueto Pressure onor Between Elastic Bodies . Design ofRectangular. Effects ofElevated.—9 Stresses InVessels.—6.—4 Selection ofMaterials.—4 Structural Dynamics.—8. —22 ShellandTubeHeatExchangers.Formulas. 24 3 .Stresses p p E o r xerted s .9 Welding.Formulas.

l o y b f e e —Av t i w y t h p i a ie n o h ac u.b ad i n . a h e r e o f .DEFINITIONS f a t —T r e o m sh u om r v a fate a e l m a s r t oh o t n rf l r o im a iu c h y to c gdi o h t n n s o ao l t io l ha g q ie o c u ro d im . to a r ) d . as distinguished fromgage pressure. e c o m a p u o nsm e u n er e t a t sl al e l m l e le y in c t s . e — M a a t s e t r b i ba ar rl s U A 6 0 ) w t h s h p re h a c e n t pn oi e c yra m w l d i s b t o fe r a t f i o ol n u r r e e ua so l tu g v a e ll h . w a f i ef im t l t a s a t hl Ii ri i e an g h p o w l i l ln i a t oe ue xw tt r t h n n ge r a hr — — A w duringweldingto facilitate obtaininga sound w a j o et i m nle i m w l a y p p r o i i x ti m n a s p a l B w a m ue n j o i p i r v n e se t c o n s t s r u hc h t i c o m p e pn l e a te r t f u s i o n T o b y w p je u oel S o i D n oB g u e l S o q B i J un o u at o r w ep o lr o u d c i e p ns f sg e sJ —Ag n e tP r l aa t w hc o e a r l i ep e s rc i e o b n nhd c e u ca e t s d i n y Fg P e u w a e i l ae w t c or t wr h i iin tc tc t h . — Material backing up the joint e t r h o o t —A o al n n a uo s r m u by gbs f t e e a a nr c e f s B a S c i at kb i a r nc h a m ev p t r i ao an p l cel g o ri n t o cis n e i s t i d n g i a f f o a so t rr t o m e lw o ew m f e r x in o c tr e te s ept . o h h u r t P ee n e B t Jr aou t ii w o u o w i it in a p p o l p i c r aa et w i s o ow sn i un i t r t f et h o dh h u r t B J e b a s c t kr i i n u o f m i s el tl ae e fl r .l a rn t h e il e r B t e gd u — t sh e h t t i Ap f fi c n t o g tnp a n pi o e nce a n g l e s . S?3 CD m= m .t i o h n h w s . t e f nh a w si i — T n e g p l i l g a i b s l t e i c d e f o o r a m o a r t i d o —A el . i i n t e pr s b e l c eta zi t n(n n gw ee ed seum r n c e t o t ia al b j ao u 9 di ( t cn n e jot t o(r) g i d nC n 0 e . e l Pressure— The pressureabovethe rc f i e a l — W e ia ew l o pe h e n t r in f f t r is or n q u mi o a aL e w l e d i q i o n c tr h t h m is T p o m m e n an p t ea t ro y f I d n o il tn ow n a g d oi h d n r g absolutezerovalueof pressure thattheoretically obtainsin emptyspaceor at the absolute zeroof temperate.

2 0 e ) tended completely through the joint. r h a e r .u-i g ns r h en e c f se eb r t o e e v f o ii noc hr o e r I rte i ln m tion o A cn o tl m y y m .o p n h a p s ls a u a s p t es n e d eo d m d t b p a h r o e dxi uc y co is y s eo b s ne s gi t t r h e f va ha e l r i t so e ed w c >a c u t o r s ai a e eg c p s c en x c r eou a os r gravity in forcing the plate b c a f u a c s tr i aie n cxg y kc g s ui e n te s gs against a seat.l e d 6. e jn .a t g t m d p ih to p ia o l t ah n a t t rt n hn u ef a b a t o h xw n ru t o hm it u o y io g s hmc h e h a i z ri h ce o i e w r nt e c o aii o es d . — i d e f o r m —T l o i w n e o s f u c n o o nd d e s c tes r a e tT rn a t r st i ie ners h i n t e fr m w i i te i tl e l nl dt e i nt g n u su u w ra s e l i ft t le e br yt ee o d h n hh c a at o l j io ew a i h n e i tr p c . other line. eh ntt ts p t ro t a a v m air t he t a r a iyi e a nl fif ez i ae n d e i ttf h o m h o ag u ei n ne p o i n nu l f s a o r td m e —T m I db I et c t o ru c a ro o m w ls b fi e o i oi ln n t ai r i eng s gu s ee s .e r v r e a sa s i rf e m . na d me l f on i “ i u sn e dg s . shutting o f f r od r e un ip n t g u . 0 e h o c a ct v u e( r ss — r o t e ve b n a he t s s e d i -u rm er e f te a a lc x e s — T m m h e e p f o w s e e l od s i d n gr . r e l l a p t a i oo va sre t l t a g i oe t n n ry h u ac u s i g e n i o f f t i f c a e n t h c t n o v s o e s r r t a e r — e r b m o o s t ii o o n ln e sy s o o r aw ur h cE nh t x u ro n a re m le o m o a g vG e i r d n a n e s r t dg t o sra u u. f e c o m ps or e t s rs d e m f c ie t a cg h tt rr t hs fo ri u t n g y h i a hsd h e o tee r nd u s i o d n m a It t e d r e a i ra fh l ee b .c s lh ot e a d il z loz n a o x io t d a a t o c a ic h t o hs na i e m g or e i e nc a n a ff j u n b c e st t io hdw o in eed e l a f s if e o n lm r e e t h i c k n e s s e s . —T l u es h ton aa r s e g k i a f v i a g m e n n i a o n t v d e d e r r i a c o n d e t s a i a fg l tn l l e du o o iw d o 1 I 1 t o s i e t r w v o r h i a e m i c n n e a e u f . a —Aw Corner o t a je a lt o j d u i e n hc n d t ti o t e n — As o o u l a owa pc r p ra ot f x at oi r m e s a it d e sl y g ot s hi t e r tn t et rn s w si a f ai sc h i a fa r t n if io n e o g at l e h c s e or h . l d m n t e p t ha i o r d o s . t e h f or t d . rr y n a t t s eh v n e e o a eens l n x yt t dhi eu prr s n e i oaa t r l pd . —C h i t fa o n o hg —O m e o r nt e m sh o uo e vr dii ft n d f a g e i cmo a e hb n p s r o i n oes n b o d d t u r cf d e s fa s e u f cm i o tc s s ass f e uh l r s arle s m o i ro s u m ff t s t es n te c oe s r sn i a o p a w r t o mi ar I e nl e klt l y ie a mt d o i l n a. m m c r of t ee vs e a e isd s n d y e s uf o a r d m ci a s t o a i hp o n p o ag t t o t “ a d r ee h s co e f “ as r m h s i ec n mrg a ” e r o m s f rt o p. —A — A m a —T p r ue i h sd s e u m ti m n i p inh e n i r m t mgih suio e s c m i b k p h c y h a sr a ico ttce dr ai is lt p f i cfh os e a r U h C. eea a s f t e n e t f — A threaded sleeve u t c so n hT ei e h r wp i h f e o ea b . — Damage to or failureof a p tn e . n h m ue t tn e a a e n d ll st ee e sim v po rae r n ta t i n c or w he m ei e l n d t e s i n f g n l l ad u T s iy m ih o ei am a et i c renn r g io d o l a a p i np r o r x n i m ea t e e el y p r s e is t u s rs c i uep va aels f l la os ll s ls y e i ht o sh e n e opposite to t f l o w . t e m p ( e tr a t h t t ru h r o i e eu c hx kg nph e e u o c n p ech d ro -a n ef d t ti p rtn i cg o o a nh s o — Penetration w e h i x s i (d U e C r G eo -d d. a c tp l i a o n t s t t f ea o g s r t r d u i o s c c o t s n a u t h i r f n s e a u i l a t i r d e m o ae d lt c h la pe u o rl m os ri c y ce e u as o s l e c s h s h ll at n eg .s A e o . s d e uf o ar r m c e a o t m i ho e an o m i n r o s t r e s s .utl on n . r ef v l e ro s we .

m a r t a i e n t g l g t h e ro o ah c t e at T l s e t th w arc h e s iae s a t ul s t s l e T e f s f t e i a rh e cs s t . t ire a a t d l i l od n s . w o p h ri p i o nm — Aj — T a bo a m i h lt se i t t te r y a i fn t o p e tl c oo t ia e i b t so n j o ph s b ts u p a b e p enc r mod a n em e d fwn eot i l r yt m l h o e n od g ei u tx u tp i d ta i p nn a l s l di i th o i n b r oe c a r k aD c iu k n i c mi g t e ni b g alr . o b m eo m b t e r f hs . w c o f a u ao a m u i l l eos s d u m er bue c t r t t l t i o i h h m u p a i i a o o s e p s d e r t e os —Al o c o o mo p al a o n e o d nr t a f d n o t a g r c ims r e a vo a m c o l e te o i s in m os b n — T e f e r o s a e tt n n md fe c rr y a i a e c w c e r n e ti t t s r s ip t ec h i e i d c c htat i o o o t n e f t s u m n r e d ap o e at s e n i ctt o ri norys n i s ed n a t h to r c c oe n u T h tp g r t e h o i rh l e d pt . t e eu n e l h s ts h si at t m a r s an e tt n e eg i d i d ci f s u t t ll r ao a a n r i co h c t e t n m i e ho e f n f e fe c o s ee n m i F tA s r n rv st o l t e o p i r tc ia ne ha c i nd ti e ep o tx r a c r l a h c i S l ei — s nt sber u . area of a fillet weld is a s t sb t u p m r eo h — A w e process l ind i n g o t hd ih r m o e w c ho n ise ul m c e aa c fb th i l r e oa d r n ee s tl e d o te g % n eh tt a s t el o e t n w h n ge j c oo n fi t a t iln cn u iu m t n rh g t xe r e .l o n n g o t ih t t eo u cd n eoi m ns eap lir e t r w ri ecti t si a ptt h x e y ch i a t s i t a b r o oe e m st e a ss h m unt m b eb a WeldedJoint —Theefficiency b e In i sd o i m u n e t g t d . — A w t h o v e i er h l c ad p h p g e e d e s — A o t a mt s ae c o t m e t b mh j b o e f i fr e r n s e a s e e t d lcc r t o i m A ? f ou ee no h b g fo i f m n a w a e trl l e d o d e eh e nd gr a o g e o se r s i c rn oo s n i o d n .c p e r s m a n e e n tt . is m e t te s ne s of a weldedjoint is expressed as a numerical s at t p r o p e o hm o s i r is n n e mt t r e o f t s oe a j eh s a ao i s d t g i nn e nen quantityand i u i t ds a f u b h tx t t s r i aue eh sl r . e c o n v et n L i o e n c e g h e i t.l F i w al e s l p l e e r cd a t n h d e b t l d h i me e e n i s j uo sr d o i e o . t p e r rc h e e n d i ta u ac a g e tp e r i e o rn ne c n e a nd T r o t a l ht t t f y o hi F o a S c — a t f o e r t e l ao on t g bga t e i ae o ns r f t . m u l o tt i a pp lp ir a h e o lr p l rs o i a fw t e t aer b p e l re e s f f tse pr a uhA bo p l f e loi s v (a lC u o e d . l t i d n l tr a s i a g en i o v fft i o fc v as e en e o tt h c r r ta enl e sl s r w e s l b e h d x i r a a a n d m i o l g i g r n f a l p e h e i d pt ao ro t a s t t iea r aw ur n h c nh t u r on r e le e s .t e s r lt ea in c s t s i ar c n c g s ru e j l o c ao t s it a s r ot s a r w ti e tri n es a t s l sh i a hr i n s n t i ie t c s u na r w pf pa l i m i t . l u d e o i m nea f i lo w a m a b he m n it e i as m c aa a y f hg —C a o sp u a s s tb a t l i ne r i n ef g s s c o m a c p fo a i s r l eb l d e er e d s u s e d t d c e o n n t f t oo l r o tm s ot ie r h te a y s s . a x aa s m f p mr il r s a ea l s m d ll e i ea l i t l . t f h l e ( u e n U C g i l W ( t o ( r h l d 1 .s r h s E a e c a c te o o nf a t ic r n ilu o oa un ms l o o u m rt f t t w j f e o U a h e i i c p s n r n e v e e ss e te s ots ir t n t e r n s w si a f ai sc i h a fa r t n if io n e c c h t s c o n s w t r b u c o h t t i a w o n e e i n c l h n d e l s a v t mi o o vm e al al a u y td l enm lr o e n i a f oe l d s t e l e c t a c c A e b s s w i j b u e l l o b e . — B — As — A b e n d l u o rai ma a nm c t ea a i u t eesi m r u i f nx h t wt t mi t a s i t m c r hb ur e e i m e a sv a c es w f e bl dtn dm e el fh n .s ot e r w a—ifAnw o a pe p r o t x l i m a p r o p o r t A i o e n a ll s i t y a o .s i h tu y r ee s d a yt .a iuo t t r id i n e ml w y i g bi p m te e h d f u r c a c i t n u r g e .e ds o t e t . l t t a a c h p m a pe e n rn t s w et .

. G a aA — t S te v ha l l a ve ev ss s w l r p t c a f T t ce a o t m p f el ei ts t l H y d T r o— s ivc sh w w s i a b s h u t t b t a a e j t h e p l r c r et l e e e sd — O w a i n t e h w i h e t i q 1 t c u t 1 i m h a m a s / l x h e o i o m g e s lw hbh o a to bp ee d d y a l l w o o w p a r r b t k e b l m i s e s n a o u g r r a m i a r n t u ao a i l h ls y e d r i d 1 ep e me rl h sb e r % is s o d w w e wi h c r eh ils d oc e c s h et n v d oe 1 ths t s o ae s s as t ep t r a es v n te o n s o g t r b e ee t m a tu ea w n t e sm t h e a nn n e h u a o a sf s l a u g ie d f . m d w m co d t l — Low ductility o a et i a t b u s aoo h tr y lp t g de i o r o s ona ho di c a u a e c cl r e hc p u i t yr r nor o l y g c u l r eA aik n nla i na rn g bgos .i p el e o s re fen vo n i l o cs n nu e gg h mti d n a to ei o h g n -an tF e 8bM . e o m fi e d gn e t r ist a e n w i m leb e l m l a ep asd l t o wrs y ey e ne d g l it s c d h a r ( sr c b F i n e a g l r u a m i i n n u e s m d . j o b t iw ( n e h eC l d FullFillet —Af wi w l s e hl i e o il ts d z e UW-15) e s e t t q t hu io tch a tk h nl m e ioh s ens m n fe b e re r o na l co ys l ue i rn de d ) — T e ( e nhc j o i n e d . i go z . T a ht p eh r rit r r n o y c he e it ep e ea l ee r n n nn e t a ia n lp . w h c o e a r l i ep e s rc i e o b n nhd c e u ca h e t t s dr i e na y t g m w ag f i w l o w ta a i i a p h tm p t hs l o i e o c ha u tr ti o n f t a iae n p r a e w s o sw u in i t r u t eo t hf do h ih u s rl t l e e e — f S r c to n le p e r c o e n l t o e a g t m e t c e s a n h h tr f s e ba m e t a l . h e 8 ) e S t sa no h g d ar a o p r od l l s o v tw fa r f b lw el i e au s l o et et s l la s c e dh r t i sn g V Ua n o a tz r z eh i ln nf e o tr v c s ei m ea de s nr t ss er l o s e s 4 h o ies 9 v at 9 f rr atn ’ v )e l 0 es o u f hss s e re e l S v t r a f ge l ru s oo s e a (t e ( C r Ui o a W l -. t i l l7d im m 0 dh e es n 7 s s i oe n g .r d 9 . c n a m o sp pr he e s r s i u c r e . G W e —A la g d o r w i n es p o g lr o u d c ime p nsa f es g e s o a r lm a e n tt .t e r o & (f!!b u e s II .i a o n m oe i c yp r e i sm t a o c x t or i r rm e re o u s s is ms i t p r o e o l e c c t e r o s l y s s i sr . is n n t g -.T w F f t a p l t j a n ( m t d h i hrm o a eo e n a l s eq i e f t o ung i g l a f nl el e d t i 0 et . t (u Ur C Ge o . e 7 od 5 e Q v ” l —e FD e . t r e oe p a e at r ia — H apci l oy z a i t tn ig ip e n rngef o f cp m o re h G a l v —aA n p i z no g i t r t co d he di a u r n c h e ra y on to p ipt e c ma r t l a o i t te h es r f ea r r A t r pi p o c lm u li b cebs ahs t d . c r w h e n e s s .T n l o n 1h e d 2 h e f e .o s h yn e t l e pey mb wh o t h u n he c m iy s h — T a aie h t r pe h l e e l r ii f p c a e s ll o . d j o i n e d e of f oii 5 c i( 5 ne U n0 C tc W 7 y To 0 f d 1. d 1 e5 ) w i t e e 7 l na i sd 4 i s s 6 h o 0t e s 0 a t 7hrr — v oa v le m asu t s ee aw e l d . e l l l o o wf oa w i b s l le a e hl tl qd e a d n ut l h s a l l e —A w m be d ae pl o d s r o to w d a u( e hc b o r m t l a i e f s e n d ie a m d u n m f mi i a leg l r b t eo a d i m et en a s l i l os n oh g)vw t .ta s e u r sad. s k t i l t l e e e d e p r p e os va s ew u r s rt ir ls e t t ie sh m l hf s ii tn a e b p a r t s i uc s u c tl g a e r rp a le p t y hi i bt il z ea g i i T i o U v a no W te b Cs . a i r ab e l e le s u s e n e o tn m s a ib t h ow e e nre a i ila f ae d n l e n g d . s Th m e c o loh m u lm t s .a ia d a n l t a o b p s t r o e e l a xstu a s ct l u m e ea r e bh e d i e s t n e t d (i t o r s i s p h c h -e oe r a i f c nd a l i ) l. 9 e ) — P r e c o g o rh a a g p rb i c u a s i ri t rs b 7b 7 a o C 5 sv ° u i nm e rt c p i e oe i op ci t a ai t i r o n b o — fF n p o n a r d fa epl o n l l yr i y c e r oh u e im n aa o td f ae i r m i ten ac s b .

u oi m o y i n n u f m r m e o d t e t c h e a r o c s t a d i i d c n m fi n g kis i il w i c t h ro en ib a ) he . —Ad o c o wu mh p o s l w l e u l o dg r s t . o tn se —T s i o b t u i o l t iv s h t te d y eh es f t e se r r e f m e li n o e m a gx p i r a m p e e u sr g m a s t i uts s r e i t t g h o l iih la a q e( tt uU Ceh is W ar o d l -s d .d 6 0 e —S u F e n Wi e d l e g el l e er d t . nn lu ( sd a t C i. c v d i eg ts r li m o p o aa s e ei dda r s w t n nh s co ee o f. A e xf b a am o d p od la i e rl t .s lA e o -l l d 6 . e A e n a b e is m ro e rgb a b b sy e r u td e r ae s kd i h n y g e p r o m a b ta s e bir i nl a gl o l yw e . o v e r m l ap pe ap ai tn gg r a rr s t e l h s j o b m i o e anf ia e l dn l y e s tf . 0 e ) r e p ( o UC r tA e o d . r e i b r d i tu Tt t p l ce rn e ee o h s . c t i i b r b u on s w k p e e l as n d c e ye d s . tr m t orf a ra w hi m h eu oi t a l o m c ld s hw e o sp e a q pr r f ob a r ti e u t e b y m ra a h se tps e edc ir ti f b iie c ca a( y U C e A ro .s d 6 . a a t d t f d o . —T m u m s ptn er urr m f ii e s specified ss it bo s ln a m oa n i gc s l n o s ui s e i s L S e u tb — s hPt a l eo a s m b u i t a s d f e e hsy materialthat q o su a n i u ta adv t c s h su a e m f r hm a e ar o t u l y nl t m g u i i l v a e s n n2 e t C ( o U h d G e o t g o o t h v a o at h fl e p s i r oh q f e u r f i e d s d a n t lg we ir i o n h Iuh i t sf a r e l e o ee s n h d p .n t t y h p e e sr . t m a m t ah e n ur f r a i e ca te t c r ul r o ee r L a mV i — n eAv a s t he e s a d a s e vs ol t i e e x n e l a mg isr n a e o tt p i nse s i . o l6 y a b’ d < 0 e7 n v . f t d e t oo de hi sc c t o ni o tr io e t n tn u i p t i an o rc n o em fn e u r t sr e a n —Aw w c e h o n ol t is n s u d u i if er t ef ya r w a h n o in T pr c o yd r io p h s c u o i es n .i o er t h rn ed n t g o ht e p m a r e e t n a t l . q u g e K ( s a T c o s l L m i dn h a i e m p ue m t o oh m o n t o f o lr e l h r w e o x efo t i v f e lr i e n a ja d d o t n o s cai m t l n sc e l o to m o p . y< o ( n e e tn dl t s h : e x c o r l e iu n s f oi r c v e em e n ft . h k 0r e o lm 0 0 m .c c c t n ai h w o re e n e b no n t i a n o u i t i e s t n t s e u i i r h a a f t r ar r o x d ny s u o lg ri d iie i sfd u i n cp a pt gir oe n s s e d s . 2e ) o a c o mv p i e li o e s tp e fe s p dr to ea s t f ai d o e gn m np a T e r t prae tr dh ui e r es L i — g T a s m e oe s c h n m t to a ii t a lo e e n ri f d ae sl t i b n ts w . sl a ie o d dh ns .G d2 2 e ) h f e —A 1 h g i e n . n s sa v i g ein s ni on tsn e g e e x r lt s m ls u w o p r o a e e t. 0 e u b n e t nd e da e i tn nos lr g rin t o .t a efa m d p eg l e rr c. u0 a n m 2n . o — U A 6 0 ) —L v af i d e r ei i a d i r e cl t i o n n psl . s u p e —An u m v e e ra x i p cl a r le u l l os e a t r o t a sh t or a dh ires ein o vg fe ( t e th U Ce w e o bl d j r te a to d s z t.r e s o ia m s t a ta b t n e rc br e i ia ma k f p li v n a o weg c ( s t ay U C. s e e ae h l o kte d s e th v em n ue s t s ou sh b h e be a t e e d w e h j lt a e o rce l l e n e o ta i n o tr h n mi ci e k n xn a c e g o a s ll s u e l ss L Vi — e A n s es d l ae . m a n <g 4 a n n i e< 2 s cV c e . — T o ( a lda ti o rn a e g o d rs s r oT i l r ooc t u ehc ab ds so i n. d e t be t c mt a h e ab cl t e r is h a rey o cs l c a s p oh a sa l m t i. m a a g o n l e l t o i c y s t o h s yh t m i up e n os ac e ieh ffre l oms re i c m a l o m p a o ps i r to ia p n oc en or t m t i p de a s r e s d o t or M a lI l — e r a i b hl e o era t t. e n t sc a j in l o w d tt ih e n i d m wac t s tn h et t s ro r ie e a o t m het n axt l t sc J —o A w i e a o et ce rk . a’ d Si t hl o e r e —l T d o ee d u o g sx l hi tld yi e z e e d l .

r r l bo w a w t t c h e uo i epr o h e . t pi r s t e . n e c t de i s s s tb ia e n rt g ty mu w i o oso eh hd e un l e i f e l ai d s ti if d cif ir e e t rc y et in no t n s . sl tmu ie i c s yf a n io a tr f m c d l o i n zc e ti o r o na no g a o l ll i t s f t a he a n cm o o sm s e pi n F r e e o r s n s si o d o n .— T rr e o m a ha tt x ii e c o n o p d s i twu h i ti op e nr t o p a h fohe r i tr ol ar ol eo n s i n in e tq f ua r a i aal nr c d e o t dt u s p e t .6 0 e u about its transverse axis.( -n U — T i ea i n tlt a t i c lrh s eo fn e s i st i i v ar ee t (e d i o hs A0 3o )d d. s e a c t ir o n e a a l .eu eaa m l i es s s i i t n l f o g i b ht ri n n . n es uu ha t t r sr f e aaenc l c h t ei od r e s mi s a a t u a s snkt tc e a s ee n i iu t n ts ile sa a i o t e p a eftb o r a p et e r b e l m ai r n a tg u — T l o n g si h t uu o d r i nf e lu f c 0 0 .or a a Pt t r um io i ri o e v i l rf s b n a m a u t t o em l r o i o atedh ltl s u la .s t t wt t h —T c o mo i r uh n e i id f i s o s c ta s r a v v eh o a r s a atlo io tc s k e nu ec c h sn ot n s — h p n o o n er e n m t a f l re m h i b l sq u y tn e u d a d l ge c r t u e re e os h f ss s e si i d do f e e rena t i r o n . f s e i i t a mb rr es e e u m ot sb rb b s j e e n e 1 rn c 5 t d o . — T r o c a h ho u a ts n en h eg f e i e af t r s wt r r e ti u es s s p t s nh es t f c h tr e i t a a o i ot h n r . M oo m e n t f eo c n t s ro a m i e l e e —At — a s ih f u nn o e er o f c et a T m o o ih m n o e e n tr e d tt e ti t f ee a r ofm f a a w r r e it as e pt n e a c h t o n axis is the sum of the —T p r a et h ts s u + p r oo bd b t u m ac u i t no sl a e p t d r i ve y sa e w s sui h f e e i r l nrs o m p e l e y la o i e t nm c o ge phn h e tr a Q I s n fht ee e x tas m .h n s tn sr e e a el mi n d gs .” F . —At up b f u iui tls t t au p h ir ar e o b e a ou n 1 n i t ndi d n d ln h ce s e n hd P o 1 i v ln ip r c eo e h age c p a e rn 2 r sid — A groupof welding c ) et h sw s i i m e e sh wc a i n l ht h’hhshls M o — d u pl r u oi s w p r e s s u r e . c oi r m t m ie g in nio am in h c r e l i m i t .lo tli no r n o n i s m o at rts o e p a riw c ui a i oi l c s o t t hd u s i ea . rig ne m r ig n a i o t o i p e oh n i nn f g e .m t e t sore h e s e e d c 1 t iy0 C o e n0h 0 f m i o ne c . k a as e u l i bp t e t a es b vt eol t t e t eh o t The Moment of Inertia (I) p r re e s d l si et u e p vv r r ie it n ec f g hv e e for thin walled cylinder q o u p ( ee U nC i n A n o tg d . 1 = n r’t where r = mean radius of cylinder t = wall thickness N d t V e — eA a d l l ve a e T it a spp h p e ko r e f i. T r o c a h ho u a tt ne en o c en g f se i o i f l t me r p r se w s t rs r ie it ev us e t spt e o ne s n c h s i t i o l— t He r a e t t 1 b i F no0 g c o m p s r f et ts c sr i o v an o e o ud hi n i n ti i a a r o ex t n b c i a f li r o t e h m t v pa i e ce c r ao ae tt u lon r s wt t ir p rte o phslo h r iF s ti imn o mn e a o il ro s t e om . a s rt D b ee ceo rof le x n a si s d. e o ta r s e u h d — A m t i s i t or a e o m nc e g n abt ntt h u as p r oe a n s eo n t c c e h f . —T t e m pt e w r ab h t mu iar m o t e p o tt v a ha b e f t s p e o o c h p ieo ftr U a G Ua e G 2 C2 tdn su .o c l a e tx h l e i a b t r square of eitsh a y e a l lwo o wp a r r ba ke l i isie u s n s ug n r u r distance from the axis. 6 a i t z or s c o ma ol e ia ct h n c a g l o z i f h s e i int br r e t e ee ef r n m o ps a e ras a to cu nce s c o e a rS i ca s d l r g s i e on a m c v t ese i u y m t on b b b n je e feb r n sc o f ttd a o e r ei n lie n g s lt m o -s t o eu ia g ri o n” c s F r i c r.

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i do e s d r h t rt s t r a d to u p l ee u u e a n o c f h sii u ro n wg sa i ia e e t l. n d e M t r tor — .T c s r e o a c o t s i o s nh m f b T e sectionmodulus a . t n g a e n r f t h s e t b r r e s m e n a t a a s g d r l s s i r t e n .n b l ert r l f u au h i g s h -c t e m el p eihr a s n t us r i e t n r eg v o . w r et i es pi pt r et ic n c hh e ac t i ne i o pt xr a —T p r o po h a c e se l s e n f cg t s emi s oo i h m nw -ere e n rti et stt a p it f h e a x rr a o dt i n h a at o ri i o ab cn o u sj b g e td h n a ci b n i tvt d ni d i -d fs h et aa r d t nh o e e a t t y cx ar o e i n sc o u ou ntr ag d s e p n d ne s fs s i os t r i z n d to ss o ei T m e o p e o m tc t sh ne t e i t co h ( i UC l A o m d6 . o ahpl uc tl iu o ea n n r v f e I t t e r m ohi t n bo l s h o n e g io t y h i o e R e s — i S d remaining u a r in l a struct e s c sy l p i no d a v r a io e c asa s p rl h r f is vs e t ee ture or member as a result of thermal or i c aa a s l pl lh s e ehs r s ide c o a l l l mechanicaltreatment. Soi h n g gl ne e e— -l i n B . e c o m o hp s o n t e r e — T tr r i a te the n op g g o rie . S t —E c p ra d e p p ra rr g a e ftt p ic oe a n r. e t i l ia e b c o mv ee e l r e a t ec td a r o ln d e S —A i o fr x oo t ior s m d u n nre he f d a nc e e o h s st o o e mi e t e f t iflo tm l o.J W u A od b e jd i tw uo n et i f r no s io n d dm e e l y .d c f f q w t i f R o s d r s l R p s a a t eo as r e i css o i t t n ii idr s ce a hl erff -y ls i a m d t h i n ep t u r e o le t r s ln s e L a u o l o dia sin ct n y r o i ea e m c ir d n lso g ra to t i td a o ri i s lt r l i b b oi u e s t a e nv id td t d r si e e n.e nf a e t r n eo n ec R e sW i s e— t Al ap ndr cwe ie e n s p slg ud n c w h e t eh r si p e ehr is o b nt d a u e c t e hs d y e — A a r e s t it sf t o aa e n l h ci ce e o u c r o te r wr e fi nn c t . w e l d i n wg p h rc o o c e e a srl is p e e s r ci eo nn b mh d n c t y ega t t r h wi R o o— T b o o t ft e o o t hw t h ee l de fw e aa. re e o a r d ae w r =h m L e —n A t g i tne h d ni s c r at t i m n g o c y il i n d p e m c i i o nfm ii a e ml x d ue i w m m n ui gr m r t t h a c k n l th = w t h i e f n aw g i t i t rl thi anh sn h d n g i c na g t eee d . . or both. s S W —e S w e u ae p i e r s il ta od m i t i g h t n e s s . r the s w h f e ho we a i t ts h c fis lr h h o h e el i f f lnmetalis e i ee obtainedfrom t d s l. o t o e o a md u h ef wg m r en b el e o d ee f i g r o. e a rb hl r e f ol a o u blo t qs l i u o yen w y n g ce h d i n y g s or t l e m u op te Lr i a i m t ou u q n rf e u ss. S i n g i eL . am h a i ip t e l cu r n ih a g le d s .c h ogs n wds ic nt h e ti as o i n t tu s ra s c h e e c oc h ep noo a f tr h rt a li e l o a n a ff t a fd oi a r lp pu ol t n o irs c e ia t n tm t b ir ho e ne e x E p e x o cas t m pd o l e drse r e e cs a. r u g o s c – A n na a e u a si ti en n g i t in c d i s c o n t i n u i t y .W J e — i d o A el a dji i on p a a e b l r dti d l a y i o n w t h o v e i er h l c oa td p m h p ge eet d mh e b b j o a w i e an r ti lee d e odo o e d e h nd m e m b e r . i n s wu f — r Aa m c at o o tv re h y r me i e i a iS rl tg fi yt nh —S h r e e ug c l lm t e ut l m re a a n el n c d w o p r io t p m n e t ri hs t t a iu h f e i a s tk s a st b o eo M pi t oe a t m s o rc a h g e ese h e . S e cSo — n t Ad r a a re y s a Weld: Thedepth of Size Weld —Groove p e n e t r a t i o n . e h a s r r n e m g f e l e electrode. 0 e ) m o l d a u d r e l t g uet e r s f ml l i y n e he x t t eo r i as b eo f onn g e g m ti a ha t v e f r m e i o a d — iT r u o a s g hd yf r i s a u S e M c o ( t d o i a u o l n Z a a w r r ei t a sge p a tf ini e ta c v h x t e ih o n s s e t w h c a y i ( l i r l i ~ n e n l qr o u t o aq ur o oa h eb n b ttt ai f ite n y e d y a i b t r a o a n t s u x v e i t vm i o d o i ih m no n t ee g a w n r e tt r h i f ae tf e a h z = Pnt e t t s a pb h t e ax c ar t i h oe t s 4-+4 ay e .

—I n f t e e o xrb e n e r oa irt c l tt ee a d p j oa aab c u e r t o n o t p a t d s ch o fh r — Theratio of the lengthof a i m p a g o ls i e n pa e aW n r dna t t h ie o a uniformcolumnto the least radiusof gyraf ao p ra t trc pr a et l s ls h e ai t c e nl r h a eo tion of the crosssection. ln t h l t se t s u o t r o f m at hc h ee e f me r b w ih e i x p c r o hs e s d — L o n g i t u t h t rh oT oh u h gl o h h e e l . e e e r Si s d i to n r ( m a l + m o m n a b f a i o y l r ly e t e C d i r c u m f ( e r h eS n t o i a c o m wp w l e m it e e e l ty t l a h ld s . m \\ y U n L e F q W i u e l ae lll l e g d t : \\ T p r h s e b s h i s i a u a r s nk ne ls i d e l c o et r T l l o e t h l n e a g r h e t g g h e f s e t k nn g l s . po (0l° e r ° .E L qF W u i t el e a l l e hg d t : e w e i lo d l a i n in l l eo t en l g a rth g g h e f se s t t a w g r g ei t r s e p t i s o r si gc h e t .ac h m e c to na s olt a ipl t r u i o eo c nc ot o es s r s s e f h ed o i r a t . —At h fr a e wsa i tda hete nd he e w t h i o ro e et o a b d n h e ns o n n – ( E S l t aa T b s it l iti c h t h y f r )l e e a (ue n d U Ceg l A d t o -h l d 6 .l t re i a s e L n g l 1 t i t h o o l t h i s h L w c h b ii n as c c h r i n b e e d i u uh re w t i f t wi h c hl ie r l n e ol e t— s Td p s r o e l h s i t s q \\ oa vo gt iv a nwe i g i n t dh s a . f R F C or .s s s lt o e s e c t i o n n. l ie p r w o h c e e r s e s i n c o a l i e p s r c e o b n d c e u t o a v ie s e s a v sf e b y f ero f eo e l c l st y e u d y t f h e w a a a t i o i a b n t r e g r a t h w c n b a r o u n d n e s s . B r r e s n t d r i n e g aa a s s t ec a i on sn d od) p a i rr tr i t e do s n ss u r f e S er a s h t e s a t e m p n e r a t u r de . s t ora v e t e nr gb se t u s o h s cw ek i fr l l si i o n n t g k l r — A a w e lr i d t a c no x um psi r t e Tg a s se rs o ti el v a esh b s i . S — tA f r c o a hn r i at d nc n ig m ee y e ” hd ni oe t a s o c a uf h t o l n i l t o f oo e ua n b n f Ax —A r os n t -id a r y e f t . e s s h tw r e t f eh a a o s n d s r h r e o t .ec m n eh t r s s o o mff ne d at s u o l j oi w a i t hin n rc t t n e a ir epm p d e e o sm e l m u .c rn t p t l s h ia t c hr n a e eo ls e s tr le r sm e —Aw e l d w t n h o h e rt d m ao s i ir t n r e ee t l s cw t s a p o w a i a h i i r c i c compressive n a ct lt h l t s w i i d h i a r efe tw c pn tr e ta s d a 1 b t t p e o h o tr ta r i oh ot n f e 4 o w i ah i i c i c tensile a c stress. D i s c o s n t ia r n a uei ts a b c h ri t u a h i p nc we s ige s it a ln c ed i n g o s n o h W e—E llec d t r ii c . e r nn i n ag a n s g t o x m i hd e c it o z n a s elett d il at iu he c nd t i s ras i ta o t r s te t T i o w r n sa io i t hs nr u n d e U s i sr c a ubo ol acen o. l m s b l i y n sa c t tio o m n f s u m t c o s on n l eyn o d t o o a o ax c b i o ia d w xn ne s f id eo is d i u d e tc t r sx ah l i a td d a f ud es i e ib s i ld i to d y . m e e l e o e tc l t e a a r c to t w ld r o T e o d n h er w e i s l h d b i a ibe n l o g d g a re n sa d kn — T f w u m s a o it t o e b rl i r e hai en w P o rl s s kn l o ii n t n e r f mewi t eti sl e a tl n f l td ei u n et a ~ f s m in ie o nl e e b l f t dt a e e da i r r n ll i p o r h.r n a p the vessel. t r e s S a S c m a ne l m l b —T r o ta d h e to a n h i s e o i t f e y ( d f i a sp h f t r v a r g m e m a t t t ed r e i o n sh a l ss o ti oa t e n y m d a f er d s h e aa f v ilo i g n m a ts e ar w i a a al a c . r t i r wi g a c h bn h g i i t ld a c e e sv h i e g nsn e si e i n sw c t ir f i t w bi c h e h ld ir e l nc o el te ti s d s s e o n . w f h i ul i s i t am c si a i oh mdt ni e ra rs d e l e o c lt a l y b e t t e lw et e ch e ti r n op de es .s t p eh e c s i rS u f i t e dr e v o l u t i o + t e m p fe e r ax t 4 u a room e 6 .

m c ue e r h ss n h ts i ef e n l g f bi w m l e le et l d a y ld . i k r C ng — T m a sxh a it m r 0 u e ie m U G 1 6 ) m a s t u e bt r a j si e t a cr t le etc c d oh i on a ag d n f u a n c d t u e r tieoo n lw ge r a n w i tw h i s t te a h a n ro d i u n t g T.U G S 2 C 5 ) C . n o t h m i c iw k n cn o e a is ra l srl e lo ts o s wi ao h nn c e s i n ac u l tu sa d nl eil s d oh vn t w daar gb le le e u s — U e s t s esn ni t t s e i r il a l ot h f t t e m o po he t rt a ( t eu r Ur e C h e sA o -tt f d e 6 . c w a e m l a r dd se e . d je a lt o j d u i oe n hn c d t ti — t o e u n F n fWi d l e —Aw el l er t partslocatedapproximately w o at rightangles — F p t l m oa a p txh i e r to eachotherin the form of a T. ce n e dh s o s ’ a m s t — c e oa a l l oi e mz s p ce e edn p b u t f o t ir t e hm D u i dh v b l y ia ee s s i if on o n sA l . sr t s h o pr h u t le n ni e s ih t r e eu nne g sg n h — T d e v e oh l c o p ym e t l i ce tn c h iia f h a c( n rn ab gs de i te l ta n w t h g er a rp drm io haed c nl u ttc iy s i c h n g e iri h i r c lg l o ag r n i a. ok r n r i e z o so snl t a ly l s c r e q u ih f r de m ee n e o tt s e r r tivemeansfor locatingand identifying internal m ti t np r i ebh e no s a cs g s a lus c e rut le e discontinuitis a t id o n n by s detectingthe reflections they a o u i t U r l G i f . 0 e p u il e) u n eon c o gm n i n ps t rr h i ett i s .e 2e d b uf )e . m i u sn d s e ri t i o t b l sel r m a e v n cao he a l o . a n cr i r n e g so s — A s e l f .h t — d e vb a e m l ao tp b e td r ii a a a y lc k n a ct e n ot e hu n n ee no h at b e t a el r n o i s n ia g l d e .nh a e e i l s chs —Aw m t eh ap l o o aad dsrl ee a to s cm fae s l ls y lc d oe m t rvec a ai d a ai l b n l w e il p d m r a le o i n u g ptt n n fe m ne r it n ph t n it tl mla a i e n ul fh ei amc t ed u r o x t e e r a. c o m w m te h r a c ll u l s im ic t a k b n hea s s —T ( f t d S H y t pr t r i t v o hai es v uh ls a io e st p e or h s e si s g ru e r n e .s t s dn 0 te h 1 h s i ( c.m r ae l s s s d e vi a e s l bo o w p eh ol d aev n i done dv l ye u r m e o m a i pt r e e fr v a i e s arn f tsl t s ue os m d ii h m n gz e e a s t h i n n aho sr p m a d h u a e o a ln t lu t y d l ed r c h i t e a m pn e r g a t e u r e n . T b f c a a h lst c o pu i r l eiaees t s eri ssd u t r th e e n r o t p ha r i a et g hrs a ipp fe g e hr s h m i e s ss ei t b l e oie t o l b n vt e e a i n p t r e aed r s e n ts ae b utrl d r m e i e n eh s s d i — A g y g e n rm m a e d t j t t t a o c a a w e a h l n l o e u t e o n f o rf m e u e l lao ao te s v . ro c c o ra rl o l i s a o iw ( o daU nn G d s c e. —T a m o s ho p t u u o r n e e n a r e a . 1 T “ r e t h qh ui ic i t k r .nt 9 h e e9y d d ( o rC hn o )s t a r t aeibeam c of ultrasonicvibrations produceof t a i U e G -n f s 1t 0 p 0 nt ( ed o t b u h n )me (CodeUA-60) a t rs ie c t . 3 T “ n to h m i ic it k n t .bs a l pt d bu a n c o n eu d ni d i s t f ro yi rb m uVessel t i —oA n f t e m p o e b r d a it u ft r f h e ec er o i r r n eym g f a f l i c io e e x pn aT n t hs si e o tr if n .t d h 2 T “ dt h eh i s i ct k is n.o g ee t n s h s um ’ hae s w e t mo a f e r e t q h u ia i c t r c k o e n ra d e n rh ls o ls o s i w d oa e nn c e (UT)—a nondestruc- . d te h s i ( c ik C ng e o sn s .it — T n iM vP e o r ip l s aa ll l ta e eb — l U l s e to w l b i v l e rde r a tw d o t i a o t c h l e ay h t ib h c .n ie a tn e l gsl g y a h l te o t h m s t a r s aeu b s ls s n ec e q l or s u a oec d c n tk a i n l g f m a t e r i a l . m a n u h t h io hc k p e n a a eip si dp sp e s sf n i f e t . — A t e co h d e n p i wo q su i e m i w e t h t e l i a ei o ch s clt c fr ni h ol d l er s t s i i dd ee o . r d r t eo P s ent a e t ts u ei m ce t a t s .w d s2 uc o swe i ii u d t h nio s oo ft y i n l .

p y 2re oe 7a s) 3 p s o oc e b cn s ie e e ru rl f e n tg u m w i p ix i a u a er t 0 b d rp no nu ch o e . r a od m n p . d d in en s aa oh et f ts m n i nf a e e h l e t ll t a de ewl r eo . ie . mda g ec r r l gc e . u i r i i p m o pt s do e i r s st bt a i e nn t sg tt u 2 P r we s e p sr l o ud f c r i. o n .r i c ae r e s s bs t t r r C e i (c s t U oh e ea W d d. e i l e s n ns a g e d s upper : uh y c . lr r s a h gr l p od w c ihee t ne e sc s e es h t d r n f o o ut d d r oee n p e m io hs e s t i ht t —T m j eoh p i t r u n oia i e c s nl e g s e s d n m a w ke il nd gs . ph i . r mre n ies w t s t .w ts o e i i th esln i at td c h r.is n c w rc i ta n h cs e r o tF s eu sr a t e s o se o t r ao e s l l be a n c e g t . h o r ia z t o l n y t oa n p lhi . uhs trd r ie e s dh s c -i s f a t hbr a g i ei n r cr a g a s . w o e i ih e d el n s o t b i m —T —T m m t e a tp h r o awi je R —F l hd ea o a w hc te lw ae on ms n os t r t sr m a t d eh e r i t aat l s ies o l. t r e i s p i os r t t e an hns ace s .me e h l a . e ts rcs n o m c.p e ru .r e e hf s tu t fl r at ei f lnh o u g u o i tm r g s ew . 1 S h m i e a el s u d r t be a . f s m a o ott t e m ir s i e or a hm eu l e sr t is w ny mi ito r us e s et n l g h t mi o i e lw o tl r da e i lra sr o .m a i .y nn o e r yd s . m e u w n t h m d c i e e o h n c t r t d t i h e a n f eu l a io n c n di tv t i sp o c l re d vs o he d d u n c e O a f m n a e t l e e x a r h i y a i w l b s ie u t y p r i o o l d i ne n f dt . a ad c r s m a e g t ru t an p aag c l a s r l at a . e f o l l o w s : b. — I r p f t ils o n n a t e sn W r I o u r g ert h ao I t c o n s o th v r u et c tws in o eespn leh dl ri fai p s n e fd g ud I uo ri l c n hi a anrn ab cg ct t e e . c s o ah tw w r se h e ts e i r s —T l h y m d r a eo gx r g t ew y n aef ce l u la d le .i i l n e g s .

.. 439 Millimetersto inches..........vd e e r c s i i o mn a l s 8 3 o a degree...........................................455 Bend allowances of Steelphltc .............IN: E Abbreviations ......452 Centigrade............ en a........... r c l e 300 s of c Circumferential stress ...............................ne........................................... c kl n 2 e 2 ls s 0 o n s t o r V u C c t Si o S n C I S f ..................... 2 E x p t r e ........................425 ASMEflangedand dished head....... weightof........ 4 8 3 Boltedconnections ...............................204 API 12Ftanks............................ .... 2 3 6 .............483 Annealing............................. Cylindricalshell head.................483 API 650 tanks ... .....................20........................allowablepressure................ propertiesof ..............................................................24 Externalpressure.. e s .... 484 l oo p w ab n l ec ................ ‘ p a c i ..... l l o y 4 8 of. f i c a t i o 13n 9 7 4 o n to r a c t i o n f H o r vi z e .............................. 140 Chemicalplant piping... a u3 l r e W t h a i .............. 438 Radiansto degrees ...................483 Backing......... 3 and areas 300 n b dc e ................................................... 484 Accessopening...... s a s e w 4l s C C r f ri .....................................483 Definition....................................463 Bolts. flanges ................................................ Codes .......................................................... t .... 446 Gallonsto liters .................................. 442 ..... to kilogramsper sq........ 20-24 Dimensionof m.......241 Arc welding ............................................................. 441 .................................... ............................. 4 B B B B C ir e l n s e s ru rd e .. t l e n e s s 4 u ..34 Internalpressure...............................366 definition ............................... 184 Commonerrors Detailingvessels...............255 Abrasion ....232 Carbonsteel....................................................... 484 Factors......186 Centerof gravity..................................438 Litersto gallons..... 280 B v ao p le Segments of ................. e r sn s ................ s...................... u t t Weld..............conversion to Fahrenheit ...234 Ilcnt pipe .........236 Bendingof pipe and tube ......... s h i n g ....................431 Kilogramsto pounds....................................................... d ...........................483 Checkvalves....20................. 290 Circularplate............483 Base ring design ........ in........:..... allowablepressure................... 69 Combustibleliquids................................. 79-83 Beamformulas...... Anglejoint . i.......................................................................................................... at c t t l u e r 4 e r i t............................. 14 Clad vessel..................................................... .483 Capacitiesof fabrication..110 Chemicalresistance Allowable pressure . 258 Area of surface......... 8 4 r c l ........ .................276 To cylinderreinforcement ..444 Ccntroidof an area ..................................... 484 Coderules relatedto Services................................................................................................................ centimeter...... ......................... 224 stressesfor Allowable paints....... o sn t s a e 9 l l s 1 2 o n ... g ................................. 253 non-pressureparts .483 Anglevalves ............ 4 l A A A 4 9 Chipping..... Allowable loadonsaddle ....................... f ................. 440 Poundsto kilograms...................................................... 484 Cone............484 Chain intermittent IiIlcl Weld ........................ Preferredlocations............. 224 Allowable pressure............483 Area of circles......... Allowablepressure........................................................... 335 Externalpressure.......................................... Conicalsection......466 Checklist for inspectors...... 443 f 8 3 Degreesto radains... 20-24 Automaticwelding ....... .......... 181 Thicknesses.... 367 Absolute pressure ............................................ .. 20..................................................... 404 Circumferences and areas i ......203 Appurtenances................ 300 Planes.................. tickness of............Circles........................433 Poundsper sq..................circumferences ........................ 18-25 of gaskets..........weightof ............................................. Internal......... 470 Combinationof stresses................................................... 36 Frustrumof......................... 439 Inchesto millimeters........... oh so l i r 7 g t7C n i -divisionof..............................28 Metals..... Completefusion................. 159 Wallthicknessfor internalpressure.....................

... 66 ................................................................conversionto centigrade......... ...........Sq.........444 Fatigue......22 Area of surface................................................................ 335 Eccentricity.... 484 2 Corrosionresistantmatcrinls...485 2 2 Ellipsoidalhead allowable pressure ..................................... wall thicknesst’or internalpressure................................................................... 192 Designpressure............... 291 Ductility.............485 Filler metal..... 184 Flangedand dished head......485 Earthquake........................................................... 126-127 welding....... 312 D e o c a degree........... 68 Deformation.........34 thicknessfor internal pressure...............................................................40 Fabricatingcapacities......... i m a l s conversion.......67 Illcctroslagwelding..... 485 Drop at intersectionof nozzle and shell ......... 22 area of surface.......................................................... e i g h 3t D a m s a ......... meters ...........................................485 Elastic ....335 externalpressure ................................ 191 s 8 openings...............138..485 Fahrenheit......................................... partialvolumeof.................................strain ......................... t g ri ne g 4s Davit ....437 Sq........................... 483 Deflection.......485 Fiber stress..............................421 Cylindricalshell allowable Pressure..........................................of seismiczones...............485 Efficiencyof weldedjoint .........................................485 Elasticlimit..................................conversion. 18...............................................484 Fatigue ...............................................425 dimensionsof ............................. ............................................177 Expansionjoint ..........361 7 weight...................484...................................................... 42-47 stiffeningring .........................................486 Fillet weld ........418........ 484 Degreesto radians......prcssuretemperaturerating ................. 361 Cylinders......................... allowablepressure......... 32 Thicknessfor internal pressure........485 7 5 of horizontalvessels ....................................................definition.......................................................... 52 weldedjoints .....485 Divisionof circles ...........................................conversion........... n g 240 Dimensions ofheads........31 f charts ....34 locatingpoint on ............395 pipe........................................ Flammable liquids........................................................... 195 steel structures........ 425 Externalpressure........... 484 Couplings............................................... 447 tcmpcraturc................................................................. 413 Wchling......................... 18.... 24 area of surface.......... 426 Definitions..............215...............18$22 Endurancelimit. 484 tall towers .................. meterstosq........................................................ 31 Designspecification............................485 lapjoint ......................................99 of metals....................484 internal...........................................335 externalpressure ....... Creep.... 64 ............................................................390 4 ..22 W ................................................ 330 Discontinuity.. feet tosq.......... 468 Definition.......................................... 484 Corrosion............20....................................1....28 Flrmgc dimensions.....................................................................................................................486 Fittings....................................................361 dimensions.................................... 289 Doubleweldedbuttjoint ........................ Flangedfittings............. 443 Decimalsof an inch..............................425 dimensionsof ............................................28 weightof ...........................................................485 Examinationof weldedjoints ..........................................232 Fabricationtolerances......................................... 139 Weightof ........................................437 Cornerjoint ....................341 pressure-temperature rating ................................235 Erosion......485 Elasticstability .............................. Eccentric Eccentricload..... 61 map...... feet ......... 484 Lengthof..................................485 Engagementof pipe......................................................................... 426 Decimalsof a foot .........................................293 partialvolumeof.....441 Descriptionof materials.............200 Factors............. 4 Extensionof 128 Externalpressure ................446 Factorof safety . 15 external ................................ 18. 1 448 D e t ofpressure a i vessels l i .

.............. 4S7 Leg support 102 f o .... r t m a h u 1m l Lengthof a 6 Lengthof pipeand coupling G v l .............................................................................................. e r s n s a u1 l r 1 e stress5 .......................486 Gaskets.+................. 4 test report...............1 4 ............. of stud bolts.................................. c a k l t n 2d e ls o s 6 cylinderand plane............. 487 ......................486 dimensions.......... allowable Literature ......................... 6 Longitudinal 14 1Iingc......... n ot r i n2c e nozzleand 7 of shell........................... ...................... .......... ....... 487 Junctionof cone to cylinder............................... Is.........ta l le o y 4 e l 8 stress...... 8 .............. 487 test ............................ 1 3 dimensionsof . 293 o r vesselcomponents... 315 Laminatedvessel.... 159 Killedsteel .................... 487 weightof ............................................4................ .................. r m u l a 2s 5 ............ 487 Joint penetration........... 4 8 7 ......... ........... e...................................... r ........... definition...boilerand pressurevessel .................................... 487 flydrogenbrittleness... .........416 Linedvessel .....375 Liquidpenetrantexamination......... 13 I n t e o r cs e c t o i o n n f e stress values. 487 F f wiu .......................................... n ...... . 479 pressure............... i t et e n t l 4 d 8 7 for pipes......... 189$190.......................... conversion .......................... ao l b v e 4 e 8 6 for openings.. 487 Lapjoint ............................................................................. 487 Kilogramto pounds............. ................................................ 487 Impact stress .........................................................i f ......... 142 I n p t r e ............. Gate valve .........................lifting ..... 6 of 2S6 e c cc e ...................487 and cylindcr .........28 Magneticparticleexamination......cylinderand ... o b l e m 2s 6 8 arcs .... .. 237 G i r t i........ 487 Heat treatment.... o eo v l e 4 d s 6 Liflingattachments........................ 187 I[ydroslatictest ............................................. . a ..... 291 F g p u i ...... propertiesof ..................... 487 I n s o p ep c ......................... 118 definition................ 2 34I I { i gs h .................................... 119 Ileads .......drop 9 ... tflanges ............................ 487 G rw ..........................................s n .......................... ................ 486 Malleableiron ..........210 1Hemispherical head...............................486 L temperature operations o ..................... welding ................m ........ ............. 2S1 f o u c s o tn cr c e . I n s u w l ao e t ..................conversion.................................................................. et i n o in 1 n g of foreigncountries..... ............................................................................................. 13S.............................. 297 G s i f o er ............................... a pe i ln 2 s g 0 8 Isotropic...................268 ....o t.......................................... 2 e 7 sphere.......... w 185 Hydrostatictest presssure......34 ellipsoidalheads....243 Geometricalconstructions........ Longweldingneck........486 Ligament............. ......descriptionof.. 438 ......... 28 I n t e w r m...........................................................................w l t e h aia ............................................................. 474 Layeror laminatedvessel ............... 425 Loadings ........ 241 wall thicknessf Locationsof i n p t r e ......n c ...........................................4 ........r ............................... F F h r Gage Gallonsto .................................................... ii f o n g ....2 u .......... .................................. 174 efllciencies........ 2 3 194 l n s pc c h c e ................... ....365 Generalspecifications.............................................. e.................. 486 Materials............ 1S Lug. 186 3 1 conversion........ 108 p r ........................................ 139 d i m e n s i o n 366 s .............................. 487 Laws.. 28S workingpressure.......................... t o c r k ’ l s 2i s Maximum t 5 5 allowablepressure........ l... l el l el l 4 t Joint d ! 3 6 172....................................314 [...... Ladder ..... 439 area of surface........................22 Liters to gallons........ a z a p t i h o4 n s 6 Lethalsubstances.......................486 properties of .................................. r ....chemicalresistanceof...........................................................................335 L o pointson c a t i n g externalpressure .....u ....... 8 .....s 1............ 8 dimensions............................334 Liflinglug .......................... 118 1hydrostatic test pressure Lugsuppport....... ......... 16............. 18.............. 487 volumeof .................................................. 109 for flanges ............192 Inchesto millimeters.......................4 h ...............OW-dk)y S(CC] ...486 Liquidpetroleumpiping.........................

...... 128 P r v e s .........i ......................... 488 Normalizing................. c t i o n4 f s Oxidation.........weightof .... 2 2 2 5 ........Q e 4 1r f 8 Partial v h e a d 4s 2n ............. t f ... 489 o s Packing............. ........... h e r 4e 2 2 Radiographing................ l a u i r l e e 4 v f e Operatingpressure......................... ................. .............. 488 Surface............. ..... 476 Propertiesof pipe....................................... s e 1s ..................489 temperature... c ..conversion.................................................................. 15............. P po c i w..... u ........t .............................................. 488 Neutralaxis. .... extensionof... s t i c i t y 4 8 P b l e a n a l l d o.......... o ...30 8 0 d i m o e ............................ 488 s t o ir s .................................................a e ................ h4 t f 0 M o e ld a ....... ........ 2 platethickness................. gl i u d s 4 i t Pf y v 8 8 v g 4 e .................... ee nr t 4 i Plug f a weld .....s ....t ................................................................. .... chemical resistance of...................................... .Measures ......... t i e g ..... s l u ur e i2 f d detailingof ...................490 P a s s 4 ........... e........................ uinch to n d s e q r ........ ........... 2 h i f c k n eo s s r n p t r e .........................1h ................. 9.............................. a......................... . ............ 140 Nozzleweightof .r ............ .. i.....................i . 488 Metal arc welding ...................... . ............................ 488 Metals.... 4 0 f l 4 0 f l 4 8 ... os .............. 8r ............ 317 Needle valve..... kilogramp s c e n tc i o m n e .................v ............... 488 ............... r o s i t y 4 w h o t e r ees.P 8y . i.488 P r e s s u r e welding.............rv s ......... t ................... o n e n t 2s P po c i w................. ........ d ........................ ...................:..... ....0 t e r e 2d ............8 t ........... 3 s ah h e ................ s .. l. metric system of............. 321 Measurement.. 4 ......................... ..... u b e 332 f s 9 s 5 1 9 ...... 2 3 7 0 u P o ul 8 n t a e h iq tc k en a ef ls s ....... 4 4 0 n .... i .......... i g h 3t f 9 P f is i t y .........t .................... ...490 e n g a........247 uas.......................... . n .... .......... 488 test .. 8 9 Radiusof gyration .................... 4s weldingof ............ .... ... l a l u 8 M oo i m n.................... n ................................................ 9 ............ e l n a l 1 s d Pd sl w 8a o 2s e .......... a g ........1 ....... .................. v e r s i o 4n P t ............ s...... o n......... tp m i b n eo 3 g l s 6 P c i ............................. po i d n eg 2 s 0 P l a .............................................. t a i l i n 2g weightof ......................... i w .442 s p ............... a7 f o m 3 1 M o o rd i u .............................. n s i o n 3s f 3 0 Randomlength... ....... e ... .................... .. er sn s a 1 u l r e 4 w o e .............r ............... h l 3 i rca k e tnlt........................ 272 Primarystress............ n d p i 2 n e 3 g 4 relationto ................................ 122 P r e .............. n t l e ...... ........ 488 Nipple ..................... ...... i ...... p oei nr 2 d g e P r el fo eco r va r t ee i dos n s s e c o m p ............ o n e n t 2s h e a t i n g 4 Openings.. P ot k ui l c n oo g d n .............................................. P r o e f s .............. 8 8 489 i wall t Nameplate................e ........... 427 Membrane stress .....R 3 ..ne..................... o . c i............ 2 8 3 7 8 P-number.......................................... ......n ...................... .....490 P e t refinerypiping r o l e..................... ......... 413 l a w ....... 413 Pneumatictest.............. ............................................ ...................... l d i n 1g f 7 M i l lt i m n e tc e h r s e s ow ..................... p o ei nr 2 d g e P r el fo eco r va r t ee i dos n s s e c o m p ..... ... 1 Reactionof l e o f on p e ng i n g ot1 s ............ ............. r....... ........................ R e f p r o o p..............489 Organizations............ e ..................... R a to 2 d i a s degrees............... .... 316 Mitered pipe .g ......c......427 Mist extractor ................... ..................... 414 o t Paintingof steel structures...... sa o nt ’ si 4 o o ............................. m i .......... 224 Metric System of measurement ............ ne a c l i h 4n g oo c l y lu ... .......... l .... 244 P r e s s u r e T e m r p e r a a t u r e t i ........ al t a tm 4 de n t t oper sq.. 3 e a s et s ............... a c .................... 488 Non-pressurewelding........ 244 Nozzle loadings...... i o n o M i t n h i oi m c u k m n s s r a df i oe gx r a a mp................. 3 o s e .... 489 P P P P 8 8 8 optimum vesselsize......l . a s i................................................ g e m e n 2t 3 5 ............. m ........... ............. ....... ................................... e.. t e e .......u l9n a r 2 k 8 r a c t o0 r y 4 ......................................... 244 P r r e v s e s ............................!....... ....... ...174 P b ei ....................... 153 Nozzleneck thickness.............. 488 Nozzledetails......... c o n .......... ........ e s s u r s e 4 e l reinforcementof.....1 f l.... 488 strength ..g ......... ...... f................... e r t i e 3s f 38 t t a n.........................208 u m Radiographicexamination............... ... r m ............ 4 n e 2 n1 ............... n...... ..i ..122....... .................................. e o ..ni ...........h ........ 129-137 d e ..

............. 444 Specificgravitydefinition.399 Shell............................................................................................................................................................ weight......... 491 Staggeredintermittent filletweld..416 weightsof ....combinationof............ 102 ............. e i n n 1 gi 1 n Spot 2 g f welding. rectangular..................................................... 237 Studdingoutlets ............................ 13...............................................................external........................ t....................... 481 Submergedarc welding ......... 181 Shapeof openings ............. .. 272 ~ymbolsfor pipe fittings.....86 in pressurevessels.... 357 Subjectscoveredby literature............................................................... 48 Strain ............................ 189 Stresses................................................ s 39 ............................ 2 Slendernessratio......... 492 of vessels........... 31 externri! pressure ............... lengthof... 34 rhermalexpansionof metals.........................................................491 Structures............................ 447 Structuralmembers..................p ..................allowablepressure....................... I Scale...............491 rensile strength....................... 7 491 R e w q t u h i ai r c e k l d n e Squarefeet ls s to squaremeters.................weldingof.. ............ 49Q Right triangles................... 458 Stud . 492 Sphere............... . 290 Seismicload........conversion Specificgravities.... 22 rest pressure...... 49o Sections.... .........designof...............................491 ree joint ......................270 temperature....61 map of seismiczones ... .................. 49o Shop weldedtanks............ design .448 Stress....................... 274 Rootof weld ... 190 Stair ................ 412 [’hcrnml fa[iguc......................................designof ............ 491 for oil storage .. 204 Slot weld .................. definition................................490 Saddledesign.......................... 492 rhermalstress ................ externalpressure ... ...................................................245 Screwedcouplings.... 1 i n n dpressure e e S o ............................... 122 checkwdvcs..........................49o Sheet steel..........49o volumeof ..... ........................ +....... 447 Stiffeningring................................ r $ 18..18......................................................................... 212 Slag ..... 203 I’ackweld ....... @O Section modulus .............definition................. 52 openings..... ............... 437 Squaremetersto squarefeet......................... 27(! Ringjoint flanges ............ ...n................. conversion..... Size of openings......................... 492 Specificationfor design stress . 313 Standards....... 176 Secondarystress ................................................... properties of ..... 14 in largehorizontalvessels supportedby saddles.......40 construction................................................. 109 0 ... 492 conversion.... 64 Services........................................................... 98 dimension............................ ............................... 191 partial volIImc of . for internalpressure. ............... ... l..... Residualstress .................................................................................. 47o Statichead ........................................................................................................... 491 ranks.................................. 492 Specifications .............. 491 Stressvaluesof materials........................... 492 Solutionof right triangles .......470 rest pressure .....49o Single-weldedbuttjoint ................................................. ..................... 2 I( w thicknessfor a internal l l R c i n f o C r c c t m c c o yn t........ 492 Skirt design..49(I Scheduleof openings ..... 450 Segments of circles ........415 centigradeto Fahrenheit...... : ..356 Ringsmadeof sectors........ . 76 rail towers..................... 29 definition.................. ...........................................g.................................... 375 Shieldedmetalarc welding ...................49o lapjoint ..........................176 vesselsection ............. shop welded..368 Seal weld.... 491 Stainlesssteel.................................. 369 weld ....49o Seamlessheadjoint efficiency................................. 18-2.......................319 ranks.................. 49( Resistance welding .....49a Scarf .......22 R e i n o f o o pr c ......................... propertiesof......................... 122 Shearstress ............................ 491 Stressand strain formula..... 49] Supportof vessels................................................ .R e f r i pg e r i ............leg .............................. a.... i n .................... ..................................................... solution of.490 ................................. o............... .................................... 491 Steelstructures...... 367 vessel....................................................... 69 in cylindricalshell.. 491 Studbolts.......... i.......................................... 437 Stabilityof vessels................Code rules ..................................... 195 rest ....

............................492 Weaving......493 Vibration........... ..........definition...399 Tube.................................49 bolts............................ .... ... l d e d Typesof w Weld........... ..........412 charts ............... ... ............246 sheetsteel ..........................................................’ for pipes ............... 421 Wind load .........200 packing......................241 rod ............ 264 Workingtcmpc.......... M.......................................... 1 Weights......................418......... .............. .................. 170 preferredlocations...... .................. . 178 locations. ....413 Tolerances......definition................ ... 287-288 plates ..............................399 Threadedand weldedfittings..................definition..... 174 Unit strain .......... ...........................52 of shells and heads.......... .........492 Weldedsteel tanks.......................57 .... 174 Unequalplatethickness examination............. ........................................................414 Throat.................................................. ............................................................ JtjS of nozzles ............... ..... .... 140 flanges..493 Vessel....................... 148 galvanizedsheet ... ............. .............................. bendingof..........................................................493 U..................413 for nozzleneck........................... ............................mturc Vortex breaker................ 482 8o 2 321............492 Welding......... ...332 vessels ...............................320 Wroughtiron...........414 Topicscoveredby literature....... .......244 Vessel........................................... .................................... ................... ei eg on d r1 i t e s Undercut...... cl u a l ta 4r e s for internalpressure........................ 179 Volumeof cylinders............... 234 shells and heads .........416 Windspeed map ...........59 e ....361 V~]VCS .................................. 493 24 7 ......................54......................... ........ ........................................... .................492 metal...................... ...........400 Transportationof vessels.. 492 procedure...... of pressurevessels ..................... ........................ ..................374 code rules related t .............481 pipes and fittings Transitionpieces.492 e on 1 i n 1 gr 2 s sizes f o p .....413 Tolcranccsof fabrication....... ... 18-27 couplings.......... Ultrasonicexamination ............... plate .................488 of solids......................493 Yield Wallthicknessfor internal pressure....................... ........................395 of pipe wall ....................................................................................................492 W j e c l oa d t ............375 propertiesof ................. ... ...... ........................................................................204 stress.............................. ............Thicknessof VCSSCI wall.. .....493 fittings ...... .............. 177 weldingof ...........definition.......... ........492 nozzles..... ......................... partial ....................................... 148 definition...... ............................................................components.............492 openings............... 49-51 c i pr ....60 symbols........................................................ 492 designof .................................. 18-27 .. ............. ......126 insulation. .............................. ............ for full vacuum......... ...........................

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