Population study notes 1.

Definitions • Population density: the number of people living on a unit area of land, usually measured in km2. Calculated by dividing the population of a country by the land area of that country. • • • Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people per year. Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people per year. Rate of natural increase = Birth rate – Death rate.

2. High population growth – Causes (reasons/factors) High population growth is caused by a combination of high birth rates and low death rates. High birth rates: Factor/Reason Need for help on farms • Elaboration Many people in developing countries are involved in farming as it is their main source of income. • Preference for sons Larger families are preferred as there will be more help to grow and harvest crops. • In most countries, farmers have no pension and low savings, hence hope children will look after them in their old age. • Daughters are married out of the family while sons stay home to care for parents and carry on family name. • Having many children ensures the one or two sons survive to adulthood.

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• Better health care such as immunization and better nutrition increase the life expectancy of children and the elderly. 2 . Better hygiene • Cleaner living conditions due to proper waste disposal and clean drinking water reduces the diseases spread by disease carrying pests and insects. They have many children because they are ignorant of family planning methods and there is little/no access to birth control. • Low death rates. Women who marry earlier tend to have larger families. • • Lack of family planning • In less developed countries. Factor/Reason Improved medical and health care • Elaboration Greater access to medical care such as hospitals. clinics and doctors increases the chances of surviving illnesses. This is because these women have a larger number of years for childbearing.Early marriages and Frequent pregnancies • Females are usually not educated and marry at an early age. people are less educated.

• Governments are unable to cope with such large inflow of people into cities. Higher demand for education • In less developed countries. which leads to 3 . • Higher demand for housing Many people may suffer from malnutrition or illnesses from drinking polluted water. governments may not be able to afford to build more schools and hire more teachers. there is a lack of proper waste disposal.3. Which lead to social and health problems. which results in inadequate housing. • Larger populations mean more waste is created. • In less developed countries. water or electricity. High population growth – consequences Factor/Reason Higher demand for food and water • Elaboration Many less developed countries cannot afford to increase food supplies or water for growing population. • Higher demand for jobs Thus not everyone will be able to attend school and get an education. • Homeless create slums and shantytowns with little or no sanitation. • Environmental problems Many people may not be able to find jobs and not be able to afford housing or food. • There will be more people competing for a limited number of jobs. • Cities become overcrowded due to the number of people moving there to work.

High population growth – responses Factor/Reason Improve female literacy • Elaboration This creates job opportunities for women and makes them aware of family planning. • Education on family planning Couples who have more children may have to pay higher taxes. • • People are taught various methods of controlling the size of their families.land and water pollution. which encourages them to think about family size. Incentive and penalties • Monetary rewards may be given to couples that have fewer children. in India. Free sterilization • This reduces the number of children born. 4. especially for families who already have a few children. For example. 4 . educators are sent out to rural areas to teach people and give advice on family planning.

Low population growth – causes. Fewer marriages • Because of education. Low population growth is caused by low birth rates and low death rates. • Increasing numbers of working women find it hard to balance work and family. it cost more to bring up children. people are more financially independent and decide to remain unmarried and therefore don’t have any children. Preference for small families • Due to the high cost of living in many developed countries. Low birth rate: Factor/Reason Later marriages • Elaboration Women in many developed countries have higher educational qualifications. 5 . • Women put careers first and postponing marriage and motherhood and having fewer children. Thus. thus choose to have fewer children.5. people have fewer children.

• People are less likely to contract diseases that are associated to unhygienic living conditions. water and proper waste disposal. Better nutrition • People in developed countries can afford sufficient food and water. • Better medical and health care • Greater access to medical care such as hospitals. This may lead to many social changes occurring in the country. 6 . • Elaboration Affects productivity as number of labourers decreases. there is clean food. • 6. • As the talent pool shrinks. Which may make the country less attractive to foreign investment because cost of labour is high. the need to attract foreign talent increases.Low death rate: Factor/Reason High standards of hygiene • Elaboration In many developed countries. clinics and doctors increases the chances of surviving illnesses. People are less likely to fall ill due to malnutrition. Better health care such as immunization and better nutrition increase the life expectancy of children and the elderly. Low population growth – consequences Factor/Reason Smaller talent pool/workforce.

More money is required to take care of aged and this places a greater financial burden on the working population. such as schools. there are fewer people paying taxes and thus taxes will have to increase. By giving priority HDB upgrading to obtain larger flats. As population decreases. • By providing full-day child care subsidies to help 7 . • By giving longer maternity leave to take care of child. hospitals and transport are paid for by the taxes that people pay.Higher taxes • Public projects. • 7. • • Elaboration By giving tax rebates to help pay for child’s costs. • Ageing population • The proportion of elderly to working population increases. Low population growth – responses (to decreasing BR and ageing population) Factor Reason Encourage couple to have more children.

By retrain older/retired workers. 8 . Helping people stay healthy decreases the need for health care facilities. By raising the retirement age so that older people can continue to earn money.Meeting the needs of the elderly • As the aged population grows. • • Helping the elderly to stay healthy. • Exercise programs and courses at community centers help the elderly stay fit physically and mentally. Homes and elderly-friendly activities will have to be built. more clinics and hospitals have to be built to cater for their needs. • Help people plan for old age • • By providing financial planning to make sure that people have enough money for old age. Tax subsidies are given to people to help them take care of their parents.

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