# CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Describe the difference inferential statistics. between descriptive and

2. Identify and interpret the relationships between sample and population, and statistics and parameter. 3. Identify and describe the different types of variables. 4. Identify and describe the different types of data. 5. Differentiate and identify the techniques of data collection. 6. Identify and interpret the measurement scales.

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What is Statistics?  The word statistics derives from classical Latin roots, status which means state.  Statistics has become the universal language of the sciences.  As potential users of statistics, we need to master both the “science” and the “art” of using statistical methodology correctly.  These method include:  Carefully defining the situation  Gathering data  Accurately summarizing the data  Deriving and communicating meaningful conclusions  Specific definition: Statistics is a collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty.

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Sport => A statistician may keeps records of the number of hits a baseball player gets in a season. Public Health => An administrator would be concerned with the number of residents who contract a new strain of flu virus during a certain year. Example applications of Statistics 1.etc. Others => 3 . 4. 2. Nowadays statistics is used in almost all fields of human effort such as:     education health business agriculture…. 3.. Financial => Financial advisor uses several statistic information to make reliable predictions in investment.

2) Applied Statistics => Involves the applications of those theorems. presentation. • Using graphs. (1) Descriptive statistics  What most people think of when they hear the word statistics  Includes the collection. rules and laws to solve real world problems. depending on how data are used. rules and laws. formulas. (2) Inferential statistics  Refers to the technique of interpreting the values resulting from the descriptive techniques and making decisions and drawing conclusions about the population 4 . charts and tables to show data.Statistics has Two Aspects 1) Theoretical / Mathematical Statistics 2) Applied Statistics 1) Theoretical / Mathematical Statistics => Deals with the development. and description of sample data. formulas. ** Applied Statistics can be divided into two main areas. derivation and proof of statistical theorems.

rules and laws. Of all U.S kindergarten teachers. rules and laws to solve real world problems. 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill. derivation and proof of statistical theorems. displaying and summarizing data Example 1 Determine which of the following statements is descriptive in nature and which is inferential.S kindergarten teachers polled. formulas. Of the 800 U. descriptive 5 . Inferential b. formulas. organizing. 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill. Applied Statistics Involves the applications of those theorems. Inferential Statistics Consist of methods that use results obtained from sample to make decisions or conclusions about a population Descriptive Statistics Consist of method for collecting.ASPECTS OF STATISTICS Theoretical/Mathematical Statistics Deals with the development. a.

Why do we have to study statistics?  To read and understand various statistical studies in related field.  To become better consumers and citizens. 6 .  To communicate and explain the results of study in related field using our own words.

etc. the population of all people who might use aspirin. When the membership is unlimited. pet dogs. agriculture fields.Basic Terms of Statistics 1. -“individuals” are usually people but could also be schools. When the membership of a population can be (or could be) physically listed.infinite population:. the books in library. e. 2.g. Population versus Sample Population => a collection of all individuals about which information is desired. . ii. . 7 . the “average” age at time of admission for all students who have ever attended our college.g. . cities. => there are two kinds of population: i. Sample => a subset of the population.g.finite population:.often a Greek letter is used to symbolize the name of parameter.e. Parameter versus Statistic Parameter => a numerical value summarizing all the data of an entire population.e.

g. the set of 25 heights collected from 25 students.g. 4. This value may be a number. 3. etc. Data value => the value of variable associated with one element of a population or sample. 5. e. Farah entered college at age “23”. .Statistics => a numerical value summarizing the sample data. the color of student’s hair. a student’s age at entrance into college. e.g.g. 8 . or a symbol. found by using the set of 25 heights. etc. e. the “average” height. Variable => a characteristics of interest about each individual element of a population or sample. her hair is “brown”. Data => the set of values collected from the variable from each of the elements that belong to sample.english alphabet is used to symbolize the name of statistic e. a word.

9 . 34.Example 2 A statistics student is interested in finding out something about the average ringgit value of cars owned by the faculty members of our university. v) data: the set of values that correspond to the sample obtained (45. Census: a survey includes every element in the population. iv) data value: one data value is the ringgit value of a particular car. iii) variable: the “ringgit value” of each individual car. ii) sample: any subset of that population. Ali’s car. for example.000. Each of the seven terms just describe can be identified in this situation. Sample survey: a survey includes every element in selected sample only. 55. For example. is value at RM 45 000. i) population: the collection of all cars owned by all faculty members at our university.0000.…).000. the cars owned by members the statistics department. vii) statistic: will be found is the “average” value of the cars in the sample. vi) parameter: which we are seeking information is the “average” value of all cars in the population.

Quantitative (numerical) Variables • A variable that quantifies an element of a population. • Can be subdivided into two classification: discrete variables and continuous variables.g.Types of Variables 1. 10 . the “total cost” of textbooks purchased by each student for this semester’s classes.e. . • Arithmetic operations such as addition and averaging are meaningful for data that result from a quantitative variable.

Example 3 Number of courses for which you are currently registered. Example 4 Weight of books and supplies you are carrying as you attend class today. 11 . there is a gap between any two values.Discrete Variables  A quantitative variable that can assume a countable number of values. Continuous Variables  A quantitative variable that can assume an uncountable number of values.  Can assume any values corresponding to isolated points along a line interval. That is.  Can assume any value along a line interval. including every possible value between any two values.

12 .2. categorical) variables  A variable that describes or categorizes an element of a population. “hometown” and “level of satisfaction”. Qualitative (attribute. Example 5 A sample of four hair-salon customers was surveyed for their “hair color”.

A study was conducted by Aventis Pharmaceuticals Inc. Name the variable interest. to measure the adverse side effects of Allegra. 3.Exercise 1 1. The faculty members at Universiti Utara Malaysia were surveyed on the question “How satisfied were you with this semester schedule?” Their responses were to be categorized as “very satisfied. The patients were to report whether 13 .” “somewhat dissatisfied. a. A sample of 679 allergy sufferers in the United States was given 60 mg of the drug twice a day.” a. a drug used for treatment of seasonal allergies. b. d. What is sample? Describe the variable. c.” or “very dissatisfied.S.” “somewhat satisfied. A sample of 1200 randomly selected adults resulted in 33. population. Identify the parameter and give its value. e. Identify the statistics and give its value. 36% has an allergy.” “neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. b. 2.2% reporting an allergy. Of the adult U. Describe the population. Identify the type of variable.

Whether or not a faucet is defective. Are the data being collected qualitative or quantitative? 4. The length of time required to answer a telephone call at a certain real estate office. drowsiness. What are the characteristics of interest about each element in the population? d. a. d. c. nausea. etc) a. The number of questions answered correctly on a standardized test. The breaking strength of a given type of string b. f. e. What is the population being studied? b. Identify each of the following as an example of (1) attribute (qualitative) or (2) numerical (quantitative) variables.they experienced relief from their allergies as well as any adverse side effects (viral infection. The number of stop signs in town of less than 500 people. What is the sample? c. The hair color of children auditioning for the musical Annie. 14 .

industrial or individual sources 15 . the set of 25 heights collected from 25 students.  From a survey or an experiment.g. e.DATA  The set of values collected from the variable from each of the elements that belong to sample.  Two types of data: Primary data: necessary data obtained through survey conducted by researcher Secondary data: data obtained from published material by governmental.

 Interviewer might influence respondent’s responses.  Respondent refuse to answer sensitive or personal question.  Increase the number of answered questions. 16 . Researcher(s) respondent(s). Disadvantages:  Expensive.1. PRIMARY DATA Primary Data Collection Techniques • Data is collected by researcher • Data is obtained from respondent (i) Face to face interview Two ways communication.  Appropriate for research that requires huge data collection. asks question directly to Advantages:  Precise answer.

(ii) Telephone interview Advantages:  Quick. Disadvantages:  Information obtained might not represent the whole population.  Wider respondent coverage. 17 . (iii) Postal questionnaire - A set of questions to obtain related information of conducted study.  Telephone is not answered.  Demonstration cannot be performing. Questionnaires are posted to every respondent.  Less costly.  Not appropriate for long and contemplate question.  Limited interview duration.

objects and situations without contact with respondent.  Lower cost. Disadvantages:  One way interaction.  Questionnaire is answered by unqualified respondent.precise information.Advantages:  Wider respondent coverage.  Interviewer influences can be avoided. .  Respondent have enough time to answer questions. (iv) Observation  Observing and measuring specific characteristics without attempting to modify the subjects being studied. 18 .not commonly used. .  Low response rate.  Not suitable for numerous and hard questions.  Records human behaviors.  Time consuming.

industrial or individual sources.2. Advantages:  Lower cost. 19 . Various resources. Experiment is not required.  Data accuracy is not confirmed. Historical data.  Save time and energy. Disadvantages:  Obsolete information. SECONDARY DATA - Published records from governmental.

Nominal Level of Measurement     A qualitative variable that characterizes (or describes/names) an element of a population.A. Example: . or F 20 . counted or measured. Example: . female Ordinal Level of Measurement    A qualitative variable that incorporates and ordered position. C. interval and ratio.Gender:. . Data also can be classified by how they are categorized. ordinal. Arithmetic operations not meaningful for data. Order cannot be assigned to the categories. “satisfied”.Course grades:.Level of satisfaction:.male. undecided. B. etc. D.Survey responses:. no. Differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.yes. . or ranking. “somewhat satisfied”.  This type of classification uses measurement scales with 4 common types of scales: nominal.“very satisfied”.

Differences make sense. but ratios do not (e.Interval Level of Measurement      Involve a quantitative variable. ..The year 0 is arbitrary and it is not sensible to say that the year 2000 is twice as old as the year 1000. Note that 0oC is arbitrary.Temperature scales are interval data with 25oC warmer than 20oC and a 5oC difference has some physical meaning. No natural zero Example: .g. 30°20°=20°-10°. A scale where distances between data are meaningful. Ratio Level of Measurement    A scale in which both intervals between values and ratios of values are meaningful. so that it does not make sense to say that 20oC is twice as hot as 10oC. Example: 21 . but 20°/10° is not twice as hot!). A real zero point.

weight. Levels of Measurement  Nominal .categories with some order  Interval . .Physical measurements of height..differences but no natural starting point  Ratio . This is because there is a natural zero.differences and a natural starting point 22 .categories only  Ordinal . length are typically ratio variables.Temperature measured in degrees Kelvin is a ratio scale because we know a meaningful zero point (absolute zero). It is now meaningful to say that 10 m is twice as long as 5 m.

variables. intervallevel or ratio-level. Ratings of newscasts in Malaysia. fair. c. a. e. Salaries of cashiers of C-Mart stores. excellent) b. c. Temperature of automatic popcorn poppers. none of the above answers is correct. b. d. c. Marital status of respondents to a survey on saving accounts. must rank order the data. d. b. observations. samples. must be alphabetic. good. Age of students enrolled in a marital arts course. 23 . must be numeric. d. (poor.Exercise 2 1) Classify each as nominal-level. can be either numeric or nonnumeric. ordinal-level. 3) The set of measurements collected for a particular element is (are) called a. 2) Data obtained from a nominal scale a.

interval scale. the interval scale. very good. only the ordinal scale. 24 7) 8) . c. c. data set. A characteristic of interest for the elements is called a(n) a. ordinal scale. the interval scale. ordinal scale. none of the above answers is correct. and poor. b. the ratio scale. ratio scale. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for a. d. b. b. ratio scale. the nominal scale. 6) The ratio scale of measurement has the properties of a. b. This is an example of the a. both the ratio and interval scales. d. d. c. only the nominal scale. sample. d. good. c. d. nominal scale.4) The scale of measurement that is simply a label for the purpose of identifying the attribute of an element is the a. c. the rank scale. nominal scale. interval scale. variable. b. 5) Some hotels ask their guests to rate the hotel’s services as excellent.

d. c. b. descriptive statistics. inferential statistics.9) In a questionnaire. statistical inference. or numerical. respondents are asked to mark their gender as male or female. qualitative or quantitative variable. is the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample. refers to the process of drawing inferences about the sample based on the characteristics of the population. graphical. b. qualitative variable. b. 11) Statistical inference a. depending on how the respondents answered the question. is the same as a census. none of the above answers is correct. d. are referred to as a. report generation. c. is the same as descriptive statistics. which may be tabular. Gender is an example of a a. c. quantitative variable. 10) The summaries of data. d. 25 .

0% has an allergy 2) a. all adults of U. quantitative f. 1200 randomly selected from adults c.S.2% effected by allergy e. quantitative b. allergy d.S. b. c.Answer Exercise 1 1) a. qualitative 4) a. population b. ordinal 3) a. satisfaction b. quantitative 26 . 36. to measure the adverse side effects of allergy d. all allergy sufferers in the U. quantitative d. qualitative c. 679 allergy sufferers in the U. qualitative e. 33.S.

Answer Exercise 2 1) a. Interval e. Ratio 2) b 4) b 6) d 8) c 10) b b. Ordinal a. Nominal 27 . ratio 3) c 5) a 7) d 9) a 11) c c.