Why do people buy? People always have their own reasons for buying.

Their reasons are not necessarily rational, intelligent or sensible. However, whatever their buying motives, they are theirs. And you must be aware of which ones are motivating your prospect at all stages in the sales process. Then you can tailor your sales approach accordingly. The Six Buying Motives are: 1. Pride of Ownership 2. Security and Protection 3. Emotional Satisfaction 4. Desire for Gain 5. Comfort and Convenience 6. Fear of Loss Some notes of caution:

No one Buying Motive is any more important than any other; o They do not come in any particular order.

These buying motives are emotional, not logical; people buy emotionally, not logically – even in B2B purchases. • People do not readily admit to their buying motives:

Who is going to admit to vanity or fear? Do not expect prospects to be open and honest about the real reasons that motivate them to buy.

Get better at observing or hearing your prospects. Know all six buying motives. Then you can appeal to them in turn, looking for which provoke the strongest responses in a prospect. For example, suppose you see a reaction to a benefit of your product or service that appeals to comfort and convenience. Keep returning to that motive throughout the remainder of the meeting. Do not stop when you have uncovered just one motive that is important to your prospect. More than one buying motive may apply, and motives you leave undiscovered may turn out to be more important. Uncover other buying motives with open, feeling-finding questions to discover additional reactions. Suppose you have already discovered that profit - desire for gain - is important to your prospect. You might also ask: "How important is security to you?" and you would find out how the person feels about security and protection. As the meeting progresses, you can focus on areas that are important to your prospect.

Once the sale has been made, people stop responding emotionally and begin concentrating on the sound, practical, rational, business reasons why the purchase was made. Later on most people will not even remember their emotional motives. They sincerely believe that they bought the product or service for straightforward, logical reasons. If you ask, they can list these logical reasons for you. People buy emotionally, then justify their decisions logically. Remember to provide your prospects with logical as well as emotional reasons why your product or service will benefit them. This was a guest post by Paul Fileman of SPS who are a national team of proven senior management professionals, passionate about working to help businesses achieve their next level of development and performance. Whether they are facing market changes, financial problems, people/skills issues, or are preparing a major project, they offer dedicated support from a multi-disciplined team of experts.

Seven Buying Motives That Can Help People Buy Into You
What cause people to buy into new ideas, new projects, new products, new people, and new risks? Let me introduce the seven buying motives. These seven buying motives can cause people to buy into you... Motive one: desire for gain. Usually financial gain. We all want money to feel secure. We also like a little extra cash for play. Desire for gain is why we buy stocks, take jobs, hire employees, get an education and invest in businesses. Motive two: fear of loss. Usually financial loss. We have worked very hard for what we have gained. We do not want to lose it. Fear of loss explains why we get guard dogs, need safety deposit boxes and buy burglar alarms. Motive three: comfort and convenience. We all like hiring people to take out our trash. We all like spending whatever we can on those little things that make our lives comfortable and save us hassle. Comfort and convenience explains why people buy microwave ovens, washing machines and flannel pajamas. Motive four: security and protection. Usually protection of a loved one, or a loved possession. Security and protection is why we buy life insurance even though we won't be alive to benefit. It's also why an otherwise peaceful person agrees to war. We buy anything to protect what we love. Motive five: pride of ownership. We believe that our possessions say something about us, and we want to be sure that our possessions are saying the right things. Pride of ownership is what causes someone to buy a stolen painting for a private collection, buy a sweater worn by Marilyn Monroe, buy a bright shiny new Bentley, or pay a thousand dollars for a pair of shoes.

Motive six: satisfaction of emotion. The emotion is usually love. We buy cards, presents, dinners and movies in an attempt to either gain someone's love, admiration, acceptance and forgiveness; or to demonstrate our own love, admiration, acceptance and forgiveness. Motive seven: satisfaction of ego. We like to treat ourselves right. We like to look good. Satisfaction of ego is why we buy make-up, facelifts, gym memberships, cologne, vacations and Godiva chocolates. These seven motives are used by sales professionals and advertising agencies to make you buy their products. You can use these same tools to motivate others to try your ideas, hire your talents, or pick up their socks. So here's the point. If you just tell people why you want them to do things-why you want them to hire you, or why you want them to pick up their socks-you'll only gain the reputation of a needy nag. However, if you show people how your ideas, your talents and their clean socks will provide them with money, protection, comfort, conveniences, security, pride, love, or any of the other motivations above, then those same people will begin to value your perspective. And when people value your perspective, they begin to find you persuasive... You can find more about this topic on Navigating Life's website. Simply go to http://www.navigatinglife.org, and visit boarding for links to our full lessons on persuasion, motivation, entropy, and communication.

Pain relief: The underlying motive that drives customers to buy
Psychologists tell us that while there are five major buying motives (pain, fear, present pleasure, future pleasure, and interest or curiosity), by far the most common reason people buy is pain, or avoidance of pain. Something is wrong in their business or personal lives that they want fixed and they are prepared to pay to fix it. The best sales professionals never really sell anything; they offer solutions to their prospect's problems. They uncover pain and make it go away. Why? Because the best salespeople understand that while people make decisions intellectually, they buy emotionally. This fact is best illustrated by the following exercise: 1) Take a single sheet of paper and draw a line horizontally across the middle. 2) Think of something that you thought about purchasing recently but decided not to buya car, new clothes, an appliance or insurance, for example. Below the line, list your reasons for not making the purchase.

3) Now think of a recent purchase that did make. Above the line, list the reasons that you made the purchase. Notice that the reasons you listed for buying are almost all emotional reasons: you wanted it, it made you feel good, it looked good on, etc. The reasons for not buying were almost all intellectual reasons: too expensive, wrong color or size, the old one still works, etc. Once you accept that people buy emotionally, you will quickly realize that selling features and benefits does not work-or works by accident. The accident occurs when the sales representative happens to be in the office of the prospect on the day that their pain is so great, they want anybody to solve it for them. Features and benefit selling also elicits a "think it over" or price comparison response, whereas finding pain will get you the order. How do we find this elusive pain? We do it by asking questions. Usually it takes three or more questions to get to pain. Think about how you would feel if on your next visit to a doctor, dentist or psychologist, they neglected to ask you questions about your ailment or pain, and immediately prescribed a solution. Prospects will not tell you the real problems up front; they will usually give you what we call an intellectual smoke screen. They do this because you and the last five representatives they have talked with have come in to prescribe the same solution to a problem that they have not yet told you about. People buy for their reasons, not yours, and until you uncover those reasons-or pain-your chances of doing business are slim. The dictionary defines pain as suffering or hurt, but in sales, pain is something that makes your prospect uncomfortable, is personal, and gives you leverage in the selling process. The salesperson's job is to find someone who has pain, can pay to get rid of it, and is in a position to make the decision. You cannot create pain because that is manipulation-it will win the battle but lose the war. Instead, ask probing questions (gently) and help your prospect discover his or her existing pain. Whether you sell supplies, machines, computers or furniture, take the following pain exercise by developing a list of questions that you can use to find the pains that some of your prospects may have. To qualify as an office products consultant, see if you can quantify these pains, and as a bonus to yourself, prescribe a solution to them: 1) Slow or inconsistent delivery of office supplies means that critical supplies are out and employees cannot perform in their jobs, leading to decreases in productivity and causing costs to rise. 2) Inaccurate billing of purchases by supplier creates the need for additional employee time to rectify invoices and receive credits/adjustments, leading to increased cost of conducting business.

3) Prospect purchased a copier six months ago based on 2,000 per month usage. Current vendor neglected to identify future growth of company and usage is now at 3,500 per month, taxing the capacity of the machine. (Who gets the blame for the copier not performing up to expectations?) 4) Twelve months ago a company was given a deep discount on 50 vertical files because the customer and sales rep focused on price and not on the lateral files that would have solved future growth. Today the business has surpassed sales projections and file folders are being stored off sight. 5) Excess inventory of office supplies (pens, paper, envelopes, toner cartridges, diskettes) results in valuable company dollars being tied up in non-revenue producing assets. The company got a great deal on bulk purchases that they could not afford to pass up. 6) A quick decision to purchase low priced, limited function steno seating resulted in employee discomfort, increased absenteeism, and contributed to the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome. (Who is the purchasing manager or other non-qualified individual who was involved in the decision going to blame for having these chairs sold to them?) 7) A prospect is dealing with a vendor who has a non-automated order entry/status system, which creates on-hold phone time, phone tag, slow order verification, and other processing delays.

Puget Sound Business Journal Articles: by Roy Chitwood To understand your client, know their 'buying motives'
As a salesperson you might think that people buy your product or service because of the reasons you give them. On the contrary, people buy not because of your reasons, not your company's reasons but for their very own reasons. These reasons may not seem sensible, logical or even intelligent to us but they seem that way to the prospect. There are six different motives and they are not presented in any special order nor are they any more important than any other. They are: • • • • • • Desire for gain (usually financial) Fear of loss (again, usually financial) Comfort and convenience Security and protection Pride of ownership Satisfaction of emotion

I shall refer to these as the six buying motives. You may notice that all these buying motives are emotional, not logical. People buy emotionally, not logically.

In order to sell effectively you must keep this point foremost in your mind. They may buy in anticipation of financial gain or fear of financial loss. They want to feel secure and safe. They desire the comfort and convenience that a service or product may provide. They want to feel the pride and ownership of a product or they may purchase to satisfy the needs of love and ego. There may also be times where more than one motive may apply to the same purchase. Take for an example a person who is considering remodeling his or her kitchen. The dominant buying motive may be the comfort and convenience a new layout and new cupboards will offer. On the other hand a remodeled kitchen will add value to her home (desire for gain) and prevent obsolescence with the subsequent difficulty in selling (fear of loss). The plumbing and wiring will be improved giving peace of mind from electrical fires or leaking pipes (security and protection). The new kitchen will probably be the talk of the neighborhood gaining personal satisfaction to the homeowner (satisfaction of emotion) and making it the center of attention for visiting friends (pride of ownership). Any one or any combination of all the six buying motives could apply to influencing this homeowner to remodel his or her kitchen. If you were the salesperson who is trying to sell this person the remodeling job you need to know the dominant buying motives -- the emotions that underline the decision -- because you will want to appeal to those motives in your sales presentation. It is extremely important that you uncover these underlying buying motives because the prospect in all likelihood will not come out and tell you. They are sometimes only vaguely aware of their motives themselves. The primary reason people don't readily admit their buying motives is because it would make them feel too exposed. Psychologists tell us that people feel vulnerable admitting, even to themselves, what they care about, desire or fear on a deep, emotional level. If you were to try to sell the prospect above a kitchen renovation based on the comfort and convenience of a new kitchen and the prospect is focused on the desire for gain on the resale value of the house, you won't be nearly as successful as you could be. People do not readily admit their dominant buying motives. If you sat down and asked your prospect his or her dominant buying motives for a recent purchase, he or she wouldn't, or couldn't tell you. Psychologists report, even over a long period of time, most of their patients seem reluctant or unable to reveal their dominant motives for any of their actions. Why? One reason is that our motives often overlap. Suppose you just purchased a new jacket. What was your dominant motive in making that purchase? Maybe you bought the jacket for comfort; you expect it to keep you warm. You might have bought it simply because it has a style or label that you're proud to wear or show your friends. Maybe you bought it because the color makes your eyes look bluer, or it makes you look taller and thinner, or in some way it makes you feel good about yourself -- it gives you emotional satisfaction. Maybe you bought the jacket for all three reasons merged together: It's comfortable, you're proud to own it, and it makes you feel good about yourself. Who wants to admit that we bought a jacket because it makes our eyes look blue? People would think we were conceited. Who wants to admit that we bought a jacket as a status symbol -- that it has the "right" label, and we feel proud to own it?

We don't like to admit these things. The six buying motives are real, but if we openly admit our real reasons for making a purchase, other people might laugh. We tend to hide our real reasons, because we just don't want to feel that vulnerable. Well, your prospects are no different. They are not going to tell you or anyone else that the real reason they want to buy the copy machine you're selling is because it has a prestigious name. Who wants to admit to that kind of vanity? They are not going to tell you or anyone that the real reason they want to contract your interior decorating service is because a well-decorated office will make them feel more important and appear more successful to others. Who wants to admit to that kind of vanity? Your prospects are not going to tell you or anyone that the real reason they're interested in your computer system is because they're scared stiff that without it, their competitors will beat their socks off. Who wants to admit to that kind of fear? Don't expect your prospects to be totally forthright and honest about the real reasons that motivate them to buy. In the next column, we will show you how to appeal to your prospect's dominant buying motive.

General buying motives
As in the case of needs, most psychologists classify human motives into two categories-biological and social. The biological motives are considered to be those which are natural, that is, within the bodily structure. These motives would include such things as hunger, thirst, and sex. The social motives are considered to be those motives which have been acquired through environment and relations with other people. Here we are concerned primarily with the appeals to the social motives. There is little agreement as to the exact classification of motives. To make classification even more difficult, the terms used vary in meaning with different people, so there is found to be some overlapping of motives. The following motives, nevertheless, are generally considered to be the most important:

I. Security 2. Social approval 3. Love and affection 4. Accumulation of wealth 5. Feeling of importance

6. "Live up to what other people expect."
The motives that impel people to buy will vary in intensity from person to person and at different times within the same person. For example, prospects in general will act one way when economic conditions are good and in quite a different way in periods of depression, when cash is scarce and they lack the feeling of economic security. An appeal to a group of motives might be successful in selling one prospect and yet fail miserably when selling another. Your job is to determine which motives are likely to exist in your prospect and then to try to determine which are the dominant ones. By constantly appealing to your prospect's dominant motives, sales and repeat sales are more likely to follow. Let the prospect's buying motives help you sell. Knowing the buying motives that lead a prospect to action is of little value unless you can make consistent use of them in your selling interviews. People don't buy a product or service; they buy the satisfaction and benefits the product will give them. Seldom will a prospect buy an insurance policy just to have insurance-he buys because of the benefits insurance can give him. Buying motives, then, can be applied to the sale of personal insurance by developing a significant relationship between insurance and the prospect's needs! wants, and values. Since a prospect seldom buys on logic alone, this step must appeal to both the prospect's logic and emotion. Let's look at some of the specific ways in which you can let your prospect's buying motives help you make your sale.

Security motive This is one of the most powerful of all the buying motives, and is particularly applicable to insurance selling. A prospect wants both physical and mental security. Physical security is represented by your prospect's need for clothes, food, and a roof over head. It is the security of good health, adequate rest, comfort, and relaxation. The desire for mental security is an equally important motivating force. Your prospect will go to great lengths to obtain peace of mind, happiness, and contentment. The future at best is uncertain and represents a fear to many people.
Through insurance you offer the best solution to the problem of replacing this fear and uncertainty. We live in a dollar economy. By guaranteeing dollars in the

future, when they are needed the most, you are providing your prospect with the means to have the money for the physical security of food, clothing, shelter, freedom from work in old age! and medical care. By knowing that the future financial needs of the family are provided for, your prospect will have freedom from sorry and strain, and confidence in the future-both important to mental security. How do you use this strong motive of security in your selling? How do you weave it into your sales presentation? Examples This plan will give you peace of mind because your family will always have a nice home, clothes as good as the neighbors', and plenty of good food on the table. In addition, if you live, it will help you enjoy a dignified and carefree retirement. This plan will help relieve you of future money worries. You and your family will have no financial hardships even if you are not here to protect them. No matter what happens they will be cared for. The values built up in this policy will always be ready to help you in an hour of need.

Social approval motive
In classifying general buying motives, it was pointed out that there would inevitably be some overlapping of motives because the terms used mean slightly different things to different people. In appealing to a prospect's desire for social approval you are combining three closely related buying motives:

• The desire for ego enhancement
• The desire for reassurance • The desire for affiliation with other people Your prospects, like most human beings, have an intense desire to be "wanted." They must feel needed by others and valuable as persons. They must have reassurance from the people whose judgment they respect. They want to believe that what they do will be approved by others. They want the consideration, regard, and even the admiration of their friends. As explained earlier in this chapter, most needs are fulfilled through other people. Most of your prospects have a definite desire to be with other people. Through affiliation with others, they seek recognition and attention. These are all strong motives, and if you will learn to recognize them and use them! they can greatly strengthen your sales power.

People tend to seek preferred social status through their purchases, and they also try to conform to the existing patterns of behavior of their group. They ask themselves such questions as. • "Are others using this plan?" • "How much insurance does the average person in my position own?" How do you weave this motive of social approval into your sales presentation? Examples I recently had the privilege of working with your friend __________ Our You and Your Family service was of great value to him, and he felt you might be interested in seeing it. We've introduced a service, You and Your Family, which has been of value to many men in this area...

Love and affection motive There is little that need be said about the motivating power of rove and affection. The love of a parent for a child is one of the most noble of all human characteristics. There is almost no limit to the sacrifices a father and mother will make when they are convinced it will benefit their children. Poets and writers for centuries have extolled the power of love as a motivating force on young couples. What force, other than the love for one's mate, would make a young bachelor eagerly give up his carefree existence to become a husband and father with all of the worries and responsibilities of supporting a family? The motive of love and affection is not restricted just to other persons, but also includes places and things. The motivating force of love for one's country or home has caused many people to give up willingly not only all they own, but even life itself. It has frequently been said that the reason people buy insurance is that they love someone. Although there are many other reasons, certainly the motivation of love and affection is one of the most compelling, and one that you will want to recognize.

Examples What better expression of love can you give to your family than to guarantee them the security of their own home, good food, and at least a few of the luxuries to which you have accustomed them? Should you be out of the picture, ____ your wife's love and affection for the children would be more critical than ever. With this plan you can guarantee that she wouldn't be forced to work. Instead she would have the time she needs to care for your children. Accumulate wealth motive Although similar in many respects! the desire for security and the desire to accumulate wealth are two separate motivating forces. In some cases the desire to accumulate wealth is motivated by the desire for security. These people strive for wealth, not just for the sake of having wealth, but because wealth to them represents the means to security. On the other hand, there are examples of people in almost every community who, in spite of having accumulated more wealth than they could possibly need for the security of themselves and their families, are working harder than ever to continue to accumulate more wealth. Such action results not from just one motive, but from the interaction of many motives. We can presume, then, that other motives, such as the desire to excel and ego recognition, also have their effect. However, just the desire to accumulate wealth in itself is a powerful motivating force. This characteristic is also demonstrated in the desire to gain an advantage, to make a profit, and in the pride of ownership. This desire to accumulate is shown by the number of people who are collectors of stamps, antiques, old cars, or coins. Certainly the appeal to this motive is one that can be used frequently. Examples By completing your plan which provides for your family's needs upon your death, you are accumulating benefits which may be used for emergencies or business opportunities. This valuable contract is one of the finest pieces of private property you can own. It will be a substantial possession. With this plan you will own more than a piece of paper; you will own all the things we said it would do for you and your family.

"Feeling of importance" motive Many psychologists believe that the desire to feel important is one of the most powerful of all motivating forces. We all want to be appreciated as unique individuals. We love to feel important! and we like to have people around us who give us this feeling of importance. There are hundreds of examples you can see every day of the importance of this motive. The child who "shows off" in front of company, the wife who spends the better part of a day preparing an outstanding dinner lust so that she can enjoy the praise of her family, a man not used to public speaking who will go through the ordeal of preparing and delivering an after dinner talk so that he can he considered a person of influence these are just a few of the many examples of the need for a feeling of importance. A bellboy who makes a point of calling you by name as he shows you to your hotel room! the clothing salesman who compliments you on your good taste, the head waiter who makes a fuss over you when you enter the dining room, and the airline that actually rolls out a red carpet for the passengers on certain luxury flights, have learned that it is lust good business to make the customer feel important. Your prospect's need to feel important is a powerful force that can work either for or against you. To wound a person's ego or to take away the feeling of importance is a sure way to lose friends and alienate people. For example, people nearly always feel that their actions are logical. Therefore any criticism will usually be resented as a reflection on their motives. By appealing to your prospects' ego, and feeling of importance, you are placing them on a pedestal. You are appealing to a wish to accomplish something worthwhile, to be recognized for achievements, to be useful to someone, and to be held in high esteem. These are all wrapped up Ln this powerful need for importance Examples ______, only people with character buy life insurance to provide for their families the way you are with this You and Your Family plan. You can he sure that your family will hold you in high esteem for the foresight you have shown in purchasing this plan. As a father, you are a very important part of your children's lives. This plan assures that, even it you are not here, they will be able to have all of the advantages that you want for them. "Live up to what others expect" motive

In a child, this motive can be expressed as "hero worship." In adults, the motive of riving up to what others expect is a desire to conform to group demands. There is a fear of being conspicuous and of being the object of ridicule. As a result there is an urge to be one of a group, to follow the crowd by doing what it does. This is often nothing more than "keeping up with the Joneses." Although many outstanding sales representatives make good use of this motive, it is not as widely used as perhaps it should be. The use of testimonials is a practical way to put this motive to work for you If other people are buying insurance from you, and "it is the thing to do," then there is that extra motive for your prospect also to buy from you. This motive is also important in developing "nests" or related prospect groups. If you are the "insurance pro" for your prospects' co-workers or friends, then there is a certain amount of group acceptance in doing business with you. One of the benefits of a Referred Lead prospect is that you have the advantage of this extra power of motivation. Examples My clients include many of your friends and neighbors (or the fellows at the Blank Manufacturing Company or the top business leaders of our town). You probably know many of these people personally. (Show appropriate list of your policy owners in your Presentation Book.) We have introduced a service which has proven to be of value to other people in positions similar to yours and which might be valuable to you. Prospecting-A people activity In most cases, you will find prospects who love their families and have a high measure of self-respect. On the other hand, you must condition you self to meeting many prospects with negative attitudes and an unwillingness to accept financial responsibility This is all just part of the job of being a sales representative. As you go about your daily work of finding, meeting, studying, and interviewing prospects for your insurance subject, keep a few additional facts in mind: 1. Your prospect's own problems are of paramount importance. An emergency in the next county won't cause as much personal concern as a cut on the finger. Be sure you relate everything you say to your prospect. 2. Your sales talk must never be over the prospect's head; if it is, your ideas will not be understood. Conversely, nothing is more fatal in attempting to gain the

prospects' confidence, good will, and signature than to "talk down" to them or below their mental capacity. 3. Finally, as you look at this intricate human being your prospect consider that personal motivations are the positive drives that can stimulate individuals to action. They may also have a strong tendency! however, for inaction because of a natural resistance to change. They may prefer seeking an easy way out, escaping from the hard facts of life, or they may lack the will power to continue a savings program. This set of contradictions within the same individual is what makes the jab of the sales representative such a fascinating one. As you continue your study of your prospects, you will want to make a determined effort to constantly sharpen your powers of observation and communication. In this way you will be able to seek out the dominating motive or motives of your prospects.

Strategic Motivational Research
Importance of Motivations Virtually all effective marketing initiatives help harmonize a brand’s positioning with the needs of consumers. Understanding how consumer needs affect product choice equips marketers to position brands to win. Market research that delivers insight into consumer motivations should therefore be at the core of most strategic research programs. Brand choice has complex and hidden drivers that reflect underlying psychological dimensions. When viewed by the researcher, the consumer-brand relationship is like an iceberg. Only a fraction of the mass is at the surface, easily visible. Most of the iceberg and most of the motivational dimensions - lie below the surface. The “sonar” for insight into consumer-brand relationships is Motivational Research. Consumer-Brand Relationships The truth is that consumers can’t tell us why they choose the brands they do. People will not admit to some motivations and they are often simply unaware of others that influence their actions. Traditional research techniques tend to focus on “tangible” reasons for brand choice like product features, convenience, price, etc. These are the elements that people can and will explain to us. But consumer motivations are multi-layered. The outer layer encompasses those rational, functional factors that consumers consider in brand choice. This outer “needs layer” is relatively easy to study. It also offers the least opportunity for brands to develop strong relationships with consumers. Brands compete elsewhere. If we dig deeper into consumer-brand relationships, we inevitably find social factors connected with brands. As humans, we instinctively structure our world according to

feelings about social identity. What brands say about the consumer is a key factor in brand choice. Within certain limits of social acceptability, people can and will verbalize their attitudes about brand social identity. But socially unacceptable feelings about the image of brands are too often withheld. The core of consumer-brand relationships is a more deeply psychological layer of complex and hidden consumer motivations. The emotions that govern this inner layer concern changing how one feels “inside,” and the need to express one’s self to the “outside.” Traditional market research techniques offer little insight here. But this motivational dimension is the real brand battleground where the key drivers of choice are found.

Brand Choice Psychology is Situational Adding to the complexity of consumer-brand relationships is variation in the motivators of choice by situation. In many product categories, different types of consumption occasions have different brand choice motivations. For example, clothing brand choices are clearly multimodal – the needs for self-expression or to change how we feel are linked to the social characteristics of situations. Situational variation makes research more complex. But an occasion-based perspective is often essential in the research design to capture the full range of consumer motivations. Quantitative Projective Techniques Projective techniques in Qualitative Research have been used successfully for many years to help research subjects talk about themselves with fewer inhibitions. People are shown photographs and asked to associate them with brands, for example, and then to describe the brand’s users. Projective techniques in Quantitative Research also provide better access to the deeper needs layers than traditional methods. Extensive research has demonstrated that due to instinctive reflex, we relate to other people by unconsciously looking at their facial expressions first. We don’t connect with any other image as readily. The key data for Quantitative Motivational Research are the “needs” that are expressed by projection through photographs of faces. Motivational Segmentation and Brand Positioning Not every offering will be right for every customer. Success requires a targeted approach to ensure bottom-line efficient use of product development and promotional resources. Segmentation is an informed means to organize customers into groups that allow such targeting. With a Motivational Segmentation approach, data are collected using sophisticated Projective Techniques. Advanced statistical software integrates consumer needs from the functional, social and motivational layers and groups individuals into category-specific, “needs-based” or motivational segments. Consumer brand perceptions across needs dimensions are also gathered using Projective Techniques. Once developed, each customized Motivational Segmentation acts as a fixed model of the consumer landscape upon which brands are positioned according to their fit to the needs of segments. Volumetric estimates (usage occasions, dollars, units) are developed and allocated to segments in order to evaluate opportunities. Strategic Motivational Research Deliverables

Positioning with respect to profitable segments and key competitors lies at the core of any brand strategy. A Strategic Motivational Research program furnishes a framework for understanding the brand dynamics and market opportunities in a category. Motivational segmentation and brand positioning, combined with segment-based consumption quantification, deliver analytical views to support a wide range of strategic and tactical marketing decisions. Strategic Motivational Research Deliverables: • Motivational market segments o Segment motivational drivers (Marketing Hot Buttons) o Profiled on demographics, behavior, etc. (Targeting) o Quantification of purchase behavior (Opportunity Analysis) • Brand profiles (Brand Blueprints) o Tangible attributes (functional needs) o Image/personality (social identity) o Emotive symbols (gratification/expression) o Overall brand positioning (fit to motivational segments) • Brand Positioning Analyses (Brand Strategy) o Brand positioning against needs segments o Competitive brand positioning against needs segments o Brand portfolio analysis and planning using motivational framework o Brand repositioning analysis using motivational framework o New product/extension positioning and opportunity analysis – targeting needs segment “white space”

Roy Chitwood Article People buy the same product for different reasons
Have you ever wondered why people buy what they buy? What motivates them to make a purchase? Why do they buy when they do? Each prospect enters the sales process with emotional needs; motives that either singularly or together cause them to buy your service or product. People buy for their own reasons -not your reasons or even your company's.

Because these reasons are rooted in emotion, not logic, they may not seem reasonable, intelligent or even practical to you. Nevertheless, they reflect what is important to the buyer. It is vital to the success of every one of your sales, then, to understand the desire behind each motive, as you will likely encounter them within the course of the sale. These six buying motives are not presented in any special order. No one motive is more important than another. Bear in mind that at least one of these motives, though often more than one, applies to every purchase. •

Desire for gain.
This first buying motive stems from a prospect's intent to gain financially by purchasing your product. The desire for gain could cause a company to purchase a software package because it believes its employees will work more efficiently by using it. As a result, the company will turn a greater profit in the coming year. The desire for gain could also prompt an individual to purchase real estate or other personal investments. They hope to gain a financial edge through the purchase of your product or service.

Fear of loss.
Just as people can be motivated by a hope for gain, they can also be motivated by the anxiety of losing what they already have. This buying motive relates to the fear of financial loss if the product or service is not bought. It may prompt a store owner to install a security system or enlist the services of a security firm. The fear of loss is a prime motivation in the purchase of insurance -- be it liability insurance or insurance to protect an individual against identity theft -- the hope of preserving one's financial viability remains the same.

Comfort and convenience.
What would you do without your Swedish foam mattress, digital cable television and PDA? Most of us put in long, arduous work days. What better way is there to soothe a tired body than by coming home to a hot, bubbling Jacuzzi? Purchasing goods and services that promote relaxation can offer us a sense of ease in our busy lives. They are often the things many of us justify working such long hours for in the first place. We reward ourselves with purchases that enrich the quality of our lives, ease our tension and stress and make us feel good.

Security and protection.
People make countless purchases motivated by the desire to keep themselves, their families and their property safe. We need only to look to the sales of mace, car alarms and services of private security companies to see how important this buying motive is to so many of us. As the instances of fatal illnesses like heart disease and diabetes rise, so does the market for diet plans, vitamins and health clubs. We are motivated, regardless of what we're afraid of, by a strong need to purchase that which will protect us from harm.

Pride of ownership.
Why does a person buy an expensive home in an upscale neighborhood? Why

would a shopper spend hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars on an outfit from a famous designer? Why would an art collector pay millions for a single painting? Whether we are willing to admit it or not, there is a bit of "label mentality" lurking in most of us. We are often willing to pay a premium to own an exclusive item just for the pride we take in owning it -- and showing it off. Be it an exquisitely crafted leather jacket or a high-performance speedboat, there is a certain "high" one feels in being able to purchase such a soughtafter item. •

Satisfaction of emotion.
To see our loved ones happy, we are often willing to make significant purchases -- from jewelry to exotic flowers to luxury vacations. How does it feel when you pick up the tab for your dinner companions at an expensive restaurant? That pride in caring and providing special things for those who are important to us is the result of very deep-seated emotions. We feel good making the purchase because we gain love and appreciation. As human beings, we strive to avoid disapproval and rejection at all costs. The satisfaction of emotion relates directly to our need for love and to satisfy our ego.

As you may have deduced by now, people buy emotionally, not logically. They will justify their purchases logically afterward, but it is their feelings, not their reason, that determines whether or not the sale will take place. Individuals can have different motives for the same purchase. For example: Three people who buy the same European luxury sedan can have three different reasons for their purchase. The first person, when asked why the car was picked, might reply: "I have reached a certain income level and status and would like a car that reflects my accomplishments. This automobile is one of the finest in the world." A second person may view the car this way: "I bought the vehicle because of its excellent safety rating and long-standing reputation for being one of the most secure, well-designed vehicles made. I'm worried about the 'other guy' out there on the road. I'll feel very safe driving now." A third person, however, may have a different motivation to buy. "The plush interior and smooth ride just sold me on the car. I love the way it handles -- it's so responsive. It feels like it was just made for me." The first person bought for ego -- pride of ownership. The second person's motive was the car's excellent safety record -- security and protection.

The last person saw owning and driving the car as a pleasurable experience -comfort and convenience. As you can see there are six different motives that ultimately fill the same kind of emotional need. Often those motives overlap, so you should keep in mind that when you uncover your prospect's buying motives, one or more may apply to the same purchase. As you begin to understand why your prospects buy, you'll be able to better structure your sales approach to appeal to their buying motives.

That is what selling is all about. E-MAIL address of Meaning of buying behavior
http://www.openlearningworld.com/olw/courses/books/Consumer%20Behaviour%20 and%20Motivation/Consumer%20Behavior%20and%20Motivation/Meaning%20of%2 0Buying%20Motives.html


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