Pharmaceutical Calculations 1. How much Lidocaine is required to prepare 1 : 1000, 30 cc of solution of Lidocaine? a. 10 mg b. 0.03 mg c. 30 mg d. 300 mg 2.
How many cc of 75 % alcohol should mix with 10 % of 1000cc alcohol to prepare 30% of 500cc alcohol solution? a. 346.16 cc b. 234.43 cc c. 153.84 cc d. 121.12 cc 3. If 60 gm of 1% hydrocortisone is mixed with 80 gm of 2.5% of hydrocortisone, what is the % of hydrocortisone in final mixture? a. 2.2 % w/w b. 1.85 % w/w c. 0.25 % w/w d. 1.75 % w/w 4. If 1000 tablets of Risperdal 1 mg cost $ 2250 and % mark up on prescription is 20, what would be the retail price of 30 tablets? a. $ 150 b. $ 17 c. $ 500 d. $ 81 5. If the ratio of ionized to unionized species of drug is 103 and PKa = 2.2, what is the PH of the solution? a. 2.2 b. 0.8 c. 5.2 d. 3.0 6. If dropper is calibrated to deliver 325 mg of iron sulfate in 0.6 cc and adult dose of drug is 325 mg , what is the dose of a drug in cc for a 15 months-old infant?
46 meq 11. 1. How many meq of Na+ are present in 0.15 gm d.01 cc 7.a. If the dose of a drug is 10 mg/kg/day. If the probability of success in Null hypothesis is 0.9 c. 38. 1.12 meq b.6.= 35. 0.4
. 23.35 gm b. 0. Cl.016 gm 10. 1 bag b. 46. a.08 gm c. 0. 5 bags 8.9% 250cc normal saline solution? [Na+ = 23.3 cc c. how many 250 mg/100cc ready infusion-bags require to fill above order? Patient's weight is 156 lbs. 2. 53. 15. 3.25 gm c.10 N solution of sodium bicarbonate? a. 4.25 gm b. 2 bags c.6 d.3 b. 3 bags d. 0.06 cc d.5] a. 0.17 meq c. what is the probability of failure? a.15 meq d. How much sodium bicarbonate powder is required to prepare 240cc of 0. 25. How much of atropine is required to prepare 240cc in such way that when 1 teaspoonful of the solution is diluted to 1 pint gives 1 in 500 solution? a. 0.81 gm d. 0.2 cc b. 2. 35.35 gm 9.
8 times d.35 min-1 d. by what factor will rate of reaction change? a. 4 times 15. Excellent b.051 min-1 b. 175. 14. 127. 13. 118 c.12 gm d. 140.12. What is the rate of constant after 90 minutes if the initial concentration of drug is 500mg/cc and 50mg/cc after 90 minutes? (First Order Kinetic) a.86 min-1 16. 118.025 min-1 c. What is the "mode" or "median" of the following values? 120. 115. 190 a. 1/4 times c. 18. If the total body clearance of the patient is 2100cc/hr and hepatic clearance is 300cc /hr. How many grams of sodium chloride are required to prepare 250cc of 1% boric acid solution to isotonic with eye tears?
. 135 b.25 gm 13. Severely impaired 17. 21. If the concentration of reactant M is half in a reaction that is third order in M. Moderately impaired d. 105. 0. 0. what is the status of renal function in a patient? a. 0. 1/8 times b.23 gm b. 0. 175 14.67 gm c. Normal c.5 d. 135. How many grams of cocabutter are required to dispense 12 suppositories of tannic acid each weighing 2 gm and contain 400 mg of tannic acid? a.
58oC FP of blood = -0. The amount of lidocaine in 30cc of 1:1000 solution can be calculated as follows: = 30 x 1/1000 = 0.84 cc of 75% alcohol with 346.5/100 = 2 gm hydrocortisone % amount of hydrocortisone in final mixture = 100 x 2. The % mark up on prescription is 20%. 2.2 + 3
. Therefore retail price of 1000 tablets would be = 120 x 2250/100 = $ 2700 ** For each $ 100 cost = $120 retail cost** Price for 30 tablet would be = 30 x 2700/1000 = $ 81 5. then we can get 500cc of 30% alcohol solution.52o C a. (c) 1: 1000 generally interprets as 1 gm in 1000cc solution. 4. 1% = 60/100 = 0.FP of 1% boric acid = -0. 1221 mg Answers 1.84cc (75%) alcohol If we mixed 153.153.(b) Amount of Hydrocortisone in 60 gm. (c) To solve this type of problem.03 gm = 30 milligrams. (c) A pH of the solution can be found by the following formula: pH = pKa + log ionize/unionize = 2. 3. Amount of hydrocortisone in 80 gm. 991 mg d. (d) 1000 tablets of Risperdal 1mg cost $ 2250.29o C FP of 1% sodium chloride = .6 (2gm + 0.6 gm of hydrocortisone.0. 2.16cc [500cc .6gm)/140 (80gm + 60gm) = 1.2 + log 103 = 2. 75 20 (75%) 30 10 45 (10%) Total parts 65 (30%) To prepare 65 (30%) 20 parts (75%) need To prepare 500 (30%) ? = 500 x 20/65 = 153. 325 mg c.84] of 10% alcohol.5% = 80 x 2.85% w/w. 250 mg b. we need to use alligation method.
1 in 500 soln .6 x 32. 1 N solution contains 84 gm 0.1 N solution. According to Fried’s rule = age in months/150 x adult dose = 15 x 325/150 = 32.9 kg A normal therapeutically recommended dose of drug is 10mg/kg/day.96 gm 240cc solution requires ? = 240 x 0. Amount of atropine in 1 pint.2 = 70.08 gm of atropine.96/5 = 46. where p = probability of success
. = 250 x 0.06cc 7.9 = 709 mg Each ready-infusion-bag contains 250 mg of drug.96 gm of atropine. we must first find out the amount of drug present in final solution.4 gms/1000cc.1 x 84 = 8.25 gm NaCl Total equivalents Na+ = weight in gm equivalent wt = 2. 8. therefore = 0.4/1000 = 2. (d) Gram equivalent weights of solute in 1 liter of solution is defined as normality. so number of bags require to fill order would be = 709/250 = 2.9% NaCl. 240cc solution will contain: = 240 x 8. (c) 0. 9. 0. We want to find quantity of sodium bicarbonate in 240cc. therefore 1N solution of sodium bicarbonate will contain 84 gms in 1000 cc. 0. therefore we can say 5cc (1 teaspoonful) contains 0. (d) The sum of probability of success and failure would be equal to 1 in Null hypothesis and can be expressed by following formula: p + q = 1.83 @ 3 bags. therefore dose in above patient = 10 x 70.25/58. therefore weight in Kg would be 156/2.1 N solution contains ? = 0.5 mg The dropper is calibrated to deliver 325 mg of Iron sulfate in 0. = 480 x 1 /500= 0.5/325 = 0.9/100 = 2. (c) Patient weight is 156 lbs.06cc.96 gm of drug must be present in 1 teaspoonful of drug solution. (d) An amount of sodium chloride presents in 250 cc of 0.016 gm of NaHCO3 10. (b) To solve this kind of problem. Now.5 = 0.03846 equivalents 11.= 5.2 6.6 cc.
Amount of coca butter = 2 gm x 12 = 24 gm Amount of tannic acid = 0.33 gm of base will displace 4.025 min-1 16. ClT = Total body clearance ClH = Hepatic clearance
.33 gm = 18.303/90 x log 500/50 = 2.5. (b) 0. (a) The concentration of reactant M is half in a reaction that is third order in kinetic. 118. In our example. Displacement value of tannic acid is 0.8/0. 115.4 12. 175. ClT = ClH + ClR where. (b) We want to dispense 12 suppositories each weighing 2gm and containing 400mg of tannic acid.303/t x log Co/C = 2.9 = 5. therefore = 4.303/90 x log 10 = 0. 135.025 min-1 For the first order kinetic. 140. 105.4 gm x 12 = 4.50 14.9. To find median or mode of experiment data.0. K = 2.67 gm 13. if number of values are even. then average of middle values should be considered.6 = 0. 120.33 gm cocabutter Amount of coca butter = 24 gm . one should first arrange the data in ascending or descending order.8 gm tannic acid = 5.q = probability of failure q=1-p = 1. (c) Median or Mode is generally expressed as a middle value of experiment. (d) The status of renal function impairment can be expressed by creatinine clearance. dx/dt = k (a-x) (b-x) (c-x) = k (a-x)3 where a=b=c = k (M)3 now M = M/2 = k (M/2)3 = 1 /8 k (M)3 15. 190 = (120 + 135)/2 = 127.8 gm.
Benzyl alcohol is classified as: a. 0. Preservative c. Cold cream is an example of: a. Diluent d. Emulsifying agent b.ClR = Renal clearance 2100 = 300 + ClR ClR = 1800 ml/hr = 30 ml/min The normal creatinine clearance generally lies between 80 to 120 ml/min.520 C. = (250 x 0. W/O emulsion d. The amount of NaCl needed for 250cc.29) = 0.58o C therefore one can say.23o C Now as we know that FP provides by 1% NaCl would be -0. For FP 0.23o needs ? = (0. (c) Blood serum freezes at 0.0.396 % NaCl 0.58o needs 1 % NaCl For FP 0. and all solutions having this freezing point are isotonic with blood serum. O/W/O emulsion 3. Suspending agent 2.52-0.29o C FP of blood = . FP provides by 1% Boric acid = -0. Glucose b. O/W emulsion c.9% sodium chloride have the same freezing point that of blood serum. Suspension b. A creatinine clearance in patient is 30 ml/min which will be considered severely impaired. 17.396)/100 = 0.396 gm of NaCl/ 100cc.52o C FP (needed) by NaCl = (0.991 gm NaCl = 991 mg
Sample Questions 1.23 x 1)/0. Which of the following is an example of an oligosaccharide? a. Sucrose
.58 = 0.
The average b. Cytosine b. 9. Which of the following drugs is an angiotensin receptor antagonist ? a. Bias c. The rate of sedimentation is independent of : a. Uracil d. Adenine 5. Closelessness 7. The accuracy 6. Accuracy d. Captopril 8.c. b. Methyldopa d. Lisinopril b. The reproducibility of results of a number of experiments is generally known as: a. Starch d. Dopamine c. A patient with acute hypercapnia should be treated with which of the following ? a. d. Losartan c. The viscosity of dispersion medium. Doxapram b. The diameter of suspended particles. The standard deviation c. Glycogen 4. c. Precision b. Disopyramide
. Which pyrimidine base is found only in RNA? a. The deviation of data from its mean is generally described by: a. The precision d. The difference in densities between dispersed medium and dispersed phase. Thymine c. The lipophilic nature of particles.
d. Net profit to net sales 14. Mumps 11. Net profit to net sales b. Tetrahedral d. Which of the following is NOT an example of a live attenuated vaccine ? a. The molecular geometry of a CH4 (methane) molecule is: a. b. b Beta-2 receptor agonist c Dopamine-D1 receptor agonist d Histamine-H1 receptor agonist 12. Sublimation
. It is classified a(n) a Alpha-1 receptors agonist. Trigonal bipyramidal 15. Inventory turnover rate c. The transfer of molecules from a solid phase directly to a vapor phase is known as: a. Linear b. Which of the following ratios generally indicates the efficiency of a pharmacy ? a. Angular c. Net profit to total assets. Melting b. Measles b. Ipecac 10. Capitalization of net profit d. Which of the following ratios is the best indicator of a pharmacy’s profitability ? a. Net profit to inventory 13. Net profit to total asset d. Diphtheria c. Rubella d. Corlopam (Feoldopam) is indicated for short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension. Net profit to net worth c.
. As with most menopause symptoms. Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms and prevent deterioration of pharmaceutical dosage forms. It must be stable for the lifetime of the product. palatable in test and odor and compatible with other ingredients in the formulation. lotions and liniments.e. The symptoms of BPH are caused by a. Estrogen deficiency b. Progesterone deficiency d. Evaporation 16. It is a biphasic liquid dosage form. The ideal preservative must have the following characteristics: It must be effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Imipramine c.c. relaxation of the prostate gland muscles 18. hot flashes are due to a. It must be nontoxic. Amoxapine ANSWER 1 (b) Benzyl alcohol is classified as a preservative. pressure exerted by the prostate gland on urethra b. Progesterone excess 17. Commonly used preservatives: * phenol * benzoic acid * benzyl alcohol * chlorobutanol * thiomersal * benzalkonium * cresol * cetylpyridinium ANSWER 2 (c) Cold cream is an example of W/O emulsion. Doxepine b. Estrogen excess c. soluble. in which disperse phase and the dispersion medium are liquids. relaxation of bladder muscles c. Freezing d. shrinkage of the prostate gland d. Which of the following TCA is used in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis? a. i. Emulsion is classified by five different categories: Water in Oil (W/O) : Oil is continuous phase and water is a disperse phase. Sertraline d.
Tetanus toxoid and human immunoglobulin G are examples of nanoparticles emulsion.
. to localize drug in the body and to prepare cosmetics. Polysaccharides : They consist of long chains of monosaccharides i. Accuracy is defined as closeness of measurements to the true value. Purines and pyrimidines bases bind to ribose to form nucleoside.Oil in water (O/W) : Water is continuous phase and oil is a dispersed phase i. Microemulsion : Unlike emulsions. and degradation of lactose gives each molecule of galactose and glucose. ANSWER 6 (a) Precision. It consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. i. Nanoparticles : As the name suggests. microemulsion is a transparent with a small particle size. Monosaccharides : They are simple sugar such as glucose and fructose. It consists of a short chain of monosaccharide. the particle size of this kind of emulsion is limited to nanograms. ANSWER 7 (b) Losartan. maltose and lactose. They have to degraded into simple sugar in order to be absorb from the intestine. starch and glycogen ANSWER 4 (c) Uracil. Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide. It is a pyrimidine base that only found on RNA. They are useful for the preparation of globulins and toxoids.e. which when binded to phosphoric acid forms the nucleotides. Oil in water in Oil (O/W/O). The w/o/w emulsions are generally more preferable for preparation of various pharmaceutical dosage forms. degradation of maltose gives two molecules of glucose. It is generally used for the solubilization of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage form. Degradation of sucrose gives one molecule of glucose and fructose. sucrose. The particle size of microemulsion lies between 10 to 200 nm. Multiple emulsions : Water in Oil in ware (W/O/W). most of the oral emulsions to unmask the oil taste of a medication.Carbohydrates can be divided into three categories : Monosaccharide. Oligosaccharides : Consists of a small chain of monosaccharides.e. Nucleotides are the building blocks of the nucleic acid.e. They are used to prolong the duration of action of various drugs. ANSWER 3 (b) Sucrose is an example of Oligosaccharide. ANSWER 5 (b) The deviation of data from its mean or average is defined as standard deviation. It is believed to be thermodynamically stable. The reproducibility of the series of measurements is known as precision.
Measles. Live attenuated vaccines should never be administered to an AIDS patient. It is an agonist for Dopamine-D1 receptors.P2) g/9n V = velocity of sedimentation in cm/sec r = radius of the particles in cm P1 = density of disperse phase in g/cm3 P2 = density of dispersion medium in g/cm3 n = viscosity of dispersion medium g = gravity acceleration 980. It is also used as an expectorant. It has profound anticholinergic side effects with severe A. Hypotension is a principal adverse effect of the drug. constipation.V. node suppression properties. It is a precursor to noradrenalin and is also itself a neurotransmitter in CNS. urinary retention and blurred vision. Dopamine is formed by the decarboxylation of 3.7 cm/sec2 The rate of sedimentation is independent of the lipophilic nature of particles. The cardiac stimulation improves the deteriorated cardiac function. emergency reduction of blood pressure is clinically required. It is indicated for treatment of cardiac shock. The vasodilation offered by dopamine is very important in drawing the blood in the kidney and small bowel during an ischemic attack. ANSWER 10 (b) Diptheria is an example of a killed inactivated vaccine. V = 2r2 (P1 . ANSWER 11 (c) Corlopam (Feoldopam) is indicated for short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension when rapid but quickly reversible. The respiratory stimulant to effect of this agent is attributed to its ability to stimulate the respiratory center in the medulla via carotid chemoreceptors. It should be carefully used in patients with congestive heart failure with glaucoma and urinary hesistancy. Disopyramide is classified as a class IA antiarrhythmic agent. The major adverse effects reported are dry mouth. ANSWER 9 (a) Doxapram is indicated as the respiratory stimulant agent in postanesthesia and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with acute hypercapnia. Mumps and Rubella are examples of live attenuated (live organism with reduced disease producing capacity) vaccines. Ipecac is widely used as an emetic in accidental poisoning.ANSWER 8 (d) The relation of the rate of sedimentation with various parameters can be expressed by Stoke’s law.4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). The diuretic property of dopamine helps to preserve the renal tubules.
Below are examples of molecules with their possible geometry. Symptoms of BPH: * a weak or interrupted stream when urinating * a feeling that you cannot empty your bladder completely * a feeling of delay when you start to urinate * a need to urinate often. ANSWER 17 (a) The prostate gland is located below the bladder in men. Due to enlargement and tightening of muscles of the prostate gland. It is generally calculated by dividing the cost of the goods sold by the average of beginning and ending inventory. Name Geometry BeCl2 Linear BF3 Trigonal planar SO2 Angular CH4 Tetrahedral NH3 Trigonal Pyramidal PCl543 5 Trigonal Bipyradimal ANSWER 15 (b) Sublimation. pressure is exerted on the urethra.
. because it compares the net profit to net investment in the pharmacy. especially at night * a feeling that you must urinate right away ANSWER 18 (b) Imipramine is TCA mainly indicated for the treatment of nocturial enuresis. ANSWER 16 (a) Estrogen deficiency is the major cause for hot flashes. ANSWER 13 (b) Inventory turnover rate generally describes the efficiency of a pharmacy.ANSWER 12 (b) Net profit to net worth ratio is the best indicator of a pharmacy’s profitability. The M/A of TCA in the treatment of nocturial enuresis has been questioned. which is a tube that drains urine from the bladder. It surrounds the urethra. Desmopressin (Vasopressin) is a synthetic analog of endogenous human antidiuretic hormone also indicated for the treatment of nocturial enuresis. which apparently causes the symptoms of BPH. ANSWER 14 (c) The molecular geometry of the Methane is tetrahedral. The squeezing of the urethra results in slow flow of the urine from the bladder.