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Encouraged AF to learn trades iii.Founded an Institute in Alabama c. WEB DuBois i. AF Activist ii.Founding member of the NAACP iii.Wrote 17 books d. Food Industry/Industrial Folk i. Rockefeller – Standard Oil, Gave out dimes, seen as mean, son was a huge philanthropist. ii.Sinclair – Wrote the Jungle, reformed the meatpacking industry. iii.Carnegie – Steel, philanthropist iv.Edison – Inventor, “wizard at menlo park”, started his own lab in NJ awarded 1368 Patents v.Debs – leader in the brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen ARU vi.Vanderbilt – RR Tycoon e. WJ Bryan – Nevada Congressman, Democrat, Populist f. Chivington – RR Guy/Town g. Buck Duke – Owned a Textile mill h. Presidents AJo-Taft +WWI 2. Know About a. Andrew Johnson b. Grant c. RB Hayes i. Won election by a single vote ii.Ruterfreud iii.Refused to use patronage/spoils system = people in party angry iv.Fired Chester Arthur v.Republican party starts to break into fractions and weakens. 1. Stalwarts – loyal party men 2. Half-breeds – reformers 3. Mugwamps – independent republicans vi.Does not run for a second term vii.Straight-laced, started the Easter egg roll, wife didn’t serve alcohol in white house (lemonade Lucy) d. James A. Garfield i. Half-breed republican ii.From Ohio
2 iii.Ran to bring the party together, runs with Chester Arthur, salward. iv.Dark horse canadite – came out of nowhere. v.Garfield clashed with republican members of Congress over some of his appointments, many were half-breeds. vi.Could write with both hands in 2 different languages. vii.July 2, 1881 – shot by Charles Guiteau in train station in DC– didn’t die from shooting, died of infection caused by his physicians. viii.“I am a Salwart, and Arthur is president now” - Guiteau ix.“I shot the president but his physicians killed him” – Guiteau x.President for 6 months and 15 days xi.Took 80 days to die. xii.Guiteau hung in 1882 xiii.AG bell visited Garfield and tried to locate the bullet but the metal detector just detected the bed. xiv.Garfield died on September 19, 1881 e. William McKinley i. Defeats William Jennings twice ii.“a full dinner pail” slogan used to pull US out of depression iii.Prosperity/Prestige iv.Assonated Sept 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo NY, shot sneakily (gun was in a piece of cloth). v.Had a parrot who could sing “Yankee doodle” f. Chester Arthur i. Able + honest ii.Pendleton act iii.Civil service commission – classifieds jobs and tests applicants iv.Outlawed employers from requiring workers to contribute to campaigns v.Protected government jobs when a new president came to office vi.By 1900 100,000 safe jobs were in place vii.Arthur cant unify party and cannot get re-nominated viii.Bright’s disease ix.Changed pants 7 times a day x.Didn’t get nominated for a second term – James Blaine did instead. g. B. Harrison i. Lost popular vote but won electoral college against Cleveland 1888 ii.Popular vote 1. 49% Cleveland 2. 48% Harrison iii.Cleveland loses by 65 electoral votes iv.Sherman Anti-trust Act 1. Outlawed trusts v.Supports huge tariffs
3 vi.Pensions for dependants of CW Vets vii.Politics are in his blood. Grandfather was also president. viii.Dainty – always wore white gloves and made his servants turn out the lights. ix.“little white gloves” h. G. Cleveland i. Democrat ii.Mayor of buffalo iii.Governor of new York iv.Was governor of NY when the Brooklyn Bridge opened. v.Had a child out of wedlock – didn’t marry – love child vi.“ma ma where’s my pa? Gouging to the White House ha ha ha” vii.22nd and 24th president viii.Vetoed 584 Bills – second most ever ix.Babe Ruth candy bar was named after his daughter x.Had a cancerous growth in his mouth – surgery xi.During his 2nd term the US entered a financial recession xii.Honest and moral president xiii.Interstate Commerce act 1. RR rates must be set + public 2. Outlawed rebates (Rockefeller) 3. Set up ICC (international commerce commission) to enforce a. ICC board was populated by RR men – not effective i. Woodrow Wilson i. Democrat ii.Crippled later in life due to a munch of mini-strokes 3. Terms a. Soddies – house made of sod b. Imperialism - Policy that stronger nations dominate weaker ones economically, politically, culturally, and militarily. c. Scrip d. Trust - to manage companies as a single unit with a board. e. Socialism - economic philosophy that favors public control a. Ghetto - an ethnic neighborhood comforts in tradition, language, food, and culture f. Nativism – to favor someone from the same country g. Vertical Integration - gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product’s development h. Horizontal integration - Bringing together many firms into the same business. i. Monopoly - Complete control of a product or service. j. Restrictive covenant - agreements among homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.
4 k. Sharecropping - a family farmed some of a planter’s land, as a payment they would give the landowner a portion of the crop at harvest time, the planter usually provided housing for the family. Lots and lots of DEBT. l. Subsidy - $ given by the Government to encourage the development of key industries. RR, Steel, Farmers m. Settlement houses - Like community centers, offered social services for people in a neighborhood. b. Tenement houses i. Low cost apartments designed to house as many families as possible. ii.Cellars = firetraps iii.Shares facilities iv.1879 – dumbbell tenement – all rooms must have windows. v.Sickness/epidemics quickly spread vi.High poverty rates n. Tenant Farming- you would rent land just like an apartment. The renter would decide what to plant and how much to work. Higher social status. o. Sooners - homesteaders who snuck past the Gov’t officials and marked claims early. p. Laisses Faire – Government should play a limited role in business. If government doesn’t regulate, business may grow, brings wealth to the country but people and quality starts to be abused. q. Scalwag r. Carpetbagger - northern republicans who moved to a post-war south. Known because of their cheap suitcases. s. Freedmen t. Mugwump – independent minded republican u. Half Breed – Republican reformer v. Salwart – Republican loyalist 4. Elections of 1867 and 1912 a. 1876 i. Candidates 1. Rep: Rutherford B. Hayes (Gov OH) 2. Dem: Samuel Tiloen (Gov of NY) ii.Parties – Rep/Dem iii.Quirk - Both Claim victory. 1. Committee of 15 people have to decide the elction. a. 5 from the Senate 3R/2D b. 5 from the House 2R/3D c. 5 federal Justices 2R/2D/1 – David Davis iv.How controversy was cleared up – Compromise of 1876 b. 1912 i. Candidates: Wilson, Taft, Roosevelt
5 5. Act/Treaties/Amendments a. Comp of 1887 a. Tilden and Hayes stated they had won the election b. Congress set up a special commission to resolve the crisis that had more republicans than democrats c. Hayes is named the winner. d. Democrats agree to give Hayes the victory, in return the pre President agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from the southern state. b. He also agreed to support appropriations for rebuilding leeves along the Mississippi river and to give huge subsidies to southern railroads. c. 13th Amendment – banned slavery punishment d. 14th Amendment – blacks are granted citizenship e. 15th Amendment – no citizen may be denied the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. f. Wade Davis i. Past + future loyalty Oath ii.Never willingly raised arms against the US iii.50% of a population of a state have to swear allegiance before a state government can be set up iv.Congress decides criteria i. POCKED VITOED BY LINCOLN c. Pendleton Act - Brought the end to the spoils system. US CSC – placed gov’t officials on the merit system. Used competitive exams to determine government jobs. g. Dawes Act i. Purpose: To Americanize the natives 1. Rez land divided into individual plots 2. Each Native family got 160 acres 3. Land holders were given US citizenship 4. Leftover land was sold to whites a. Tribal concept of shared land in exchange for private property? ii.Over time – More natives – less land iii.Why did it fail? 1. Natives are not farmers 2. Reservations were not suited for farming 3. Natives had no concept of Private land ownership 4. Natives could sell off their given land. h. Homestead Act i. 21 Y/O w/ Family 160 Acres
6 ii.Citizen or in progress iii.Livable dwelling iv.Live on a farm for the bulk of the year v.Farm the land for 5 years i. Sherman Anti-Trust Act – outlawed trusts j. Platt Amendment i. Cuba wont enter any negotiations with countries that would threaten its independence ii.us had right to intervene if Cuba is threatened iii.US leaved its naval station (Guantanamo) on the island. k. 1 Recons Act of 1867 l. Teller Amendment - It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." m. Morrill Land Grant – money given to states to start colleges. n. Tenure of Office Act- 1867 - President must seek senate approval for people to fill certain jobs, took away a lot of presidential power. 6. Native/US Relations and Great Plains a. Sand Creek b. Little Big Horn c. Wounded Knee d. US Honoring Treaties e. Native lifestyle on plains - nomadic f. Buffalo i. Uses 1. Food, clothing, shoes, canvas, tipis, jewelry, tools, carrying stuff, prairie firewood – dried dung. ii.Disappearance – RR expansion, run off clifs, buffalo robes. g. Indian Territory – Oklahoma 7. Imperialism: a. Alaska b. Hawaii i. 1875 1. Treaty: Sell sugar in US tax free 2. No Wholesaling/selling off land to other countries (us gets assurance) a. Treaty signed between whites on the island and the US government ii.1887
7 1. US Leases Pearl Harbor from King Kala Kaua - forced to accept US backed constitution. iii.1891 1. Kealakekua dies - Liliuokalani becomes Queen, "Hawaii for the Hawaiians." iv.US Ambassador claims lives are in danger 1. orders us marines to take over islands 2. congress passes annexation bill 3. Cleveland Vito 4. Cleveland finds Hawaii wants independence. v.1898 1. McKinley Says "We need Hawaii as much and a good deal more than we did California, it is manifest destiny. c. Philippines (Emilio Aquinaldo) i. May 1, 1898 Adam Dewey attacks Spanish fleet @ Manila. 1. Destroys it in 7 hours 2. Not enough US men to mount a land attack 3. 0 ships damaged, 8 men wounded 4. Spanish fleet destroyed, 381 Killed ii.Most people think that the US is just trying to conquer the Philippines. iii.Aguinaldo – Leader – Declares Philippines and Independent Republic January 1889 1. US ignores this d. Spanish American War 1. Roughriders – stormed San Juan Hill, Roosevelt 2. USS Maine – Sinks Feb 15 1898 Kills 260 American Sailors 1. nobody knows why it sunk, spain blamed i. De Lome Letter - Ambassador to the US calls McKinley "Weak and feeble minded; a bidder for the admiration of the crowd." e. Arguments for and against imperialism i. For 1. industrialization led to need for more rare materials and natural resources 2. additional markets for US goods 3. nationalism - source of pride 4. fueling stations for US Navy 5. Anglo people better suited to govern. (racial)
8 6. all powerful nations had them 7. Frontier is gone - Us needs to develop new frontiers. ii.Against 1. US began is a colony - and HATED IT! 2. US still had huge amounts of land and untapped resources. a. See what we have before we take over faraway lands. 3. 1897 - McKinley (inaugural address) "we must avoid territorial expansion" a. He did not favor expansion. 8. Reconstruction a. Dates – 1865-1887 b. Bloody Shirt – Presidents claiming they fought in c. AJ d. Lincoln and Radical Plans e. Gerrymandering f. Literacy Test g. Poll Taxes h. Grandfather Clause 9. Transcontinental RR – coast to Coast a. Companies – Central Pacific + Union Pacific b. City of origin – Sacramento + Omaha c. Types of workers – Unskilled immigrants d. Problems – noisy, dirty, uncomfortable, scary e. Meeting point – May 10 1869 Promontory Summit, Utah f. TIME ZONES 10. Unions (characteristics + leaders) a. NLU – national Labor Union i. Founders ii.Major points: rapidly grows in 6 years, dies because of a recession. b. KOL – Knights of Labor i. Founders – Philadelphia 1869 Terrence Powderly ii.Major - Hoped to be THE union c. AFL – American Federation of Labor i. Founders – Samuel Gompers - 1886 ii.Major points – skilled workers, idea of collective bargaining. iii.“closed shop” d. IWW i. Founders - 1905
9 ii.Major points – unskilled workers e. Molly Maguire’s’ i. Founders – Ireland 1843 ii.Major points – scare rent collectors, coal miners in WV and PA, Maguire’s came to the aid of workers secretly. Supervisors were beaten, threatened, tools were destroyed, and people were murdered. Coffin letters. iii.Fall – James McParlan went to infiltrate the Molly Maguire’s 1. 1887 10 tried, convicted and executed 11. Farmers and those who they had conflicts with a. NAACP – WEB Dubious, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People b. Plessy V. Ferguson c. Rep Dominance after CW d. Rep/Dem Diffs Circa 1880 e. Panama Canal – originally owned by Columbia, bought from panama f. Credit Mobilzer d. Political Machines - unofficial government organizations designed to keep a particular party in power. Usually headed by a “Boss”. Helped the poor when the Gov’t wouldn’t. e. How they worked i. Worked through exchange of favors for promises of votes f. Kickbacks g. Payment or bribery in exchange for a vote. 12. WWI
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