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NAAA Show / Seminar

Portland, Oregon 2003

Intelligent Digital CCTV

By: Charlie R. Pierce President LeapFrog Training and Consulting Http:\\

Step 1: Avoid Intimidation

Ask Questions Investigate simple

computer terminology Compare technology Think about your overall security approach and plan Look for positive characteristics to enhance your current security position

Step 2: Review Security Strategies


Burglar / Fire Alarms All forms Locks / Barriers

Access Control

Professional Response Visual Confirmation:


Immediate After the fact Evidence

Remember The Five Duties Of Security

Prevention Prevent the crime from happening in advance Deterrence Deter the crime to an area other than the one being protected Detection / Annunciation Detect and annunciate change or differences Response Physically respond to a situation according to the design Evidence Produce the necessary evidence to support the accusation

Worldwide Applications And Principles Of CCTV

Interface the four

principals of Security equal to the application


Electronic Security

Burglar / Fire All forms of locks and barriers


Access Control

3. 4.

CCTV Professional Response

Defining & Understanding Analog & Digital Technologies

Analog Signals Are Frequency Based And Are Antiquated And Undependable Digital Signals Are Superior, Numeric Based Codes But Are Generally Unsupported In The CCTV Industry

Defining Analog Signals

The majority of Current

video transmissions are analog Analog signals, are as waves Multiple waves make up a single transmission Multiple waves take up band width or space

700 Nanometers Red

Defining Analog Signals

In Analog, 700nm has

700 Nanometers Red

an infinite number of possibilities for reproduction between 699nm and 701nm Analog color cannot be reproduced, to the exact same specifications, two times in a row

Understanding Analog Transmissions

Analog signals are frequency

based Frequency equals resolution or detail quality of the image Multiple frequencies packaged together equals bandwidth High resolution images require a broad bandwidth Video transmits on a 0 10 Meg Hz bandwidth

Understanding Analog Transmissions

Because analog signals

are frequency based, they are easily influenced by outside interferences such as:

Radio Frequencies (RF) Electro Magnetic Induction (EMI) Ground Loops / Faults Weak Signals

Defining Digital Communications

Digital is defined in a

form of electronic Morse code using ones and zeros Since the digital language is defined, 700nm Red is always 700nm Red regardless of the age or quality of the tape or machine it is reproduced on
Note: The digital code for the above light waves are fictitious

Digital Code 6999nm = 0010 Digital Code 700nm = 0101 Digital Code 701nm = 1101

700 Nanometers Red Analog

Defining Digital Communications

Multiple groups of

codes make up digital language Digital language takes up space or bandwidth according to the amount of information being transmitted

0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 1011 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011 0001 1101 0001 1110 1010 0100 0101 0011 1101 0101 1101 0011

Defining Digital Compression

Digital code sequences

can be compressed to increase storage capabilities Compression is accomplished through various, different algorithms called engines Each engine has a name:

0001 0101 0011 0001 1000 0011 1010 0101 0001 0101 0011 0001 1000 0011 1010 0101 When compressed becomes 0010 1100 0010 1100 The first two repeating sequences are redefined into a two sequence format

Jpeg / Mpeg / Wavelet

Each compression format

has its own set of rules and strength and/or weakness

Digital Compression Pitfalls

There are several

compression engines in use in the CCTV industry today

Wavelet, Jpeg, Mpeg, H263, etcetera

Two major problems with

decompression of digital signals:

Color distortion Detail or resolution losses

Digital Compression Pitfalls

No standards for compression engines in the

CCTV market Incompatibility between formats Number of images per second and quality of images determine the amount of storage space necessary to store visual information

Storage space is dictating the amount of information being stored, not security or evidence needs

Advantages Of Digital Transmissions

Because Digital is a numeric base, it is less susceptible to outside interference from RF, EMI, and/or Ground loops Because Digital is a numeric base, it is more easily pulled back from weak signals Digital transmissions still require bandwidth or space for transmissions according to the amount of information being sent Compression engines assist in decreasing the amount of bandwidth needed to transmit

1001001011101010101001000101011010111 1010100010101010100101010101011010010 0010101000101010100100101010101010011 1010101010101001010101010010101010101 1110101110100010101010101010101010101 1010101010111010100010101000101010111 1111001010101010101010101000010101010 0010101110001010010100101000010101011

Current Equipment In The Digital CCTV Market

Wives Tales And The General Misunderstandings

Of Digital Capabilities Current Problems Holding Digital At Bay

Digital Cameras In The Industrial CCTV Market 2003

Current cameras in the CCTV industry are either:

Digitally enhanced (95% of all cameras) Fully digital with analog & digital output capabilities (less than 5%) ** Referred to as Network or IP Network Cameras Enhanced sensitivity Back-lighting enhancement Color Enhancements Auto Lens Balance / adjustments Character generation Video motion detection

Digital enhancements include:

Digitally Enhanced Cameras In The CCTV Market

Image starts in the

analog format Translated into digital language inside camera Enhancements are added Digital image is translated into analog format for transmission

00101011101010010100010101110 11011101010100101011101010010 10101010010000101111011010101 00101010101010101010001010101 01001010100001010111011010101 01110101010101000010101010101 01010101010101010101001010100 10101010010101010010101010100



Current Problems
Each product that digitizes

the video signal can cost the system resolution

Resolution defines the quality of the image Resolution defines the detail of the image

QS-MX Quad Display



disp la y





Recorders And Recording Techniques

Recorders come in five different industrial formats:

Time-lapse Event 24 hr High Density 72 hr High Density DAT / Digital Hard Drive / Digital Floppy

Digital recording techniques give a good quality digital

recorder the ability to mimic any/all of the accepted recording formats of the industry

Time-lapse Recording

Time-Lapse recording techniques are used to take individual images with time lapsing between With VHS, time-lapse recorders could make a two hour cassettes last for up-to nine hundred, plus hours Digital Time-lapse is only restricted by storage space Use to record long periods of time in low activity areas Time loss factors apply according to the application

Event Recording
Designed to record

specific events as triggered by an action of some sort Event storage space is determined by a combination of:

Average duration of event Total number of events in a given period of time Quality of image required

24 & 72 Hour Recording

Originally designed to increase the number of

frames able to be recorded on a VHS tape in the 24 or 72 hour mode for work with Multiplexers More or less obsolete due to digital versatility

Digital systems can be programmed to record according to several combinations of options

Frames per second and/or Total recording time over any period and/or Quality of image

Video Storage Systems

Magnetic Tape

VHS Digital Audio Tape (DAT) Hard Drive Digital Disc - Floppy / CD / DVD Digital Management Systems

Digital Audio Tape (DAT)

Resolution according to VHS Cassette
VHS Video Tape

DAT Tape

DAT Cassette

preset programming Advanced digital search and marking capability Smaller tapes for storage More than 20,000 uses before destruction Less overall recording time per tape or disc restricting uses

Digital Disk Machine

Resolution according to preset programming

and storage parameters CD / DVD / Hard Drive Formats Quick, accurate, digital search modes Limited storage space according to:

Quality or resolution of recorded images Number of images per second and Total recording time

The Process Of Going Digital

1. Learn some basic language of computers 2. Review the existing system components and 3. 4. 5. 6.

applications Learn the major differences within the digital management systems for best desired results Verify compatibility of existing system components with available technology Verify compatibility of new system with future plans Lay out the proposed system on paper

Step 1: Learn The Language

Know the basic language of computer

systems and the affect on your decisions for CCTV digital management

Server Network Ethernet IP Address LAN / WAN

Local Area Network (LAN)

Local Area Network Allows for multiple users on a

IBM Compatible

IBM Compatible

IBM Compatible


single server through a central hub Master data base available to all users Users able to manipulate data within individual program(s) at a time

IBM Compatible

Wide Area Network - (WAN)

World wide system

communication between like or attached systems via: Modem / Internet Satellite / Wireless Multiple user capability Two way communication Speed of communication dependant upon method of connection


Wide Area Network (WAN)




IBM Compatible

Laptop computer

IBM Compatible



IBM Compatible

Hardware highway for

IBM Compatible

IBM Compatible

IBM Compatible

Ethernet Workstation

information communication within the computer system Faster than standard BUS systems Allows for break in communication from server without loosing individual communications between stations

IBM Compatible

Juke Box
Based upon the same Automatically routes

principals of a record juke box

DAT Tape DAT Tape

information to DAT / CD / DVD in recording slots for archiving of video information according to predetermined programming Can be located at individual points throughout system or as master archive at server point Can be set in tandem multiples for larger systems

DAT Tape

DAT Tape


Juke Box

Step 2: Existing System Review

Cameras / transmission


P O RT 0


P O RT 1






03 . 60 01 . 20 04 . 80 10 . 00 05 . 20 TILL 0005/A1

systems must be compatible with existing digital management technology provided composite video format Controller will remain with system for pan/tilt - zoom functions Multiplexer(s) / Switcher(s) / Recorders(s) probably replaced by digital management system

Review Equipment Within The System

Verify the all existing equipment

within your current system by: Manufacturer Model Type Camera Recorder Multiplexer Monitor

Digital Video Motion Detector



Review The Applications Of The System

Redefine the purpose of each

camera within the system Group each into a category according to visual information needs Personal ID Action ID Evidence Use multiple applications where necessary

Digital Recorders
Resolution according to preset programming and storage


CD / DVD / Hard Drive Formats Quick, accurate, digital search modes Limited storage space according to:

Quality or resolution of recorded images Number of images per second and Total recording time

Each machine has its own Protocol, algorithm, and compression

format Video information is not able to be shared between machine

Digital Management Systems

These systems redefine the entire process of CCTV design from the multiplexer down

Digital Management System Specifications

System management,

techniques, and capabilities differ greatly between existing digital systems Layout, control, user access, and final information reproduction differs greatly between existing digital systems Look for key factors that best suit your needs

Digital Layout Options # 1: Simple LAN

No local DAT archiving Limited local archiving
IBM Compatible IBM Compatible


IBM Compatible

according to unit storage capability If server, hub, or any other portion of main system fails, entire system archiving fails Usually requires very large Juke box or large tandem arrays to properly monitor entire system

IBM Compatible

Digital Layout Options # 1: Advanced LAN

If server fails, system continues

to operate on local network local archiving may be available on DAT as an option Juke box archiving available at local level and/or server


IBM Compatible IBM Compatible



IBM Compatible

Digital Management System Advantages

Able to recall information at Complete system

any time based upon:

Day / Date Hour / Minute / Second Video Frame Alarm number Camera # or Name Guard Comments

integration available due to PC base programming and functions 100 percent system monitoring at all times without need of visual image

Pitfalls Of Digital Management Systems

Tend to be expensive at

startup, but buy back through versatility fairly quick Potential resolution loss due to analog / digital / analog conversions No set standards for storage formats

Digital Management Applications

Systems requiring immediate video verification of

incidents such as Casinos Systems with large numbers of cameras requiring individual programming such as Hotels Systems with multiple, simultaneous recording needs (i.e.: 24 hour, time-lapse, event) such as banks, airports, schools and/or multiple branch companies

Buyer Beware!
Work with Professionals with Proven Technologies!

Verify Through Demonstration / Testing

Upgrades to, and/or new design

of a digital management system is a major investment Ask for either on-site or off-site demonstration, prior to final decision of which system you choose Learn the language and what it means to you Compare completely and look for the loop holes

Buyer Beware!
There are no set standards on digital format for storage of

video images. Consequently the system that you purchase today, may end up obsolete within the first three to five years of operation

Buyer Beware!
If your digital storage system crashes and you do not

have adequate backup systems in place, you lose control and data. Evidence for court will have to be produced in original format therefore:

Insure that your system will dump the original data, in digital format, with all alogarythms in place

Buyer Beware!
Proper encryption or watermarks should be part

of your general digital recording format to insure Originality of recorded information

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