1

Unit

2 (2)

Writing Teaching Theory
The Grammar Approach

The Grammar Approach tll~zlfiunnuon?lzl~%~di The discrete skills approach

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rriun?iu~uwir+s:tlliicds::'Iun s ~ u i i ~ c c P s o ~ i n n i ~ i i n u ~ u ~ u ?ij nn~ dsr'Iun ~ou~i
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1. 'The Grammar-Translation Method
The Grammar-Translation Memod fi~ETouuuu~?ulns&L~ntu~a) no?nnau
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Subetitutlon exercises idw ~
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past tense etc. Transforrnatlons idw Ifid~uwdsrlunactive voice rfiu passive voice, rdauuiJs::'lun Cornpletlons
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16

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.a'uiudIunru linmw~iaaibJncln ~ w a r ~B~O InrilaS~uan'nain ULL~LIIH t : lin~ol~noln7wifliuai ~du John B Carol.~a~l~uin~duin ~~r~uni~aour~u~n'uniu?uinnii6o~aouni~ J ar 2 1 I~nlwlvi'am. n i ~ u d a ~ f l u ~ n ' ~ ) r~ u" ~u~ ~~ u ~ ~ n ' u ~ f i t ua:~d~n=iufiYik.rrhirmwlu ~ I ' I W ~ ~ I M ~ R .mcu@uIn' 3. ni~d. <fiuu~+~I~unRuiikium ~in:~ldinwuo~~fiuut~udoIuni~uou 3.12i~dauh ~~arni~i~~niuia~~u~o~&ia ucilinmm~iuainrJ i~~iiniuIu 3 cb r riiun~~~~oiinifiuu~ ~n ~J iw U~ IB aU U M L ~ U U J ~ U C \ ? I U U K U ~ U ( ~ ' O MUR~LBU n. The Cognitive Code Learning Theory The Cognitive Code Learning Theory fi~uou~~sulluun?lufnaiu~u'i'I~) 3% R ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L ~ R V ~ ~ I ~ H ~ ' J ~YR ) (the " I audio-lingual U ~ I ~ ~ approach) U ~ U ~IO d6 ~ U ~ ~ ~ J aa Y WRRIU~RIRH?J .w ~~d~il~~?~g ni3'mwidaataaao ld~truitda:~iu~l%~oulu~t~u$iu~ 2.a'n~~1~ iiu& b ~ l ~ < f i u u r l i ~ ~ u d n ~ n m ~ ~ u n ~ i u f d a ~ ~ ~ i f i u u r n ~ a o u n i u n r l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u l ~ x i ~ 5 ~ r r uu ~n c~ \~ w iu i~ W r~ ud ui~ i ~~r~ng~nm# 8 -r n i ~ ~ ~ ~ a o n n i ~ n i ~ v o ~ ~ 1 7 ~ ~ ~ u o ~ n ' u c \ ~ i u ~ n ~ 1 u ~ uR ' ij Z uu 0? n~ ~~nru91u"u0 YYW 2 dr - .raour.a'i uard.ra~u~ruu~?ain~ru'~~n~rrd~rru~~~ai din~nliud~~ninao~~~ if uu o u u u u 1 ~ r l ~ ~ u ' u n i ~ I ~ ~ ~ 4 o ~ ~ ~ i l 0 6 a ~ n ~ ~ a (phonology) di<wn' (morphology) L L R Z ~ ~ T A ~ L I J (syntax) ~ ~ : ~ IJ?ufiJaauhpn?lnnr$ niwadwiwuuwu ~ u ' u ~ n w & ~ n i w ~ U uu h~ & tda<fis~in?iufn~iu~u'i'z~. I L L R A I ~ U ~ ~ ~ ~ R W U L $ U L ~ U ~ ~ U ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ' U O ~ ~ ~ L ^ 1- ou7da~I. ~ l u l 7 n l d k a u ~ ~ ~ ~ f f ~ ~ ~ 7 1 n ~ x 1 ~ ~ ~ ar 2 4 2. Kenneth Chastain and Noam Chomsky nJ 3 riiu~naiu~~uuk~~o'~n'~w'n~~~nein~u uw m ~w ftn ~n oru rd ~d oo ~i a i a~niruii~~~u drfi~oinn1. ~ J ~ S rwnr5nnirrrlJn II~~~~U 4.rru?uni1~h~an6nioluuua~H ~ Q L ~ ~ R ~ I ~ R ? I U L~~[lm73~di)?lu~n~~uw"u~u ~I~Q # -r Carol ~6ndi?n~?auauuuun?iu~naiu~u'~'I~ii tfiuni. ni~fin~~d~$anaia~ouvfi~~~i"suudi~~~a::~~uu~d.Y'o~ua~dio~ln'e\aa9"a8aro~uilu~au7~1 J ~ U ~ ~ Z U ~ R $aGvamauna 1.1~~r~uwnv!ili31~ Ga~luvg~?~uno 1. Iril6rhni~d~uary?m ~~~il~r'~~uu~imwdfiuu~dl~uonvia~~~uu 2. ni.

ruuPruu~.raou~u1~~&4in'm oio~~niwd~u niomwir u o~qfiuu n ? o wauni21d v da a auinnhniyro~$aoulo h .r~6~)~~'Iu%md3:417'~ ua:~fimui:aun'y~r~u~o~(~uw d d lmua~u~~?i~ouuuulnJ~~il~5~~owdniiuni~n'~~iaou~~uulauin.r:uuniwi~~~:np~n~~n'di~~~~u'iI'i)nau (competence) u h .rd G o so- that . ~ & ~ $ f i o u ~ ~ u n a i u ~ w ' u h o ~ i i d i ~ ~ d ~ u ~ n ' u ~ i l u u ' o n a i dd l f ~ d ~ a ~ n r n n m ' o ~ ifli~ i~ ~w ~n f 'i ~ ~r a : ~ n ~ ~ a i 7 ~ d ~ i u i a o u o : o i o ~ ~ ~ i i ~ u ~ i u n 7 ~ u u i h u ~~uniwnlaaoai.vver aou$~~~~Gu~n~~. ~ riouln?kYtuan~o onn'~n~iuaiui~nni~nimnu~duiiCuiald (performance) ~hwniwdlm' ~~u'Aolwni.

rrQ~1u ni.r n " ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ q ~ d d ~ ~ n ' d d RJS~LB~U~IJ rinniuini~nilIi~n (Young. r ~JIUL$UU.rAouni.r2sn'td.rdsno:wuii~$ouIms ~~1. rflw2anumir?ou~flu~uCnnali-s iliwlK~risoul3aBil~~i~~n:n~iu6m~i1~~.rni~8wk@oio~mn'un.raow~d n ' ~ ~ u ~ n s?n'~~niwi ~~u~d uinniini.raoumai~~o~on~iu NewWlX a u ~ u (1977) ~ i f i i n i s ~ n w i i ~ s i ~ a a u ~ $ u u I w tlrriuni.dad .rnd~ul09'f~uwf n~iw~l ~Rnlnouiuiu uarra~~n~iur~ui1hinn~d~~rfl&~i1n$lna:6-1t~un'u~~nlnuu1n d L <wuinisrf suuinrin ~ r d o i n l l .r~n' P ncr Aa ~triilK~Pssui<n$n r~a~RC13j1u~$~uua~ci\u~o~~cj.r~oud-rud~ndosuo~ni.r4~~~~1nu1n ~~~RI~~UILRU ninrinfinwims:vilinln'ii ~ ~ u i n m d ~ O d ~ d i ~ d o t i u ~ 9.r~~tluu~nn. r t a u n i ~ n f ' ~ ~ ~ ~ i l i ~ ~ ~ ~ l w ~ i u : ~ ~ o u n ~ w ~ & n q w firtu-r ~ ~ n : r a o u u i i v i i n ~ ~ ~ o u f i m i u ~ ~ ~ ~ n .a"l~s1ns~n~1~u~ u i m n 2 i u ~ u n i .r:&~uao~fiosou~ ~ n e ~ i n ~ ~ i u ~ u f l a ~ ~ ~ u ~ i7dilKni. and Pike 1975) ~ ~ ~ m i u r ~ u i l ~fluni. ~ u Becker. fr?su81oniawiuuin"nw::n13~~uu~~~ 4 6iu rrrio:~~i~u~ci\iui~2iun*niu 2.r.r:lsn ttat3~6ulioad'ir i o u d o t l i ~ n i .fi ~~ark~li~~~~uhniyuo~ni. o rm u~ ~ui d uo~ ~~ ~ dm ~~ n ii i k~dru'l\oodlaurioi~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ I ~ u ~ ~I J L~L ~~ ~ E I~ J ~ ~ I I~ ~ L ~ ~ 'u I I F~ ~ U~ I~~ J~ ~ ~N ~I ~ .re$udi u u d ntjuAi d.r~u'5~un~iu~m LL&% .r~r~~ ~ ~ n h o o : u u a u a w a i m ~ u ~ i u .r:n'uldii !sdw~n o:rflu. r d ~ ~ ~ d u d ~ u ~ r ~ r v i . n z & ~ ~ h o ~ n ' u ~ ~ u ~ 3~~0uni.4 ~ Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ Q ~ ~ I O P ~ ~ L P I P I ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u'a~ua~rj~aou~ruu%o 1. r \ ~ d i ~ ~ p n ~ 0 ~ ~ 1 1 ~ r~~:ui~d.UOJ ril~d~~~in.r ~n~~~ crw n ~4sd~~moin~~cladini~i~~n~uci\i~~~1u~~d CniniSouln~G~ 'I.raou~Qsulmuinmddui~i. u'orlouo~1~aaurruuwriia ~ ~ ~ u 6 o ~ d i ~ i u ~ r i r 1 ~ u i i u ~rranruu2lnmk~aiu c i \ ~ ~ u u n ~ ?viin{~ourio~ su aounaiuKo~ oi~~iIviTajiir~aiuinwa U ~ ~ U M ~ A ~ M O I O ~ vi?aT~~os~lrlui:~u~u JOU aouldlirwa7rviirfiuun'u o6~nisnourt sudrliwl2 sin. r b o ~ ~ ~ u {uou ~dold r~un~.rd o l d a I~m shuo7nmr1i~r~wuni.r~viun~nwi~cik.r:u~un~~~$ounm nraaii~ r~trurflun~:uwni.r~omuro ~ ~ ~ o d o u i i ~ ~ d ~um 7n d.~ \ m ~ ~ ~ o d diur~rruuod~uiuinr~iiM"u v i i n n i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U r ~ ~ n i .raad?s i n d U R : ~ ~ ~ ~ I L B U ~ ~ L I ~ R ~ O W I ~ ~ L J ~ U a r i l ~ h i i ~ i u u ~ ~ r d v i R 'n?.rw"wui~~a miuni3r~su ~ w .r:~unGilJ ~ ~ u ~ # ~ ~ ~ 7i2dviqjo:rflwni.

U BqS JO 84 'sWJO#p8lUJe Bqj U! 40 Pealsul pue BUOJM aq 01 sleM.p~!dsoq e u! y l o (njesn ~ 8SOOq3 JI@!I.-d!qslem p asnoq .lle ~eplsum pinom jsypedly . 8 6 P s n PUP SJPUIUIBJE) .uaa~6 WOJ# p8J louue:. pU!lq-JOlM BJe OqM ald08d z '1 ' A ~ J ~ ~ J438eds J O ~ 4 0 w e d 841 Bulsn JIlOqe S( 8Sl3J8X8 S141 q388ds p w e d J ~ O A A9843 ').

There are an from society because they number of stars in the universe. Culture. In the United States. they consider such factors as Is responsible for transmitting such social motive and opportunity.rrlonsi?o d n d 1 a ~ ~ u w n ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ d i 1 ~ O'~~~'UGMRILI iu~~d~1u Parts niw of speech &t.~~n'sln~iu~i~diu~ RU u i. 5. or use public @mapartation. Some elderly people become . he or she may have the 10. (adjective) The fast lasted for several days.4. hair. cannot walk.rJn'M$ 0 2.mi ~ a dL i Ld R~ Zf ~~~~ JL n L~R a~ &dor~'o~vI. drive. and skin is . athletes with their higher income than the president of the nation.f~?fl% u~m-riurnuiuuodi~1ru~nei~jn'~ (iJlljad~~W fast i IUI. astronomers only a few af these through their telescopes. (verb) The fast train roared through the village.re~Cr~I%n'i. 9. a crime. 2.rI~ih~u~1u eYa " d. 7. (noun) . 11. Caged animals often become merely sit to their surrounding and on a rock. The color of one's eyes. When the police to become a professional musiciann.oni. not culturally transmitted.1 Their meaning and Use uu"~~nonduh 91 u d ~ ~ o u ~ a ~ n i . Recognizing and Using Nouns J u r i ~ ~ i u n ~ i u $ u B o ~ d i u~ iu 0i u l ni~iin~~~uBa~nun~1nwi~n~1ui~~i vI. r o ~4~ rI ~ ~i~~ n fu i n~ w1 IA ~m ~ o~ n i~ un ~ W una I J ~ L ~ I uon~~~aoin~i.ro:~~~id~1~~~udiu1u~u o~cio~~dni. ability may earn a 8. staring at the bars of their cage. If a child demonstrates great musical ability at an early age. not traits as marriages'customs and religious beliefs.JT:IU~~Q'~J~ We were told to drive too faat (adverb) The natives fast periodicklly because they believe that it improves their health. can 6.

etc Uncountable: rice. Lake Constance. but we can't use them because we don't have a mudkie or an ozot. r ' ~cinflnuia:Gaioodiu4iClh wuiu~~k~ . etc. juice. ~ ~ f Uncountable t~ nouns. a car.rrslw nnu ~onwoJwyrrow' diu~mioonaiutflu~diuoioo Y ~ Y 4L. judge. the Nile.2. etc. audience. Proper nouns: Arin.nl3~ildl~motL~ud7u L3 iu l~ oi u~ u ~ ~ n ~ a o i n 3 n b " 6 ~ i ~ u ~ ~ i L f l u ~ r u u i l ~ i u i u l m ~ ? I are6aiooddi iu a. jury. Proper nouns. an 2 M% i the Ji~fiir~u (o onr~udiuiu~u~a.2 Their place in patterns uiJ~. apples. Countable: a banana. The audience wasnot very responsive. diuiaaGm collective nouns $u~flul~~onrra6~~a::w~wod nsil68uuu~m~ naiunuiu~ioo6aioo~i~m::r~o~ agreement between subjects and verbs The Jury hasreturned his verdicts. n i ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ n w u i u ~ u i o o i u ~ ~ u u~ ~sJ rd i i~ ~n ilu ~ oa d i~ io ~ oLwn:: ~ ~~ ui~~iii~ d d ~ f l ~ ~ n ~ ~ ~ i o o ~ d ~ ~ ~ ~ Iliciuru i o o l ~~~hniy~~on'oioo~. an.) 3.I~u~aiunb ~-!ilJi~di rdo ~ ~ ~ M ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ $ ~ T ~ ~ ~ U L L f ih ~ od ~l 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L L R ' ~ . sugar. team. (The two nouns are used as an individual member.d ~ i n n i w ~ n q u ~ ~ d d i ~ ' ~ '~ ~ iwuu~ iu d~ s~ ~~$a i o o ~ R i ~ n &ui?orhioo ~~~~idi~~)~ii~ When John has flnlshed John's work. Collective nouns: committee. and Collectives nouns. .i~~~~~ ~aiooninr~awi::~aitoioo) rr~uiioon~ioor~i~lin~i~naiu~81iudi r~uini~oib~di~infiiuiu a: 41 lgu a. 2. The Use of Pronouns. i ~ $ d i ~ . money music. etc. Common nouns. an umbrella. electricity. a student. ~ $ 0 the ~ s i i i ~ i u i ~ n n ~ i ~ ~ ~ i d i L$u ~~fludiuiu The squalles are here. 'The Jury two nouns are used as a unit) d $JG?aaLjioo are unable to agree on a verdict.az ~ ~ u i i r ~ o l a . The audience were waving their hands to their favorite singers.a'dirrnuuiund ~d~~di~Lu'i~~1~i~ ~n6oi1 ~ioodiuiuf0ud. tell John to report to the*omce.3 Their classifications di~i~Riui~ndi~L~ rdu n Countable ~ ~ ~ a inouns. New York. etc.

l i n ~ n a i n ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l u ~ ~ o ~ qn'u ni~la'fi~~~ he r ~ n ~ d d er un~i ~ ~i $ ~ ~ ~ w u~ i ~ uL ~ ~ u ~ u R I I H ~ ~ ~ ~ rinfln I ~w L U ' ~ ~ F ~ ~ ~ ~ i i uod ~i ~ h ~ n i u v o l ~ w n ~ n w i ~ k ~ ~ e AI@~ Y ~ n o~~3. her. - mine.r.l~ Personal Pronouns: I.aiuaftmn'. he. f i i ~ ~ i ~ ~ n uI$% lnu Iw repaired the bicycle myself.rw IOU d h w P ui~nuu"~~ua~uin.d~ii u?n'un'u 2 reflexive pronouns ~ i d ~ ~ ~ ~ d d lla0urilCl~tiu ~ n i r f f o ilioffilG'ni3 n . Emphatic or intensive pronouns: ~Uudin~~wuiudi7. it will be much cheaper. Possessive Adjectives anti possessive pronouns: yours. their. me. your- uci?~ self nto selves ~I w d r ~~7datrioun~uuo~~i~i~ Mio~lMulnLdwn. r .r:wii~a~swu~ nmu ud~ L ~ uL ~fr R ~iu ~AT'IWW~~~ w u d u'n#nwui~ n u ~ ~ n n u ~ ? u ~ i ~ i d ~ ~ ~ ~ n u r J v ~ ~ ~ B~JM"U"OJ wnim~o~ni~~~~ W U osinl~un~n~ilRiirun~iu~iK~~o~~~~~ui~l?'K~er 3. . him. she. which.his. us. tell =to report to the office. whose.rwuiulguin lun?iu 7 bLRr W n l t i ~ i n i u~ o~ ~ ou ~l s i w u C i i ~ w ~ i n n i ~ I $ ~ ~ ' ~ w ~ i ~ i i ~ ~ ~ i m ~ 1 i n n i ~ aoulun.theirs my flu. The machine which broke down has now been repaired. when. we. He is the man who won the tournament. Relative pronouns: Ro hmmuiudIa?u relative clauses win adjective clauses tuk04 lKuri who. Let's paint our house ourselves. where L$M whom. it.hers. and the like. The film Itself wasn't good but I liked the music. They bur€ themselves.1 Types of Pronouns d d i ~ ~u s iw ulwniuiknq~d1~inuier~ 50 ii0 61 ~u~~iidliiui~~unu d i w u lmu~L~noonlnir.s:u?u?ai LI 397 uinuier ~~~uL~wI:~IT?L~~I:Y~YLIU'~O~~RW nimluni~l-f~. her.When John has flnlshecE wurk. his. its. our.r. . they.ours.rufhfluit ~n~u"i~~M'i Reflexive pronouns: ~ ~ A I R ~ Tulu W $RJ?TI ~ ~ u ? ~ u ~ u u Li? u h 8il t ~cut aJ hlmoalf..

h r r i l n i .* ~ ~ ~ T U R ~ { I ~ ~ L ~ ' I I Q ~ I uioinciilmdlindnwi60tni. ( l i ~ ~ ~ w u she iu d~d~~~u ol~lrrui d l uUli i ~ 4 Mary M% her fit6 ~iaud.rr'I~~~d'IdL ~~ . r w u l u u n ~ u i u d ~~ r i~ ~m ou ~o ~u n~~ i u ~ ~ u ~ i ~ i f l u d o ~ f i i s i u i n 6 o ~ r r ~ ~ l u ~ id uo ~~ ts au in~fi~m~oudw iluciudsuuo~rinlnw u~ion $ow ~.'r r ~7~' ~ ~ i~ l$~fi~ u'ounwio~Iu~lu~iu~~~rl6e~~uluun~old Practlce Exerclses .r:~sn"oWd a. Rewrlte the sentences. luLi. t . they have many curious tribal customs.r D . I ~~ou~nsd~rin~nwi~~~ud.r~rnn"l~~fJ~ uinuiu" a"Iu~lur$lw L : o ~ h they In Africa there are many curious tribal customs. r ~ ~ ~ u d ~ f i m ~ i n ui ~i d ~ uui~inniwin *In Africa." b.~~6~i~~uuAn~aui~~'u'n~n ~w da i l~ [~ ~n ~fn ln b~ji lud~ .1$4lm~m u ~ a w i r ~ u d .rrls~~ b. r .3. 1 John sold James his book because he wanted another one.r:lsn sister a. Then underline each pronoun once and Its antecedent twice. In the followlng sentences the antecedents of the pronouns are not clear. OR In Africa the tribes have many curious customs. "You are wrong. did1 them o i ~ ~ u i u f strawberries i\r M % I t d boxes iil6 C J $ ~ ~u~iur~~llu$~iou~~~ilw$dnn ~u ~d no a .r~~w~~ 7o ~ i c i i a u d ~ d L L ~~ ~eili~iuimn~~u~ $46 6ii~o~nf linAnaiildd(liuiur%iuiriou ~~oub~~~una.2 Faulty Pronoun Reference Faulty pronoun reference6~ni~~~~wuiu~nudiuiudIri%m~~ui~ rrlns8. r r ~ u n d double ~ ~ n pronoun ii ~jd. We took out the strawberries and threw the boxes into the garbage.ruonii 6r~uoi~~n~~uiGLi. .r~~n"1"u~~d a.~rt~ id lo ~w m l$~~iwthlolbind~m ~duriu fiuu~wol$%a~oun'uidid~n?. Mary said to her sister. r ~ ~ ~ o n a i u r r u i u i i 6 o~ o~ ~ ~ . We took the strawberries out of the boxes and threw them into the garbage. Mary told her sister that she was wrong.D r Iw Uu Li Lu ~~ ~m ? ~d ~~ ~ ~ .i rr ~ ~ u n i .m j . rr i$ . r ~ ~ ~ . b. correctlng the errors.

student. and so on. number. Mary told her mother that she could buy the groceries if she had any money. when a personal pronoun is tied to a noun or another pronoun by and or oc Mickey and I [not Mickey and me] were sent to the principal's office. and appositives that . Mother asked Julia where her purse was. but they don't say that what the penalty will be for disobeying. employee. Case sent Mickey and me [not Mickey and I] to the head office. 5.2. with which it agrees in person. and gender. Use objective forms of pronoun used as objects of verbs or prepositions. subjects of infinitives. Note: Using e plural rather than a singular antecedent is one obvious way of avoiding this problem. Alfred's father died when he was six years old. Summary of Correct Pronouh Use 1. 2. 3. and appositives that rename nominative nouns. A Pronoun should have a clearly identified antecedent. Use nominative forms of pronouns used as subjects. Be aware of a particular pronoun problem. Be aware of the special problem of pronoun reference to third-person singular antecedents that include both masculine and feminine members-pronouns everybody and someone and nouns like person. The law says to keep the rlghf. . rename object nouns 4. Mr. 4. like 3. subjective complements.

(elect) 1. Ruth is disappointed. Choose the lnflnltlve or. by the Chinese several centuries ago.voices ~ u 2 n ' ~ ianzS~Go~ i~ d ~'o~nCJ'o~n'M'rz~ii~rJ'rzmu~~a=:n3~i"on$i~u ~ ~ n ~ ~ i n ~ a ~ ~ . When ' the new shop -this year or next year. I 5.~ ~. The Uses of Verbs h n j u i d a k i i i 8 o ~ i l ~ a o ~ d d u n u a n ~ u p i ~ u d ~ . Gunpowder 2.Ing form. a ' u idiniuiluniul nd~a o j n q a ~ z ~ o ~ u ~ ~ ~ M a l u i ~ M a i u o d l ~ ' 1 ~ Ltenses 2 a . (invent) ever President of the United States. (frighten) to someone with 4. 1. linking verb or verb of feeling ~ u u n d ~ ~ o u ~ z ~ ~ n d i ? o d i J~ a~ z~ i~ o~u] i an~~~n~nm~~~~oni~~ndun71 c t i n ~ r r i u a ~ n i ~ l ~ m u ~ / i u n~ in 'C r~ ai i~ n~ l if d ~u Practlce Exercises A. It may be a direct object that precedes the subject [whom has your wife Invited?] or a I subject immediately following a verb or a preposition [We wonder who wllt wln. but I don't worry about it now. "2 Put the correct form of verb In each sentence. Do you enjoy (to travel /traveling)? 3.finite verbs r?u6~"llftmuoanjtri62u~i~e)u niuiuuuba b $ u r h transitive verb.Stone and I].( use) 6. 1 about losing my job. (give) 5. Our dog Is friendly with whoever pets It. I wish (to change / changing) my job. a ' n j u 1 ~ i n n 4 1n"~ u ~ m ~ 1 1 u l d azcn'o~'rzh ' r z ~ u d finite o ~ verb and non. Would you like (to be /being) a commercial travelen . No man 3. Remember that the case Of. who is determined by its use in its own clause. Before the Princess arrived at the shipyard. police dogs to make sure there were no bombs hidden there. neighbors please vote for Ms. (own) 7.] 4. Stone and me [not Ms. Most of the businesses in our town 6.And so. I 2. (open) by local people now. intransitive verb . the job she applied for more experience.

4. On (see) the wild elephant. 1 remember (to meeVmeetingl you about five years ago. They (know) then the quickly to one side as it (charge) that their trick (work) : the elephant already (catch) scent of the lion. Tom Roach a branch and (slip) D. I can't stop (tolaugh/laughing. Rewrite thls passage uslng the comrct form of verbs In brackets.) 5. I like (go) e t ) hillside in the evening when the sun gust s my blanket on the cool grass. 6. When I'm with you. After I (spread) on my bank and the clouds overhead. Should I ( come /coming) to work early tomorrow? 9. Put the verbs In brackets into the correct tense or form In the following passage. I'm not very interested in (discuss /diWslng) your problems. 27 . the hill (cover) with soft green grass and (lave) ducks (live) faculty members (bring) I oak shade trees. 7. After a short while at peaceful spot. Just behind the administration building. Families of patiently for students or on the creek shore (wait) them pieces of bread. I (lie) (watch) (relax) . However. I feel and ready (go) back to my studies. you can sit or s ~ k y children (play) on the edgp of water. while (climb) (try (reach) up the tree. C. there Is the to this grassy there or just (watch) a redwood bench. My favorite place My favorite place on campus (be) the grass hill (overlook) Putah Creek. Next to the water. 10. 8. the two hunters (leap) past them. (To have / Having) a lot of freedom is very important to me. Thomas Edison was well known for ( to work / working) very long hour. 1 hate (to watch/ watching) tennls.

exciting surprising boring disgusting interesting frightening troubling puzzling 1 confusing causes excitement causes a surprise causes boredom causes disgust causes interest causes fright causes trouble causes puzzlement or confusion . Past partlclplal adjectives usually suggest (1) the emotion that a person feels or (2) a completed actipn. The Use of Participial Adjectives (Adjectives Formed from verbs) Many common English adjectives are formed from either the present participle (--ing) or the past partlclple(--ed) in regular verbs. Study the following lists. to be excited to be surprised to be bored to be disgusted to be interested to be frightened to be troubled to be puzzled or confuged feel excitement feel surprise feel boredom feel disgust feel interest in someone or something feel fright feel trouble feel puzzlement or confusion . has an effect on people--it does something to people. Present and Past Parficipial Adiectives: Confusing Sets The meanings of adjectives made from the present and past participles of the same verb are sometimes confused.5. Present partlclplal adjectives often suggest (1) an going process or (2) a quality that .

that he's tired./ annoyed boring I bored confusing7 confused dlsgustlng f disgusted excitlngC exdted exhausting /'exhausted Interesting Iinterested surprising Isurprised 5. Complete the sentences using one of t b words In the box. It's silly to get 4. I hate this weather. It's not 6. I've got nothing to do. She has never been there before. Most of the students don't understand it. The film wasn't as good as a. We were expected. she is often 3. This weather is b. experience for her. Use the word given + the ending-lng or -ed 1. Going to new places is always c. (exhaust-) a.Practice Exercised A. Complete the sentences for e n. She enjoys her job but it's often b. He works hard. 1 seldom visit art galleries. It was reaHy 9. She is really ' about going to the United States. (excite) a. 7. The teacher's explanation was . . (depress-) a. It's a very hard job but she enjoys it. 8. . It's been raining all day. This weather makes me c. 2. I'm . Diana teaches young children. The film was b. The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. amusing/ amused annoying. It will be an . 6. At the end of a day's work. I'm not particularly in art. because of the weather Julia is going to the United States next month. b. (disappoint-) with the film.

I've been working hard all day and now I'm 14. and she 's done lots of different things. (fascinate) Does the study of anthropology interest you? Anthropology k a fascinating subiect to me. 11. (disappoint I grade) I received a C in biology and a D in math last semester. 4. She knows a lot. The flrst one has been done as an example. (frighten) he film I saw last night was full of violence. 5. (interest) Why have you read this book many times? 8. . Respond to the following Items In a complete sentence. 12. 1 asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't 13. The lecture was .? 7. (bore) Why do some students drop out of school? 3. Liz is a very person. 2. (frustrate) When does a parent commonly feel a sense of frustration in bringing up a child. (disgust1creature) Rats and cockroaches live in the filth and garbage. There is no need to get just because I'm a few minutes late. she traveled a lot. (aguse) How about the movle you saw last night? . 6. I fell asleep. Tom is very good at telling funny stories.10. He can be very 15. Use an appropriate partlclplai adjective based on the verb in parentheses. 1. C.

Example: He threw a book the fifth me. He knew he was not good failed the examination. The dog under the table is Trooper. July. made his point. Complete the following passage by putting the correct prepositions in spaces. 'The head master added that his work school the rest a time the unless there was a big improvement year.~ $~tiluliyw~nd~~ h~~dn"i~uint'11a11~1 un~in 2 dil<t?lm naiu~uiad. where more than one position is possible. It was his own good.6. (preposition$ I fell down. suggesting that some of tha bays' friends were not good were the cause his iaziness school. The Use of Preposltion diyswumilu2in part of spee 1. f%l 2. T : H ~ I J 2 d3:Ien under C n d n o : ~ ~ < i d f ~1 I e~ ~I ~ ULLL~?L~~~~~C~~I~HUIOUI~~~I u d d dsden 2 RIJ.a" down lu~urdiurwunuAj Q:&IJ~ dl~u~1uHn'J~wuo 42% d o h n d L i l u ~ l n ~ ~ 7 ? ~ ~ r1 ~.iLnaa u u a~~uo ~4euo~ludsrIunuK2aion'mEuf m w ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 q i t l ~ ~ ~ w ~ O u~ R~ ~ tndi iol i ~?~~J~uad & iysw un ~ Y J L ~ U 64Cfr:+2 I fell down the stairs.a'~tou r A d d~~swunri~ulrr~tt~io:~ilul~~dtl~ ~ a u i ~ i o d nio. the boy was summoned to the mathematics and he had a few minutes. (adverb) 8 aa e ~ r i ~ n ~ n u i n ' ~ ~ u i i A i ~1~~dni31%di~u1ud3:1en ~~~~~~~~wuunn~ oindscIunn'?n~i~u'i~6u Cn~nwsl:rqu% tda2. . the headmaster had him and headmaster's study. write your second1 third choices in brackets after your first choice. ~ ~& & UIULRU 1 l ~ d i ? ~ & 1 l ~ ~ l ~ l ~ ~ i a H Practice Exercises A. he would have to suspend him least. The dog the table is Trooper. He threw a book at (to) me.

She was absent from school for a long time because she was ill.a'~i~.r 8~4u6n~~1d . r w u n d ~ uud~diu-~ulri 6 H ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U Ju~l61.uono1n~swunot~9utii~du2~~~2 u ~ u n i y .~n' IULB U P . (because of) 6. The cost of living was high because the price of food has risen. in front of in spite of instead of on account of out of B. (owing to ) 3.r~u7~ prepositional phrases d ~Ln I w ~ IJI tt&? . r w m t ~ c i u u ~ t . r t n o u ~ u n ir. (on account of) 4. The match was postponed because it rained heavily (because of) 2.rwuno? i 2 ~ d a : n d i a i i a d o l r l ~ o ~ ~ w uriionunclnwif<nldo na~ z ddd d w d A i i i prepositional phrases uu v u i uiidmnu I ( . (instead of) uuu~n~~u'i~&~~~uni~~n~os'u'n~n~i~. The plane crashed because one of the engines failed (because of) 5. according to apart from because o f . The men failed to reach the top of the mountain because the weather was bad. (on account of ) 7. (according to) 8. 1. but she will go to Australia. ~ i u ~ i & ~ u ~ i ~ ~dw i~~"so~.w:~iluAiy. Many accidents happen because people drive carelessly. Wena will not go to study at London. Rewrite these sentences using the words glven. He is very fit because he takes regular exercise.

Mistakenly I gave you the fl%uiun?uil~~~+hoLii J Preposltlonal Phrases The team won wlth ease. H?Q Elght students are In thk room.prepositional Adverbs The team won easlly.ndud m ul$ prepositional phrases $ u $ ~ w ~ ~ : ~ U R U ~Jtl?n:<@ UYQ~~ J::TJIH' ~O u m ~ ~ u ~ a i i t d ~ n i u i d a~ r f im nw i ~ i m f i f ~ o w w u r i o u ~rinflnw~tuulauuda iio d'rlu a oindiInsdv?nr?nd~:ni~ d~:lsfidwuliouiIo u l u K o ~ u u u n ~ ~ u u ~C ~d nm d n~ w~h ~~umlvlojnrlw ** ~o In this rodrn has 8 students ~ J L U U ~ ~ ~ ~ U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & ~ J n I w & n f p d 3 : b J d a n h J h In thla'mom are 8 students. Schools of salmon appear along the coast of Alaska The hall closet is too narrow: Salmon schools appear along Alaskan coasts. (here the phrases precedes the verb lay and tells where the dog lay. IUT~\JJIT% IG'cndnw dl w d ~ : ~ u n n i o 8 1 d a ! l i ~ ~ ~ a t f l n ~ J i ~~ "L aIL ? iM ~ J ~ I F 7~~ I J~ d .They will go in our mine.) . By mlstake I gave you the wrong address. nl. The Browns will 'follow later. 'The Brown6 will follow at a later tlme. l t ~ ~ ~ Under the table lay the dog. .) Wlth perseverance Tom succeedbd. (Here the phrases precedes the verb succeeded and answers the question how. ' ~ v iq~udi?tu&16 i ~5oniu15~~v Adjectives Preposltlonal Phrases The closet In the hall is too narrow. t: r l w C1w ' wrong address. ~ufliuoarffu?rii. .

We i l l go home during the afternoon. (The adverb phrase follows the verb phrase wlll go and answers the question when. 4. 2. ~ ~ ~ d i ~ ~ o i n r & r ~ r j r i l u d o ~ u ~ ~ o ~ u ' n n i u i p ~~m::~duii~iljuP?ij ri~~~~i~~iiu w o u r i l ~ l u d ~ r j ~ i o ~ ~ ~ w~ ~0 ~lin n~ ~~ uU n unn1ul~l1wiu D G I i ~ ~ Wilkins. Phrases." 6. We took a drive in the country for an hour. Words Modlfled. 3. Words mod. The tamp near the wlndow is bright. 8. 5. 1. (Down the street follows walked and tells where . 9. The furniture in the palace is beautiful beyond description. Adj. 1u . "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. * Y LI u Van Ek . labeling them adjectlve Phrases. Honors are achieved by hard work.) C. 7. Select the adjective and adverb phrases from the following sentences and write them in the appropriate columns. Wonds Modlfled. Adverb Phrases. - - on the table is The two sentences include your own prepositional phrases. The lamp Is on the table. The flrst and the second sentence have been done as examples. substituting your own prepositional phrases. Phrases 1. The lamp is from the VictorIan age. Let's put these flowers in the bowl. Our train leaves early in the morning. words mod. rewrite each sentence. Divide a sheet of paper into four columns. for more than an hour also modifies walked and tells how long. 10. 1. 2. Down the road came the men. Then. In Yellowstone National Park I saw many bears alollg the roadside. lamp Adv. The lamp on the table is bright.) We walked down the street for more than an hour. on the table 2.

fiu~~fiu~v~iu~asii~ d qlqaonm~fl~lqll . r u u r $ u~ uau~awi:od~~~~ih~?u~~~neuniai&n~u~flu~iw ROJ s i np~n~n~~uin. but (Widdowson.r~auuuu controlled writing LLR: Guided writing u i ~ ~ a u a l u ~ ~ ~u ~ u~ ~~ ~ i~~ ~ u~ nh2Aa [ ~ u u ~ ~ ~ ~ n i i v i l n ~ ~ u ' i ~ ~ ~ u ~ t ~ 1k&drti~oididrli~um\$ 1n17~~uud1u~~& ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ Allen ~ R an: ' I Widdowson I O ~ F I In'Lu'u. In actual use of language people do not just produce sentences. 1979 express concept and fulfill communicative functions in doing so" pages 252-253) n t j i ~ l a u i v ~[fiuurio~~G?un1~~n~un13..and Del Hymes I G ~ ? I U L ~ ~ U L ~ U L R U ~ U $D O~ ~O GO I~ JO ~J L' R UD ~U I ~ ~ L'rules ~~SN"IU~DJ of usages(rniu~GiuI~uin.m& d od s m o u ~ t r ~ u t ~ ~ .aoubuugl$ Rhetorical models approach (IJnYI 1) r~ir1fl2sin3&60io ~ J O ~ ~ R ~ O U ~ $ ~ P d fionlHiriluni.rlflu~~dd~ulG~13~~~~~~nw~a~~iu~mdmu~o r z ~u~~iunClucuiu~3=:T~n~du~usn~~zl ~s~nor o rc io ru n~uumu~~ndol~u3z6udo M G I 6i[~?iio~d"?iuidOJni51d Discourse markers ulfilJ~L(i? o$ni. U L O J L A ~ i in i ~ ~ ~ ~ u ~ f l u ~ w z d r ~ o ~ uaz n i ~~b n hb ~ a~a u ~ [ivouaz~ddiuq ~ ~ o ~ i d ~ ~ ~ u ~ ~ u I r j l G i i tdo[fiuuinaiufh c n m d d 1 8 ~ f i ~ i l n u ia uz~m ~u ~ i~~ o ~ ~ u u ~ ~ 718 rlundi~ ' ariaita$~(ivouo:Ga~ldgucji ~13uuariio~mu~rn~iiuu.on~iu~u~~~uusii~ ql6 .miuazCwJi) ~g?lUdo~ 'ruie of use* ( n ~ i u i G i u n i 3 I t T n i ~ d ROFO~) ~ R O U L ~ U U ~ ~ O J I $ ~ ? I ~ R U I ' ~ ) I O U I ~ ~Widdowson ~~'U~~~~JH~~U~ lGnt j i 2 l 5 i i ' *. o n ~ i u ~ ~ f l u d u o u ~ u 1 u n ~ u ~ 6 i u a ~ n i ~ ud ~iluRlnuwslo~ language in use ~ ~ d ~ m l w r ~ u ~ n usage ' u G i uiinYa~lBisuni~~ailoli ldwJou qnirRiu ud ~un~iu~~u~~usi?ro~~ia~i~i~i~~ud~~uii~~uin d h ~ u i n h ~ ? u g n ~ . dsdundpl2 uin..

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