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EXCITATION REQUIREMENTS OF THREE PHASE SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR UNDER SINGLE PHASE LOADING WITH MINIMUM UNBALANCE

A.I. Alolah Majeed A. Alkanhal


EE Dept., King Saud University, P.O.Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Absfract: This paper presents an optimization method to determine the excitation requirements of three phase self-excited induction generator under single phase mode of operation. A single phase load is connGcted to the generator through two excitation capacitors. The values of these capacitors are chosen to ensure minimum self-excitation of the machine in addition to minimization of the unbalaqce between the stator voltages. The problem is formulated as a multidimensional optimization problem. A sequential genetic (GA)/gradient optimizer is used to minimize a cost function of the summation oftheequivalent impedance of the generator plus the ratio of the negative to the positive sequence voltages, to obtain the values of the frequency and the excitation reactances. These values are then used to determine the other performance of the machine. A classic gradient solver initialized by a simple GA is used to solve for the unknown parameters in the formulated optimization problem.
Kqwordr: :Induction generators, Excitation requirements,Single phase

generators are directed towards the analysis of the machine under three phase balanced conditions [ 1-61. Most of the loads in remote and rural areas aresingle phase loads. Recently, attempts have been done to analyze three phase self-excited induction generator under single phase loading by using just one excitation capacitor [7,8]. The machine under this case is unbalanced due tothe voltage and current negative sequence components. Unbalanced operation leads to voltage stresses and over heat in the machine. However, three phaseself-excited induction generator can be operated under minimum unbalanced condition even with single phase load by using two excitation capacitors.

This paper deals with the analysis of a three phase selfexcited induction generator under single phase load using two excitation capacitors. The values of these elements are chosen to ensure self-excitation of the machine and to minimize the unbalance between the stator voltages. The analysis of this system is carried out using the principle of symmetrical components. The resulted main equations are formulated in a multidimensional optimization problem and solved by a numerical optimization technique, where no detailed derivation of analytical equations is needed. A GA initialized-Gradientoptimizer i s utilized to minimize a cost function of the summation of the equivalent impedance of the generator plus the unbalance factor, to obtain the frequency and the value of the excitation reactances. Once these values are known, other performance of the machine can be easily obtained.

mode, unbalance factor, Self excitation.

p.u phasor value of voltage and current, respectively p.u N value of V and f, respectively p.u impedance and admittance, respectively p.u resistance and reactance, respectively IZ l and IY 1, respectively
p.u saturated and unsaturated magnetizing reactances a t base

List of Symbols

frequency, respectively Air gap voltages Base voltage, current and impedance, respcctivcly Base fnquency and speed in H z and rpm. respectively p.u frequency and speed, respectively IL90" and IL120". respectively unbalance factor I VJVpI

positive, negative and zero sequences, respectively stator phases

Subscripts

1 1 . Analysis
Single phase load can be supplied from a three phase selfexcited induction generator as shown in Fig.1. As the generator frequency varies with the load, speed and excitation Fapacitors, the circuit is referred to the base frequency. Voltage and curtent equations of the system under study of Fig. 1 are:

rotor and stator, respectively

load

I. Introduction
phase self-excited induction generators are becoming more and more popular due to various advantages over the synchronous generators. Squirrel cage induction generators are cheap, robust, free from current collecting problems, self protected against large over loads and short circuit faults and can be operated trouble free for many years [1,2]. Therefore, self-excited induction generators are considered well suited for generating electricity from nonconventional energy sources and for supplying electrical energy in remote and rural areas [3-51. Nearly all the research work has been carried out on three phase self-excited induction

vu+ v* + v, = 0 VL - vu = 0 v, + v, = 0
Vb 4 - v, = 0

IL -Iu+ I,- I,= 0 I h + I, - I,- I, = 0


V, = - j I I X l / F J V, = j I, xz/FJ

According to the three phase symmetrical components, stator voltages and currents are:

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(9)
where g stands for voltage or current.

Fig 2 Positive sequence equivalent circuit of the generator

III. Problem Formulation


From Fig. 1 and under self excitation:
ILZ, = 0

(17)

where Z , = (ZL + Z,), Z,=I/ U, and ZL= RL/F +j XL Since IL +O ,it implies that Z, = 0.
Fig.1 Connection of single phase load to three phase self-excited induction generator with two excitation capacitors

Also to ensure minimum unbalance, the unbalance factor (U) must be minimum.

As can be realized from eqns. (1) and (9), zero sequence voltage and consequently current are zero in the above connection.

The above problem is formulated as an optimization problem according to the following formula:
Minimize(@ where Q is given by : Q = a 1 Z, I +(l-a) U
(18)

Moreover and as shown in Fig.2, - sequence voltages and currents are related as follows:

where a is a weighting parameter (0 c a c l ) . The goal is to find the correct values for the variables F,

V,Yp I" = V , / Z , = v, Y"


Ip = VJZ,'

X, and X2 that will attain the minimum valueofQfor

where

z , =z*+ zm/izq
Zs=RJF+ j X, 2, = R , /(F-U) +j X ,

z , =zs+ z,//z,
Z , = j Xm

every load and speed. To ensure minimum excitation requirements, the value of X, is taken to be equal to the unsaturated value (X,)[31. The proposed method to solve for the three unknowns in the above formula is a sequential numerical optimizer. This optimizer consists of two parts. First, a simple standard genetic algorithm (GA) is used to bring the values of the unknowns close to the region of the (optimality) solution. Then a classical constrained solver will take over to modify and fine tune the values of these unknowns. This sequential optimizer takes advantage of the capability of GA to locate the region of the optimal solution without being trapped in a local minimum. In addition, it avoids the GA slow convergence. The gradient solver will swiftly converge to the correct solution values since it is properly initialized by the GA close to the solution region. W . Results The data of the machine under study are given in the Appendix [ 7 ] . Fig.3 shows the variation of the value of the two reactances ofthe excitation capacitors against the load impedance, for different values of lagging power factor. The reactance across the lagging phase is less than that of the leading phase. Both reactances increase as the load impedance increases: The variation of the unbalance

Z,= R, /(F+u)+j X ,

Solving equations (I)-( 11) yields:

I,= Y,[ ( l - a ) Y p - j a F 2 / X 2 ]

where

D, = X I X , f l p $. Y,) + j

XI+ Xl)

From eqns. (12) and (13), the unbalance factor is given bv:
U=

xlx,Yp+ 1 - { a x 2 - x 1 } . - ~ ~ x1x2Y,+Q{x2-ax1)

)I(

Js

Also the input admittance of the machine as seen across the load is:

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factor U against the load impedance, if the values ofX, and X, of Fig.3 are used to excite the generator, i s shown in Fig.4. The factor increases as the load impedance increases. The factor also increases as the power factor decreases. Its maximum value does not exceed 7% at 0.5 load power factor.
-0.5

increase as the load power factor decreases, and (iii) the maximum value of the unbaIance factor does not exceed 7% at 0.5 load power factor (lagging).

2 2
-0.7

1
0

p f = 1.0

A pfs0.8

v pfz0.5
I

0.00
0

pf=l.O

A pf=0.8
I

V pfsO.5
I

-0.9

-1.8

i
.II
0
(b) Fig.3 Variation of the excitation reactances with the load impedance at different power factors (pf), (a) X,and (b) X, pfs1.0
1

pf=0.8

v pfz0.5
I

-2.6

ZL , p.u

16

V. Conclusions
This paper presents an optimization method to determine the excitation requirements of three phase self-excited induction generator under single phase mode of operation. A single phase load is connected to the generator through two excitation capacitors. The values of these capacitors are chosen to ensure minimum self-excitation of the machine in addition to minimization of the unbalance between the stator voltages. A sequential genetic (GA)/gradient optimizer is used to minimize a cost function of the summation of the equivalent impedance of the generator plus the unbalance factor. From this optimization the values of the frequency and the excitation reactances are obtained. These values are then used to determine the other performance of the machine. The results indicate that (i) the excitation requirements increases with the decrement in load impedance, (ii) both the excitation requirements and the unbalance factor

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