National University of Singapore Department of Mechanical Engineering ME2135 – Fluid Mechanics II Tutorial Sheet 2 (Potential Flow) (1) For the

following flow fields, sketch the streamline pattern, derive the stream function ψ, the vorticity and state whether the flow field is rotational or irrotational. (a) u = 4, v = 3x (b) u = 4y, v = 4x (c) u’ = c/r, v’ = 0 (d) u’ = 0, v’ = c/r Note: In Polar coordinates, the vorticity is given by ξ =
[(a) Ψ = −

1 ∂ 1 ∂u ' rv ' − . r ∂r r ∂θ

( )

3x 2 + 4 y, rotational; (b) Ψ = −2 x 2 + 2 y 2 , irrotational; (c) Ψ = Cθ , irrotational; 2 (d )Ψ = − ln r , irrotational].


Repeat Question (1) and determine the velocity potential Φ (if any) for each of the flow field.

[(a)Φdoesnotexist; (b)Φ = 4 xy; (c)Φ = C ln r ; (d )Φ = Cθ ].
(3) A tornado may be idealized as a potential vortex with a rotational “eye” or core which behaves approximately as a solid body. A rough rule of thumb is that the radius of the eye is of the order of 30m. How does the pressure vary along the ground around the “eye”? For a tornado with a maximum wind velocity of 50 m/s, what is the maximum drop in pressure? This underpressure is partly responsible for the lifting of roofs and of the damage inflicted by tornadoes. [ - 1500 N/m2 ]. (4) A sink of strength of 20 m2/s is situated 3 m upstream of a source of 40 m2/s, in a uniform irrotational stream. It is found that at the point 2.5 m equidistant from source and sink, the local velocity is normal to the line joining the source and sink. Find the velocity at this point and the velocity of the undisturbed stream. [ v = 1.02 m/s; U = 2.29 m/s]. An incompressible flow is characterized by the stream function


Ψ = 3x2y – y3 . (a) Show that this flow is irrotational. (b) Show that the magnitude of the velocity at any point in this flow depends only on its distance from the origin of co-ordinates. (c) Sketch a few streamlines for this flow in the quadrant x > 0, y > 0, (d) Determine the potential function for this flow and show that the lines of constant ψ and Φ are orthogonal. (6) A two dimensional vortex of circulation Γ moves under its own induction in a region bounded by a solid wall on the positive x axis and a solid wall on the positive y axis. At certain instant the vortex centre is at the point (h, h). Find the velocity distribution along either wall and the velocity induced at the vortex centre.
⎤ 1 1 Γh ⎡ , − 2 ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎥ π ⎣ h + (x − h ) h + (x + h ) ⎦ Γ Induced velocity = − at 135o ]. 4 2πh

[ Velocity distribution =


A positive line vortex K is trapped in a corner, as shown in Figure below. Compute the total induced velocity at point B(x,y) = (2a, a), and compare with the induced velocity when no walls are present. y K 2a B a


x a 2a

DA Shah Jan/Feb 2013.

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