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5.3 Uses of radioisotopes 1. Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes that go through radioactive decay to attain greater stability. 2.

Example of radioisotope: uranium 235 and 238. Application Medicine

1. Radioactive Cobalt, Co-60 decays with emission of beta particles and high energy gamma rays. 2. Gamma rays can be used to destroy cancer cells in radiotherapy. 3. Sodium-24 is injected into the bloodstream to detect the position of blood clots or thrombosis in the blood vessels. 4. Brain tumour can be detected and treated using phosphorus-32. 5. Iron-59 is a suitable tracer to study the circulation of iron in the blood. Industries 1. Gamma source can be used to penetrate deep into welding to reveal fault which normally cannot be detected.

2. In the manufacturing of paper, plastics, clothes and metal sheets, the thickness of each material can be controlled by placing a radioactive source (Gamma source) at one side of the material and a detector (GM tube) on the other side.

3. The detector registers a higher count if the material is too thin and a lower count if it is too thin. 4. In order to ensure that containers such as cans and food packages are filled with certain amount, similar mechanism is used. 5. When a container not full, the reading is higher.

6. Testing for leakage of underground pipes can be done by adding sodium-24 into the water and allowed to flow in the pipe. 7. By moving a GM tube above the underground pipe, when the reading is higher, a leakage can be detected. 8. A source of gamma rays can be used to take photographs for metal to reveal cracks. 9. Gamma rays kill germs that cause food to spoil quickly. By exposing certain food to gamma rays, the food can be kept for a longer period. (Sterilisation) Agriculture 1. Pests can be kills especially using gamma rays. 2. The gamma rays also can induce mutation in the pests which stops them from reproducing. 3. Nitrogen-15 and phosphorus-32 can be used as tracers in the study of the effectiveness of fertilizers. 4. Radioactive radiation is also used to induce genetic mutation in a plant in order to produce a better strain which has a higher resistance against diseases. Archaeology 1. Carbon 12 can be used to determine to age of artifacts. 2. Plants and animals absorb and give out carbon 14 when they are live.

3. When they are die, no more carbon 14 is taking in. The carbon 14 they have already absorbed starts to decay. 4. The activity begins to decrease with a half life of 5730 years. 5. Therefore, the age of dead plants or animals can be determine by comparing the activity of carbon 14 in the sample with that of living one. 6. This is called carbon dating. 7. An estimate of the age of rock can be inferred from the proportion of uranium 238 decreases. Nuclear Energy X Parent particle Y Daughter particles + energy

1. When one element changes into another , the process called transmutation. 2. The mass of daughter particles decrease, the difference is called mass defeat or mass loss. 3. The mass loss is converted into energy. 4. According to Einsteins Principle of Mass Energy Conservation
E = mc 2

Exercise: 226 222 4 1. 88 Ra 86 Rn + 2 He + Energy The mass of each atom, 226 88 Ra = 226.02536 a.m.u 222 86 Rn = 222.01753 a.m.u 4 2 He = 4.00260 a.m.u [ 1 a.m.u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg ; 1 eV = 1.66 x 10-19 J] (a) find the mass defect in (i) a.m.u (ii) kg (b) Calculate the amount of energy released in (i) J Nuclear Fission 1. Nuclear Fission is a process involving the splitting of a heavy unstable nucleus into two nuclei of roughly equal mass and shooting out several neutrons at the same time. (ii) eV

2. Usually fission occurred when the heavy nucleus is shoot by a neuron. 3. After being bombarded by the neuron, uranium 235 form uranium 236. 4. Uranium 236 is unstable and split into barium and krypton together and 3 neurons.

5. The reaction results in large mass defect which appears mostly as kinetic energy. They collided to the atom surrounding. The temperature will increase. 6. Nuclear fission produce heat energy. Chain Reaction 1. Chain reaction occurred if neurons from the fission of uranium 235 continue to split other nuclei causing further fission.

2. The number of nuclei which undergo fission multiplies rapidly. 3. In nuclear reactions, a controlled chain reaction steadily released energy. 4. In nuclear weapons, uncontrolled chain reaction cause large amount of energy released in short time. 5. In order for a chain reaction happen, the mass of fission must exceed a certain minimal mass known as critical mass. 6. Nuclear Reactor

Nuclear Fusion 1. In nuclear fusion, two or more small and light nuclei come together to form a heavier nuclear. 2. A large amount of energy is released. 3. Fusion is more difficult to achieve because the hydrogen nuclei repel each other. 4. Example : 2 1 3 1 H + 1 H 2 He + + energy 3 3 4 1 1 2 He + 2 He2 He +1 H +1 H + energy 5. A hydrogen bomb uses the principle of nuclear fusion.