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Cleaning & Sanitizing To Control Microorganisms

Back To The Basics

Tom Boufford September 30, 2009

Discussion Topics

General cleaning considerations

Causes of product Issues and Back To The Basics Steps in developing a cleaning program

Master Sanitation Program Cleaning procedures

Soil types Soil removal detergents Four Factors of Cleaning

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Methods of wet and dry cleaning Sanitizing Validation & Verification

NO perfect and easy solution to consistent product quality & safety

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Miracle In A Drum

No Miracle in a drum No Silver bullet Not even irradiation is a perfect solution

Problems may not be prevented / resolved solely by a new piece of equipment

Good Sanitary Design Proper Operation Effective Sanitation Proper Maintenance


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Microbial Contamination Control

Requires multiple interventions
\ Prevent


Must control incoming contamination Employees, Ingredients, Packaging

\ Prevent


Keep it dry, Keep it cold, Keep it Clean and use Sanitizers

\ Prevent


Eliminate Niches/ Harborages

Sanitary design & maintenance

\ Prevent


Control Vectors Stop means of transmission

Causes of product quality & safety issues

Get Back to the Basics
#1 Human error (Training, Supervision, Accountability)
2. Poor equipment sanitary design and maintenance 3. Inadequate Cleaning & Sanitizing (often relates back to #1 & #2) 4. Ingredients / Raw Materials (relates back to #1 - #3, just at a different location)

Microbial Control
Get Back to the Basics

99% of microbiological problems are sanitation related problems.


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Cleaning Technologies / Methods Sanitizing Technologies / Methods People / Training / Practices Sanitary Design & Maintenance

Improve Product Safety

Get Back to the Basics

Effective & regular sanitation program

Clean t Sanitize t Verify

Sanitary equipment design & preventative maintenance GMPs - hygiene practices, traffic control, facilities & equipment Verification - monitor results & document Communicate & respond to all employees Training / Education Participation, Accountability & Commitment

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Management Supervisors All Employees

First Step: Requirements for developing an effective sanitation program


Review Equipment Construction, Composition & Maintenance

Follow Manufacturers Recommendations / Warranty How is the equipment designed to be cleaned?

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Knowledge of Type & Nature of Soil and Microorganisms of Concern Adequate Quality Water Supply

Water Chemistry, Volume, Pressure, Temperature

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Knowledge of Cleaners & Sanitizers Proper Application Equipment Understanding of 4 Factors of Cleaning

Time, Temperature, Concentration, Mechanical Action

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Understanding Environmental Issues Trained, Responsible & Properly Supervised Personnel

Next Step:
Make sure you have and are following these:

Master Sanitation Program

Critical foundation of all sanitation programs Scheduled routine cleaning and preventative maintenance

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Written cleaning procedures Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures - ( SSOPs )

Example: Master Sanitation Schedule

Example: Daily Cleaning Procedure

Questar CAF

Questar CAF

Example: Sanitation SOP (SSOP)

Plant: Processing Area: Equipment: Cleaning Frequency: Chemicals Required Chemicals Used Date: Revision Date:

Task Description I. Preparation: 1. 2. II. Pre-Rinse 3. III. Application of Cleaning Chemicals 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. IV. Post Rinse: 9. V. Inspection of Equipment 10. 11. VI. Sanitizer Application 12.

Cleaning Equipment

Completion Check List

Approved by: _____________________ Date: _____________________


Microbial control programs require effective cleaning and sanitizing


Process of removing soil (food residue, microbes, etc.)


Process that destroys microorganisms after cleaning Also acts as a final additional rinse to physically remove allergens

Why should cleaning & sanitizing be carried out as two steps ?

The presence of any residual soil can chemically or physically impair the efficacy of sanitizers.

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Soil may chemically inactivate the sanitizer Soil may physically shield microorganisms from the necessary direct contact with the sanitizer.

Basics What is Cleaning?

Removal of all unwanted material on a surface.
Food product residue \ Water components \ Airborne contamination \ Transient soil from workers \ Detergent ingredients \ Microorganisms

What is soil & how do we classify it in the food industry?

Soils generally are not a pure composition, but a mixture of all of these. Organics
Protein Fat Carbohydrates

Mineral salts

Soil Classification - Solubility


Water Soluble

Salts & Sugars Alkali Soluble

Water Insoluble

Fats & Oils, Complex Carbohydrates Protein Inorganics/ Minerals Complex Carbohydrates Heat Denatured Protein

Alkali / Oxidizer (Chlorine) Soluble

Acid Soluble

Water Insoluble & Acid / Alkali Insoluble

Fiber (Cellulose), Carbon, Titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Soil removal - Detergents

Basics: what is cleaning?

Four Phases of Wet Cleaning:

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Soil penetration - Surface wetting Soil dispersion Soil suspension Prevent re-deposition of removed soil

How do we most efficiently & effectively clean and remove all of these typical food soil components?

Using a built detergent!

Detergent builders
Substances that increase cleaning power of water

\ \ \ \ \ \

Alkaline builders (alkaline detergents) Acid builders (acid detergents) Surfactants Oxidizing agents, e.g. chlorine Enzymes Water conditioners

Formulated / built detergents

Optimized chemistry = Cleaning efficiency & efficacy

Handle variety of soils

Soils generally are not a pure composition

\ \

Handle various water conditions Clean with less caustic

Lower alkalinity Lower pH Less rinsing needed to bring to neutral (Antoniou & Frank. 2005. JFP 68(2):277-281)

Better at biofilm removal

Soil Removal
(Detergent components & what works best)

Fat / Oil / Grease

Temperature - Important in removal of all soils,

but especially with fats & oils.

Surfactants Alkaline Solvents Alkaline Chlorine & Other Oxidizing Agents Protease Enzymes
Possible Protein Film - Bluing


Soil Removal
(Detergent components & what works best)


Simple Sugars


Complex Carbohydrates (e.g. Starches)

Alkaline Some acids depending on conditions, e.g. sulfamic acid

Inorganics - Minerals

Acids Chelators & other water conditioners

Four Factors of Cleaning = Clean

Concentration Temperature


Mechanical Force

Cleaning Methods
Cleaning element ratios depend on the cleaning method

e.g. Manual cleaning

Concentration Temperature Mechanical Force Time

e.g. Foam cleaning

e.g.Soak CIP cleaning e.g. cleaning

Cleaning Basics

Best results

All cleaning factors are optimum for the specific method of cleaning.

One factor missing, eg. Temperature

Chemical concentration, mechanical, or time must be increased substantially

Two factors missing, eg. temperature & mechanical force

Effective cleaning is very difficult to achieve unless soil is very light!

Poor sanitary design and maintenance will negate the best cleaning program!

Cleanable Design ?

We cant expect chemistry alone to EFFECTIVELY clean soil loads or locations like these!

Cleanable Design ?

Eqiupment has to been cleanable with readily available tools and within the time allotted !

How do you clean these areas and keep them from becoming a source of contamination ?

Cleanable Design ?

Dissimilar materials bolted together

Scraper Bar Cannot be or isnt removed for daily cleaning

Eliminate Hollow Rollers

Install Solid Rollers

Accessible !
If you cant see it, or cant reach it, it probably does not get clean.

To assure cleanability and allow appropriate inspection, areas must be accessible.

Cleaning Methods

WET cleaning vs. DRY cleaning

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Distinctly different - each have unique issues Same Goal - clean equipment Same Problem - sanitation verification

Key Points:
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Keep dry areas dry! Controlled wet cleaning in both wet and dry facilities.

Self draining

Remove water quickly and thoroughly dry

7 steps of effective WET sanitation

\ Secure

equipment and Dry Clean

\ Pre-rinse \ Soap \ Rinse

and Scrub and Inspect & Prepare for Pre-Op Inspection & Cleaning Verification EPA Registered Food Contact Surface Sanitizer

\ Assemble \ Pre-Op

\ Sanitize

Provide Proper Necessary Equipment

Cleaning Tools

Make sure cleaning tools do not become a source of contamination!

No wood brushes No brushes having natural fibers or steel bristles No sponges or porous cleaning devices

Cleaning Tools
Clean, sanitize, air dry & store properly Or discard after each use, e.g. green pads.

Make sure it is clear what should be used where.

Isolate tools used in raw/ pre-cooked areas from cooked areas!

Wet cleaning methods

Manual Cleaning
Bucket & Brush
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High Physical Action Good For Small Areas Labor Intensive

Foam Cleaning

Generally used where CIP is not practical

Exterior of equipment Environmental cleaning

Foam application equipment must be adjusted properly

Foam consistency not too wet or too dry Dries in 5-10 min and can be hard to remove

Potential shortcomings:

If foam dries it is not free rinsing

Future Greater use of automated cleaning

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Reduce time of cleaning Control / reduce cost of cleaning

Improve efficacy of cleaning Improve consistency of cleaning

Eliminate human error factor! Improves and helps ensure the consistency of cleaning!

Clean - Out Of - Place (COP)

Semi-automated - the Washing Machine
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Disassemble equipment Place parts in COP tank Run wash cycle Reduces human error

Effectiveness of COP tank cleaning

In plant evaluation results:
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Processed food plant installed COP tank for parts cleaning. Shelf-life target:

Line 1 - No COP tank Line 2 - COP tank used



COP = More consistent effective cleaning!

COP Concerns

Must avoid flow restrictions

Proper parts baskets Proper tank sizing Equipment must fit in tank

Need to overflow tank to prevent re-deposition of soil that is removed.

Disassemble all parts before putting in COP tank

Ensure that the COP tank is sized properly

Provide proper storage for parts

Store clean parts so that they stay clean!

Clean - In - Place (CIP)

Fully automated cleaning & sanitizing
\ Equipment

is designed to be CIP cleaned. is not disassembled during cleaning. repeatable cleaning & sanitizing human error

\ Equipment

\ Effective,

\ Reduces

CIP cleaning pipe lines

Flow rates critical for effectiveness

< 5 ft. / second = Laminar Flow > 5 ft. / second = Turbulent Flow

Pipe size vs. flow rate

1.0 = 10 GPM 1.5 = 23 GPM 2.0 = 43 GPM

2.5 = 69 GPM 3.0 = 101 GPM 4.0 = 184 GPM

CIP cleaning Tanks & Vessels

Spray Ball Sizing



Routine Inspection & Maintenance Neglected

Spray Ball Maintenance

Monitor Performance

Automatic Monitoring

Time Temperature Concentration Flow Rate Volume

Verify the record & assess need for corrective action

Dry Cleaning: 101

\ Basic

Rule of Thumb: If the environment is dry, keep it dry.

\ If

any moisture is introduced into or forms in a dry area at any time, having a method that quickly and thoroughly removes/dries this moisture is an absolute necessity.

7 steps of effective DRY sanitation

\ Sanitation \ Secure \ Dry


& disassemble equipment

clean (any isolated wet clean ensure completely dry before returning) clean Work top down Inspection, cleaning verification & reassembly Non-aqueous EPA registered food contact surface inspection & reclean

\ Detail \ Post

\ Pre-op

\ Sanitize


Dry Cleaning Methods

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Sweeping Brushing / Scraping Vacuuming Blowing Compressed air Blasting Not recommended blows soil around, not contained and captured.

Examples of Blast Technologies

Soda Blast

Sodium bicarbonate

ExaStrip SensiClean

Calcium carbonate

Dry Ice Blast

Cold Jet Dry ice pellet

Cleaning capabilities of Blast Technologies

Soda Blast

Hard inelastic soils Hard inelastic soils Hard inelastic soils Soils that freeze harden

ExaStrip SensiClean

Dry Ice Blast

Overall conclusions regarding blast cleaning

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High upfront equipment costs Excellent on hard tenacious inelastic soils Less effective on some soft or elastic soils Point of site cleaning limitations what you can see and reach Significant environmental impact - Soil transport to other surfaces Post-blast cleanup required Need for an attached vacuum system

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Low Pressure Steam - AmeriVap


Moderate capital cost Allows for use of wet chemistry High temperature - sanitizing No dust No media Steam vapor Residual water Adequate electrical supply May not work on some soils



Effective cleaning MUST precede sanitizing


Sanitizing is not a substitute for good housekeeping and thorough cleaning! Concentration Temperature


Mechanical Force

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Antimicrobial division & sanitizer registration

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

\ \ \ \

Antimicrobial efficacy data Product chemistry Toxicology data Label & technical literature

40 CFR 180.940

EPA Reg. No. 1677-58

Sanitizing Food Contact Surfaces

Be sure to read the label carefully and follow the Directions For Use!

DIRECTIONS FOR USE: It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

Ensure correct sanitizer concentration

Document & record results Critical for:

Efficacy Compliance with the law

Final step: Wet areas - flood sanitizing

Flood Sanitize Using a Central Sanitizer System

Ensures complete surface coverage Everyone out of the room. No other activity going on in the room. Leave sanitized equipment alone!

Last thing to be done

Final Step: Dry areas - sanitizing

Eco-Wipe FCS

EPA-registered quat/alcohol based ready-to-use sanitizing wipes EPA-registered, ready-to-use quat/alcohol sanitizing and disinfecting solution EPA-registered, solid, granular quaternary floor sanitizer

RTU Surface Sanitizer


Disposable Hard Surface Sanitizing Towel


QAC + Alcohol


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Ready To Use No-rinse food contact surface sanitizer QAC + Alcohol


Granulated QAC non-food contact surface sanitizer floor treatment EPA Registered Listeria and Salmonella efficacy claims

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Steps to Insure Quality/Safety


Personal Hygiene

GMPs Uniforms & Footwear Hand Washing and Sanitizing Proper glove use

Cleaning and sanitizing efficacy validation & verification


Microbiological Sensory Microbiological ATP


Cleaning Verification Visual / Sensory

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Immediate Often over looked Aids

Flashlights Spot lights Black lights Soil identification test kit

Black Light

Protein Stain


Cleaning Verification Microbiological

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Specific pathogen testing Aerobic plate count

<100 CFU/ 8 in2 (<2 CFU/ cm2) <50 CFU/ 8 in2 <10 CFU/ 8 in2 <1/ 8 in2

Coliform count

Cleaning verification ATP


Real time results

Make immediate decisions Take proper corrective action

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More sensitive than visual Ensure Proper Effective Cleaning Program

Proper product selection Proper product use Minimize areas omitted ID problem areas equipment design & maintenance Training/ monitoring employees

Proactive Construction Program

Develop a Formal Program:

Implement construction SOP GMP training of contractors and their employees Isolate area Reroute traffic Record what happened & when in daily log Extraordinary deep cleaning and sanitizing

3 Cs of cleaning = Microbial control Back To The Basics



Correct Chemicals Four Factors of Cleaning Correct Method of Application Correct Employee Practices Every square inch of all surfaces Cleanable equipment - Good sanitary design & Maintenance Done correct and complete consistently each



and every time!

s = SANITIZE EPA Reg. Food Contact Surface Sanitizer

What you can do immediately

Look at your entire process with a critical eye:

Know where microorganisms are introduced Reassess the cleanability of equipment Ensure proper routine maintenance Select proper detergents and sanitizers based on the facilities needs Validate and verify effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing program

Thank You!