This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We express our thanks to Mam Sana Javaid
for entrusting us a challenging assignment related to a very pertinent issue of corruption, which is indeed not only a social evil but has become Cancer of the society, also causing immense drain to the feeble economy of the Country.
What is Corruption?
The word corruption means the destruction, ruining or the spoiling of a society or a nation. A corrupt society stops valuing integrity, virtue or moral principles. It changes for the worse. Such a society begins to decay and sets itself on the road to self destruction. Corruption is an age old phenomena. Selfishness and greed are the two main causes of corruption. Political corruption is the abuse of their powers by state officials for their unlawful private gain. Over 1500 years ago the mighty Roman Empire disintegrated when its rulers became corrupt and selfish. Nations having a tyrannical powerful ruling elite that refuses to punish the corrupt within it, face the menace of corruption. A corrupt society is characterized by immorality and lack of fear and respect for the law. The general objective of this report is to measure the nature & extent of corruption being faced by consumers of the following seven Public sector departments in Pakistan;
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Education Health Power Taxation Police Judiciary
increase or retaining the Corruption situations. Figures are weighted.stayed the same 30% 38% 24% 42% 18% 27% 29% 11% 35% 16% 30% 40% 44% 35% 24% 16% 8% 25% 33% 18% 35% 32% 23% 19% 24% 45% 42% 42% 69% 43% 28% 24% 20% 20% 32% 24% 30% 36% 29% 43% 43% 34% 45% 13% 11% 22% 24% 41% 30% 37% 30% 34% 27% 39% 24% 34% 18% 12% 7% 27% 19% 20% 12% 77% 19% ....increased 56% 47% 60% 54% 46% 43% 46% 36% 33% 74% 43% 46% 32% 46% 73% 77% 85% 69% 38% 66% 42% 29% 64% 63% 73% 46% 30% 44% 29% 50% 66% 70% 75% 76% 53% 66% 65% 55% 63% 44% 51% 61% 29% 83% 87% 73% 73% 53% 67% 51% 62% 46% 64% 53% 56% 48% 75% 79% 86% 57% 77% 76% 82% 13% 22% Source: Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2010. 3 .International Corruption Survey over the past Three years of decrease. Rep. Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Singapore Solomon Islands Taiwan Thailand Vanuatu Vietnam EU+ Austria Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Latin America Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia El Salvador Mexico Peru Venezuela Middle East and North Africa Iraq Israel Lebanon Morocco Palestine .decreased 14% 15% 16% 5% 36% 30% 25% 53% 32% 10% 27% 14% 24% 19% 4% 6% 7% 6% 28% 16% 23% 39% 13% 18% 3% 9% 28% 14% 2% 7% 7% 6% 5% 4% 15% 10% 5% 9% 8% 13% 6% 6% 26% 3% 2% 5% 3% 6% 3% 11% 8% 20% 9% 9% 20% 18% 7% 9% 7% 16% 4% 4% 6% 11% 59% . Country/Territory Total Asia Pacific Afghanistan Australia Bangladesh Cambodia China Fiji Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Korea.
Its capital is at Islamabad. 4 . as an independent state. Annual growth rate of population is 2. Pakhtunkhua 13. Each province is divided into administrative divisions. The urban population was only 18% in 1951.65 of total population followed by Sindh 23%. The male population was 49% .kilometers.096 sq. POPULATION Pakistan with population of 170. In 2008 their number was 42. Pakhtunkhua and Balochistan. which has increased today by 33%. villages and union councils.3%. The country comprises of four provinces namely Punjab. In 1951 there were only seven cities having a population of one lack and above.9%.3% and Pakhtunkhua 16.10 and 85 per thousands population respectively. there are 26 divisions. 106 districts.COUNTRY PROFILE THE UNIVERSE Pakistan. 1947. 376 tehsils/ taukas. Amongst the provinces Sindh is the most urbanized 48. the sequence has been changed in the case of urban population. tehsils/ talukas.9% followed by Punjab 31.Females 51% according to 2005 census.4% and Balochistan 5%. 9. Its total area is 7.70. had come on the world map on August 14th. PROVINCIAL BREAKUP Punjab accommodated 55. The current crude birth rate. the crude death rate and the infant mortality rates are 32. 46144 villages and 4147 union councils in the country. URBAN POPULATION The urban population is increasing very rapidly and the number of large cities is also growing very fast.96.2 millions in 2008 stands seventh amongst the ten most populated countries of the world. Balochistan 23. Sindh.21%. each division into districts.
5 . It is also a historical and cultural city. QUETTA At the mouth of Bolan Pass lies the city of Quetta. PESHAWAR Peshawar. It is the capital of Sindh province as well as nerve centre of business.7 million. It has been one of the most famous cross-road cities of the central Asia. During 2008 census its population was around One n halfa-million. It contains two major seaports and an international airport. It is an old historical city. LAHORE The second largest city of Pakistan has a population of 9. MULTAN It is the sixth largest city of Pakistan with a population Of 2. But now it has crossed the mark of 15.2 million. The historical Khyber Pass is situated 17 kilometers from Peshawar.3 million in 1998 census.1 million according to 2008 census and the capital of Punjab province. the capital of the province of Balochistan.CITIES KARACHI The largest city of Pakistan with a population of 9. commerce and industry of the country. the city of Khyber Pakhtunkhua had a population of about Three million during the 2008 census.
49 51. There are 42 universities in Pakistan.8 persons.3 in FATA following by 8.3% for male and 36. there were 25. including 29 in public sector.36 15.80 30. Sikhs and Parsees are also living in the country.7 & 6.0 in Pakhtunkha & 6. 6 .42 42.27 45.52 30. The household size has been rising among all administrative units of Pakistan. The household size in Balochistan & Sindh Province is 6.68 Female 2.19 3. AGE DISTRIBUTION The age distribution of Pakistan's population reveals a relatively young population as seen in the following table. About 30% children of primary school age are out of school.0 respectively.69 3.25 43.40 51.3 million housing units in the country. The drop out rate is very high.9 in Punjab.91 46.31 LITERACY AND ENROLMENT Literacy rate at present is estimated at 49% (61.24 43. Christians.28 14.29 51.67 42.852 and the number of college is1083.32 14.61 45.45 43.49 65 & above AGE GROUP Both sex 2.8% for women). Recently the net enrolment in primary school increased but that of government school declined. Hindus. HOUSING According to 2008 population and housing census. The average household size for Pakistan as a whole is 6. The highest household size is 9.50 Male 2.10 30.23 3. Years Less then 1 Less then 5 Less then 10 Less then 15 18 & above 21 & above 15 .RELIGION Islam is major religion of the country.10 43. The number of school with secondary level of education is 12.
% 2. % 4.315 28.LITERATES According to 2008 census the number of literate (10 years and above) by sex and educational attainment are as follows.50 432 1.58 159 0.30 11. % 7097 18.14 8. Attainment Below primary Primary Middle Matric Inter Mediate Graduate Post graduate Diploma/Certificate TOTAL No.56 1.739 20.19 Net Work Of Health Services In Public Sector.59 550 4.78 134 0.35 7.113 15.29 2.929 18. 2008.585 6.58 885 6.358 17.469 20.07 4.510 33.700 6.38 590 1.687 4.137 4.16 158 1.B Centers Total Beds Population per Bed Registered Doctors Registered Dentist Registered Nurses Population per Doctor Population per Dentist Population per Nurses Number 872 4451 5155 852 514 263 90659 1450 82682 3444 32938 1590 38185 3992 7 . No In Thousand Ed.05 4.41 MALE No.825 30.20 25 0.73 2.50 FEMALE No.62 5.20 1.89 7042 17.571 18.898 22.00 2. Particular Hospital Dispensaries Basic Health Units Maternity & Child Health Centers Rural Health Centers T.55 1.
07 6. At times they pressurize teachers to discourage admission in the school and in return offer them free accommodation. influence and authority. for instance most of the landlords are not interested in opening schools in their villages. the total labour force comes to around 58.00 8. or a simple-minded villager bribes the vaccinator for not vaccine his young children against small pox.52 0.24 20. thinking it will harm their children.69 59.LABOUR FORCE On the bases of estimated population of 170.67 66. land less laborers and small self-cultivators. He has the power.32 2.68 Male 41. free food.94 0.19 Female 1. He controls not his own tenants and farm workers. artisans.68 30.05 In Pakistan villages the big Landlord or Wadera or Sardar is also a Lambordar (collector of land revenue on behalf of the provincial government and depositor to the treasury). He himself is a exploiter as well of a third party in the rural corruption.32 58. farm or caste.8 million in urban area about 2.6 million.11 14.4%.24 77.46 30.23 5. Feudal and rural attitudes play a determining role in identifying the scope and mode of corruption in rural areas. 8 . out of which 38. 2008 All Areas Economic Category Labour Force Not in Labour Force Child Below 10 Years Domestic Workers Students All Others Labour Force Participation Rate (Refined) UN-Employment Rate Both Sexes 22.54 98. Percentage of Population By Economic Categories.76 30.45 33. Customarily it is a hereditary part.4 million and 17.4 million persons in the labour force were unemployed in 2008. free milk etc. Not a sheaf can be moved in the village without his knowledge or permission.24 31.25 2. yet in some cases plays the catalyst agent and even at times negate the operation of the grieved party related to his family. He has close relations with the lower and medium officials of the concerned departments. but also village menial.63 11.2 million for mid year 2008 and participation rate of 29.96 19.
Non existence of accountability 8.Corruption Description Definition: . Illogical system 5.Torture 11. It spoils the ideology of any society resulting sick and criminal behaviours of people 9 . fudge and false) 7. Theft through white collar crime (Forgery. without comprehensive checks and merit according to laws and rules 3. Insecurity 3. Injustice 2. Difficulties and obstacles to seek easy. Injustice 2. Unnecessary and over expanded Government machinery 6.Money devaluation 11. comprehensive.Greed Main Forms of Corruption 1. Placing of incompetent. characterless and ineligible persons in public and private sectors i. Lacking of social and Moral Values 9. Or simply Weakening or failure of system to deliver i. Mala fide intentions 6.e. Fear of survival 4. it is simply sickness of the system to deliver the required to different levels of failure Main Causes of Corruption 1. Undue pressures to influence for wrong by the authoritative people 4. Injustice is the basic key which spoils the whole system and results in a corrupt and spoiled society 2. true and timely justice with due respect and comfort 10. Under paid manpower in public and private sector 7. Escalation in prices of goods in market 10.Bribery Bribery against wrong Bribery against right Impacts of injustice 1. Imitation 9.e. Misuse of powers 5. Lack of scrutiny 8.It can be defined as weakening or failure of system which brings a system to become poor to deliver the required or almost failure to required deliverance.
If by mistake it happens that must be compensated to satisfaction of sufferer. Rational and good remunerations to government employees 6. Physical injustice 5. Better System of Government and leadership 2. Non-existence of fair accountability Solutions to resolve the issues of corruption in society 1. Capacity building of system and human resource 5. Suggestions about the system of government required for Pakistan are as follows 10 . Moral injustice 4. As availability of material resources is the first easy source of strength in any sick society like our society of Pakistan without comprehensive social justice and without being a comprehensive welfare society Few important forms of comprehensive injustices 1. changed or destroyed as per need. along with accountability (But the accountability should be from top to bottom and not from bottom to top) 10. inhuman and unethical society. Reduction in unnecessary government machinery 4. Non-existence of writ of law 7. Whole system of government including laws and rules of country needs to be reviewed by competent. law knowing people who should be well educated and experts of laws and rules to revalidate and improve the laws. Social injustice 2. Reliance to national resources 7. for their dependents and loved ones because of defective. Fair. positive and patriot. Boost to private and local enterprises 8. rules and procedures need to be improved. Financial injustice 3.Focus to law of tort should be brought in practice to improve the norms of society as in Europe 12. illogical.Proper and thorough monitoring towards implementation which can only be possible to small sized government machinery and not to over expanded government machinery Better System of Government There is no any system of government which fails if not based on injustice and discrimination. rules and procedures in totality. Illogical systems of government machinery 6.No innocent should ever suffer to any limit or be punished in any case. Writ of law 3. unjust. The rules and laws should be easy to understand. open and speedy trials and disposals of issues and cases according to law.3. well paid. All sick laws. logical and comfortable to implement 9. Basic cause of insecurity which promotes people to gain any kind of powers to survive by any means and to seek strength of protection for them selves. 11.
Value of hard work 8. neat and clean 3. The qualities required by the leadership to come forward The leaders to come forward must have following set of concepts and slogan 1.e. Judiciary and Executive should be independent and power full but must have counter checks on each other to be devised in constitution for smooth system of government as well as accountable to each other. The rulers should not have any exemption before the law. Islam has about four main fundamental concepts for the formulation of government 1. Elected Presidential form of Government as per USA but modified according to requirement of our country prepared by the best experts of law having undoubtful credibility and integrity and should not have any concern with Government or to any political party.e. Legislative Body. It may be a minimum of matriculate or more. Automated and fair comprehensive justice without any discrimination and without any effort to seek (i. Value of time 6. Fear of Allah 2.Honest 11 . At door step on merit without any effort) 4. Vision 3. Truth 5. As USA constitution and system of Government has close resemblance to System of Government in ancient Islamic States Reduction in Government and system of government Effective implementation of merit and justice in government machinery The three important tiers of government i. Rule of divines law given by Allah in Quran and further illustrated by Sunnah 2. the voters must be educated to some level. So only well aware people should play role to elect/select people to form government 4. As the Khalifas (Islamic Rulers) were elected or selected by the Shuraas consisting of scholars of the time and not by general public. Only one competent elected/selected Muslim (Having Education of Highest Level concerning to System of Government i.e. Important Portfolios and Ministries should be separate from Legislative bodies to keep the legislation impartial. Value of competence 7. Having concept to boost local and private enterprises 9. Reliance to national resources 10. The people who have to elect rulers must be educated to some specific level i.e must at least possess a valid degree of Law) should be the head of state as in elected Presidential form of Government and not a group as it happens in parliamentary form of Governments.
80 24.32 3.80 12.67 9.57 0. justice.98 4.69 0.36 32. human nature. humanity.07 16. rules and system needs reviewing and all the flaws and defective rules and laws need to be destroyed.77 7.61 31.41 11. love.56 12.26 12 .16 11. The report titled the National Corruption Perception Survey 2010 showed a high rise incorruption from 195 billion rupees in the year 2009 to 223 billion rupees in the year 2010.93 6.73 14. humbled.e.Corruption can never be reduced without comprehensive justice nor without qualitative leadership to come or brought forward Humble submission to address corruption and to curtail it gradually the whole system of Pakistan needs review in totality i.28 2.96 11.49 6.17 5.76 23. truth.08 34.64 32.35 31. Corruption Causes: According to a research whose figures are shown below that in Pakistan main causes of corruption in the seven public sector area under study were:• Lack of Accountability • Low Salaries • Monopoly of Power 31.65 1.82 1.40 14.34 16.76 10.26 16.20 12.93 Judiciary Health Power Police Causes of corruption Land Admn Education Average In % Tax 31. all the laws.41 4.68 16.07 3.54 % 16.51 4.49 13. rationalism.12 13.10 2.91 10.31 9.43 % Lack of accountability-nobody to answer to Monopoly power-lack of choice/option Low salaries Discretionary power-free to take any decision Lack of transparency-inadequate information Power of influential people Red-tapism Shortages –demand and supply 29.22 5. the whole system should be based on logic.66 5.65 0.32 3.64 8.87 6.97 4.59 4.90 14. along with all of system needs to be based on comprehensive justice.04 7.26 30.61 9.91 17.95 32.93 5.25 1. reduction in government machinery at every level according to right sizing.52 3.56 7.43 15.68 % 16.67 13.92 4. vision and support.54 12. All the system needs to be revised and reviewed according to true massage of Islam mainly given in Quran.
33 3.223 28. 3085 per Consumer We can see in the figures that how much amount is spender or Extracted from the consumers who were included in Research as Affected 13 .79 0.547 Rs.Others No answer Read All Values in Percentage 0.30 0.95 0.65 1.98 4. 1430975 321765 987695 176476 3% 18% 6% 26% Average in Rs.67 100.14 0.504.97 0.00 1.28 1.26 0. 2331 1087 3858 777 8% 4% 14% 3% 635023 12% 4811 17% 907921 16% 6013 21% 1044368 19% 9670 34% 5.62 2.47 1. of Respondents 614 296 256 227 132 151 108 1784 Amount in Rs.00 TOTAL Bribery Expenditure Sectors Police Power Tax Department Health Education Land Admn Judiciary TOTAL No.58 0.18 0.
Surveyor Court Employees such as Clerical Staff 14 .30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Police Pow er Tax Department 6% 26% 19% 16% 12% 3% Health Education Land Admn Judiciary 18% Expenditures of Consumers by Sector ( Accumulated) Actors of Corruption: Department Police Power Tax Health Education Land Administration Judiciary Most Frequently Interacted Duty Police Officer Meter Reader Tax Inspector Hospital Staff Teachers & Management Committee Members.
40%." Many of our respondents said that they kept Rs.76% if this is combined with Discretionary Powers 14. thefts. target killing etc. In the opinion of the few respondents "whom do you encounter first thing after leaving the house. may ease the situation. it comes to about 28% most of the respondent were of the opinion that “POLICE” is the only depart of the Govt. especially at the Thana level on the other hand atrocities of the Police force is also increasing. The importance of this department cannot be denied. FIR or Parchee". making the maximum out of the situation. followed closely by "Violation of traffic rules & laws" & "To get release from false arrest". in fact sub-ordinates especially SHO's are protected by the Seniors. The recent reforms measures taken by the Government. Respondents belonging to business sector also complained about daily “BHATTA” demanded by the Police. Most of the corruption occurs at the Thana level. all those respondents who have had contact with the Police department were faced by some sort of corruption also. Low salaries 23. On one side dependence of an ordinary citizen is increasing on the Police. 10 to Rs. This monopolistic role has made them despotic. is a Traffic Police Constable & if you are on a two wheel vehicle you have had it. Monopoly of Power 14. kidnapping. In the opinion of the people the main cause of corruption in the Police department was "Lack of Accountability" . 15 . 30 ready daily in their pocket for palm greasing. Reasons given for corruption in the Police department were lack of accountability 29.e. which is suppose to provide protection & to maintain law & order in the society.73%. The most frequent reason given for contacting the Police was "To make complaint i.Six most corrupted Sectors in Pakistan are: 1)Police: With the dwindling Law & order situation in the country & mounting crime rate in all the four Provinces especially dacoity. therefore there is a deliberate attitude of non-strict governance. Within the last one-year.04%. the common feeling is that illicit money is collected at Thana level & shared till the top tier.
16 . How were these rates determined and on what basis suggests massive corruption. why these projects were not approved by ECC or other fora and why WAPDA and KESC. during the nineties. Similarly. However. Why so many guarantees were issued by the Government of Pakistan when it was supposed to be an investment and not loan? Why the agreements were signed in which the loss would accrue to the government of Pakistan and only benefits will be reaped by the investors? And finally. Moreover. Because of strong lobbies there have been frequent changes in energy policy of Pakistan.Why people interact with Police: To make complaint Violation for traffic law To get release from false arrest Verification for passport As accused Normal security reasons Character certificate for Immigration Verification for job 2) Power Sector The World Bank presents an extremely gloomy picture of Pakistan’s power sector that is marred by corruption and inefficiency but sells electricity to the public for a price that is 60 per cent higher than that of India and 40 per cent more than that of Bangladesh. contrary to recommendations of the Task Force. the governments have not been faithfully following their own policies. licenses were issued to private sector for more than 6000 MW. Task Force on Energy in 1994 recommended power purchase at 6. new policies have been announced in 1991. 1994 and1997.5 Cents per Kilowatt hour but only 2500 MW.
this is not just restricted to Pakistan.g. Tanzi (1997) argues that in the presence of corruption capital budget is highly distorted and some projects that are completed in fact are never used. are usually seen at duty at the residences of certain members. Tanzi points out that: a) b) Corruption tends to increase public investment and as such productivity levels fall.. were not involved in the discussion on the power rates? The preceding discussion indicates that the various functionaries and fora are being misused in Pakistan. 17 . Infact corruption and especially political corruption or “grand corruption” is a worldwide phenomena is proven empirically. Corruption can reduce growth by lowering government revenue needed to finance productive spending. The authority is also building a huge office complex worth Rs 500 million. etc) and thus leads to lower output and growth. It is surprising that such a huge investment is being made to house about 25 officers. When project is completed. congestion. breakdowns of machineries. Following Mauro’s evidence on the link between corruption and economic growth (1995. c) d) The chairman and members are reportedly paid perks and benefits of Rs 10 million each per year. from drivers to Qasids. where most of the corruption takes place. The Nepra has reportedly an average five-member staff for every officer. delays. it is not accompanied with adequate O&M expenditure but wages and salaries are protected. These staff.who were to make the payments. 1997). while others are of so poor quality that there are continuous repairs. A deteriorating infrastructure increases the cost of doing business for both government and private sector (e. However. Corruption can reduce growth by reducing the quality of the existing infrastructure.
Lack of accountability-nobody to answer to Low salaries Monopoly power-lack of choice/option Discretionary power-free to take any decision Lack of transparency-inadequate information Power of influential people Shortages –demand and supply 3) Tax Department: Types of Taxes that we pay are: Income Tax Vehicle Tax Municipal Tax Holding Tax Custom Duty Value Added Tax 18 .Types of corruption in Power sector Money had to be paid for reducing electricity Bill For over billing Extra money had to be paid to receive a proper electricity supply (Electricity was not properly supplied) Money had to be paid to stop the disconnection of the line (due to default bill) For illegal connect Not Applicable connections Causes of corruption in Power Sector.
the savings from this would be of a considerable magnitude. Non Government Organizations and political leadership can mobilise the population to participate in health programs. if large hospitals were themselves to consciously adopt more cost effective methods and systems. The state has significantly withdrawn itself from health matters: it only spent 0. it limits people’s life chances. These institutions have provided structural adjustment loans to remove shortterm problems. it was observed in the 1980s that it was feasible and possible to carry out an entire nation-wide immunization programmed from the savings that resulted from not constructing one expensive urban hospital. Basic health care can be relatively low cost. The need of the hour is hence to make services more cost effective by restructuring health services. For instance in Pakistan. This lending has not contributed to the improvement of health facilities. Despite the announcements our governments make about health care each year. beral medicine is not having the desired effect on the health status of the population Types of corruption in Health sector Extra money had to be paid for getting allocated medicine Extra money had to be paid for getting bed Extra money had to be paid for X-ray 19 . Resources could thereby be freed for the provision of basic health services. which will lead to ensuring the care of a healthy population. Ongoing privatization of hospitals is likely to strengthen the private sector further. The quality of a health program can improve by leaps and bounds by focusing on the basic components of child survival and development. 3. According to the 1995-96 PIHS the private sector controls 80% of the health care provisions in Pakistan.4) Health Sector The health sector in Pakistan is replete with multifarious problems. Further. they argue that users of primary health care services should pay user fees. It is not responding to the needs of the masses in a way that would provide highquality care to all in need. even if they are from the impoverished class. 2.7 % of GDP in 2000. The widespread introduction of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) is a case in point. In the name of greater equity and efficiency. In sum. the neo li1. That international financial institutions claim that state subsidies to health care create undesirable ‘ market distortions’ that benefit the rich is another contradiction faced by the health sector.
the basic objective should be access to quality education for all. enrolments. In education. Types of corruption in Education Difficult to get good results or promotion to next class unless the teachers are engaged as private tutor Different kinds of irregular fees to be paid For taking different kinds of certificate Additional money to be paid for form fill up Management deduct money from the stipend awarded to the students Supply of quantity of food less than allotted amount from "Food for education program Management took money for inclusion in the Food for Education program Management took money for supplying Govt.pens papers from designated library Teacher referred to buy books. gender. religion and ethnicity. admits that it is an obligation of the State to provide equal opportunity to all citizens for improving their status in life. irrespective of family income. papers from designated library The government also admits that Pakistan continues to face a problem of access because of low levels of public spending. This would mean that not only all children of a school-going age have schools physically available to them but that there are no cultural and economic factors hindering their pursuit of education. acute regional and gender inequalities and inequalities in distribution of budgetary allocations to 20 . geographic reach.'s goods like books . in a White Paper intended to stimulate discussion of major policy issues concerning Education Sector in Pakistan. pen.Extra money had to be given to get proper medical supplies(because medicine was not supplied properly) Others Medicine to be bought from designated pharmacy Extra money had to be paid for blood Extra money had to be paid for operation Extra money had to be paid for pathological test Pathological test had to be done from designated center Extra money/influence had be used to have proper food supply(because food was not supplied properly) 5) Education The Government of Pakistan.
The dropout rate is 31.3 percent at the primary level and 30 percent at the middle level. The population age group between 5-9 years is 19. the educational system fails to address the complex cultural. Even if resources could be mobilized towards this end. the following measures are recommended: • The welfare role of the state should be revived so that it may provide essential services to the citizens efficiently.3 million children are out of school. It is also evident from the above discussion that retreating state. Pakistan faces the problem of a large number of out-of-school children. poverty combined with education not perceived to provide economic gains.9 percent (official figures). it is quite obvious that private sector will remain involved in education. Participation and transparency must be central features of the governments at all levels. and presence of nepotism. planning. Out of these. The failure of educational system in Pakistan is attributed to lack of will on the part of ruling elite and lack of clear vision to as what education is really all about and what are its primary objectives.education. • Citizens must be involved in different stages of policy-making. lack of a comprehensive interface between educational institutions and the real world. meager financial resources and rising demand of schools and higher educational institutions. long distances to schools and high student-teacher ratio. lack of merit and corruption. Besides. low quality of education. The main factors that keep children out of education are. traditional style of teaching and corporal punishment. 3. public and private educational institutions. non-existence of some constructive programs for graduates as life after college and poor job prospects.634 million in the country. 21 . Given a population growth rate of 1. Other factors which caused deterioration of education include absence of conceptual framework pertaining to educational policies. social and ethnic background of over 116 million people. the capacity to build and operationalize such a large number of schools may not be easy. aside from a high number of dropouts. particularly at local government level. • State-owned agencies must be open to scrutiny and responsive to the needs of the public—the owners. Keeping in view the growth of population in the country. To improve the working of public and private educational institutions. bad governance and lack of effective monitoring system are the main factors behind declining standards of education and malfunctioning of both. attainment of Education for All (EFA) goals within the stipulated period would require huge investments. poor resources both in terms of public and private investments. implementation and monitoring. disoriented student community. both at primary and secondary levels. unmotivated teaching community and poor quality of teaching.
a middle pass female may be recruited with the condition that she would acquire matriculation qualification within three years. information.PC only in criminal trials) Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city) Executive Magistrate Courts (Summary trial court) Courts of Civil Judge (judges with power of 1st class and 2nd class cases) 22 . All primary schools should be made co-educational and all new appointments of primary school teachers should be of female teachers only.• • • • • • • • • In order to work efficiently. In difficult areas where a matriculate girl is not available for appointment as primary school teacher. It must be ensured that all private schools and other public educational institutions possess the necessary material and trained teachers to benefit the students. The overall allocation of resources to education in general. well-enforced laws and political freedom that guarantees access to. and improving the conditions of schools in rural areas in particular. 7) Judiciary: . An efficient system of effecting monitoring and regulation of all schools must be evolved. and flow of. The teacher must be well paid and is given due attention. Structure of courts in Pakistan Supreme Court of Pakistan (Apex court) Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan High Courts of Pakistan (one in each province and also in federal capital) District Courts of Pakistan (one in each district) Judicial Magistrate Courts (with power of Section 30 of Cr. which has strong anti-trust regulation. private sector needs well-functioning state which is accountable to the public. The standard should be the same for both public and private The teacher is the most important component of the education system but is at the bottom of the totem pole and frustrated in every way. must be enhanced. The teachers must be involved in planning. implementation and monitoring of educational projects. Funding must be provided timely and its full utilization must be ensured for public sector.
Through several periods of military rule and constitutional suspensions. 3 are required to be Islamic Scolars/Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan was established by presidential order in 1980 with the intent to scrutinised all laws in the country that are against Islamic values. has the power to examine and determine as to whether or not a certain provision of law is repugnant to the injunctions of Islam. Quetta and Karachi." If a law is found to be 'repugnant'. Peshawer. The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan consists of 8 muslim judges including the Chief Justice. They choose from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Courtor a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court. including appellate and constitutional jurisdiction. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years. Presently Justice Agha Rafiq Ahmed Khan is the Chief Justice of FSC. and suo moto power to try Human Rights matters. The FSC. as laid down in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. The Supreme Court Judges are supervised by theSupreme Judicial Council. the Court is to provide notice to the level of government concerned specifying the reasons for its decision. after decision is made by the Judicial Committee consisting the Chief Justice of Pakistan (Federal Shariat Court) and the Chief Justice of Pakistan . It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the Constitution. Of the 8 judges. Cases are also heard in its Branch Registries in the provincial capitals of Lahore. the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court also has a Shariat Appellate Bench empowered to review the decisions of the Federal Shariat Court. The Supreme Court is made up of 17 permanent judges. The court also has jurisdiction to examine any decisions of any criminal court relating to the application of Islamic (hudud) penalties. which may hear complaints brought against any of them. the court has also established itself as a de facto check on military power. These Judges are appointed by the President of Pakistan. Appealagainst its decisions lie to the Shariat Appellate Bench of the 23 . on its own motion or through petition by a citizen or a government (federal or provincial).Supreme Court Of Pakistan The Supreme Court (Urdu: م عظی ٰ ) عدالتis the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy. and has a permanent seat in Islamabad. This court has a remit to examine any law that may be repugnant to the "[i]njunctions of Islam. which may eventually be extended by the President.
Baluchistan Islamabad High Court. including: Lahore High Court. Haraba offences (armed robbery where specific amount of gold and cash is involved). The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts.Supreme Court. The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part II and for any other purpose. Peshawar. Rape (Zina). including in appropriate cases any Government directions. the government is required to take necessary steps to amend the law so as to bring it in conformity with the injunctions of Islam. and one in the federal capital. Lahore. which reads: "Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 22. Punjab Sindh High Court. The Sessions court is also a trial court for heinous offences such as Murder. Islamabad. consisting of 3 muslim judges of the Supreme Court and 2 Ulema. mandamus. If a certain provision of law is declared to be repugnant to the injunctions of Islam. to issue to any person or authority.” District & Sessions Courts District courts exist in every district of each province. quo warranto and certiorari. Islamabad. appointed by the President. Article 170. In each District Headquarters. orders or writs. each High Court shall have power throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction. 1956. Sindh Peshawar High Court. The High Courts' general authority is laid out in the Constitution of Pakistan. District & Sessions Judge has executive and judicial power all over the district under his jurisdiction. and is also appellate court for summary conviction offences and civil suits of lesser value. Karachi. ICT The High Courts are the appellate courts for all civil and criminal cases in each respective province. High Courts There is one High Court in each Province. prohibition. including writs in the nature of habeas corpus. and have civil and criminal jurisdiction. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Balochistan High Court. Each Town and 24 . there are numerous Additional District & Session Judges who usually preside the courts. The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary. deciding Hudood cases. Quetta.
Types of corruption in Judiciary Extra money had to be paid to the court official Extra money had to be paid to the Public Prosecutor Extra money had to be paid to the witness Extra money had to be paid to the magistrate Extra money had to be paid to opponent lawyer Extra money had to be paid to the judge The menace of corruption has links to a multitude of vices. It also instills a sense of hopelessness and despondency and threatens the strength of good values which have been established over centuries of civilized struggle. The word “Corruption” has its origin in a Latin verb “corruptus” meaning “to break”. The High Court of each province has appellate jurisdiction over the lower courts. and when it hears civil cases. It creates a sense of insecurity. The term corruption has various definitions. corruption is a form of behaviour which departs from ethics. extremism and terrorist activities. In simple words. and the multilateral financial institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank define corruption 25 . The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction over disputes between and among provincial governments. law and civic virtue. corruption means “the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit. Its roots are linked to injustice. exacerbates poverty and adds to the misfortune of the vulnerable segments of the society. the District Court.city now has a court of Additional District & Sessions judge. and appellate jurisdiction over High Court decisions. Literally. suspicion. the Transparency International. under its jurisdiction. When hearing criminal cases. The United Nations Manual on AntiCorruption. it means “a broken object”. which possess the equal authority over. morality. mistrust.” Conceptually. Executive matters are brought before the relevant District & Sessions Judge. it is called the Sessions Court. tradition.
The ultimate victim of corruption and poverty is the human dignity itself. Real demand and supply factors have negligible role in shaping the market behaviour which is predominantly controlled by the middleman. It has enlisted about twelve different shades of corruption. In a democratic dispensation. extortion. Thus politicization and inefficiency at the top management levels has resulted in steep decline in the quality of output. Corporate governance has been practiced only in form and not substance. or induce others to do so. fraud. abuse of office. chief executive officers and directors are appointed on the basis of political and personal clout. the process of accountability starts at the first stage of the “conversion process” – the elections. Merit is a less visible commodity. it is imperative to keep the connecting link intact. there are about sixty pieces of enactments and rules that deal with offences of corruption and corrupt practices in Pakistan (Annex B). Illegal convergence of interest has encouraged insider trading which causes frustration and setback to the genuine investor. Starting with the Prevention of Corruption Act 1947. In return. In order to ensure consistency and sustainability of an accountable. and unacceptable behaviour has become a normal practice. transparent and open political process. Counterfeit products have 26 . bribery. Hence corruption causes breach in the social order and emerges as a potential threat to the prosperity. Corruption in government spending leads to serious reduction in impact of development program and results in perpetual increase in cost of maintenance of public assets. “abuse of public office for private gains” The National Anti Corruption Strategy (NACS) has defined corruption as “a behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them. Prices are determined by unscrupulous profiteers through the middleman mafia. The corporate sector is also littered with failures due to corrupt practices. by misusing the position in which they are placed. It is at this stage that the foundation of sound and transparent political culture could be laid. Illegal gratifications. The primary responsibility of ensuring the culture of sound management or what we generally call good governance lies directly on shoulders of the civil administration. Scandals in the corporate sector are subjects of headlines in the media. peace and stability of human civilization across the globe.” Section 9 of the National Accountability Ordinance 1999 has defined corruption and corrupt practices in a comprehensive manner. Wrong practices seem too common. The electorate ought to carefully demonstrate their first choice (right to vote) of the process and to exercise their right only under the dictates of their conscience. Chairmen. which is the connecting link between the rulers and the ruled.as. the rulers who are the custodians of the political environs ought to honour the trust reposed in them and to judiciously exercise the powers they derive from that trust. cheating and criminal breach of trust are some of the corrupt practices mentioned in the NAO 1999 (Annex A).
There is no effective consumer's rights protection regime. They pose serious threats to the sanctity of ethical and democratic values and weaken administrative. Need as a reason is applied to low paid employees specially those entrusted with service delivery powers and public contact. equal protection by law and equality before law. it is certainly no governance at all. the terms governance and good governance are being profusely used in such literature. be that political. form an integral part of the development literature. However. The mere suffix or prefix of the term 'good' does not serve the purpose. Absence of an ethical base in societal attitudes is also cited as one of the root causes of corruption. These issues.flooded the markets. poverty and governance are cross cutting. Good governance remains at the forefront of every aspect of our life. political and social institutions. The Monopoly Control Authority have to be improved to play an effective role in curbing the menace that has infected the corporate sector. Corruption occurs out of compulsion. 27 . accountability. The monopoly control mechanism has turned out to be of least effect. institutions get weak and become hatcheries for corrupt practices. The RULE OF LAW means equal application of law. as those indulging in corruption are in need of the basic necessities and lack access to social entitlement. need very easily merges with greed once need is taken as a justification by those indulging in corruption and corrupt practices. The realization of the goals of good governance and prosperity becomes a myth. The issues of corruption. and if it is not so. In the absence of the RULE OF LAW. social or economic. Governance has to be good in its manifestation. Corruption and corrupt practices are indicative of breaches in the governance edifice. transparency and predictability. Need and greed are cited as the reasons of corruption and corrupt practices. The essential components of good governance are the RULE OF LAW. Consumers are left with no option but to live with inferior quality stuff. put together. It is because of this fact that corruption is linked to poverty which is termed as corruption of need. Recently.
standards for the public and private sector e. killings. Prosperity. Education. Absence of and weakness of the watch-dog agencies d. Elected government's perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business 1. apathetic or ignorant populace with inadequate discernment of 3.Suggestions: Our Suggestions to Overcome the Corruption in All sectors of Pakistan by Eliminating the following Elements. weapons and hate to reach to a non corrupt and self relied “just” states and to become “Darul Islam” for Muslims and Non Muslims of the World and to prove glory of Islam and Islamisation. Lack of effective Internal accountability mechanism b. Good relations with other nations based on Principles But not “Jihad” of wars. a. Political leaders' incompetence and betrayal of public trust with penchant for 2. Muslims of the Pakistan need “Jihad” of Good Governments & Governance. Lack of transparency in the government's decision-making process g. It will help our nation pure from Corruption and make this Holly Land a peaceful and far from injustice and inequality. Love. Self Reliance. political choices j. self-enrichment f. Boost to Economy. Humanity. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system h. Peace. Comprehensive Justice. Islamic & Moral values. Weaknesses in the judicial system i. Discretionary powers and their flagrant abuse by the public office holders c. Care. 28 . Power of influential people k. Science & Technology. Inadequate wage envelop. Quality of Life and Living Norms. Illiterate.
org/.pdf http://www.edu..00./20299/282101/file/TIPakistan_national_corruption_perception_surve y_2006.pk/Downloads/Doc/NACS.html www.pk/news/NCPSNews.org.transparency.gov.pk/articles/Corruptions.com wikileaks Transparency international.References • • • • • • • • http://www.doc wikipedi.nab.htm http://web.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPUBLICSECTORANDGOVERNANCE/E XTANTICORRUPTION/0. 29 .pdf www...transparency.worldbank.kamjadsaeed.menuPK:384461~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:384455.