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Electro-Optic Systems

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Intell~get~c and e It-)sightYOLA C d n Trust

Jane's
Electro-Optic Systems
Edited by Michael J Gething AMRAeS

Twelfth Edition

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Land Systems - Section Summary Electro-optic countermeasures Electronic countermeasures Laser warners Air defence missiles Vehicles Vehicle sights Static and towed Static and towed sights Portable Portable sights Air defence guns Vehicles Vehicle sights Static and towed Static and towed sights Anti-amour missiles and munitions Vehicles

Armoured fighting vehicles Vehicle turrets Fire control = --Gunner's sights Commander's sights Driver's sights
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Infantry weapon sights Illuminating Passive - crew-served weapons P a s se iv .. ~personal ~ weapons .


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Observation and surveillance Air defence sensors Forward observation Laser range-finders Image intensifier binoculars Image intensifier cameras Image intensifier goggles Image intensifier monoculars Area surveillance Infrared imagers AIRBORNE SYSTEMS Airborne Systems - Section Summary Air-launched missiles Air-to-air missiles Air-to-air guns Air-to-surface missiles and munitions Electro-optic countermeasures Electronic countermeasures Missile warners Laser warners Ground attack Integrated systems - Fixed-wing Integrated systems - Helicopter Targeting sights Laser range-finders Flight aids Laser systems Communications and beacons Pilot's thermal imagers Pilot's goggles and integrated helmets Observation and surveillance Air interception Turret sensors Maritime sensors Unmanned aircraft sensors Reconnaissance systems Thermal imagers KEY TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRO-OPTIC SYSTEMS Key technologies for Electro-optic Systems - Section Summary Inka-red detectors and coolers Thermal imager modules Video trackers for military applications Antidetection devices Contractors Alphabetical index Manufacturers' index

Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

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Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

Overv
Introduction
As I settle down to review the fouah year of my tenure as Editor of Jane's Electro-Optic Systems, now in its twelfth edition, I realise that the various technologies covered under this title, and their practical application, have advanced by leaps-and-bounds. It seems the more knowledge and information I absorb on the wide-ranging subjects covered, the more there is to learn. The following sections, mirroring the main categories within the product, ok at elements of interest more specifically. seven ballistic missile intercepts from eight f i g s , but until this point all of the engagements had occurred with the BMD-dedicated SM-3 in the exo-atmospheric ballistic phases. As well as being the first endo-atmospheric engagement, the engagement was also the fust ballistic missile shootdown using SM-2. A Raytheon spokesperson described the modifications related to enhancements of the seeker head as being able to help the missile better deal with the very high speeds involved in the target's terminal phase, but otherwise the missile was standard. In the field of naval EOIIR, surveillance, tracking and fue-control system applications cover the 0.2 to 14.0 pm waveband. This area has been steadily growing, either with new systems or the upgrading of IR detectors to the latest standard in existing systems. Typical of the genre is Thales Nederland's Mirador multisensor director equipped with a colour daylight and low-light TVs for daylnight surveillance; a fxed-focus monochrome TV camera for tracking, a dual field-of-view Albatross 3 to 5 pm thermal camera (with the option of an 8 to 12 pm and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. Known in the Royal Netherlands Navy as the Trainable Electro-Optical Observation System (TEOOS), it has been adopted for the four De Zeven Provincien-class LCF frigates, with other customers including Bangladesh (on the frigate BNS Bangabandhu), Germany (for its K130 corvettes) and Greece (for three types of vessel). In the UK, Radamec Defence Systems (part of Ultra Electronics) will provide its System 2500 for the UK Royal Navy's Type 45 Daring-class destroyers as part of the Electro-Optical Gunfue Control System (EOGCS). The Series 2500 sensor payload is a 3 to 5 pn high-resolution thermal camera from BAE Systems Australia and the same company's Series 600 eye-safe laser range-finder, plus the Radamec Series 206-004 colour TV camera. It is but one step from fire-control directors to integrated sensors on weapons platforms and, mirroring the trend for Remotely-Controlled Weapon Stations (RCWS or just RWS - both acronyms apply) on Armowed Fighting Vehicles (AFVs), such systems are now coming into naval service. The South African Navy (SAN) has ordered an initial Rogue remotely operated gun system from Reutech Defence Logistics (RDL)

NAVAL SYSTEMS By far the largest - use of Electro-OpticallInfra-Red (EOIIR) systems in naval systems is in surveillance, tracking and fire-control system applications. However, one must not forget the IR detectors in some missiles and the steady growth in sub-surface applications - on submarine periscopes and optronic masts. So, slipping silently below the surface, the subtle difference between periscopes and optronic masts is that the periscope can accommodate one or two TV channels (usually daylight and low-light) together with a laser rangefinder alongside the more traditional functionalities. The optronic mast is a dedicated surveillance sensor with, generally, a TV channel and a thermal channel (using either MWIR or LWIR sensors). Both types of mast are usually considered complementary and are to be found in most modern submarines. Carl Zeiss Optronics, for example, is producing both its SERO 400 periscope and OMS 100 optronic mast for Type 209 SSKs of the Indian and South African navies, and the Type 214 SSKs for Greece and South Korea. The US manufacturer, Kollmorgen has developed its non-penetrating periscope concept into the model 86 optronic mast, in service with the US Navy's Los Angeles-class SSNs and Egypt's Improved Romeo-class SSKs. A further evolution - the Photonic Mast Program produced the ANIBVS-1 non-penetrating mast for the US Navy's Virginia-class SSNs and the Photonics Mast Variant for the four former Ohio-class SSBNs converted to SSGN configuration. They are fitted with channels for a colour TV, a highdefinition TV and thermal sensors plus an eye-safe laser rangefinder (and omni-directional ESM antenna). Such advances offer submariners a wider range of improved surveillance capabilities. To further exploit the sensors, Kollmorgen is working on an Integrated Submarine Imaging System for the US Navy's Los Angeles-class and Virginia-class SSNs plus the SSGNs. This will bring together mission-critical, all-weather visual and electronic search, digital image management, indication, warning and platform architecture interface capabilities. On the weapons side, we can record the first firing of the IR-guided Denel Umkhonto surface-to-air missile from the FNS Hanko, one of the Finnish Navy's four Hamina-class fast-attack craft, on 26May 2006. This information and the accompanying photo were not available in time to further update the entry in the main body of the book. Umkhonto is also now operation on South Africa's Valour-class patrol corvettes. Another missile-seeker event was the successful interception of a ballistic missile target in its terminal descent phase by a Raytheon RIM-156A Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) Block IV, equipped with a modified IR seeker, on 24 May 2006. Part of the development of the US sea-based Ballistic Missile Defence (B

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
Technologies for qualifkation purposes. Once qualified, the intention is to fit each of the SAWS four Valourclass patrol corvettes with four Rogues for close-in protection in asymmetric warfare conditions. The system may also be later fitted to other SAN ships for the same purpose. Originally developed as an overhead mounting for AFVs, the naval version has been successfulIy trialled, as a temporary installation, aboard the Warrior-class missile fast attack craft, SAS MaRhanda. It is claimed to have demonstrated very good accuracy against small targets and also showed potential as an additional observation channel using the mount's sensors. These currently comprise a TV camera with continuous zoom lens (allowing good target recognition and identification) and a thermal imager can be incorporated for night use. Depending on the effective range of the weapon selected for a particular application, the thermal imager could be an uncooled or a cooled unit. A laser range-finder can also be mounted. Turkey's Aselsan launched a naval RCWS at the IDEF'O5 in Ankara in late September 2005. Known as the STAbilised Machine gun Platform (STAMP), it is a modular system capable of mounting a 0.5-in (as displayed) or 7.62 mm heavy machine gun or 40 mm automatic grenade launcher, depending on customer requirements. Similar in configuration to the OTO Melara 12.7 mm remote turret, the low-radar profde turret's integral fuecontrol sensors feature a thermal camera (in this case an Aselsan 8 to 12 p,dual field-of-view cooled thermal camera) and Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) TV camera (of customer choice) plus an optional laser range-finder. The company's immediate target customer is the Turkish Navy and it can also be adapted for AFV use. In another May 2006 announcement, DRS Technologies has received a contract from Raytheon Missile systems to supply a thermal imager, based on its Horizontal Technology Integration (HTI) second-generation products used in sighting systems for the US Army and Marine Corps, for use by the US Navy on the Raytheon Mk 15 Phalanx CIWS Block 1B upgrade, displacing the existing Thales UK product (the HDTI 5-2F thermal imager). agents for the primes but others appeared to be bringing new designs into the market. Most of these were offering devices tailored to using proprietary image intensification (II or 12) tubes procured from the nine main suppliers worldwide. One, however, was using tubes produced in Russia. They wil all be contacted during the course of the year. This rather specific aside serves to confirm my belief in the growth of th~ night-vision market, be it through I1 or Thermal Imaging (TI) sensors. Then is nothing l i e operational applicationsto emphasise the need for increasing numbers of in-production systems and, of course, new systems with the very latest technology. The feedback from the bottom upwards is bein1 addressed and the innovations are filtering down to the front line. Of course the reality is that there will never be quite enough to satisfy the soldier but in truth, there is more night-vision capability in the front line now than twc years ago. Looking at the front line soldier brings the various projects for what i! referred to as 'Soldier Modemisation' into focus. More countries an adopting equivalent projects which are aimed to bring the infantryman i n t ~ the Network Centric world. Apart from the pamphernalia of 'soldiering' durable clothing and boots, protection (gas mask, helmet and body amour), weapons and ammunition - the soldier is now being tasked with carrying individual communications, night-visionlvidw sensors (which brings the subject into this tome) and, of course, the libiquitous computer. The problem for the soldier is, of course, weight - all this electronic gadgetry requires power - and power means batteries. The more batteries required to operate such systems means more weight for the new land warrior to carry. The word in the bazaars at Eurosatory is that this is a problem more than one national programme is encountering. No-one will admit it outright but it is there. The announcement (on 20 June 2006) that the UK's QinetiQ and ABSL Power Solutions LM have received a contract to mature technology for the next generatiort of portable power systems from the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) Dismounted Close-Combat Integrated Project Team adds weight to the assertion. One of the contract's requirements, according to QinetiQ is "for a man-portable infantry power supply that should deiiver dramatic improvements in energy density to support future modem soldier requirements for the UK MOD". The US Army's Program Manager - Soldier Warrior (Fort Beivoir, Virginia) is also aware of this problem and is currently evaluating an advanced, high-power, lightweight, soldier-wearable power source developed by DuPont (Wilrnington, Delaware) under the FY06 Defense Acquisition Program. As well as offering a direct power source for the various electronic systems carried by the soldier, this fuel cell also includes smart circuitry to recharge batteries. Moving to Armoured Fighting Vehicle (AFV) systems, the trend of introducing the latest third-generation TI sensors in place of existing earlier generation thermal sensors and into f i o n t r o l systems continues unabated - the US has such programmes in place for the M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBTs) and the MUM3 Bradley familiy of AFVs. The addition of RCWS (or RWS) also moves forward, with TI an integral part of the the sensor suite. Typical of the genre but with an ingenious configuration is the Panoramic Low-Signature Sight (PLSS) RWS from Saab Systems. A prototype has been evaluated by Sweden's FMV (Defence Materiel Administration) on a Swedish Army Strv 122 (Leopard 2A5) MBTs. This is a sensor/weapon platform mounted on a telescopic mast whieh is fitted on the tank turret in place of the commander's sight. It is intended to provide the tank commander with improved situational awareness and increased ~rotection.

L m SYSTEMS The week before completing this overview, the editor spent three days at the Eurosatory land-systems exhibition in Paris. Apart from the mainstream of defence contractors in this particular niche, there were about a dozen companies, new to Jane's, that were promoting night-vision or laser products of one description or another. Some, to be fair, were acting as

The Rogue remote gun station, as fifted to SAS Makhanda jor trials (RDL)

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The PSLL combined commander's sight and remote weapon stdon installed in pkxe of the original commander's sight on Swedish Army Stw 122 MBTat Skovde, Sweden, septen;ber ZW5 (Saab AB)

in

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEVL
As a result of this experience and subsequent further trials, the company has received a contract to retrofit video downlinks to the Sniper pod. The video downlink allows troops on the ground to simultaneously view the same display as the, pilot in his cockpit, via an L 3 Communications B ground-based receiver. This ability offers troops on the manpack Rover l &round,paztidarly in urban environments, enhanced situational awareness and can impEowe the spec$ of reaction to timesensitive targets, getting bombs on t q e t faster than previous methis have allowed. Another Lockheed Martin initiative involves an unsolicited proposal to and utility helicopters with the Modemised Pilot's Night Vision equip System (M-PNVS), developed as part of the Arrowhead upgrade for the AH-64D Apache Longbow. Seen as a way to improve pilot visibility in reduced visibility, including 'browndut' and 'white-out' situations, the concept b w n as Pathfmder - not to be confused with an earlier product based on the navigation pod from the company's LANTIRN system) takes the M-PNVS element of Arrowhead and mounts it on a tactical transport helicopter. The Pathffnder concept is initially focussed on operators of AH-64Ds already acquiring the Arrowhead system. At any given time, a proportion of The Guardiancivil counterWPADS pod mounted on an MD-I1 airliner. To the lefi those helicopters would be out-of-service awaiting or undergoing scheduled can be seen one of the four missile approach w a m r antennae, while the laser 1158141 maintenance. By fitting an adaptor on cargdutility helicopters, the M-PNVS jamming turret protrudes beneath (Northrop G~mman) portion of the ApacWs system can be easily 'cross-decked' to the other helicopter t y p e . This would allow extended use of the system itself, improved capability for the other type for the comparatively modest modification cost, according to Lockheed Martin. While the US Army is showing great interest in Pathfinder, it has no formal requirement or funding stream. International users of the AH-64D have also expressed interest. In the world of missile IR seekers, the acceptance in October 2005 of the MBDA U A D m (Mquette a'Autodirecteur Infra Rouge) strapdown IR seeker module by the French Delegation General pour I'Armenwnt (DGA) marks the return o f the company to the IR seeker domain. The work has been csrried out by the company's seeker division, formed from is acquisition of Alenia Marconi (Dynamics), and involves the development of tube with a high SNR (lef) and a low SNR (rtght) 1(PhOtonis-DW) a large format 1R detector that has simplified the haming head lineof-sight system. Accordiug to the company, "series production costs of the MADRID seeker will be mund 20 to 30 per cent lower than that of other third generation (Gen 3), he said, "is simply the difference in production methodology, not the performance of the if tube". imaging seekers'*e "Performance" is usually defined by a bmad set of parameters, most From missiles to defences against missiles and evolution of the ANIAAQ24fv) Dire& InfraRed CounterMeasures (DIRCM) has seen importantly identified by the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the I tube is classified the original variants, known as Nemesis, using xenon arc lamps are no Resolution (lphnm). Regarless of the fact whether the I longer in production, although they continue in service. The as Gen 2 or Gen 3, it is the performatlce that makes a tube's value for money ANIAAQ24(V)13 Large aircraft InfraRed CounterMeasures (LADRCM) and what makes it a safety tool in today's close combat, special and airborne system is the nurent production model at Northrop Chmman (Rolling operations. After the two basic indicators ( S M and lplmm), Vloon considers users Meadows, Illinois), which uses the solid-state diadspumped Nd:YAG Viper laser as the jamming source, in place of the lamp. A variant of this, and buyers should also take into account the size of any halo effect (which in podded fonn and known as Guardian, is being evaluated by the US is smaller in Gen 2 tubes), the availability of additional features like Department of Homeland Security contract in the Counter-MANPADS autogated power supply units (which are available in Gen 2) and Iifetime (man-ponable air defence system) programme, and is flying on an MD-11 (which is longer for Gen 2). While there are many different systems which use II tubes, Vloon is airliner. BAE Systems' Integrated Electronic Warfare Systems (Nashua, New Hampshire) is the other contender in the battle for civil airline confident in his assertion that ''production methodofogies do not create the advantage for users during their mission... but performance does". countermeasures, with its JetEye system flying on a Boeing 767. Moving across to TI, the market continues to grow. The view from France's Sofradir is that the world market for IR detectors - the cure of any thermal camera - will grow by at least 10 per cent if~llluallyfor the KEY TEGHPJOLOGIES In the field of night vision, Image Intensifier tubes are the heart of many foreseeable future. Speaking with the Editor in March 2006, Dr Wppe systems, providing most of the performance of today's night vision Bensussan, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the company, equipment. Speaking with Ben Vloon of Photonis-DEP, he emphasised that explained that the 10 per cent figure covered both cooled and uncooled IR it is important for users and buyers to not only look at the generation of the detectors, with the uncooled market growing at a rate of some 22 per cent, tube. The main technical difference between second generation (Gen 2) and while the cooled market was about 7 per cent. Part of Sofradir's future business strategy, Bensussan said, was to "introduce new technology". This includes larger sized arrays (1,000 x 1,000 pixels upwards) with reduced pixel pitch;-digital read-obt integrated circuits; and bi-colour/"i-spectral arrays. The company devotes 8.5 per cent of sales revenue to its research and development efforts, he said, adding that Sofradir is presently expandiig its facilities in Grenoble, partly to install the equipment to produce the detector material by a process known as molecular beam epitaxy. The search for better clarity in thermal images, in terms of denser arrays (such as reducing the pitch between individual detectors) progresses in the United States. In September 2005, Sensors Unlimited (now the Goodrich Corporation's Optical and Space Systems division, in Princeton, New Jersey) was awarded a Defense Advand Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Microsystems Technology Offtce contract to develop a 1,280 x 1,024 pixel, dual-wavelength (visible and short-wave IR) Focal Plane Array (FPA) using uncooled Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) technology with a pixel pitch of 15 pm. This award was followed in January 2006, by one from the US Army's NVESD, to design, develop and deliver an InGaAs FPA for use in highdefinition (1,920 x 1,080 pixel) short-wave IR night-vision cameras. The work focuses on development of an improved Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) architecture which is backwards iowdinb ftom the sniper pod flying stand-oflsurveillanc~(Lockheed Martin) 1 l58lrU) compatible with older imaging technologies.
Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

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EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

msei B a &ow a sin& LkDaR image of a mving 33ft (16.15 m)fisJiing boat krken @ WUops Islrurd d Virgutra. I fw rmnge was rmznjzanr a m s e O J (ratu~ 500m andprovi&s remarkable &mil. Look carefilly and you can achuiIIy make orrt the antennae of the boat in &ition to splashes of water next to &e cpft and the boat's wake. The m111tlple images illustrate the 'ro~tional'abilitj, of the seeker data - they are not separate images, just the same image m t m d to various ll3O3O4 angles (hlrheed Martin]

Acknowledgements
This product would never happen without the input, help and cooperation of those manufacturers, armed forces, research and development establishanex& and expert individuals who have provided information to Jane's EIedrQIoptic System, particularly those who were in receipt of urgent requests for clarification of specific points as we moved towards deadline. There are too many to name individually, but you know who you are and I offer, as always, my gratefd thanks. E q M y important are those involved in the output of the product at Jane's Coulsdon HQ. For most of this production year, I have worked closely with Daniel Cadty as my main content editor, under the watchful eye of Melanie Rovexy. As we moved to the hardcopy production, Daniel's internal pmmotictn resulted in him 'handing the baton' to Rebecca Davies for the final proofing stages. On the production side itself these pages would not appear without the contribution of Jack Brenchley. I appreciate your dedication, professionalism and sheer hard work. Thanks also to the senior management team of Jonathan Grevatt, Sean Howe and Sara Morgan. To the in-house industry information gathering team, the imageprocessing team and the CMS suppot tam I, again, offer grateful thanks for guiding me through the labyrinth of procedures and protacols. As always, I am indebted to my 'content-gathering' colleagues at Jane's within the new desk organisations, who have fed me information and answered specific o r general questions as I process the words. To Edward (Dick) Downs, Christopher P. Foss, E. R. (Ted) Hooton, Richard Jones, Joris Janssen Lok, Ken Munson, Rupert Pengelley, Doug Richardson, Richard Scott, Richard Stickland, Martin Streetiy, Bill Sweetman and Tony Watts, I thank you for sharing and debating your particular knowledge with me. However, the bottom line of responsibility remains with the Editor myself. Should something have slipped through the net, then please let me know. Michael J Gething 26 June 2006

Michael J

ing, A MRAeS, MClJ

Michael J Gething has been an aviationldefence journalist and editor since 1973, when he joined the staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society's publication Aerospace. In October 1976, he moved to DEFENCE magazine where he spent 17 years, eight of them as Editor, before joining Jane's Information Group in December 1993 to edit Jane's Defence Systems Modernisation. In 1997, this evolved into Jane's Defence Upgrades. With the incorporation of JDU in Intemtional Defence Review in June 2003, he became IDR's Upgrades Editor and began work on Jane's Electro-Optic Systems. Between 1972 and 1979, Michael produced the aircraft modelling and aviation interest pages for Air Cadet News, newspaper of the Air Training Corps, in which he served as a Flying Officer in the Training Branch of the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve (1972-1986). He was also the last editor of the Ai@ Magazine in 1993. Together with Giinter Endres, he has recently produced the two editions of Jane's Aircrafi Recognition Guide, and among his other solo published works are Sky Guardians - the Air Defence of Great Britain, Air Power 2000 and F-IS Eagle. An Associate Member of the Royal Aeronautical Society and a Member of the Chartered Institute of Journalists, Michael also belongs to Air-Britain and the Air Power Association. He is married with a son (in the RAF) and a daughter and lives in deepest Sussex.

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Glossary
This glossary deals with technical terms only and not standard SI or other units, names of organisations, or of specific programmes; the latter will be found in the general index. A few words of explanation are provided where appropriate. For further technical detail, an excellent reference text is " The Znfra-Red and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook ", edited by J S Accetta and D L Shumaker, published by SPIElERIM (1993); Volume 5 of this set is particularly relevant. Because of the potential for confusion between different video standards and different measures of image resolution, some further notes on these topics are provided at the end of this glossary. AA AAM AAW ABC Absorption coefficient AC ACLOS AEW AFY AGC AGL Angle of elevation AP APDS APFSDS APC APD ARPA Anti-reflection coating ASuW ASW ATBM ATGM ATGW Be0 BIT BITE CZ c31 c41 CAS CCD CCIR CCTV CEP CIC CIWS CLGP CLOS CMOS CMT Anti-Aircraft Air-tc-Air Missile Anti-Air Warfare Automatic Brightness Control (for image intensifiers) Fraction of energy absorbed per unit pathlength Alternating Current Automatic Command to Line of Sight (guidance mode of a missile) Airborne Early Warning (aircraft) Armoured Fighting Vehicle Automatic Gain Control Above Ground Level (height of an aircraft) The angle between the line of sight and the horizontal plane Armour-Piercing (ammunition) Armour-Piercing Discarding Sabot (ammunition) Armour-Piercing FinStabilised Discarding Sabot (ammunition) Armoured Personnel Canier Avalanche Photodiode (provides higher gain than PIN diode detector; often used in LRF receivers) Area Radar Prediction Analysis A thin film of material applied to an optical surface to reduce the reflectivity and increase the transmission of radiation through the surface Anti-Surface Warfare AntiSubmarine Warfare Anti-Tactical Ballistic Missile Anti-Tank Guided Missile (almost synonymous with ATGW) Anti-Tank Guided Weapon Beryllium Oxide (see Materials section) Built-In Test Built-In Test Equipment Command and Control Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Close Air Support Charge Coupled Device (solid-state TV imaging detector chip) see note below on video standards ClosedCircuit TV Circular Error Probability (a measure of the accuracy of bomb or missile targeting) Command and Information Centre (on a ship) Close-In Weapons System Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Command to Line of Sight (guidance mode of a missile) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Cadmium Mercury Telluride, a commonly used IR detector material, also known as MCT. (see Materials section) Commercial Off-The-Shelf Cathode Ray Tube (display) Continuous Wave Defensive Aids System Direct Current Direction Finding Dual FoV (Field-of-View) Directed/Directional IR Countermeasure The bending of light beams away from each other, for example by a lens Electronic Counter Countermeasure (capability to resist ECM) Electronic Countermeasure Effective Focal Length Explosively Formed Projectile(type of missile warhead) Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering and Manufacturing Development Electromagnetic Immunity electrooptic(a1) A component that detects radiation by the effect of light in generating an electrical signal EO Counter Countermeasure (capability to resist EOCCM EOCM) EOCM EO Countermeasure EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal ERA Explosive Reactive Armour Er:Glass Erbium:Glass (see Materials section) ESM Electronic Support Measures EW Electronic Warfare The ratio of the focal length of a lens to its diameter F (or f) number Forward Air Controller FAC Fast Attack Craft FAC FireControl System FCS Fibre-Distributed Data Interface rnDI Fast Fourier Transform FFr FIR Far Infra-Red (the 15 to 1,000 pm band) Forward Looking infra-red (typically a fixeddirection FLIR narrow-FOV system, with a display for the user) Frequency Modulation Fibre Optic (sometimes used in the form of a twister to invert an image, or as a taper to couple an image intensifier to a CCD camera) Figure of Merit - a US I1 tube specification used to FOM qualify exportability, calculated on resolution (line pairs per millimetre) x signal-to-noise ratio Field-of-View FoV Focal Plane Array (as opposed to a scanned array) FPA Gallium Arsenide (see Materials section) GaAs Germanium (see Materials section) Ge Gen (or GEN) 1, 2, The generations of image intensifiers used in NVG. Earliest electrostatically focused Gen 1 tubes had low 3 gain. Gen 2 introduced MCP for much higher gain; Gen 3 introduced improved 3-V (GaAs) photocathodes. A confusing variety of proprietary names are also used such as Supeffien and Gen 2 Super Global Positioning System GPS Horizontal (referring to FoV) H High-Energy (warhead explosive) HE High-Energy Anti-Tank (ammunition) HEAT High-Energy Laser HEL High-Explosive Squash Head (ammunition) HESH HF High-Frequency Helmet-Mounted Display HMD Holographic Optical Element HOE Head-Up Display HUD High- (or Hyper) Velocity Missile HVM Intensified CCD (CCD TV camera with image ICCD intensifying stage) Infantry Combat Vehicle ICV Integrated Detector/Cooler Assembly IDCA Improvised Explosive Device ED Interrogation Friend or Foe I F F Infantry Fighting Vehicle IFV I1 or IZ Image intensifier(d) Imaging IR (as distinct from earlier generation scanned IIR, 12R IR systems) Indium Antimonide (see Materials section) InSb Indium Gallium Arsenide (see Materials section) InGaAs Inertial Navigation System INS infra-red IR IRCCD infra-red CCD IR Counter Countermeasure (capability to resist IRCM) IRCCM IR Countermeasure IRCM IR Focal Plane Array IRFPA EMC EMD EM1 EO EO detector

COTS CRT CW DAS DC DF DFoV DIRCM Divergence ECCM ECM EFL EFT

Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

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THE LEADERS IN InGaAs TECHNOLOGY

GLOSSARY
IRLS IRST IR Line Scan IR Search and Track (differs from FLlR in that the FoV is mechanically steerable in the direction of choice, the primary destination of the image information is a computer rather than a display screen and autotracking functions are built in). Intelligence. Surveillance and Reconnaissance Intelligence, Surveillance. Targeting, Acquisition and Reconnaissance Joule Thomson (cooler for IR detector). A cooling technique which uses the expansion of High-pressure gas. By forcing the gas, usually nitrogen or argon, through a narrow nozzle, the gas expands and absorbs heat causing its surroundings to cool Kinetic Energy (of a munition or weapon) Potassium Titanate Phosphate (see Materials section) Local Area Network An instrument for weapon delivery applications, the laser illuminates the target with a coded signal. The attacking missile launched from a platform which can be some distance from the designator. has a laser sensor which detects the reflected code signal from the target and provides the homing signal to guide the missile to the target An instrument to measure the range of a target I.ight Armoured Vehicle Liquid Crystal Display Light Emitting Diode Lithium Fluoride (see Materials section) Lithium Niobate (see Materials section) Lithium Tantalate (see Materials section) Low-Level Air Defence System Low-Light Level TV Lock-On After Launch Lock-On Before Launch Long Range Oblique Photographic Line-of-Sight Liquid Phase Epitaxy (method of manufacturing IR detectors) Laser Rangefinder Line Replaceable Unit Laser Spot Tracker Laser Target Designator Long-Wave Infra-Red (the 8 to 12 pm band - sometimes stretching to 15 pm) Laser Warning ReceiverISystem Man-Portable Air Defence System Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. Main Battle Tank Manual CLOS (guidance mode of a missile) Mine Countermeasures (ship) Microchannel Plate Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) - see, also, CMT and the Materials section Mid-Life Update ManNachine Interface Metal Organic Vapour Phase Deposition (method of manufacturing IR detectors) Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (a subjective measure of the thermal contrast sensitivity of an IR system including its display, usually quoted in "C or K at a given image resolution expressed in Iplmrad). Mean Time Between Failures Moving Target indication Mean Time To Repair Mid-Wave Infra-Red (the 3 to 5 pm band - sometimes stretching to 8 pm) Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Neodymium:Glass (see Materials section) Neodymium:Potassium Gadolinium Tungstate (see Materials section) Neodymium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (see Materials section) Non-Developmental Item Noise Equivalent lrradiance Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (differs from MRTD, in that it is a measure of contrast sensitivity defined as equivalent to the electronic noise level of the receivcr) Narrow Field-of-View (for system having more than one FoV) Naval Gunfire Support NIC NIIRS NIR NLOS NVB NVG OEM OLED OPO OTA PbSe PC PC PDA PCM PIN PIR PN PNVG PPI PRF PST PV QWIP RAM Raman effect Near Infrared Camera National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scale (US) Near Infra-Red (the 0.7 to 1.4 pm band) Non Line-of-Sight Night Vision Binocular Night Vision Goggle Original Equipment Manufacturer Organic Light-Emitting Diode Optical Parametric Oscillator (non-linear crystal. for example KTP. used for shifting laser wavelength) Overfly Top-Attack (anti-armour missile attack mode) Lead Selenide (see Materials section) Personal Computer Photoconductive (mode of operation of a photodetector) Photodiode Array Prccision Guided Munition (often SAL guided) Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (type of semiconductor photodiode structure) Passive Infra-Red Proportional Navigation (guidance mode of a missile) Panoramic NVG (or WFoV NVG) Plan Position Indicator (radar display) Pulse Repetition Frequency Lead Scandium Tantalate (see Materials section) Photovoltaic (mode of operation of a photodetector) Quantum Well Infra-red Photodetector Radar-Absorbing Material When light is scattered through a transparent material. part of the light is scattered in all directions. The frequency of much of the scattered light is identical to the frequency of the incident beam. A part of the scattered light has frequencies different from the frequency of the incident beam by values related to thc emission or absorption energies of the atoms or molecules of the scattering material. This part is called Raman scattering. If the frequency v of the incident light is varied. then the frequencies of the Raman scattered photons maintain constant frequency differences from v Radar Cross Section Radar Frequency Rolled Homogeneous Armour Root Mean Square Region of Interest (within an optical window) Read-Out Integrated Circuit Remotely Piloted Vehicle (see also UAV) Radar Warning Receiver Semi-Automatic CLOS (guidance mode of a mi\sile) Semi-Active Laser (missile guidance using laser designation) Surface-to-Air Missile Synthetic Aperture Radar System Design and Development (equivalent to EMD) Sensor Fused Weapon Single Lens Reflex (camera) Self-Propelled Signal Processing In The Element (a proprietary technique performing on-chip signal integration in a scanned IR detector) Standard Positioning Service (relating to GPS) Shop Replaceable Unit Submarine (ballistic missile, nuclear powered) Submarine (land-attack, special forces. nuclear powered) Diesel-electric powered submarine Single-Shot Kill Probability Submarine (attack, nuclear powered) Short-Wave Infra-Red (the 1.4 to 3 ptn band) Tactical Ballistic Missile Time Delay and Integration Transporter-Erector-Launcher (for TBM) A cooling technique which exploits the 'Peltier Effect' by which current flowing across a junction between two dissimilar materials causing one material to heat while the other cools Thermal ImagerIImaging Thermal Imaging Common Module Thermal Imaging System Time of Flight Television TV Lines (a measure of iniage resolution) Travelling Wave Tube Unmanned Aerial Vchiclc Ultra-High Frequency Universal Transverse Mercator Ultra-violet (wavelengths shorter than 400 nm)

ISR ISTAR

KE KTP LAN Laser designator

Laser range-finder LAV LCD LED LiF LiNbO, LiTaO, LL ADS LLTV, LLLTV LOAL LOBL LOROP LoS LPE LRF LRU LST LTD LWlR LWRLWS MANPADS MBE

RCS RF RHA RMS ROI ROIC RPV RWR SACLOS SAL SAM SAR SDD SFW SLR SP SPRITE

MBT MCLOS MCM MCP MCT MLU MMI MOVPE MRTD (or MRT)

MTBF MTI MTTR MWlR NBC Nd:Class Nd:KGW

SPS SRU SSBN SSGN SSK SSKP SSN SWIR TBM TDI TEL Thermo-electric cooling

NDI NEI NETD (or NET)

NFoV NGS

TI TICM TIS ToF TV TVL TWT UAV UHF UTM

uv

Jane's Electro-Optic S y s t e m s 2006-2007

GLOSSARY

v
VCR VHF VLSI
v205

WFoV WRA ZnS

Vertical (referring to FoV) Video Cassette Recorder Very High Frequency Very Large Scale Integration (of electronic circuits) Vanadium Oxide (see Materials section) Wide Field-of-View (for system having more than one FOV) Weapon Replaceable Assembly (US term for LRU qv) Zinc Sulphate (see Materials section)

Germanium (Ge)

Indium Antimonide (InSb)

Indium Gallium Arsenide (InCaAs) Lead Scandium Tantalate (PST)

UNITS
Angle
Fields+f-view and resolutions of EO systems may he expressed in a variety of different units. Angle may he denominated in: degrees (") mrad (milliradians, that is, o n e thousandth of a radian - I mrad being approximately 0.0573") mil (1 mil is 116400 o f a circle, that is, 0.0562S0, almost equal t o I mrad) grad (1 grad is 11100 o f a right angle, that is, 0.9") Image resolutions may he expresued as: T V lines (per picture height) Iplmm (line pairs per m m ) o r cyclmm (cycles per mm), rcferred t o the linear image size Iplmrad o r cyclmrad, in angular terms Linear and angular scales are related to each other through the focal length of the system. l.a\er heamwidths are often expressed in mrad, but the definition may be stated in ternis of the width at half maximum (that is, 50 per cent amplitude), the width at 90 per cent points, lie points (37 per cent), or lie' points (13.5 per cent). Lead Selenide (PhSe)

Lithium Fluoride (LiF)

Lith~umNiobate (LiNhO,)

Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO,) Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) Neodymium:glass (NdGlass)

Neody~niuni:potassit~m gadolinium tungstate (Nd:KGW)

Wavelength
Wavelengths in the visible region are usually expressed in nm (nanometres (10-" m), and range from approximately 400 nm (or 0.4 pm) in the blue to 700 nm (0.7 pm) in the red. infra-red wavelengths tend to he denominated in pm (micrometres (lo-" m) or microns; I pm = 1000 nm). Ultra-violet wavelengths are less than 400 nm.

Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG)

Lux - the S.I. unit of illumination. Typical ambient light levels range through: (a) l o r 4 - Overcast (starlit) sky ( b ) lo-' Starlight (c) lo-' Full moon
-

Potassium Titanate Phosphate (KTP) Vanadium Oxide (VzO,)

(d) 1 0 - Twilight ( e ) 10" Overcast day


-

Zinc Sulphide (ZnS)

(f)

l o 5 - Bright sunlight

A shiny semi-conductor material used for windows and lenses in infra-red imaging systems A semiconductor material used as an infra-red detector for radiation of wavelengths of 1 to 6 prn (near to mid-wave IR) A semiconductor material used as an infra-red detector for near infra-red wavelengths of 1.300 to 1,550 nm A ferroelectric thermal detector material, offering exceptionally good pyroelectric figures of merit, especially for small uncooled LWIR detectors. A photoconductive detector material, sensitive to the infrared portion of the spectrum covering wavelengths of 1 to 7 pni A crystalline material used for windows and other components in the Ultra-violet, visible and infrared. It has very high transmittance from 140 nm (in the UV) to its infrared absorption edge at 1.8 pm A crystalline ferroelectric material with very high electrwptic and piezoelectric coefficients. Lithium Niohate is used as a pyroelectric material in pyroelectric infrared detectors A pyroelectric material used for pyroelectric infra-red detectors The same as Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CdHgTe or CMT) A high power solid-state laser. The laser wavelength is 1.062 pm (using silicate glass) and 1.054 pm (using phosphate glass). Used in extremely high power -(Terawatt scale), high energy (Megajoules) multiple-beam systems A high power solid-state 1.067 pm laser. OlTering 30010 more output compared to Nd:YAG, Nd:KGW is an efficient Raman converter and well-suited for diode-pumped lasers. Yttrlurn aluminium garnet doped with neodymium is the lasing medium of the Nd:YAG laser. The laser wavelength is 1.064 p m Uses include laser rangetinding and laser radar A non-linear crystal used for laser frequency or wavelength shifting Commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, this material has a high thermal coefficient of resistance, so is used as a detector material in bolometers and microbolometer arrays for thermal imaging. A polycry~tallinematerial which transmits in the infrared spectrum

foot-Lamhert (fL) - unit of luminance of a source used m the US. Elsewhere Candeldm2 (approximately 3.43 fL) is generally wed.

VIDEO STANDARDS
Video standards are set by bodies such as the CCIR and EIA. CCIR (Comite Consultatif des Radio CommunicationIInternational Radio Consultative Committee) E I A (Electronic Industries Association (US). Produce R S (recommended standards) Standards in common usage include: CCIR. Set of C C T V standards, used outside U S and Japan (625 line, 5 0 Hz) NTSC. Broadcast standard in U S and Japan. Equivalent t o RS-170A PAL. European broadcast standard (625 lines, 50 fieldsls, 2:l interlace). Equivalent t o C C I R System 1 RS-170. Monochrome video (525 lines, 60 fieldsls, 2:l interlace) RS-170A. Colour, comparable to RS-170 RS-330. Similar t o R S 170 (525 lines, 60 fieldsls, 2: 1 interlace) RS-343A. High-resolution monochrome C C T V (875 lines. 50 o r 60 fieldsls)

Materials
Some of the common materials are mentioned in the preceding plmsary listing, hut a separate summary here is thought helpful. A dielectric ceramic semiconductor material Beryllium oxide (BeO) with high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CdHgTe or CMT) A material which is sensitive to 1R radiation and which generates an electrical output when stimulated. The most common IR detector material. Also known as MCT. Made in PV or PC variants A lasing medium for 1.54 pm eye-safe lasers, with a characteristic pink tinge
A semiconductor material used as an infra-red detector

ErbiumGlass (Er:Glass) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

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NAVAL SYSTEMS

NAVAL SYSTEMS - SECTION SUMMARY


This section includes electro-optic systems reported as deployed on naval vessels or developed for naval applications. Systems are grouped in the following subsections according to their type:

Submarine weapon control systems


Optronic masts
Non-hull penetrating submarine masts.

Periscopes
Search and attack periscopes, but excluding periscopes that d o not contain a thermal imager, image intensifier or laser range-finder.

Ship-launched missiles
Surface-to-surface missiles
Ship launched surface t o surface missiles with a laser seeker, or a scanning or imaging infra-red seeker in at least one variant of the missile class.

Surface-to-air missiles
Ship launched surface t o air missiles with a scanning or imaging infra-red seeker i n at least one variant of the missile class or with an electro-optic fire-control system or an optional electro-optic adjunct t o a radar fire-control system.

Ship close-in weapon systems


Surface-to-air missiles/guns
Close in weapon systems with an electro-optic element and which combine a gun with a high rate of fire and a short range missile system.

Guns
Close in weapon systems with an inbuilt electro-optic sight and a gun with a high rate of fire.

Ship countermeasure systems


Laser dazzle systems
Shipborne active laser countermeasures systems.

Laser warning systems


Shipborne laser warners.

Ship weapon control system


Fire control
Shipborne fire-control systems for guns and/or missiles that include a laser range-finder, thermal imager or image intensifying camera as either part of the fire-control system or an optional adjunct t o the fire-control system (see also surveillance systems in this section for closely related systems).

Infrared search and track


Shipborne scanning infra-red detection systems, primarily deployed for protection against seaskimming missile threats.

Surveillance
Shipborne electro-optic sensors used primarily for observation and surveillance and not specifically associated with weapon control systems. Some systems may, however, be used for limited control of light guns.

Thermal imagers
Thermal imagers that have been qualified for naval applications or are known to be used on shipborne systems.

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS


OPTRONIC MASTS
Carl Zeiss Optronics SERO 14
TYpe
Periscope system.

Description
The SERO 14 and SERO 15 periscopes (qv) together comprise a modular system. In its basic configuration the SERO 14 features a two-axis line-of-sight stabilisation for both the visual and the infra-red (IR) channel, binocular viewing with geometrical beam splitting, continuous zoom of the visual image with click-stop magnifications at x1.5, x6 and x12, efficient optical range-finding system (stadimeter), remote-control capabilities from a combat system console and integration facilities on top for a wide variety of antennas. The IR channel is equipped with an Ophelios Gen 2 thermal camera (qv) in the wavelength region of 7.5 to 10.5 pm. The CMT detector is of the IRCCD 9 6 x 4 type with 2 : l interlace (number of lines 576, pixels per line 768). The elevation prism ranges between -15 and +75". The field-of-view of the visual channel varies by continuous zooming from 34 x 28" (horizontal by vertical) at x1.5 magnification to 4 x 3" (horizontal by vertical) at x12 rnagnification.The auxiliary eyepiece at the rear side of this periscope allows the attachment of different types of cameras. The eyepiece data display provides a digital read-out of the true and relative bearing, line-of-sight elevation angle, target height and range. The SERO 14 is installed into a hoisting mast with streamlined fairing. The following options are available: Radar early warning antenna; Navigation (GPS) and communication (UHFNHF) antenna; CCDTV camera, alternatively LLLTV camera, alternatively a digital and/ or small film camera (35 mm); RAM coating.

Operational status
The SERO 14 periscope is operational in the Norwegian Ula class submarines and is in production for the German and Italian navies' new Type 212A submarines.

Contractor
Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH.

The SERO 14 (left) a n d SERO 15 (right) periscopes (Carl Zeiss Optronics)


0017501

19,990 m . The elevation prism ranges between -15 and +60. The field-of-view of the visual channel amounts t o 36 x 28" (horizontal by vertical) at x1.5 magnification to 8.5 x 6.5" (horizontal by vertical) at x6 magnification. The auxiliary eyepiece at the rear side of this periscope allows the attachment of different types of cameras. The eyepiece data display provides a digital read-out of the true and relative bearing, line-of-sight elevation angle, target height and range. The SERO 15 is installed into a hoisting device with streamlined fairing. The following options are available: CCDTV camera, alternatively LLLTV camera, alternatively a digital and/ or small film camera (35 mm); RAM coating.

Operational status
The SERO 15 periscope is in service aboard Norwegian Ula class submarines and is in production for the German and Italian navies' new Type 212A submarines.

Contractor
Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH. The SERO 15 (foreqround) a n d SERO 14 (behind) on board a Norweaian Ula class submari;e 0007234

Elektropribor PARUS-98E optronic mast Carl Zeiss Optronics SERO 15


TYpe
Periscope system.

Type
Submarine optronic mast.

Description
Part of the Unified Periscope System, the PARUS-98E optronic mast comprises a faired mast with gyro-stabilised line-of-sight and hydraulic hoisting, ensuring periscope operation under submarine speeds up to 10kt; a controller with video viewer and system recorder for the panoramic sight, plus the power supply. Features of the optronic mast include day TV and low-light level TV channels with variable fields-of-view, a thermal imager with variable fields-of-view, a laser range-finder, an ESM Warner, and an amplified antenna t o receive GPS and GLONASS satellite navigation system signals. Jane's Electro-Ootic Svstems 2006-2007

Description
The SERO 15 and SERO 14 (qv) periscopes together comprise a modular system. In its basic configuration the SERO 15 features an integrated eyesafe laser range-finder on top of the periscope, a two-axis line-of-sight stabilisation for both the visual and the laser channels, binocular viewing with geometrical beam splitting of the visual channel with magnifications at x1.5 and x6, efficient optical range-finding system (stadimeter) and remote-control capabilities from a combat system console. The laser channel is equipped with an eye-safe Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser. The maximum target range indicated amounts to

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS


OPTRONIC MASTS
Carl Zeiss Optronics SERO 14
TYpe
Periscope system.

Description
The SERO 14 and SERO 15 periscopes (qv) together comprise a modular system. In its basic configuration the SERO 14 features a two-axis line-of-sight stabilisation for both the visual and the infra-red (IR) channel, binocular viewing with geometrical beam splitting, continuous zoom of the visual image with click-stop magnifications at x1.5, x6 and x12, efficient optical range-finding system (stadimeter), remote-control capabilities from a combat system console and integration facilities on top for a wide variety of antennas. The IR channel is equipped with an Ophelios Gen 2 thermal camera (qv) in the wavelength region of 7.5 to 10.5 pm. The CMT detector is of the IRCCD 9 6 x 4 type with 2 : l interlace (number of lines 576, pixels per line 768). The elevation prism ranges between -15 and +75". The field-of-view of the visual channel varies by continuous zooming from 34 x 28" (horizontal by vertical) at x1.5 magnification to 4 x 3" (horizontal by vertical) at x12 rnagnification.The auxiliary eyepiece at the rear side of this periscope allows the attachment of different types of cameras. The eyepiece data display provides a digital read-out of the true and relative bearing, line-of-sight elevation angle, target height and range. The SERO 14 is installed into a hoisting mast with streamlined fairing. The following options are available: Radar early warning antenna; Navigation (GPS) and communication (UHFNHF) antenna; CCDTV camera, alternatively LLLTV camera, alternatively a digital and/ or small film camera (35 mm); RAM coating.

Operational status
The SERO 14 periscope is operational in the Norwegian Ula class submarines and is in production for the German and Italian navies' new Type 212A submarines.

Contractor
Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH.

The SERO 14 (left) a n d SERO 15 (right) periscopes (Carl Zeiss Optronics)


0017501

19,990 m . The elevation prism ranges between -15 and +60. The field-of-view of the visual channel amounts t o 36 x 28" (horizontal by vertical) at x1.5 magnification to 8.5 x 6.5" (horizontal by vertical) at x6 magnification. The auxiliary eyepiece at the rear side of this periscope allows the attachment of different types of cameras. The eyepiece data display provides a digital read-out of the true and relative bearing, line-of-sight elevation angle, target height and range. The SERO 15 is installed into a hoisting device with streamlined fairing. The following options are available: CCDTV camera, alternatively LLLTV camera, alternatively a digital and/ or small film camera (35 mm); RAM coating.

Operational status
The SERO 15 periscope is in service aboard Norwegian Ula class submarines and is in production for the German and Italian navies' new Type 212A submarines.

Contractor
Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH. The SERO 15 (foreqround) a n d SERO 14 (behind) on board a Norweaian Ula class submari;e 0007234

Elektropribor PARUS-98E optronic mast Carl Zeiss Optronics SERO 15


TYpe
Periscope system.

Type
Submarine optronic mast.

Description
Part of the Unified Periscope System, the PARUS-98E optronic mast comprises a faired mast with gyro-stabilised line-of-sight and hydraulic hoisting, ensuring periscope operation under submarine speeds up to 10kt; a controller with video viewer and system recorder for the panoramic sight, plus the power supply. Features of the optronic mast include day TV and low-light level TV channels with variable fields-of-view, a thermal imager with variable fields-of-view, a laser range-finder, an ESM Warner, and an amplified antenna t o receive GPS and GLONASS satellite navigation system signals. Jane's Electro-Ootic Svstems 2006-2007

Description
The SERO 15 and SERO 14 (qv) periscopes together comprise a modular system. In its basic configuration the SERO 15 features an integrated eyesafe laser range-finder on top of the periscope, a two-axis line-of-sight stabilisation for both the visual and the laser channels, binocular viewing with geometrical beam splitting of the visual channel with magnifications at x1.5 and x6, efficient optical range-finding system (stadimeter) and remote-control capabilities from a combat system console. The laser channel is equipped with an eye-safe Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser. The maximum target range indicated amounts to

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: OPTRONIC MASTS


Eye-safe Laser Range-finder; ESM - Omni-directional and DF monopulse.

Operational status
In production for and in service with the US Navy'sVirginia class SSNs.

Specifications
Line-of-sight Stabilisation: Z-axis Azimuth: 360" Elevation (VIS): -15 to +74" Elevation (IR): -15 to <+55" Fields-of-view (v x h) 24 x 32" 9 x 12" 3 x 4" 1.5 x 2" Sensors IR B&W Colour Antennas Signature control Deplumer RAS Thermal

Contractor
Kollmorgen Electro-Optical.

The Parus-98E optronic mast control console (left) and the mast sensc head (right) (Elektropribor) 104142

Operational status
In production. In service on unspecified Russian Navy submarines.

Kollmorgen/Calzoni Universal Modular Mast ( U M M )


TYpe
Submarine mast.

Specifications
D a y I L L L N channels Fields-of-view: 32" (wide); 5" (narrow) Thermal imaging channel Spectral band: 8-12 p m Fields-of-view: 8 x 12" (wide); 2.6 x 4" (narrow) Laser range-finder Wavelength: 1.54 p m

Development
The Universal Modular Mast from Kollmorgen and its Italian subsidiary, Calzoni SrL, is a modular structure with a telescopic two-stage fairing, providing a hoisting mechanism for a variety of different sensors utilised by the US Navy. The programme was initiated in 1995 for application on the new 'Virginia' class SSNs (which are fitted with a bank of eight UMMs) with a development phase and three initial production units. In 1999, Kollmorgen

Contractor
Elektropribor (Russia).

Kollmorgen ANIBVS-1 Photonics Mast Programme (PMP)


Type
Submarine photonics mast system.

Development
Kollmorgen's photonics mast system approach was proven under , DARPA Contract (NPP) in 1988. The NPP system components include HDTV (monochrome), colourTV, thermal imaging and a combat cons011 control. It was mounted t o the Universal Modular Mast and installed 0 1 the USS Memphis. In 1995, the DARPA system (NPP) was upgraded with new sensors new electronics and a remote-control console and installed on thi USS Phoenix (INPP). In 1995 Kollmorgen w o n the Photonics Mas Programme (PMP) competition and is currently manufacturin! production units for the Virginia class SSN. General Dynamics Electri Boat constructed the first of class, Virginia (SSN 774), and will alsc build the third vessel, Hawaii SSN 776. The Virginia was laid down il September 1999, launched in August 2003 and delivered in June 2004 The vessel has begun sea trials and will be commissioned i~ October 2004. Northrop Grumman Newport News is building the second Texas (SSN 775), and fourth - North Carolina (SSN 777).The US Navy' total requirement is for 30 of the class, and, having agreed term the first five, placed a multi-year contract for the following five il January 2004.

Description
The electro-optical sensor system for the US Navy 'Virginia' class SSP programme includes an eye-safe laser range-finder, two high-definitio~ TVs (colour and monochrome) and a mid-wave staring infra-red senso in a single multispectral head window. The sensor system includes a 1 eye-safe laser range-finder, ESM, direction-finding and a communication antenna.The PMP (ANIBVS-I) is non-hull penetrating. Features of the Photonics Mast Programme include: Colour television; Monochrome HDTV; Thermal imaging; Jane's Electrn-Ontic Svstems 7006-7007

The Calzoni nonpenetrating hoist mast for submarines 0505273


ions innos r n m

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: OPTRONIC MASTS

The sensor head o f a Universal Modular Mast above the surface (Kollmorgen) 0569770 alignment problems. The two-stage design allows for higher sensor positioning and height adjustments at periscope depth. The sensors and communication svstems in the mast include electrooptic imaging, ANIBLQ-10 electronic shpport measures, radio and satellite communications and radar, Integration is achieved via standard interface modules. Calzoni has proposed its integrated mast module, using the UMM, for the advanced submarine bridge fine being developed by the US Navy.

Operational status
In production for five US Navy's 'Virginia' class SSNs and t w o of the four 'Ohio' class SSGN conversions.

Specifications
Operating speed: 12 kt, with survival to 16 kt Shock resistant: t o MIL-S-901 Mean time between failures: <20,000 hours, meets requirements of M lL-A-23836

Contractor
Calzoni S.r.L. Kollmorgen Electro-Optical.

A close-up o f the optronic head on one version o f the Universal Modular Mast, together with its door-opening mechanism (Kollmorgen) 0569768
was awarded a contract option for 14 units, t o complete the first two 'Virginia' class boats. A further eight units were ordered in 2001, followed by an order for 12 units in October 2002. In January 2003, the company received a US$13.4 million contract from US Naval Sea Systems Command for 16 units. Eight will go to the fifth 'Virginia' class boat and eight (four each) to the first two 'Ohio' class SSBNs being converted t o SSGN configuration. The first t w o masts of this contract will be delivered in July 2004 and final deliveries made in August 2006.

Kollmorgen Model 86 optronic mast system


Type
Submarine mast

Description
Kollmorgen was awarded a contract worth US$3.5 million in 1988 by the US Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) to develop the Model 86 non-hull penetrating optronic mast to fulfil the non-penetrating periscope (NPP) segment of DARPA's advanced submarine imagery system (ASIS) programme.The mast was operationally tested aboard the USS Memphis SSN.They system has since come into service with the Los Angeles class SSNs, while on 14 February 2000, the Egyptian Government signed a US$15 million contract with Kollmorgen for four systems t o be retrofitted into the four lmproved Romeo class submarines. Deliveries commenced in January 2001, with the last in January 2002. The Model 86 includes a sensor unit, a hydraulically operated mast ~hich is streamlined, connecting by an external cable t o an electronic nterface unit and a controlldisplay console internal t o the hull. Sensor nformation can be processed and displayed in a dedicated operating :onsole, or incorporated into the main combat consoles. Features of the optronic mast include: 1 3-5 or 8-12 v m thermal imaging sensor; I High-definition monochrome and colour CCDTV cameras for daylight, low-light level and 'quick-look' viewing; I Three-axis line of sight stabilisation to eliminate ship's motion and mast vibrations; ESM warning to detect radar threats; Rotating sensor package (sealed statically) with quick response and low power consumption; Manual or automatic mast control with a 'quick-look' mode.

Description
The U M M is designed for extremely quiet operation and low maintenance costs. It consists of a cartridge assembly including a structural module, a mast fairing subassembly, a hoist cylinder and a closure-door mechanism. The use of standard interface allows integration of a variety of above-water sensors and communications antennas t o be fitted to the mast system. The modularity of the design enables easy and quick installation and de-installation from the platform and the possibility, with minor changes, of using common subassemblies for different sensor payloads. The use of a cartridge concept in which the faired mast, bearings and hydraulic actuation are incorporated into a single unit, ameliorates

Operational status
In production with 51 units in service with the US Navy Los Angeles class SSNs, and the lmproved Romeo class SSKs of the Egyptian Navy.

Specifications
Stabilisation: Z-axis135 milliradians RMS Line-of-sight elevation: TV: -10 to +74" Thermal: -10 t o +45' Fields-of-view TV: 24 x 32" (WFOV) 9 x 12" (MFOV) 3 x 4" ( N FOV) 1.5 x 2" (monochrome)

One o f the Universal Modular Masts i n place on board a 'Virginia' class SSN, showing the optronic head (Kollmorgen) 0569769

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: OPTRONIC MASTS

SAGEM infra-red non-penetrating mast


0505170

O~erational status
In production for several export customers.

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division.

SAGEM Optoradar Mast (OMS)


TVP~
Submarine mast.

Description
SAGEM's Optoradar Mast (OMS) combines the capabilities of SAGEM's optronic mast with the integration of a navigation radar. A single mast for these dual functions reduces the possibility of detection. The 360 m m diameter head includes X-band navigation radar; a dual fieldof-view IRCCD thermal imaging system; a high-definition TV system with t w o magnifications; and one-axis gyro-stabilised line-of-sight. Azimuth stabilised surveillance can be presented on one of four range scales from 4 t o 32 km. U p t o five targets can be tracked and automatic

Masthead o f Model 86 optronic mast

008816

Thermal: 9 x 12" (WFOV) 3 x 4" (MFOV) 1.5 x 2" (NFOV) Monochrome camera: 1,035 x 1,940 pixels (950TV lines) 3-chip colour camera: 480 x 640 pixels IR sensor: 8-12 p m FLlR or 3-5 v m FPA (256 x 256) Additional optional configurations include: Mission critical camera, RASIRAM, laser range-finder (to 9.1 km)

Contractor
Kollmorgen Electro-Optical.

SAGEM Infra-red Mast (IMS)


TVP~
Submarine mast.

Description
The Infra-red Mast (IMS) combines the caoabilities of SAGEM's non-hul penetrating masts while including a single infra-red channel, which use! SAGEM's IRIS 8 to 12 v m thermal camera.The reduced dimensions of t h ~ above-water component and of the radar cross-section area, achieve( by careful design and by covering the exposed part of the per is cop^ (head) with Radar Absorbent Material (RAM), have both improve( submarines' capacity for covert operation while providing a day and nigh capability. The main characteristics of IMS are a 210 m m diameter heac which includes two-axis gyro-stabilised line-of-sight and a dua field-of-view IRCCD thermal imaging system. An antenna modulc is integrated on top of the head t o provide ESM warning and GPS Passive range-finding is carried out on the controller's screen usin! the stadiametric technique. As well as the direct view there arc panoramic surveillance and 'look around' modes of operation. Thc system is designed to be fitted on any type of non-hull penetratiy hoisting device.

The SAGEM OMS, optoradar mast for the new-generation SSBN


0505171

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: OPTRONIC MASTS


target acquisition is provided. An antenna module is integrated on top of the head t o provide ESM warning and GPS. Passive range-finding is carried out on the controller's screen using the stadiametric technique. As well as the direct view there are panoramic surveillance and 'look around' modes of operation. The radar cross-section area has been reduced by covering the head with Radar Absorbent Material (RAM). The system is designed to be fitted on any type of non-hull penetrating hoisting device.

Operational status
In production for several export customers.

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division.

Operational status
Operational onboard French SSBN 'LeTriomphant' class submarines

Thales Optronics CMOIO Optronic mast


Type
Submarine mast.

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division

Description
All optronic masts in the CMOIO family are non-hull penetrating. They offer a wide choice in sensor technology, including a thermal imager, image intensification, high-definition monochrome television and colour television sensors, aswell as support for high-sensitivity, broadband ESM, communications and GPS sensors. Images captured bv the system are complemented by advanced image manipulation and image &ocessing capabilities which further enhance the operational advantages of the system. The optronic mast system is controlled and operated from a dedicated remote-control console, equipped with a high-resolution monitor display, allowing the command team t o gain a complete above-water picture. Alternatively, the system can be controlled and operated from suitably equipped multifunction consoles. Additionally, the common mast raising equipment facilitates integration with other payloads such as dedicated ESM, radar, satcom and communications packages. Stealth features reduce acoustic, visual, radar and thermal signatures. Programmable modes of operation include quick look round, continuous view and snapshot. Real-time image processing is combined with target analysis on livelrecorded images.

SAGEM Search Mast System (SMS)


Type
Submarine mast.

Development
A prototype of SAGEM's Search Mast System (SMS) was trialled onboard a French Navy 'Daphne' class submarine in 1992.The system has also been trialled on the Swedish Navy Vastergotland in 1993, a Royal Norwegian NavyType 207 SSK in 1994-95 and a South KoreanType 209 SSK in 1995.

Description
The optronic mast combines the advantages of SAGEM's search optronic periscopes with the increased safety of non-penetrating masts. The 320 m m diameter head includes a high-definition TV system with four fields-of-view/magnifications (x1.5, x3, x6 and x12) and a dual fieldof-view IRCCD thermal imaging system, SAGEM's IRIS, along with two-axisgyro-stabilised lineofsight.An antenna module may be integrated on top of the head t o provide ESM warning and GPS. Reduction of the radar cross-section area has been achieved by covering the exposed part of the mast (head) with Radar Absorbent Material (RAM). As well as the direct view there are panoramic surveillance and 'look around' modes of operation. Passive range-finding is carried system is designed to be fitted on any type of non-hull penetrating hoisting device.

Operational status
In production. Will equip the Royal Navy Astute class SSNs now building, and be acquired for the Royal Australian Navy's Collins class SSKs.

Contractor
Thales Optronics.

SAGEM Search Mast System (SMS)

-he CMOIO sensor head unit

0055091

Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS


PERISCOPES
Carl Zeiss Optronics SERO 400
Type
Modular periscope system. Navy (Type 214) and the Indian Navy (Type 209) in combination with the OMS 100.

Specifications
Magnification: x1.5, x6, x12 Fields-of-view: 36 x 28" (x1.5); 8 x 6.5" (x6); 4.2 x 3.4" (x12) Periscope weight: 1,250 kg (approx) Periscope length: I 1 m (approx) Tube diameter: 190.5 m m Ocular box diameter: 610 m m Camera sensors (optional) High resolutionlV camera (colour/black and white): 752 x 582 pixels Low-light IevellV camera: 10-4 lux sensitivity (min) Video output: ITU-R BT 470-6 BIG High resolution digital still camera: >2.5 Megapixels Eye-safe laser range-finder Wavelength: 1,543 n m Range: 400 t o 210,000 yds Line-of-sight Stabilisation: 2-axis (azimuth and elevation) Elevation range: -15 to +60 (+75" optional) Azimuth range: n x 360" Environmental conditions Operational temperature: -35 to +60C (outboard equipment) 0 t o +55"C (on board equipment) Storage temperature: -40 to +70C

Description
The standard configuration of the SERO 400 190.5mm periscope features two-axis line-of-sight stabilisation, binocular viewing, selectable magnification of x1.5 and x6 and x12, highly efficient visual optical rangefinding system (stadimeter), remote-control capabilities from a combat system console, and integration facilities for a wide variety of antennas and/or a laser range-finder (option). The eyepiece data display provides a digital read-out of the true and relative bearing, line-of-sight elevation angle, target height and range. The prism has an elevation range of -15 to +75" (restricted to +60 if an antenna and/or laser is fitted). There is a wide field-of-view at x1.5 magnification (36" azimuth, 28" elevation) decreasing correspondingly at higher magnifications (8" azimuth, 6.5" elevation at x6, and 4.2" azimuth, 3.4" elevation at x12). The installation of SERO 400 into hoisting devices with streamlined fairing is the preferred option. The following options are currently available: Colour TV; Low-light level CCDTV camera; Radar early warning antenna; Navigation (GPS) and communication (UHFNHF) antenna; Digital still camera; Eye-safe laser range-finder (Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser); RAM coating.

Contractor
Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH.

Operational status
currently in series production for new submarines of the South African Navy (Type 209 mod), the Hellenic Navy (Type 214), the South Korean

Denel Optronics submarine periscope upgrades


Type
Submarine periscope (upgrades).

Description
Denel Optronics (formerly Eloptro) is engaged in the upgrade of search and attack periscopes including Daphne and U209 class submarines. Upgrading of both Search and Attack Periscopes typically covers the following: lrnprovement of existing optical characteristics, particularly field curvature, chromatic aberration and transmittance by redesigning the optical layout and by using modern optical design software, modern glass materials and thin film technology. lrnprovement in the transmittance of the periscope which is achieved by using state-of-the-art anti-reflection coating and using a minimum number of components necessary for each subsystem. This results in the approximate doubling of the transmittance of the periscope system.The attack periscope's exit pupil diameter is typically increased from 4 to 5 mm, thus increasing the luminous flux transmitted by 56 per cent. A Passive Range-Finder (PRF), based on the split image principle, is integrated into the periscopes.The accuracy exceeds that of the active sonar range-finder of the submarine. Binocular eyepieces, with a capability to switch to monocular vision. A television (TV) capability consisting of DayTV (DPI) and Nightvision TV (NTV). The direct view optics and the TV are mutually inclusive, which means that the visual image seen through the eyepiece can be displayed simultaneously on a TV monitor. For both the DPI and the TV, the image is displayed on aTV monitor situated elsewhere in the system, as well as on a video display unit situated on the ocular box of the periscope. In addition, remote periscope control at a multifunction console (providing 'penetrant' optronic periscope capability) can be fined. Recording of theTV images by means of a digital video recorder. The Night Vision TV (NTV) is achieved by means of an IIT and CCD camera low-light level television. PRF capability for t h e w , achieved electronically. Attachment of a 35 m m still camera t o the eyepiece, with improved resolution due to a reduction in field curvature and axial chromatic aberration. In addition, Eloptro also has the technical capability to redesign periscopes t o include laser range-finding capabilities. Improvement t o reliability aspects of the periscopes includes the following: Minimising the number of moving assembles and subassemblies inside the periscope tube. Accommodating t w o image intensifier tubes inside the periscope tube for redundancy. The image intensifier tube assembly is situated outside the path of the direct view optics should a failure occur. .lane's Flectrn-Ontic Svstems 3006-7007

Head o f the SERO 400 (Carl Zeiss Optronics)


1036697

iens ianes c n m

10

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

Should the passive range-finder's electronics fail, mechanical backul returns the image split to the zero position t o provide unobstructe~ direct vision. Electronics interchangeability between periscopes.

Operational status
Available.

Contractor
Denel Optronics, a division of Denel (Pty) Ltd.

Elektropribor PARUS-98E attack periscope


TVP~
Submarine periscope.

Description
Part of the Unified Periscope System, the PARUS-98E attack periscop comprises a faired mast with gyro-stabilised line-of-sight and hydrauli hoisting, ensuring periscope operation under submarine speeds up t~ 10 kt; a controller with video viewer and recorder for the panoramic sigh1 plus the power supply. Features of the periscope include a visual optical channel with variabl magnification (x1.5, x12) and low-light level TV channel with a 10 x 7.5 field-of-view, plus ESM Warner.

Operational status
In production. In service on unspecified Russian Navy submarines.

Contractor
Elektropribor (Russia)

Model 76 periscope 0518550 and training handles. In addition t o the mast unit there is a hoisting yoke, a control unit and a junction box unit. The display and control unit includes a control panel, system focus, mode select, stadiameter control and microphone. The attack periscope includes a broadband antenna and crystal video receiver ESM system, together with a display and control panel on the control unit. The basic periscope systems are: stabilised line of sight; integral torque drive motor with auto-torque assist; x1.5, x6 and x12 magnification; mechanical bearing dials; eyepiece data display - range, relative, true and elevation; binocular viewing eyepiece; heated head window; digital interfaces; photocamera - 3 5 mm; optical stadiameter; high-optical light transmission; fail-safe elevation stabilisation line of sight; image intensification (night vision); LLLTV camera or CCDcamera- integral; ESM early warning; remote-control operator console; laser range-finder -attack (optional); RAM (optional); videotape recorder; infra-red capability - 3 t o 5 p m (optional).

Operational status
In ~roduction. The Model 76 is fitted in a number of countrv's SSKs inciuding~rgentina (TR1700), Brazil (T-209/1400), Denmark ( ~ a c k e n )Egypt , (Improved Romeo), India (T-20911500), Israel (Dolphin), Italy (Improved Sauro), Netherlands (Walrus), Sweden (Gotland) andTurkey (T-20911400).

Specifications
Diameter: 190.42 m m Elevation Attack: -10 to +74" (+90 detection) Search: -10 t o +60 (+76" detection) Magnification: x1.5, x6, x12 Field-of-view: 4", 8", 32" (attack and search) Thermal imaging option Spectral band: 3-5 p m Staring detector array: 256 x 256 Closed cycle detector cooling Fields-of-view Wide: 9 x 9" Narrow: 3 x 3" Elevation: -10 t o +45" LOS (+60 with degradation) Eyepiece and remote monitor display(s1

The main elements o f the Parus-98E attack periscope (left) and the mast sensor head (right) (Elektropribor)

the ocular bc 104142

Contractor

Kollmorgen Model 76 attack and search periscope systems


TVP~
Submarine periscope.

Kollmorgen Electro-Optical.

Kollmorgen Model 90 optronic periscope system


TVP~
Submarine periscope.

Description
The Kollmorgen Model 76 is a modular periscope system wit common components for the attack and search versions. The bas1 difference is that the attack periscopes have smaller heads, while th search periscopes' larger heads act as multipurpose reconnaissanc platforms. The system consists of a mast unit with an optical train, a display an control unit including a split-beam binocular eyepiece, a 35 m m camer Jane's Electro-Ootic Svstems 2006-2007

Description
The Model 90 optronic periscope system completed sea trials in 1992 with delivery of production systems beginning in 1995. It has been developed t o allow the operator t o search the sea surface during day and night utilising a thermal imaging subsystem and, at the same time, t o supply a direct viewing visual channel.

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

11

The periscope system combines a wide range of sensors in one periscope: a thermal imaging camera, monochrome CCD TV camera, 35 m m photographic camera, laser range-finder as well as passiveTV and visual stadiameter, ornni-radar early warning antenna, a radar directionfinding antenna and GPS. The periscope provides high performance by utilising accurate line of sight stabilisation t o compensate for induced vibrations and platform motion t o the visual and thermal lines of sight. Additionally, in combination with this function, the operator is provided with a periscope rotation and line of sight elevation rate control which allows fast direction and target tracking. The operator has a direct view of the scene in addition to a video display and eyepiece data display of target range, target bearing and line of sight elevation angle. A remote-control station is supplied as part of the Model 90 optronic periscope system, i n addition to a complete control datalink to the submarine fire-control system.

Operational status
In production.The mast is operational and in service with an undisclosed country.

Specifications
Periscope tube diameter: 190.42 m m Stabilisation: 2-axis135 milliradians RMS Line-of-sight elevation Visual andTV: -10 t o +74" Thermal imaging: -10 to +55" Azimuth: 360" (electric drive) Fields-of-view: Visual: 2.5, 4, 8 and 32" Infra-red: 4.4, 10" Magnification: x1.5, x6, x18 Bandwidths: 3-5 p m (MWIR) or 8-12 p m (LWIR)

Contractor
Kollmorgen Electro-Optical.

Model 90 optronic masthead unit

051855

LOMO PIC Classical (or Standard) periscope


Type
Submarine periscope.

Development
LOMO plc of Russia have been developing the Classical (or Standard) periscope for the Kilo and Arnur classes of submarine.This equipment is also intended for export.

Description
The full Classical periscope system includes features to enable surface observation, daylnight target acquisition and classification, range and bearing measurement,celestial sighttaking, satellite navigation, preliminary acquisition of radio signals and video recording. For observation there is an optical visual channel, a TV day and low-light channel and a thermal imaging channel. The periscopes feature a wide range of information channels which are provided according to customer requirements. The two-axis stabilised systems feature optically matched channels and are fully autonomous in operation. Laser range-finders are fitted as standard.

Operational status
No longer in production. In service with most Russian submarines, Kilo class exports and also installed in Lada class submarines.

Specifications
Periscope tube diameter: 180 or 260 mrn (dependent on mast head type) Entrance pupil t o eyepiece distance: 7-12 m Azimuth aiming range: f210 Azimuth angle measurement error: 2-10 min Celestial reference elevation error: 2-3 min Max traverse rate: 2Oo1s Weight: <2,000 kg Visual channel Magnification: x2 (option x4) and x8 Fields-of-view: 40" (option 20") and 10" Elevation aiming range: -10 to +60 TV day and low-light channel Field-of-view: 18" Elevation aiming range: -10 t o +30 Thermal imager channel Field-of-view: 10" Laser range-finder Wavelength: 1.54 urn (eyesafe) or 1.06 p m (optional) Measurement range: 60 m t o 18.5 km Accuracy: 5-10 m Antenna module reception: GPS, Glonass and radio

Contractor
Model 90 electro-optic mast eyepiece unit jeos.janes.com LOMO PLC. Jane's Electro-Optic Systems 2006-2007

12

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

LOMO plc non-retractable periscope


TYpe
Submarine periscope.

Description
This single-tube periscope has a tube diameter of 260mm and is designed for installation in small displacement (midget) submarines. The optional capabilities of the LOMO non-retractable periscope system include surface observation, day and night target acquisition and classification, range and bearing measurement, eye-safe laser range-finding, celestial sight taking, satellite navigation, preliminary acquisition of radio signals and video recording. The periscope features a wide range of information channels which are provided according to customer requirements. The two-axis stabilised system features optically matched channels and is fully autonomous in operation. The basic system is a single tube optical periscope. A twin tube system is optional. Two-axis stabilisation is provided.

Operational status
No longer in production, but reportedly still in service.

Specifications
Periscope tube diameter: 260 m m Azimuth aiming range: ?210 Azimuth angle measurement error: 2-10 min Celestial reference elevation error: 2-3 min Max traverse rate: 2O0/s Two-axis stabilisation error: 30 s Weight: 3,000-4,000 kg Visual channel Magnification: x2 (option x4) and x8 Fields-of-view: 40" (option 20") and 10" Elevation aiming range: -10 to +60

Contractor
LOMO PLC.

Raytheon NESSIE Gen 2 program


Type
Submarine periscope sensor.

Head of the SAGEM APS attack periscope


0002019

Development
In April 1996, the Hughes Aircraft Company, since acquired by the Raytheon Systems Company, was awarded a US$7.9 million US Navy development contract for an advanced electro-optical system for submarines. The engineering and manufacturing development contract for the programme, NESSIE (Naval Electronics Surveillance System for Infra-red Exploitation) Gen 2, was awarded by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London, Connecticut.The NESSIE upgrade module is intended t o sit on theType 22 search periscope fitted as standard to Los Angeles class submarines.

Description
The optronic system provides a 3-5 p m thermal imager, low-light TV and EHF communications plus daylight optics, and incorporates a Gen 3 infra-red sensor and a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) low-light level television.The system is housed in a modified periscope furnished by the government. Kollmorgen Corp, as the major subcontractor t o Raytheon, will be responsible for the periscope and submarine related activities, including system integration and testing.The infra-red sensor features a mid-wavelength staring focal planar-array. The manufacturer claims that this Gen 3 technology has demonstrated unprecedented image quality and range performance. The reflective optics enable the system simultaneously t o image both the visible and infra-red spectral regions.

Ocular box of the SAGEM APS attack periscope

0002020

Operational status
Under development.

Contractor
Raytheon Company, (El Segundo).

SAGEM attack periscope (APS)


TYpe
Submarine periscope.

degrading the periscope's attack-phase performance. The radar cross-section area has been minimised by careful design and by covering the exposed part of the periscope (head) with Radar Absorbent Material (RAM). The 140 m m head includes single-axis stabilised line-of-sight; a single optical channel with four fields-of-view (x1.5, x3, x6, and x12); Low-LightTV channel (LLTV); and an ocular box with a colourTV camera. A Gen 3 IR camera may be integrated in place of the LLTV. An antenna module may be integrated on top of the head to provide ESM warning and GPS. The periscope can be remotely controlled from a multifunction common console.

Operational status
Developed for French submarines and for foreign navies.

Specifications Description
SAGEM has incorporated several improvements into its attack periscope. The head size has been reduced to a minimum because of a requirement for maximum discretion, without significantly Jane's Electro-Ootic Svsterns 2006-2007 Optical fields-of-view: 30, 15, 7.5 and 3.75"

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

13

SAGEM search periscope (SPS)


TVP~
Submarine periscope.

Description
The SAGEM search periscope (SPS) is the latest version of the PlVAlR family (incorporating a high-accuracy sextant mode). It is operational on board 'LeTriomphantr, the French Navy's newest class of SSBN. Various electro-optic sensors (high-definition TV and thermal imaging systems) are integrated in the periscope, permitting day and night vision and better detectionlidentification capability in all weathers. There is dualaxis stabilisation of the LoS for all channels, direct optical and infra-red, improving image quality. Rapid search is available through the use of the infra-red panoramic surveillance mode, scanning the horizon over 360". and an automatic 'look around' mode which minimises above water exposure time. An antenna module is integrated into the top of the periscope head for communications, ESM warning and GPS. The radar cross-section area has been reduced by covering the exposed part of the periscope (head and upper fairing) with Radar Absorbent Material (RAM). The new fairing design has also reduced wake and head vibration through vortex shedding.

Operational status
Operational onboard all French nuclear submarines, attack and ballisticmissile-armed.

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division.

SAGEM ST 5 attack periscope

0505274

magnifications of x1.5, x6 and x12 giving fields-of-view of 36" and 7" over an elevation arc of -10 to +30.

Operational status
The ST 5 periscopes are in service on board the French Navy SSNs and the 'Agosta' class SSKs in service with Malaysia, Pakistan and Spain.

Contractor
SAGEM SA, Optronics and Airland Systems Division.

Thales Optronics CK038 search periscope


TYpe
Submarine periscope.

Development
The CK038 entered service with the Royal Swedish Navy (RSwN) in the late 1980s, on board three Gotland class submarines and t w o upgraded Vastergotland class boats. Under an 8 million (US$15 million) contract awarded by the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration in November 2001, they have been modified through the addition of a thermal imager, a new-generation image intensifier, a colour TV camera, a digital still camera and a GPS antenna.The new sensors have been integrated within the limited space envelope of the periscope. . . which has a 190 m m diameter main tube and a low-prdfile top stern. In March 2005, it was announced that acceptance and delivery of the first upclraded CK038 ~ e r i s c o ~ svstem e for the RSwN submarines had .been completed. It is n o w unbergbing installation and testing on board the Gotland, with all four remaining systems scheduled for delivery in 2005.

SAGEM SPS search periscope

Description

SAGEM ST 5 periscopes
TVP~
Attack periscope.

Description
SAGEM produces advanced attack and surveillance periscopes. The ST 5 attack periscope head is stabilised by a rate gyroscope with an image intensified TV microcamera for night vision. The design is so compact that it is fitted in the tiny ST 5 periscope head, which itself has been specially shaped and covered by Radiation Absorbent Material (RAM) to reduce its radar cross-section. It uses a fixed eyepiece with

The CK038 is a fully electronic search periscope intended for SSK submarines in the 600 t o 1,800 ton range. The CK038 is optimised for low susceptibility t o visual counter-detection and has an optical system designed for maximum light gathering t o accommodate watch-keeping, night viewing and use in poor visibility. For use as a stand-alone system or as part of an optronic mast and periscope visual system, the CK038 is fitted with an image intensifier and a low-light level TV camera. Other standard features include a weapons system interface, 35 m m camera, heated top window, BITE system, stabilisation, stadiametric range-finding and power drive azimuth rotation. Data and images from the CK038 can be relayed t o the CMOlO advanced optronics mast. Optional features include GPS and ESM sensors.

14

SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

1 Thales Optronics CK043, CH093


Type
Submarine periscope

Description
The CK043 search and CH093 attack periscopes are suitable for submarines of 1,800 tons and greater. Both periscopes have four fields of view. In addition t o the optical path, CK043 has thermal imaging and low-light television sensors, while CH093 has image intensification and low-light television sensors. These can be viewed directly or at a multifunction, remote-control and viewing console. Key tactical data can be viewed either

The CK038 electro-optic periscope ocular box

001085

CK043 search periscope head

0010857

The CK038 search periscope head

001085

Operational status
CK038 is in service with Sweden's Gotland and Vastergotland class SSK!

Specifications
Tube diameter: 190 m m Mechanical length: 10,990 m m Optical length: 10,400 m m Weight: 800 kg Magnification: x1.5, x6 (with x3, x12 electronic optional) Elevation (line of sight): -10 to +60 Elevation (edge of field): -26 to +76"

Contractor
Thales Optronics. The CK043/CH093 optronic periscope ocular b o x 0505174

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SUBMARINE WEAPON CONTROL SYSTEMS: PERISCOPES

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Compact periscope ocular box (with bracket for 35 m m camera) CH093 attack periscope head
001085

0010859

on the consoles or by eyepiece injection. Other key operational feature include line of sight stabilisation, optical and electro-optic range-findin< position fixing (sextant), still photography, internal communication (intercom) and support for a comprehensive ESM sensor suite.Throug full integration with the submarine command and control system th periscope performs a primary role in the detection and identification c surface vessels and aircraft, intelligence gathering and weapon syster support.

Operational status
In service on the Royal Australian Navy 'Collins' class SSKs.

Specifications
Tube diameter: 254 m m Length: 14,300 m m Weight: 1,500-1,900 kg Magnification: x1.5, x3, x6, x12 Elevation: -1 5 to +60

Contractor
Thales Optronics.

Thales Optronics compact periscopes


Type
Submarine periscope
The compact periscope mast head
0010860

Description
Thales (formerly Pilkington) Optronics' compact periscopes are a famil of periscopes tailored for small submarines between 50 and 400 ton! These instruments offer a range of standard features including imag intensification, stabilisation, stadiametric range-finding, elevation of linec sight (-15 to +60), still photography, heated window and weapon syster interface. Optional features include aTV camera, ESM, communication sensor and GPS sensors.

(MG-I10 midget submarines), South Korea (Tolgorae and Dolphin midget submarines) andYugoslavia (Una class midget submarines).

Specifications
Tube diameter: 127 m m Length: 3,500-5,400 m m Weight: 150-250 kg Magnification: x1.5, x6 Elevation: -15 to +60

Operational status
The compact periscopes are in service with Colombia (Cosmos M G 120lEl midget submarines), Croatia (Una class midget submarines), Pakista

Contractor
Thales Optronics