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G R E A T

S H O R T

B O O K S

Sublime Aspiration
A descriptive translation of usn al-Maqid f mal al-Mawlid

IMAM JALALUDDIN AL-SUYUTI

SUBLIME ASPIRATION

GREAT SHORT BOOKS

Sublime Aspiration
A descriptive translation of usn al-Maqid f mal al-Mawlid

IMAM JALALUDDIN AL-SUYUTI Q

Translated by

ABU HASAN

Sublime Aspiration of the Mawlid Celebration


Original Arabic Work by

Imam Jalluddn bdur Ramn al-Suy


Translation and Footnotes

Abu Hasan

Acknowledgements

Abu Nibras, Aqdas, Noori

The cover image is from a manuscript of usn al-Maqid Maqid and the text shown is Ibn ajars quote from the same. . See Page 17.

Copyright Ridawi Press Rabi al-Awwal 1434/February 2013 Version 1.2

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INTRODUCTION
Praise be to Allh tl, and blessings be upon His elect slaves. A question was asked about celebrating the birthday1 of the Prophet in the month of Rabi al-Awwal and about: its legal status according to sharh whether it is commendable or a reprehensible act whether a person participating in it merits reward2 or not Essentially, Mawlid is a gathering of people in which the Qurn is recited, events surrounding the birth3 [and proclamation] of the Prophet and [miraculous] signs that appeared during his blessed birth are narrated. A banquet is held and the assembly disperses thereafter, without doing anything further. This is a praiseworthy innovation and the person doing it will be rewarded, because of venerating the Prophet and expression of happiness and gratulation upon the blessed birth of the Messenger .

1 2

Mawlid, Mawld, Mld: celebration of the birthday of the Prophet

thawb: reward in the hereafter; that is, whether it is counted as a good deed deserving reward in the hereafter. mabda amrin nabiy: the beginning of the Prophets history.

History of Celebrating the Blessed Mawlid The person who started this practice was the ruler of Arbil,4 King Muaffar5 Ab Sad Kawkabr ibn Zaynuddn l ibn Buktikkn - a glorious king and a magnanimous leader. He is remembered for beautiful monuments and it was he who build the Muzaffari Mosque6 on the slopes of Mount Qsiyn. Ibn Kathir7 has mentioned in his historical work8 that he would celebrate Mawlid in the month of Rabi al-Awwal and the celebrations would be elaborate. He was chivalrous, brave, fearless, intelligent and also a scholar; may Allh tl have mercy upon him and honour his resting place. [Ibn Kathir said:] Shaykh Abul Khab ibn Diyah9 wrote a book on the Mawlid of the Prophet named At-Tanwr f Mawlidil Bashr an-Nadhr upon which he was given a present of a thousand gold coins.10 His reign was lengthy until his demise in Akka, where he was blockaded by the Franks in the year 630. He was a man of praiseworthy character and a noble soul.

4 5

Erbil, Irbil, Arbil; in todays Iraq. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erbil Muaffaruddn Ab Sad [549-630] Kkbur or Kawkabr

6 Also known as the Hanabila Mosque or the Darwish Pasha Mosque. The mosque is situated in the Salihiyya area of Damascus, on a side street off Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi Lane, outside the fortifications of the old city. It is the first Ayyubid monument built in Damascus and the oldest surviving mosque after the Umayyad Mosque (b. 709-715). See archnet.org. 7 fi mduddn Abul Fida Isml ibn mar ibn Kathr al-Dimashq [701-774] famous for his historical work Bidyah wan Nihyah and his Qurn commentary; author of many other works which were well received in his lifetime: Shar al-Bukhr (incomplete,) abaqt alFuqah Shfaiyyn, Qaaul Anbiya and his magnum opus Jmi al-Masnd was Sunan which according to the plan of the author was a collection of 100,000 adth, ordered by alphabetical list of companions in those narrations. [Ibn Kathr had compiled only 80,000 when he passed away and his grandson completed it]. 8 9

Al-Bidyah wan Nihyah, 17/205; Events of the Year 630.

mar ibn al-asan ibn l ibn Muammad, Abul Khab ibn Diyah al-Kalb [544-633] literary figure, historian, adth master and judge. He travelled to Morocco, Levant, Iraq, Khorasan and finally settled in Egypt. [Wafyt al-Ayn 1/381, Mzn al-Itidl 2/252, Lisnul Mzn 4/292, Shadhartudh Dhahab 5/160, Siyar al-Alm 5/44]
10 Dnar: gold coin weighing approximately 4.25g; thus 1000 coins would be 4.25 kilogram of gold, which in 2013 costs approximately $225,250 @ $53/gram.

Ibn al-Jawzis grandson11 says in Mirt al-Zamn narrating from a person who attended a banquet held during Mawlid celebrations that he mentioned the following in the feast: 5000 sheep and their grilled heads, 10,000 chickens, 100 horses,12 100,000 [earthern] bowls and 30,000 plates of sweets. Prominent scholars and sufis attended the Mawlid; the king he would seek them and retire with them and the sufis would recite poems,13 starting the afternoon [continuing in the night and] until dawn. The king would also whirl14 in ecstasy with them. He would spend 300,000 dnr15 on Mawlid celebrations every year. He had built a guest house for those who came from afar regardless of where they came from, or their bearing he would spend 100,000 dnr every year for the maintenance of this guest house.

11 Ysuf ibn Qizz/Guliy or Qizzguli ibn bdullh Abul Muaffar Shamsuddn, the maternal grandson [Sib] of Imm Abul Faraj bd ar-Ramn ibn al-Jawz is a prominent historian [581-654] and author of Mirtuz Zamn f Trikhil Ayn, Tadhkiratu Khawul Ayimmah, Kanz al-Mulk, Muntah as-Sl f Sratir Rasl. [Miftus Sdah 1/208, Jawhirul Muiyyah 2/230, Dhayl Mirtuz Zamn 1/39] 12 It is prohibitively disliked in the anaf madhhab but permitted in other madhhabs; there are adth that mention permissibility of eating horse meat. 13 Sam: which is commonly translated as music; but this was without musical instruments and just vocals. 14

Raq: those listening to devotional poetry sometimes jump in a state of ecstasy and joy which is termed ajal. It is reported in Musnad al-Bazzr, Musnad Imm Amed, Al-db and Sunan al-Kubr of Bayhaq, Mukhtrah of iya al-Maqdisi, narrating from Sayyidun l that he said:
I came to RaslAllh with Jafar and Zayd and he told Zayd: You are my bondsman and

he jumped with joy; [and l narrates] he

told Jafar: You resemble me the most in

appearance and character and he began jumping with joy behind Zayd; [and l narrates] he told me: You are from me, and I from you and I began to jump behind Jafar. [Musnad Imm Amed: Musnad l ibn Abi lib]

Dancing mentioned here is involuntary and spontaneous jumping for joy, not the deliberate synchronous and breaking movements, sashaying like women or shaking the midriffs and hips; tapping toes rythmically, prancing and chass etc. which are all forbidden forms of dancing. The dancing of Abyssinians mentioned in the adth is about irregular movements and play-acting a sword-fight with weapons, and jumping. Allh tl knows best.
15

As mentioned earlier, dnr was a gold coin weighing 4.25 grams; 300,000 coins are approximately 1275 kilograms of gold, which would cost 67.5 million US dollars in 2013.

He would pay 100,000 dnr to the Franks as ransom for Muslim prisoners; he would pay 30,000 dnr for the noble sanctuaries, and water supply systems on the road to Hijaz. All this was apart from what he gave as charity in private. His wife, Rabh Khtn bint Ayyb [the sister of the victorious king aluddn]16 says that he would wear a shirt made of kirbas, a rough material worth five silver coins.17 She says that she criticised him for this and he replied: That I should wear clothes worth five dirhams and give away the rest is better than wearing expensive clothes and abandoning the poor and the destitute. Ibn Khallikn18 in his biographical notice on Abil Khab ibn Diyah says:
He was a prominent scholar, and well-known among the elite; he came from Morocco and travelled to the Levant and Iraq and passed through Arbil in the year 604 where he encountered the king Muzaffaruddn ibn Zaynuddn celebrating the birthday of the Prophet . So, he wrote the book, The Illumination: On the Birthday of the Bearer of Glad Tidings, the Warner, 19 and recited it in front of the king, who rewarded him with a thousand gold coins.

He also said:
We have heard him [recite the mawlid] in six gatherings in the Sultans presence in the year 625.

16 Famously known as Sultan Salauddn Ayyub or Saladin in the west, he is the victorious king and the vanquisher of crusaders, Abul Muaffar Ysuf ibn Ayyb [532-589] who won back Jerusalem for Muslims. [Bidayah wan Nihyah, 16/651, Events of the Year 589] 17

Dirham: silver coin; a thousand silvers equalled one gold coin, a dnr.

18 Amed ibn Muammad ibn Ibrhm ibn Ab Bakr ibn Khallikn [602-672] al-Arbil: authority on history and literature, author of Wafyt al-Ayn. 19

Al-Tanwr f Mawlidil Bashr al-Nadhr

FKIHNS OBJECTION
Shaykh Tjuddn mar ibn l al-Lakhm al-Sakandar, famously known as Al-Fkihn,20 a Mlik scholar of later times claimed that celebrating Mawlid is a reprehensible innovation. He wrote an epistle named, AlMawrid fil Kalmi l mal al-Mawlid. I will quote his statement below in full and thereafter, I will examine it point by point. Fkihn said:
Praise be to Allh who has guided us to follow the leige lord of Messengers; He has aided us by guiding us toward pillars of religion and has made it easy for us to follow traditions of our pious ancestors21 [and thus] our hearts are filled with the knowledge of sharh and absolute, manifest truth; [He has] cleansed our hearts from the calamities of modern times and innovation in religion. I praise Allh, for bestowing [upon us] His favour by [granting] radiant faith. I thank him for putting [us on] the right path by holding fast unto a strong bond [of faith]. I bear witness that there is no God except Allh tl, that He is alone and hath no partner. I [also] bear witness that Muammad is His slave and His Messenger the master of all from the beginning to the end may blessings of Allh tl be upon him, his progeny, his companions, his blessed and chaste wives the mothers of believers. May these blessings abide [and increase] until Judgement day. Thereafter: a question was asked by a group of blessed folk concerning gatherings in the month of Rabi al-Awwal which are called Mawlids. Is there a basis in the sharh for such Mawlids? Or is it a bidh and [reprehensible] innovation in religion? I decided to answer this as a clarification and to explain the issue; and thus I have replied. Only Allh tl gives success. I do not know any basis for this Mawlid in either the book of Allh tl or the tradition of RaslAllh ; nor has it been reported as practiced by any scholar of our nation, who are our religious leaders and are firm in the tradition of elders.

20

Al-Fkihn [654-734] is a famous grammarian and Mlik scholar from Alexandria. When he visited Damascus, he met with fi Ibn Kathr, the author of Bidyah wan Nihyah and they narrate from each other. salaf al-lin

21

Rather, it is a bidh, innovated by the idle and indolent; a vain desire which is alluring to freeloaders. Our proof: when we evaluate this action, it has to fall in one of the following five categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wjib Obligatory Mandb Supererogatory Mub Permissible Makrh Disliked arm Prohibited

By consensus, it is not wjib. Neither is it mandb; because, the principle for mandb is that it is prescribed by the sharh [as optional] without criticising those who omit it. This has neither been prescribed in the sharh, nor was it practiced by the companions, their followers or pious scholars as far as I know. And this shall be my answer, if I am asked about it on Judgement day. It is not permissible either, because innovation in religion cannot be deemed permissible according to consensus of all Muslims. Obviously, it has to fall in one of the two [remaining] categories: disliked or prohibited [makrh or arm] and [the ruling] varies according to two possibilities. When a person celebrates the Mawlid from his own wealth for his family, friends and relatives; and restricts it to a banquet without approaching anything sinful. This is what we have described as a disliked and ugly bidh, because none among our pious predecessors jurists and scholars of Islm, honoured and celebrated Muslims among them have done this. When accompanied with enormities and misdemeanour; such things which should be so much that a person donates [for Mawlid] with a heart ache and is forced to give. Scholars have said that taking money from someone by abashment is the same as taking [forcibly] by the sword. Particularly, when such gatherings also have singing after filling their stomachs accompanied by forbidden musical instruments drums and clarinets, intermingling of men with young boys, men and charming women both flirtatious and honourable ones; and dancing by twisting and sashaying, and being immersed in frolic and merriment, heedless of that [final] day of trepidation.

Similarly, in private gatherings of women, they raise their voices in singing [and thus] far removed from Qurn recitation and litanies; foregoing recommended and commonly accepted practices and neglecting the saying of the Almighty: Verily, your Lord Sees everything.22 Nobody disagrees that all such things are forbidden, and no upright person will consider these acts as praiseworthy. Rather these things are the fancy of such creatures whose hearts are dead and have not renounced sin and evil. Additionally, they consider it to be a form of worship, instead of a reprehensible and forbidden act; verily, we belong to Allh and toward Him is our return.23 In the beginning, Islm was [deemed] quaint and so shall it become as it was in the beginning.24 May Allh tl reward our Shaykh Al-Qushayri who has said: Evil is admired and estimable And good is decried as evil in these difficult times of ours; People of knowledge have retreated in burrows And ignoramuses have occupied important positions They have deviated from righteousness and that which they profess Has no relation to the glorious past Therefore, I tell the pious and the Godfearing, And those who care for their religion,when they are intensely grieved: Do not retreat from your stations because the time has come And the age in which you live is that of ghurbah25 Imm Ab mr al-la has said it rather well: People will be doing well until they start doing strange things. Moreover, he passed away in Rabi al-Awwal, the same month in which he was born. Therefore, celebration in this month should be no more important than mourning in it. This is my stand, and I hope Allh tl will accept my effort.

23 Srah Baqarah, 2:156.


22

Srah Fajr, 89:14.

24

adth reported by Imm Amed ibn anbal from bd ar-Ramn ibn Shaybah al-Ashja; Majm al-Zawyid of Nruddn al-Haytham, 7/278.

25

ghurbah: outlandish, quaint. The time foretold in adth when true Islm will be considered as outlandish and true adherents will be looked upon as abnormal and eccentrics.

APPRAISING FKIHNS OPINION


I have quoted Fkihn in full above from his aforementioned book and I shall examine [his objections one by one] below. Fkihn said:
I do not know any basis for this Mawlid in either the book of Allh tl or the tradition of RaslAllh

Not knowing something does not mean that such a thing does not exist. fi Abul Fal Ibn al-ajar26 has mentioned a basis in the tradition of the Prophet for this practice [of celebrating Mawlid] and I have located a second adth which I will mention presently. Fkihn said:
Rather, it is a bidh, innovated by the idle and indolent... not pious scholars

We have explained earlier that the practice was started by a just and scholarly king with the intention of earning the favour of Allh tla. This was done in the presence of scholars and righteous folk and none among them demurred. Ibn Diyah was pleased [and did not see anything wrong] with it and he even wrote a book for this purpose. These are pious scholars who permitted it, endorsed it and did not oppose it.

Fkihn said:
Neither is it mandb; because, the principle for mandb is that it is prescribed by the sharh

Requirement by the sharh for mandb is sometimes known by texts, and sometimes it is proven by analogy in the absence of textual evidence as we shall see shortly.

26 Imm Amed ibn l al-Kinn, known as Ibn ajar al-sqaln [773-852.] Arguably the greatest adth scholar since his time; author of the most famous commentary on Bukhr.

Fkihn said:
Neither is it permissible, because innovation in religion cannot be deemed permissible according to consensus of all Muslims.

This is not acceptable because, bidh is not restricted to only disliked and forbidden. In fact, it can also be permissible, recommended or obligatory [mub, mandb and wjib]. What is Bidh? Imm Nawaw27 Q said in Tahdhb al-Asma wal Lught:28
In the parlance of sharh, bidh means those [new] things that were not present in the period of RaslAllh . Bidh is broadly classified as good or ugly. Shaykh zzuddn ibn bd al-Salm29 said in Qawid:30 Bidh can fall in any of these categories: wjib, arm, mandb, makrh or mub. The method to ascertain its class is to appraise it vis--vis the principles of sharh. If it fulfils the criteria for wjib, [such a bidh] becomes an obligatory bidh. If it matches the criteria for arm, it becomes forbidden, and it is mandb, makrh or mub if it matches corresponding criteria.

He mentioned examples for each of these five categories and he said about recommended and praiseworthy bidh:
Establishing schools, cloisters, building bridges and alcoves,31 every good thing or charity which was not established among the first period of Muslims. [Like] tarw: supererogatory prayers in Raman; expounding finer points of taawwuf; theological discourse and refutations; gatherings to discuss and elucidate proofs for religious issues, as long as such conferences are for the sake of Allh tl.

27

Muiyuddn Ab Zakariyyah Yay ibn Sharaf ibn Murr al-Shfi an-Nawaw [631-676] is a major imm of fiqh and adth. Tahdhb, 3/22; [Part Two, Volume One]

28 29

Suln al-lam Shaykh zzuddn bd al-zz ibn bd al-Salm al-Sullam [577-660] is a famous Ashr-Shfi mujtahid imm.
30 31

Al-Qawa id al-Kubr, 2/337. See Appendix B for the full translation of the topic. qanir

Imm Bayhaq32 in Manqib al-Shfi, reports from Imm Shfi Q:


Innovations are of two kind: The first kind which opposes either the Book, the hadith, athar33 or ijm;34 such an innovation is deviance [from the straight path]. The second is that which is innovated for a good [cause] and does not oppose or contradict [Qurn or adth]; this is not a blameworthy innovation. Sayyidun mar said concerning [tarw] prayers in Raman: What a fine innovation is this!35 That is, an innovation, and a practice without precedent, but which does not refute or contradict earlier practice.

This refutes the following assertion of Shaykh Tjuddn [al-Fkihn]:


It cannot be a mub... as we have described, it is a disliked innovation

This innovation [of Mawlid] neither opposes the Book, nor adth, nor practice of companions and their followers, nor consensus. Therefore it is not deplorable, and according to Imm Shfis principle: It is a praiseworthy deed which was not in vogue in the first generation [of Islm]. Because holding a banquet and feeding people, without any accompanying sinful actions is indeed a praiseworthy deed and charity.36 According to [the framework described by] Ibn bd al-Salm, it is a recommended innovation, a mandb bidh.

32 Imm Ab Bakr Amed ibn usayn ibn l al-Bayhaq [384-458,] famous imm of adth and Shfi fiqh. Author of voluminous and important works like Sunan al-Kubra, Mrifah, Shub al-mn, Kitabul Asma was ift etc. 33 According to the jurists of Khorasan, athar: is that adth report from a ab and khabar is reported from RaslAllh ; in other words, mawqf is athar, and marf is khabar; though, adth scholars [do not differentiate and] call all of it as athar. Shaykh al-Islm said in Nukhbah that both mawqf and maqt are termed athar. [Taqrib/Tadrb ar-Rw, Categories Six and Seven, p88] 34 35 36

ijm: consensus Bukhr and Bayhaq in Sunan al-Kubra, 2/493. The phrase is: nimat al-bidtu hdhihi. isn

10

Al-Fkihn said:
And the second possibility...

This is a valid point in itself, except the reason for ruling it arm is on account of those forbidden acts which he mentioned37 which are unwanted auxiliaries of the gathering. The gathering itself cannot be ruled arm because it is an expression of joy at the birth of the Messenger . Rather if such things occur in, say, a congregation for Friday prayers, they would still be considered ugly and reprehensible. Obviously, it would not necessitate that a congregation for Friday prayer should be deplored because of accompanying acts which are forbidden. I have [myself] seen such things occur on a night of Raman after tarw prayer; but can we forbid people from assembling to offer tarw prayer just because of accompanying [and unrelated] sinful acts? No, indeed. We will say: the original purpose of the gathering, to offer tarawih prayer is from sunnah and an act that merits reward; but those additional [forbidden] activities are ugly and reprehensible. Similarly, we say: The original component of the Mawlid, is a gathering of people to express joy at the birth of the Prophet , which is praiseworthy and mandb, which merits reward; and those [forbidden] acts that are auxiliary are deplorable and forbidden.

Al-Fkihn said:
...apart from the fact that [he passed away] in the very month he was born

Yes, his birth is the greatest of favours; and his passing is the greatest of sorrows [for the ummah.] The sharh encourages us to be thankful for favours received, and to be patient, demure and suppress grief during sorrow. Therefore, the Lawmaker commanded us to sacrifice38 an animal upon births; but no such thing is recommended upon deaths or other such sorrowful events. Rather, we were forbidden to wail or ululate. The principles of sharh encourage us to express joy and jubilation upon his blessed birth, not to mourn or be sorrowful upon his passing.

37 38

Such as singing with musical instruments, intermixing of the sexes etc. qqah

11

Ibn Rajab39 says in his book Layif al-Mrif,40 criticising the Rfis for marking the shra as a day of mourning, because of the martyrdom of Imm usayn on this day:
Allh tl or His Messenger did not command us to mourn on anniversaries of calamities that befell Prophets, or upon their passing; then what about those who are not prophets?

39

Imm Abul Faraj bd al-Ramn ibn Amed ibn Rajab al-anbal [736-795] is a famous adth imm. He was a companion of fi Zaynuddn rq and shares many of his teachers; he is also the shaykh of Ibn ajar al-sqaln. He was a major fi of adth and a great scholar known for his piety and asceticism. Among his books are Jmi al-lm wal ikam, Fat al-Br, a commentary of Bukhr which he did not complete and Ibn ajar paid tribute to him by naming his commentary the same and drawing from it. He also wrote a refutation of those who do not follow one of the four madhhabs titled: Ar-Radd l man Ittab Ghayr alMadhhib al-Arbah. Other works: Shar Jmi al-Tirmidh, Commentaries on a number of important adth which have been published as collected works: Rasyil Ibn Rajab.

40

Layif al-Mrif fm Li Mawsimil mi minal Wayif, in which Imm Rajab collects and mentions all special seasons and days, monthwise in a year and the litanies or special prayers or good deeds recommended in these special days and seasons. He starts the third month, Rab al-Awwal, with Mawlid an-Nabiy and discusses it throughout. See pages 158-216. Below are excerpts.
It is reported that dam 7 saw the name Muammad written upon the Throne. And Allh tl told dam: If it were not for Muammad, I would not have created you. This is reported by kim in his a [Mustadrak 2/615].

About the passing of RaslAllh

When RaslAllhs gnosis of his Lord intensified and augmented, the love for his Lord and yearning to meet Him increased; and when he was given the choice to remain in this world or meet his Sustainer, he preferred the meeting of his Lord to the riches and longevity in this world...

Discussing the passing of RaslAllh

Suhayl and others have rejected [that his passing was on the 12th of Rab al-Awwal] because the Standing on rafah [wuqf] of the Farewell Pilgrimage [wad] in 10 AH was on a Friday. The first of the month Dhil ijjah was a Thursday; thus, it is impossible for 12th of Rab al-Awwal of the following year to fall on a Monday regardless of how you count them: all of them completing 30 days, or all of them being 29 days or some 30, some others 29.

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IBN AL-JJ ON MAWLID


Imm Ab bdullh ibn al-jj41 has discussed the issue of Mawlid in Madkhal and his argument is quite sound. In summary, he praises the good aspects such as expressing happiness and gratitude [for the favour] and deplores forbidden actions that may accompany such gatherings. Here below, I reproduce relevant parts42 of his opinion on the issue:
ON MAWLID Among other innovations, is the celebration of Mawlid in the month of Rabi alAwwal with the belief that doing so is a form of worship, a noble action and showing reverence to Islamic symbols. This is made up [of a number] of innovations and forbidden acts among which, is use of musical instruments drums and clarinets and spending most of the time in arm and bidh during an auspicious season which Allh tl has blessed and given prominence. Undoubtedly, listening to music43 is [forbidden anyway] on other nights; then how can it be [permissible] in an auspicious month a month blessed by Allh tl and in which His honourable Messenger was born. What relation do musical instruments have with showing reverence to this august month in which Allh tl favoured us by sending the Master44 of all creation? It is necessary for us to increase our worship and good deeds [in this month] in gratitude to our Lord Almighty for the immense and most precious favour upon us, even though the Prophet himself did not do any additional acts of worship in this month. This was because of his kindness toward his followers and consideration for them because [it is well known that] he would leave certain actions out of concern and mercy for his followers, fearing that such actions may then become obligatory on them.

41 42

Imm Muammad ibn Muammad ibn al-jj al-Fs [d.737].

The whole section on Mawlid is 44 pages, see Madkhal 3/2-46. The argument of the author is that singing with musical instruments is arm, intermixing of sexes and other such forbidden acts are deplorable which he condemns at length. Indeed, we agree that anything against the sharh is deplorable and should be censured, but extraneous acts cannot render it forbidden, as pointed out by Suy. sam bi sayyidil awwalna wal akhirn

43 44

13

However, he indicated the auspiciousness of the glorious month when he answered the person who questioned him about fasting on Mondays: It is the day on which I was born.45 The propitiousness of that day extends to the month as well in which he was born. It is necessary for us to be mindful of the reverence [of this month] as Allh tl has given superiority to this month, because RaslAllh has said: I am the leader of all of dams progeny [and I say this] without pride. dam and all others will be under my standard [on the day of Judgement].46 The superiority of certain seasons or certain places and that Allh tl has specified forms of worship in them, is not because of the season or the place in itself; but rather due to the importance associated with them.47 Look at the distinction accorded to this month and for Mondays; dont you see that it is an act of great virtue to fast on this day, because he was born on this day? Therefore, when this month arrives, we should honour it, venerate and respect it following the example of RaslAllh because, he would designate special days and increase charity and righteous deeds in such days. Do you not recall the saying of Ibn bbs : RaslAllh was the most generous and charitable among men; and his charity increased in Raman.48 So also, we should devote more time in special seasons for doing good and righteous deeds to the best of our ability. If one objects: RaslAllh well-known; however, he some others. considered certain seasons as special, and those are did not specify this month as a special season unlike

45 a Muslim. 8/52. Reported by Ab Qatdah al-Anr that RaslAllh was asked about fasting on Mondays and he said: It was the day on which I was born and on which I received the [first] revelation. Also reported by Ab Dwd, Ibn ibbn, kim, aylis, Ibn Zanjawyh, Bayhaq in Shub al-mn. 46 Imm Amed in his Musnad, Tirmidh in Sunan, Ibn Mjah in his Sunan, narrating from Ab Sad al-Khudr that RaslAllh said: I am the leader of all of dams children on Judgement day; and I do not say this with pride. The Standard of Praise [Liw al-amd] will be in my hand, and I do not say this with pride. There shall not be any prophet whether dam or others except under my Standard. I am the first of intercessors and the first whose intercession will be accepted, and I do not say this with pride. 47

For example, going to and from between af and Marw is a component of worship not because of the two hills themselves, but because of Sayyidah Hjars association with them. a Bukhr, a Muslim, Tirmidh, Nasy, Ibn Mjah, Drim, Musnad Imm Amed.

48

14

We answer: that is because of his blessed habit that he wished ease for his followers, particularly when it concerns his own self. Do you not see that he made Madnah a sanctuary just as Sayyidun Ibrhm 7 made Makkah a forbidden sanctuary. Yet, he did not forbid hunting or cutting down trees in Madnah in consideration for his ummah and as a mercy for them. He would look at things from his perspective and even if [such actions were] superior, he would omit them for the sake of his ummah. The veneration of this month is by doing plenty of good deeds, charity and other things that earn the favour of the Lord Almighty. The least one can do in this blessed month is to abstain from forbidden things indeed, abstaining from sins is necessary in all months but one should be more diligent in this blessed month and renounce innovations. Some people in our times act contrary to this rationale and when this honourable month arrives, they eagerly indulge in games and music, playing tambourines and clarinets. Alas, were it that they stopped singing! Some of them claim to be mindful of proper etiquette and [therefore,] begin the mawlid with recitation of the Qurn. They get someone with a soulful voice and knowledge of vocal techniques to recite. This leads to a number of evils... And they do not stop at that some add even more evils, such as the singer is a handsome young lad wearing dandy and chic clothes who sings in an enthralling manner causing men and women to incline towards vice...which is the cause of many harms... This49 may lead to marital dissatisfaction, finally leading to divorce thereby destroying the fabric of society. These evils are a consequence of the Mawlid with singing and music and if the Mawlid is free from it and is only a gathering of friends and a banquet without any sins mentioned above, it still is a bidh in itself. Because it is adding something in religion which was not done by our pious elders or those who followed the first generation; nor is it reported that any of them intended to celebrate a Mawlid. We are their followers what was good for them is good enough for us.

49 Imm Suy has omitted a number of lines here as he did not deem it relevant for his discussion; therefore the passage appears incoherent. Ibn al-jj says that looking at young and handsome boys and describe them in front of their spouses may cause jealousy and suspicion, leading to differences and finally divorce. Ellipses indicate noncontiguousness.

15

EXAMINING IBN AL-JJS OPINION


The outcome of his article50 is that he does not condemn the Mawlid per se, but deplores sinful and forbidden actions that [may] accompany a Mawlid. The first part is clear that he recommends an increase in worship and good deeds because of the propitiousness of the month, and to do more charity in this month. This is what we mean by Mawlid and which we have commended earlier because in a Mawlid, there shall only be a recitation of the Qurn followed by a banquet and nothing else. But in his conclusion he says it is a bidh which could either mean that he repudiates his own assertion made in the beginning or he means that it is a praiseworthy bidh as he has described in the beginning of his article. Or he means that doing so may be a good deed but the intention of Mawlid is an innovation as he has said:
...even the mere intention for Mawlid is an innovation

and
...it has not been reported that any of them has intended to [celebrate] Mawlid

Obviously, he only dislikes the intention of Mawlid, and not the banquet or inviting friends and relatives to the dinner. If one is judicious, one cannot fail to notice that the first part of his article contradicts the conclusion. Because in the first part he encourages people to do more and more good deeds and said that it is a form of gratitude to Allh tl for this blessed month, because the birth of the chief of all messengers is in this month. This is what we mean when we say intention of Mawlid, then how does he condemn it in conclusion, after praising it and encouraging it in the beginning? Doing a good deed without any intention, like Ibn al-jj has mentioned51 is inconceivable; and suppose it is possible then it cannot be considered a form of worship nor will such a deed merit a reward.

50

Suy refers to the article in Madkhal, parts of which he has quoted.

51 Because he says that doing good deeds in this blessed month is praiseworthy but the intention of Mawlid is an innovation!

16

It is because, no action [is valid] without a [proper] intention; and here the intention is to thank Allh tl for His favour the birth of His honourable Messenger in this blessed month. This is the meaning of Mawlid and it is a beautiful intention without any doubt. Ponder. Ibn al-jj also said:
There are some who celebrate the Mawlid not out of reverence [for the advent of the Prophet ] but to collect money52 from people. Such a person had given something during a happy occasion or in a festive season, so he convenes a Mawlid with the intention to bring people together and thus [implicitly] force them to pay. This is one facet of evil the other is that he resorts to hypocrisy praising them [in greed] and saying things which are not in his heart. Outwardly, he is celebrating the Mawlid with the intention of success in the hereafter, but internally, he seeks to make money. There are some others who convene a Mawlid to collect funds or seeking praise and [thereby seek] their aid, and this too is obviously an evil...

This is similar to his previous discussion he mentions the evil of ulterior motives; but this has nothing to do with the Mawlid itself. 53

52 53

Lit. collect silver

Interestingly, Ibn al-jj also approved of visiting graves and tawassul, he exhorted people to do istighthah. He says in the same Madkhal 1/254-256:
..if the grave is that of a person from whom it is expected to receive barakah on his account, then one should make them intermediaries in his prayer to Allh tl...the tawassul of our Prophet is the best.....and then make tawassul of dwellers of those graves, I mean, the righteous folk [lin] to have all wishes fulfilled and sins forgiven for their sakes, by doing du to Allh tl near their graves....whosever has a need should go to them and pray to Allh through them [tawassul] because they are intermediaries between Allh tl and His creation.

Further, he says:
...Ibn Hubayrah in his book: Ittifq al-Ayimmah said that Mlik, Shfi, Ab anfah and Imm Amed Prophet all agreed that it is praiseworthy and recommended to visit the Prophet ... bd alaqq in Tahdhb al-lib reports from Ab mrn al-Fs that it is obligatory [wjib] to visit the . bd al-aqq added that he actually meant compulsory sunnah.. whosoever intends to travel only for this purpose [of visiting RaslAllh ] and nothing else, then he does so as a good deed and the best of good deeds, indeed! Glad tidings and congratulations to such a person and once again best wishes to him; O Allh, do not deprive us of this blessing..

17

IBN AJAR AL-SQALN ON MAWLID


Shaykh al-Islm Abul Fal Ibn ajar54 was asked about the [permissibility of] Mawlid and he answered:
Celebration of the Mawlid is an innovation it has not been reported from any of our pious elders55 from the first three centuries. In spite of this, it has both good and bad aspects. When it is celebrated free from all bad aspects and comprising of only good actions, it is a praiseworthy innovation, bidh asanah otherwise it is not permissible. I have found a sound basis for this practice and that is a adth found in both a Bukhr and a Muslim: When the Prophet arrived in Madnah, he found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muarram,56 so he asked them about it. They replied: it was the day when the Pharoah was drowned and Sayyidun Ms 7 was delivered; and we fast on this day in gratitude to Allh tl. RaslAllh said: We have more right upon Ms and he fasted on that day.57 We learn from this adth that [it is commendable to] thank Allh tl on a specific day for favours received or for deliverance from adversity and grief; and to commemorate it every year on its anniversary. Thanking Allh tl can be in various forms prostration, fasting, charity, recitation of the Qurn etc. Which favour can be greater than the advent of this [honourable] Prophet , the prophet of mercy who arrived on this blessed day? It is necessary to distinguish this day [for offering thanks] similar to the event of Sayyidun Ms 7 and [the fasting on] shra. Those who do not focus on this aspect are not particular about celebrating the Mawlid in any month like some of them have shifted it to some day of the year. This is the basis of Mawlid.

54 55 56

Shaykh al-Islm Amed ibn l ibn ajar al-sqaln [773-852]. salaf al-li

shra. Most likely the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, because it is the holiday of the 10th even though the event of deliverance from Pharoah is celebrated in the Passover. Allh tl knows best. Bukhr, Ibn Mjah, Mlik in Muwaa, Imm Amed in Musnad.

57

18

It is necessary for the Mawlid to be restricted to acts that can be classified as thanking Allh tl as we have mentioned recitation of the Qurn, banquets, charity or recitation of eulogies and odes exhorting towards abnegation in this world which leads to doing more good deeds and increase in charity. Concerning singing, music and other such things: it is necessary to differentiate between that which is permissible [and that which is not.] If it is a consequence of jubilation on that day, there is no harm in it.58 But arm or makrh things should be prevented, including actions that are not preferable.59

Another basis from the adth has occurred to me,60 and this is the adth reported by Bayhaq narrating from Anas that:
The Prophet prophethood62 performed qqah61 for himself after the proclamation of

This is apart from the [well-known] fact that his grandfather, bdul Mualib performed the qiqah on the seventh day of his birth and an qqah is not performed twice. Therefore, it can be deduced that the Prophet did so as an offering of thanks for the favour of Allh tl upon him and that Allh tl sent him as a mercy to all the worlds, and bestowed honour upon his followers on his account. Therefore, it is recommended that we [too] express our gratitude and our joy upon his birth by assembling together, inviting friends and hosting banquets and doing righteous deeds.

58 59

As long as no impermissible actions are done.

khilf al-awl: if one can choose among a few options, less preferable options are termed thus. Suy.

60 61

qqah: to sacrifice an animal as an offering of thanks upon the birth of a child; usually performed by parents or guardians of the newborn.

62 Sunan al-Kubr 9/300. Haytham in Majma al-Zawyid, 4/59, said that it was also reported by Bazzr and abarn in Mjam al-Awsa and all the narrators of abarn are a narrators except Haytham ibn Jaml who is thiqah and abarns own shaykh, Amed ibn Masd al-Khayy al-Maqdisi who is not mentioned in Mzn.

19

AL-JAZAR ON MAWLID
The great adth master, the grandmaster and authority of Qurn recitations and readings, fi Shamsuddn al-Jazar63 said in his book rfut Trf bil Mawlid al-Sharf:
[Someone among his relatives] saw Ab Lahab after his death, in their dream and asked: How are you? Ab Lahab answered: I am in hellfire, except that I get a reprieve on the night of every Monday and I suck these two fingers between which there is a trickle of water [and he indicated toward his finger] because I set Thuwaybah64 free [by making a sign] with this finger, when she brought the good news of the Prophets birth and thereafter she suckled him. When a kfir like Ab Lahab, who is condemned in the Qurn and whose place in hell is guaranteed, gets a reprieve because of being pleased with the birth of the Prophet , then what about a monotheist Muslim from the ummah of RaslAllh , who expresses joy and jubilation, remembering the birth of the Prophet , and expends everything possible, in his love for the Prophet ? Indeed, such a person deserves a reward and that Allh tl will make him enter paradise by His immense favour [for showing joy on the birth of the Prophet ].

63

Imm Shamsuddn Muammad ibn Muhammad al-Jazar al-Shfi [d.833] adth master and imm of Qurn readings; famous for works on recitation, readings and du. Thuwaybah was Ab Lahabs slave girl. Ibn Mandah says that she became a Muslim, and some others have differed on this. [Usd al-Ghbah, 7/47, entry #6798] She suckled the Prophet . When the Prophet was born, she came to Ab Lahab with the good news and Ab Lahab set her free, pleased with the birth of a nephew.

64

20

IBN NIRUDDN DIMASHQ ON MAWLID


fi Shamsuddn ibn Niruddn al-Dimashqi65 has said in his book, AlMawrid al-d f Mawlidil Hd.
It is narrated from authentic narrators66 that Ab Lahab gets a reprieve from hellfire on Mondays, because he set Thuwaybah free, in joy and happiness at the birth of RaslAllh .

He then said the following in verse:


If this is about a kafir, who is deplored [in the Qurn] Destroyed be his both hands67 and whose abode is eternal hell It has been reported that he gets a reprieve every Monday His torment subsides on account of his happiness for Amed Then, can you imagine the reward of that slave of Allh, Who rejoices in Amed all his life, and dies a [staunch] monotheist? [will he not receive any reward or reprieve?]

65

fi Muammad ibn Ab Bakr ibn bdullh al-Shfi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn Niruddn al-Dimashq [777-842] is a famous adth imm and an ardent admirer of Ibn Taymiyyah. He is the author of a polemic work: Radd al-Wfir defending Ibn Taymiyyah and repudiating those who anathematised Ibn Taymiyyah.

66 This is the [mursal] part of the adth in Bukhr, #5101, Kitbun Nik: explaining the verse, those who suckle you are your mothers (Srah an-Nisa, 4:23) Bukhr narrates from akam ibn Nfi from Shuyb from Zuhri who narrates from rwah ibn Zubayr, narrating from Zaynab bint Salamah who narrates from Umm abbah bint Ab Sufyn (the blessed mother of believers). The last part of the adth is:

rwah said: Thuwaybah was Ab Lahabs slave-girl and he set her free. She suckled the Prophet . After Ab Lahab died someone in his family saw him (in a dream) in a miserable condition, and asked him: What happened to you? Ab Lahab replied: I did not find after you any [succor] except that I am given drink because of this [showing the hollow between his thumb and forefinger] because I set free Thuwaybah thus.

According to Suhayl, it was Sayyidun Abbs

who saw that dream [Fat al-Br, 11/381 ].

67 Srah Lahab, 111/1.


21

KAML AL-UDFW ON MAWLID


Kaml al-Udfuw68 has said in his book Al-li al-Sad:
Our just companion Niruddin Mamd ibn al-md told us that Ab ayyib Muammad ibn Ibrhm al-Subti al-Mlik, who stayed in Qaws was a practising scholar. On the day on which the Prophet was born, he would dismiss the class and tell us: O jurist! It is a day of rejoicing and joy today, give the children a holiday.

This is clear proof that he permitted Mawlid and did not criticise it, and he was a well-known jurist, a Mlik imam,69 a versatile scholar and a pious man. Ab ayyn al-Andals and others are among his students. He passed away in 695 AH.

68 69

Kamluddn Jafar ibn Thlab ibn Jafar al-Udfw [685-748]. Both Fkihn and Ibn al-jj were Malikis, hence the mention.

22

MONDAY AND RABI AL-AWWAL


Ibn al-jj said:
If one asks: What is the wisdom in Rab al-Awwal being the month in which the Prophet was born and not in Raman, the month in which the Qurn was revealed or Laylatul Qadr; or in any of other honourable months, or the 15th night of Shbn, or the day or night of a Friday. We say, there are four reasons for this. 1. In the adth it is mentioned that plants and vegetation were created on Monday; this is an important day because the sustenance of humans food and fruits were created on this day. The word rab70 is an indication of the blessing in this month; and as Ab bd ar-Ramn al-aqal said, everybody has a share of their name.71 Rab or Spring is a moderate season and the most beautiful; his sharh is also the most moderate and the most benevolent. It was the Will of the Almighty, the Wise to bless the season in which he was born. Because if he was born in an august time, some people would say that he was blessed because of the season.

2.

3.

4.

Here endeth the book; Praised be Allh tl, Sustainer of the Worlds.

70 71

rab means was born in this month, it has

That is Rab means blessed, and because the Messenger indeed become a blessed month.

23

Appendix A

ADTH IMMS WHO COMMENDED MAWLID


People who have neither read adth nor are capable of reading Arabic text, nor able to describe basic adth terminology act as if they are more knowledgeable than Shaykh al-Islm Ibn ajar himself. Bidh they growl, and in a supremely self-righteous manner deride celebration of Mawlid. Some others with superficial knowledge make elaborate websites screaming: bidh, bidh. We ask such people to do a little introspection and answer the following with Allh as their witness: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How many books of adth from cover to cover have you read? How proficient are you in adth terminology/sciences and how many books on ul have you read? How many years have you spent reading and teaching adth? How many adth have you memorised, both sanad and matn? How many books on adth have you written either as compilations or commentaries? Are you capable of explaining a Bukhr from anywhere without referring to Fat al-Br or other commentaries?72 Are you able to mention appropriate adth for any ruling without looking up indexes and explanatory notes?

If you fall short, is it prudent to reject imams of adth who spent their whole lives serving the adth sciences for the opinion of novices? Even if you claim that you are following adth scholars of later age (like Wahb/Salaf academics of our time) is it not foolish to claim that they understand the sunnah better than these imms? Or that people in the 14th century are more pious and mindful of adherence to sunnah, than adth imams of the 7th and 8th century!

72

Because the authors of all these commentaries are followers of a madhhab; it would be improper for a person capable of deriving rulings directly from Qurn and adth to cite opinions of muqallids!

24

1. fi bd ar-Ramn ibn Isml Ab Shmah [599-665] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 769 years ago Approximately 56 years [passed away aged 66] Memorised Qurn around age 10; studied under fi lamuddn al-Sakhw (student of Imm Shib,) zzuddn Ibn bd al-Salm and Muwaffaquddn Ibn Qudmah; headed the Dr aladth of Ashrafiyyah in Damascus. Imm Nawaw Kitb ar-Rawatayn, Dhayl al-Rawatayn, Murshid al-Wajz, Trkh Dimashq Kabr (15 vols), Trkh Dimashq Saghr (5 vols), Ibrz al-Mn, Mufradt al-Qurra, Mukhtaar Trkh Ibn skr (5 vols), Al-Bith l Inkr al-Bidai wal awdith. Among the beautiful innovations of our times is that which is done in Arbil may Allh tl strengthen it every year on the anniversary of the day of the Prophets birth [Mawlidin Nabiy] when they spend in charity and good deeds. They exhibit decorations and express happiness and generously give to the poor folk. All of this is done in the love, reverence and esteem of the Prophet established in the heart of those who commemorate the Mawlid, and they thank Allh tl for the favour of sending His Messenger the mercy for the universe and for all other prophets. The person who first started this practice was Shaykh mar ibn Muammad who was a righteous man and well known for his piety. The ruler of Arbil and others followed his example. [Bith]
25

Prominent Students Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

2. fi mduddn Abul Fida Isml Ibn Kathr [701-774] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 660 years ago Approximately 60 years [passed away aged 73] Memorised Qurn at a young age and a number of texts including Tanbh. His teachers include Ibn Shanah, Ibn skir, Ibn al-Shrz, Al-midi, fi Al-Mizzi (whose daughter Ibn Kathr married), Dabbs, Ibn Taymiyyah and Dhahab. He was a great admirer of Ibn Taymiyyah. He was the chief shaykh at Dr al-adth, Ashrafiyyah, Damascus. Imm Jazar, fi al-rq Tafsr Ibn Kathr, Bidyah wan Nihyah (21 vols), Bith al-Hathth, Qaa al-Anbiya, Shamyil arRasl, abaqt al-Shfiyyah, Takml, Jmi alMasnd was Sunan (37 vols) in which he attempted to consolidate all known adth arranged in the alphabetic order of companions, which he estimated to reach 100,000 adth; he had compiled 80,000 at the time of his death, and completed by his grandson. He wrote favourably about Muzaffaruddn Kkbr and that he initiated the practice of Mawlid; he mentioned details of Mawlids held in that period without a word of criticism. Indeed, he wrote admiringly: Shaykh Abul Khab ibn Diyah wrote a book on Mawlid of the Prophet named At-Tanwr f Mawlidil Bashr an-Nadhr upon which he was given a present of a thousand gold coins. He also wrote a book on Mawlid which is known as Mawlid an-Nabiy.

Prominent Students Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

26

3. fi Zaynuddn Abul Fal bd ar-Ram al-rq [725-806] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 628 years ago Approximately 73 years [passed away aged 81] Memorised Qurn around age 8; studied under Taqiyuddn Abul asan al-Subki and Ibn Daqq ald; travelled to many places obtaining authorisations with an elevated chain. Ibn ajar said: We have not seen anyone as proficient as him in adth. Suy considered him the Mujaddid of the the 8th century along with Bulqn. Ibn ajar also said that almost everyone in his time took adth from him; Ibn ajar himself studied with Al-rq for ten years. He was the Q of Madnah for three years. Prominent Students Notable Works Imm Ibn ajar al-sqaln, Nruddn al-Haytham Takhrj of adth in Iya, Minhj of Bayw, Arban of Nawaw; Takmilah Shar alMuhadhdhab, Dhayl Mzan al-Itidl, Tar alTathrb, Alfiyah on adth terminology and its commentaries, Fat al-Mughth and Shar alKabr, At-Taqyd al-Y, Mughni n aml al-Asfr, Akhbr al-Aya bi Akhbr al-Iya, Al-Kashf alMubn, Taqrb al-Masnd Wrote a book on Mawlid, Al-Mawrid al-Hany f Mawlidis Sany.

Opinion on Mawlid

27

4. fi Shamsuddn Muammad Abl Khayr ibn al-Jazar [751-833] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 601 years ago Approximately 69 years [passed away aged 82] Memorised the Qurn at 13; and studied under many adth scholars; Ibn Kathr, iyuddn and Bulqn gave him authorisations. He is the highest authority on Qurn recitations and readings from his time onward. Muqaddimah, An-Nashr fil Qirt al-shr, ayyibatun Nashr, Durratul Muiyyah, Ghyatul Maharah, Hidayah il Ulm al-Riwyah, Dhtush Shif, Taqrb al-Nashr, Tabr al-Taysr, Nihyatud Diryt, Tamhd, Munjid al-Muqriyn, in al-an. He has written two books on Mawlid: Al-Trf bil Mawlid al-Sharf and rf al-Trf bil Mawlid alSharf . When a kfir like Ab Lahab, who is condemned in the Qurn and who is guaranteed a place in hell, can get a reprieve because of being pleased with the birth of the Prophet , then what about a monotheist Muslim in the ummah of RaslAllh , who expresses joy and jubilation in remembrance of the birth of the Prophet , and expends everything possible in his love for the Prophet ? Indeed, such a person deserves a reward and that Allh tl will make him enter paradise by His immense favour [for expressing joy upon the birth of the Prophet ].

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

28

5. Shaykh al-Islm Abul Fal Amed ibn ajar al-sqaln [773-852] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 582 years ago Approximately 69 years [passed away aged 79] Memorised the Qurn at a young age; and studied under many adth scholars, fi al-rq being the most prominent. He is universally acknowledged as Amr al-Muminn fil adth. Fat al-Bri (17 vols), Taghlq al-Tlq (5 vols), Tahdhbut Tahdhb (12 vols), Ithf al-Maharah (19 vols, 25,500 hadith), Al-Ibah (9 vols), Al-Malib al-liyyah (19 vols), Lisn al-Mzn (10 vols), Durar al-Kminah, Nukhbatul Fikar, Nukat l Kitb ibn al, Talkh al-abr (4 vols), Irf alMusnid al-Mtaly (10 vols) are among his most famous works. Sakhw said that if he did not write any other book, he would still be remembered for his Fat al-Br alone. Celebration of the Mawlid is an innovation it has not been reported from any of our pious elders from the first three centuries. In spite of this, it has both good and bad aspects. When it is celebrated free from all bad aspects and comprising of only good actions, it is a praiseworthy innovation, bidh asanah otherwise it is not permissible. Thanking Allh tl can be in various forms prostration, fasting, charity, recitation of the Qurn etc. Which favour can be greater than the advent of this [honourable] Prophet , the prophet of mercy who arrived on this blessed day?

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

29

6. fi Muammad Ab Bakr ibn Niruddn al-Dimashq [777-842] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi 592 years ago Approximately 55 years [passed away aged 65] Memorised the Qurn at a young age and studied under many adth scholars. Ibn ajar praised him and Sakhw said: Nobody from the Levant after him, ever reached his grade. Ithfus Salik bi Ruwwtil Muwaa n Mlik, Itf, Ahdth al-Sittah, Asnd al-Kutub al-Sittah, Al-Ilm bim waq f Mushtabih al-Dhahabi minal Awhm, Iftit al-Qr li a al-Bukhr, Bardul Akbd, Badtul Bayn, Imla al-Anfas, Bawith al-Fikrah, Tarj li adth alt al-Tasb, Radd alWfir, Rafa al-Malm, qd al-Durar f lm alAthar, He has written three books on Mawlid: Al-Mawrid al-Sd f Mawlid al-Hd, Jmi al-Athr f Mawlid al-Mukhtr, Al-Laf ar-Ryiq f Mawlidi Khayr al-Khalyiq. It is narrated from authentic narrators that Ab Lahab gets a reprieve from hellfire on Mondays, because he set free Thuwaybah, in joy and happiness at the birth of RaslAllh . He wrote verses which essentially mean: if a kfir who is deplored in the Qurn gets reprieve from torment for the reason that he was happy at the Prophets birth, a Muslim who believes in tawd will certainly not be deprived when he celebrates the birth of the Prophet .

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

30

7. fi Muammad ibn bd ar-Ramn al-Sakhw [831-902] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 532 years ago Approximately 61 years [passed away aged 71] Memorised the Qurn, mdatul Akm, Minhj and Alfiyatu ibn Mlik and many other books before the age of twenty. The scholars with whom he studied and took adth are close to four hundred, and fi Ibn ajar al-sqaln and Bulqn are the most prominent among them. Ibn ajar himself praised him saying: He is my most diligent student. He has narrated the adth awwaliyah from 120 shaykhs and so also authorisations of Bukhr from 120 shaykhs. He mentioned 150 works in the autobiographical note in his own aw al-Lmi; Al-Kittn says in Fahras al-Fahris that his books put together are well over 400 volumes. The following are most famous: Maqid alasanah, various Arban, Aqrabul Wasyil, Fat al-Mughth, Tufatul Munfah f Adthi Ab anfah, Takmilah Shar al-Tirmidh lil rq, Jmi al-Ummaht wal Masnd which he did not complete and if it were complete, it would reach 100 volumes, Miatu adth n Miatu Shaykh. Opinion on Mawlid He has written a book on Mawlid named Al-Fakhr al-law fil Mawlid an-Nabaw and he has advised to recite reliable books written by adth imams such as fi al-rqs Mawrid al-Haniy during Mawlid celebrations.

Notable Works

31

8. fi Jalluddn bd ar-Ramn al-Suy [849-911] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi/Mlik Ashr 523 years ago Approximately 53 years [passed away aged 62] Memorised the Qurn in his 9th year as well as Minhj, Alfiyatu Ibn Mlik and mdah before coming of age. Khtimatul uff, the greatest adth scholar from his time onward, he has himself said that he had memorised 200,000 adth. He narrates from 600 shaykhs. He was a master of many disciplines and wrote books in almost all Islamic subjects. He mentioned more than 250 works in the autobiographical note in his historical work usn al-Muarah. Other well-known works are Tafsr Jallayn, Tafsr Durr al-Manthr, Jam al-Jawmiy (consolidation of 100 books and 50,000 adth,) Itqn, Tadrb ar-Rw, Khaay al-Kubr, etc. He has written a book on the validity of the Mawlid named usn al-Maqid f mal al-Mawlid and was a vocal supporter of Mawlid. Mawlid is essentially, a gathering of people in which there is recitation of the Qurn, narration of events surrounding the birth [and proclamation] of the Prophet and [miraculous] signs that appeared during his blessed birth. A banquet is held and the assembly disperses thereafter without doing anything further. This is a praiseworthy innovation and the person doing it will be rewarded, because of the reverence of the Prophet and expression of happiness and gratulation upon the blessed birth of the Messenger .
32

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

9. fi Shihbuddn Amed ibn Muammad al-Qasalln [851-923] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 511 years ago Approximately 60 years [passed away aged 72] Memorised the Qurn and many texts such as Shibiyyah, Jazariyyah, Wardiyyah etc., at a young age and learnt all the seven recitations; he read the whole of Bukhr in five sittings under Shw. His teachers include Shaykh Khlid al-Azhar, jln and Imm Sakhw. His annotations on Shibiyyah have insights and annotations that are not found even in Jazaris commentaries. He has written a number of works on adth and srah: Irshd al-Sr (10 vols) a commentary on Bukhr, which in Kattns opinion is a better than Fat al-Br or others as a text in teaching. Minhjul Ibtihj commentary on Muslim (in eight volumes and left incomplete at the time of his death), Shar al-Shamyl, Isd, Fat al-Dn, Layif al-Ishrt, Mawhib al-Ladunniyyah. If Friday is considered special because of the birth of Sayyidun dam 7 such that Muslims are exhorted to seek blessings on this day; then why not the day on which the leader of all prophets was born? [After mentioning Jazars opinion on Mawlid] Muslims have been celebrating in the month of his blessed birth ever since [this practice was innovated] and hold banquets, give in charity in the nights of Rab and express joy and jubilation and increase good deeds; they recite the Mawlid and recount the blessings Allh tl gives us for the sake of His Messenger .
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Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

10. fi Shihbuddn Amed ibn ajar al-Haytam [899-974] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements Shfi Ashr 460 years ago Approximately 65 years [passed away aged 75] Memorised the Qurn when he was very young and entered Al-Azhar at 24. His teachers include Shaykh al-Islm Q Zakariyyah, Sanb, Shams al-Mashhad, Samhd, ablw, Shihabuddn Raml, Abul asan Bakr. He is considered as an authority in the Shfi madhhab. He has written a number of works on adth and fiqh: Shar al-Mishkt, Tuafatul Mutj bi Shar al-Minhj, two commentaries on Irshd, awyiq al-Muriqah, Shar al-Arban, Al-Zawjir n Iqtirf al-Kabyir, Al-Ilm li Qawti al-Islm, Fatw alKubr and Fatw al-adthiyyah. He has written a book on Mawlid named Itmmun Ni mati l al-lam fi Mawlidi Sayyidi Waladi dam, and Imm Ibrhm Bayjr has written a commentary on this work. A manuscript of another commentary Bahjatul Fikar l Mawlid al-Imm Ibn ajar by Shaykh Maall can be found online on the King Saud University portal. As for Mawlid celebrations and litanies that are held in our lands are mostly good deeds like charity, dhikr, prayers and salutations upon RaslAllh and reciting eulogies in his praise. Concerning evil things like intermingling of men and women then it remains arm even if it is done outside a Mawlid. [Fatw adthiyyah]

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

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11. Nruddn Mull l ibn Suln al-Qr [d.1014] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching anaf Mturd 420 years ago At least 62 years [Year of birth not known, but after initial education he entered Makkah around 952 and stayed there forever.] Memorised the Qurn at an early age and mastered Qurn recitations. His teachers include Imm Ibn ajar al-Haytam, Imm l al-Muttaq alHind. Shar Fiqh al-Akbar, aw al-Ml, Takhrj Adth al-qid an-Nasafiyyah, Tliqt al-Qr l Thulthiyt al-Bukhr, Jamlayn l Jalalayn, Jam al-Wasyil f Shar al-Shamyil, ir al-Thamn l in al-an, Shar Nukhbatul Fikar, Shar Shif, Shar a Muslim, Shar Musnad Imm Ab anfah, Shar al-Hidyah of Marghnn, Shar alWiqyah, Fat Bb al-nyah Shar Nuqyah, Mirqt al-Maft bi Shari Mishkt al-Mab, AlMan f Mrifatil Maw, Mina al-Fikriyyah, and a number of monographs. He has written a book on Mawlid, Al-Mawlid arRaw fil Mawlid an-Nabaw.

Achievements

Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

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12. Shaykh bd al-aqq Muaddith Bukhr Dihlaw [958 -1052] Madhhab Period Learning/Teaching Achievements anaf Mturd 382 years ago Approximately 80 years [passed away aged 94] He was instructed by his father from the age of four and he completed his studies by the time he was fourteen. He then memorised the Qurn and spent eight years learning from the scholars of Transoxiana. He visited Hijaz in 996 and took adth from scholars and upon his return to India revived the interest in adth sciences. Lamt al-Tanq, Arabic commentary on Mishkat, Ashitul Lamt, a Persian commentary on Mishkt, Madrijun Nubuwwah, Shar Sifrus Sdah, Akhbr al-Akhyr, Jadhb al-Qulb, Jmi alBarakt, Maraj al-Barayn, Zubdatul Athr, Zd al-Muttaqn, Fat al-Mannn f Manqib an-Nmn, Tal al-Tarruf f Mrifatil Fiqhi wat Taawwuf, Shar Fut al-Ghayb, Takml al-mn, M Thabata bis Sunnah. [Quoting Al-Jazar] By my life! His reward will be that Allh tl will bestow His favours upon him and make him enter paradise. Musims have been celebrating the Mawlid in the month of his birth they hold banquets, give in charity and celebrate and do good deeds, and recite the Mawlid... ...it has been observed that the special favour upon celebrating Mawlid it results in safety and peace for the remaing part of the year. ...may Allh tl have mercy on that soul who spends the night of the blessed Mawlid in jubilation and joy, celebrating this as Eid...
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Notable Works

Opinion on Mawlid

Appendix B

BIDH
Translation of the complete topic in Qawid al-Kubr of Ibn bd as-Salm Bidh: Praxes not in vogue in the time of RaslAllh It is classified as following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bidh Wjib73 Obligatory Bidh arm Forbidden Bidh Mandb Recommended, Praiseworthy Bidh Makrh Disliked Bidh Mub Permissible .

The method to ascertain the category to which a bidh belongs is to evaluate it against principles of sharh. If it corresponds to the principles of wjib, it is wjib; and likewise arm, mandb, makrh or mub according to respective conditions. Examples of Obligatory Bidh: Arabic Grammar: it is obligatory74 to teach and learn [Arabic] grammar to be able to understand the Book of Allh and the tradition of His Messenger . This is obligatory because, it is obligatory to preserve the sharh; and it is not possible to protect it unless we understand it well. That which is required to fulfil an obligation is also obligatory. Conservation of language of the Book and Sunnah.75

73 74 75

In Arabic, it is wjibah, etc. due to agreement with gender, which is ignored here. Obligatory for a group of scholars.

if al-gharb: preserving meanings of antiquated words. For example dictionaries like Mishktul Anwar of Q y, Nihyah of Ibn al-Athr, Tufatul Arb of Ab ayyn and Tahdhb al-Asmaa wal Lught of Nawaw.

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Establishing76 the discipline of principles of fiqh [Ul al-Fiqh] Criticism of narrators,77 so as to differentiate between authenticated and weak reports. The principles of sharh mandate its preservation as a collective obligation,78 and it is impossible to preserve except by adopting the aforementioned innovations. Forbidden Bidh: The Qadaryyah79 sect deniers of destiny The Jabaryyah sect deniers of free will The Murjiyyah sect who deny punishment in the hereafter The Mujassimah sect anthropomorphists It must be noted that refuting these sects is an obligatory bidh.80 Recommended Bidh: Establishing schools, cloisters; building bridges and alcoves.81 Every good thing or charity which was not established among the first generation of Muslims.

76

Which is an innovation and not formalised in the time of the Companions or their followers. jar - tdl

77 78

far kifyah: It is collectively obligatory such that if a group of people are engaged in it, the community is absolved; and if nobody engages in it, every individual is culpable and bears the sin of not fulfilling the obligation.

79 Not to be confused with Qdariyyah, due to proximity in transliteration; Qdirs are the followers of Shaykh bd al-Qdir al-Jln a sufi school within Ahl as-Sunnah. Qadar is a sect that denies in Divine preordination or taqdr. 80 That is, none of the abah and Tbis refuted anthropomorphists as they did not exist in their time; and since they appeared later, it is obligatory on us to refute them, like the Wahbs, Salafs and their offshoots may Allh tl destroy their mischief. 81

qanir

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Tarw: Supererogatory prayers in Raman. Expounding finer points of taawwuf; theological discourse and refutation. Gatherings to discuss and elucidate proofs for religious issues, as long as such conferences are for the sake of Allh tl. Disliked Bidh Decorating and adorning mosques Embellishing copies of the Qurn [According to an opinion,] reciting Qurn in a melodious voice and tempo such that it violates the structure of Arabic words; but the accurate position is that it is forbidden [when the variation of the tone adds or elides a letter, thereby distorting the meaning]. Permissible Bidh Shaking hands after morning and evening prayers.82 Preparing and eating luxurious and delicious food and drink; wearing expensive and fine clothes; living in spacious and comfortable dwellings; wearing newer forms of Muslim headgear83 and other accessories.84 There may be a difference of opinion in some of these issues where a group of scholars consider it a disliked innovation [bidh makrhah,] others may consider it as an actionable sunnah present in the time of RaslAllh or thereafter similar to recitation of istidhah and basmalah85 in the prayer. Allh tl knows best.

82 83

ub - r

aylisah: is a form of cap which was not present in the first generation and is a foreign import. akmm: cuff links. istidhah:adhu billhi minash shaynir rajm; basmalah: bismillhir ramanir ram.

84 85

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Appendix C

QUESTIONS FOR THOSE WHO QUESTION MAWLID


They are ordinary people: incapable of reciting Srah Fatiah properly, illiterate labourers, men who shave their beards and women who do not cover themselves, people who do not pray regularly, young men who wear tight fitting jeans in prayer exposing their wrah; and people who watch movies and listen to music, but yet dismiss Mawlid scornfully: Did the companions celebrate it? Is it proven by any a adth? Even if such a questioner were a adth scholar with a navel-length beard, we ask them: 1. How many of you and your teachers or any scholar in the previous two hundred years can claim adth scholarship at the level of: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. 2. 3. 4. 5. fi Ibn Kathr [d.774] Ibn al-Jazariyy [d.833] fi Zaynuddn al-rq [d.806] Ibn ajar al-sqaln [d.852] Ibn Niruddn al-Dimashq [d.842] Jalluddn Suy [d.911] fi Qasalln [d.923] Ibn ajar al-Haytam [d.974] Mull l al-Qr [d.1014] Shh bd al-aqq Dihlaw [d.1052]

How many of you or your teachers have memorised Bukhr and Muslim complete adth including the text and narrators? How many of you have read the books Bukhr or Muslim in full or have an authorisation shorter than any of these scholars? Give four reasons why we should follow you or your teachers instead of the aforementioned imms? Until the last century (1300 AH,) what is the ratio of scholars who have supported and praised Mawlid to those who have categorically rejected and condemned celebrating the Mawlid?
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6. 7.

If Mawlid is a bidh, then why do you not condemn the aforementioned scholars as innovators? If celebrating Mawlid is a bidh, do you accuse these scholars of: a. b. c. d. e. being ignorant of adth or its meaning being ignorant of principles of fiqh and bidh itself being heedless of sunnah actively promoting bidh being unconcerned about the state of the ummah?

8. 9.

If not, why do you revile those who celebrate Mawlid in our times and spare these scholars? Mawlid was being celebrated in Ibn Taymiyyahs time and he mentions it in Iqtia; why did he not write a detailed refutation of this practice and condemn it? Instead, he wrote:
Commemorating mawlid and considering it a [joyous] season: which some people celebrate; there shall be a great reward for the beautiful intention [of celebrating mawlids] and for the reverence of the Prophet as I have previously mentioned where some people consider it praiseworthy, a strict believer may consider it ugly. Someone complained to Imm Amed about a rich man who spent about a thousand dnar on a copy of the Qurn and he replied: Leave him. He has put his gold to good use. Even though he considered decoration of mu-af86 as makrh. Some [anbal] scholars have tried to reconcile with his opinion and said: the rich man was only renewing the paper and writing. But this was not [Imm] Ameds intention, rather what he meant was: this action is done for a reason87 [expecting a favourable outcome] even though there is an inherently corrupt component in it.88

86 87 88

Copy of the Qurn. malaah

Iqtia al-ir al-Mustaqm, 308. Section: Veneration of days originally not venerated in the sharh. These are contiguous quotes. Admirers of Ibn Taymiyyah in our time, who oppose the Mawlid, misquote this by adding another line from the paragraph that follows, thereby distorting the meaning of this one.

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Does it mean that we agree to everything these scholars of adth have said or written in their books? Of course not. For example, we anafs do not agree with opinions of Imam Ibn ajar that are not according to our madhhab. Similarly, Ibn Kathr and Ibn Nir al-Dimashqi praised Ibn Taymiyyah even if they did not follow his deviant opinions themselves. Imm Amed Zarrq al-Mlik explained this issue well:
What is the answer to the objection that Taqyuddn Ibn Taymiyyah has rejected these litanies [like izb al-Bar] and has refuted them in a vituperative manner? We reply: Ibn Taymiyyah is a Muslim who is known for his proficiency in adth89 [and islamic sciences] but is criticised in [certain] beliefs he held. He is accused of having a defective intellect, what would he know of gnosis?90 The shaykh, the Imm Taqyuddn Subk was asked about him and he replied: He was a man whose knowledge was greater than his intellect. The important thing is that he is reliable in what he narrates, not in his inferences or opinions. Allh tl knows best.91

What if the same thing is said about the imms mentioned earlier: we accept their transmission but not their opinion? The key here is that of majority. Ibn Taymiyyahs aberrations contradict majority of lam; on the other hand Mawlid is supported by an overwhelming majority of prominent scholars. Only Wahb/Salafi denominations or their confused cousins in the Subcontinent the Deobandis fret about the Mawlid. Even if celebrating the Mawlid was opposed92 by a number of scholars, it would still be considered a valid difference of opinion without each party castigating the other. We consider celebrating the Mawlid as praiseworthy and recommended, not an obligatory action. But those who oppose it write books, conduct seminars against the Mawlid and scream bidh at every opportunity and dissuade people from attending it; even though we do not see the same fervour in condemning other bidh or is Mawlid the only bidh left in our times of utmost righteousness and piety?

89 90

if wal itqn

In other words: When his ql is accused of being flawed, how can he be expected to reach rfn?
91 92

Shaykh Zarrq in Preface of Shar izb al-Bar, vide Nabhn in Shawhidul aqq.

Which is hypothetical; because in reality, all scholars of Ahlus Sunnah support it and in fact, it is a differentiating factor between Sunnis and heretics.

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What about those who celebrate Mawlid? Are they all pious? Does every one of them pray regularly, strictly follow the sunnah and avoid arms? Do all of their men wear beards and women cover themselves? The answer is: Yes, not every one of them is observant. But there is a huge difference between a fsiq who celebrates Mawlid in the love of Muaf , and cites noble lam of Islm as his proof and the fasiq who derides it as a bidh sneering at not following the sunnah. The purpose of the Mawlid is to remind everyone that the love for Muaf should be more than love for anything or anyone else in the creation. When they hear and learn about Muaf , his lofty character and his attributes, people will be drawn towards him and it is thus hoped that they may be mindful of the sunnah of the Prophet in the future. That is how our elders invited people to Islm by commemorating the Prophet , describing his blessed life and describing his blessed age. The full title of the book known as a Bukhr is: The Collection of Authentic Narrations Concerning the Sayings, Traditions and the Times of RaslAllh . Our scholars have insisted the Mawlid to be free from everything forbidden by the sharh and practices contrary to the sharh. For example, singing of young boys, collection of funds from Non-Muslims to celebrate Mawlid, musical instruments, mention of false or concocted stories instead of authentic and established narrations etc. are all rejected. We end our discussion quoting Fatw ar-Riawiyyah:
...to recite and to listen to [Mawlid] which comprises of things repudiated by the sharh is impermissible, such as false narrations, concocted stories, poetic verses that are contrary to Sacred Law, especially such verses which are disrespectful to Prophets and Angels; this malady is rife even though such words are blasphemies..93

Citing Imm Amed Zayn Daln, he writes:


One form of showing reverence to RaslAllh is to recite the Mawlid and stand in prayer on the night of his blessed birth, and to stand up in respect upon the mention of his birth; and to hold banquets and other good deeds...94

We ask Allh tl to fill our hearts with the love Muaf

93 94

Fatw ar-Riawiyyah, 23/722 Ibid, 731.

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Appendix D

FAMOUS BOOKS ON MAWLID


Prominent lam have written books on Mawlid; many of these works are published, and even some unpublished manuscripts are available online as parts of collections, such as those made available by the King Saud University accessible on http://makhtota.ksu.edu.sa; also see http://www.al-mostafa.com. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Mawlid al-rs, fi bd ar-Ramn ibn al-Jawz [d.597]. Manuscript in KSU. Al-Tanwr f Mawlid al-Bashr an-Nadhr, fi mar ibn l ibn Diyah al-Kalb [d.633]. Mawlid an-Nabiy, fi mduddn Isml Ibn Kathr [d.774] Al-Mawrid al-Haniy fil Mawlid as-Sany, fi Imm Zaynuddn bd ar-Ram al-rq [725-806] Published. rf al-Trf bil Mawlid al-Sharf, fi Imam Shamsuddn Muammad al-Jazariy [d.833] Al-Mawrid al-Sd f Mawlid al-Hd, fi Shamsuddn Muammad ibn Ab Bakr Ibn Niruddn al-Dimashqi [777-842] Jmi al-Athr f Mawlid al-Mukhtr, fi Shamsuddn Muammad ibn Ab Bakr Ibn Niruddn al-Dimashqi [777-842] Al-Laf ar-Ryiq f Mawlidi Khayr al-Khalyiq, fi Shamsuddn Muammad Ibn Niruddn al-Dimashqi [777-842] Al-Fakhr al-law fil Mawlid an-Nabawi, fi Muammad ibn bd a-Ramn al-Sakhwi [831-902]

10. Al-Mawrid al-Haniyyah f Mawlidi Khayr al-Bariyyah, Imm Zaynul bidn l al-Samhd [d.911] 11. Mawlid, fi Wajhuddn bd ar-Ramn Muammad alShaybn known as Ibn al-Dab [866-944] 12. Itmmun Nimati lal lam bi Mawlidi Sayyidi Waladi dam, Imm Amed ibn ajar al-Haytam [d.974] Imm Ibrhm
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Bjr wrote a commentary on this work titled Tufatul Bashar l Mawlidi Ibn ajar. 13. Al-Mawlid ar-Rawy fil Mawlid an-Nabawy, Imm Muammad ibn Amed famously known as Khab Shrbn [d.977] 14. Al-Mawrid ar-Rawy fil Mawlid an-Nabawy, Shaykh Nruddn Mull l ibn Suln al-Qr [1014] 15. qd al-Jawhar f Mawlid an-Nabiyy al-Azhar, which is the most famous of all and is known as Mawlid Barzanj; written by the muaddith Shaykh Jafar ibn asan al-Barzanj [1177] which is the most famous and widely published books on Mawlid. 16. Al-Fajr al-Munr f Mawlidil Bashr an-Nadhr, Shaykh T h ibn Mihn [1178] Manuscript in KSU. 17. Mawlid an-Nabiy, Shaykh Shihbuddn Amed al-Dardr [1201]. Manuscript in KSU. 18. Al-Yumn wal Isd bi Mawlidi Khayr al-bd, Shaykh Muaddith Imm Muammad ibn Jafar al-Kittn [d.1345] 19. Jawhir al-Nam al-Bad f Mawlid al-Shaf, Shaykh Ysuf ibn Isml an-Nabhn [1350] 20. awl al-Itifl bi Dhikr al-Mawlid an-Nabawiy al-Sharf, Shaykh Sayyid Muammad law al-Mlik al-asan [1425] 21. Idhqatul Athm li Mnii mal al-Mawlid wal Qiym, by Rays al-Mutakallimn Imm Naq l Khn [1295] along with Rashqatul Kalm f awshi Idhqatul Athm, annotations by the authors son Alahazrat Imm Amed Ri Khn [1340] is a 300 page treatise on the permissibility of celebrating Mawlid. 22. Iqmatul Qiymah l inil Qiymi li Nabiyyi Tihmah, Alahazrat Imm Amed Ri Khn al-Baraylaw [1340]

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SOURCES
usn al-Maqid f mal al-Mawlid: Imm Jalluddn Suy, Ed. Shaykh Muaf bd al-Qdir , Dr Kotob al-lmiyyah, Lebanon, First Edition, 1405/1985. Al-w lil Fatw: The 24th monograph in volume one, pages 189-197, Published by Dr Kotob al-lmiyyah, Lebanon, First Edition, 1403/1983. Some references and information in the footnotes is taken from the Kotob al-lmiyyah edition; The list of books is taken from awl al-Itifl bi Dhikr al-Mawlid an-Nabawiy al-Sharf of Shaykh Sayyid Muammad law al-Mlik al-asan. May Allh tl reward the shaykh and perfume his resting place.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Imm Jalluddin bdur Ramn al-Suy [849-911] is a famous scholar and author. He memorised the Qurn by the time he was eight years old. He then proceeded to memorise various texts in fiqh, grammar and received authorisation to teach Arabic in his seventeenth year. He studied under prominent scholars like lamuddn al-Bulqn and Kfiyaji. He was a prolific writer who has written hundreds of books big and small, many of which have been published and widely available even in our time. He was a master of Tafsr95, adth, Fiqh96 and Arabic Grammar, and many other sciences. Al-Kittani in Fahras says that according to his student Dwd, Suy wrote close to 600 works and some biographers have mentioned a thousand works. In an autobiographical note, he has listed the books he has written in the following categories: Tafsr and related sciences; Qirt Readings.97 adth and related sciences (including adth anthologies and commentaries) Fiqh and related sciences Short books and epistles on miscellaneous topics Books on various aspects of the Arabic Language, including Grammar, Rhetoric98 and Morphology Principles of Fiqh Tasawwuf History and Literature

95 96

Tafsr: commentary of the Qurn Jurisprudence

97 The science of Qurn recitation is known tajwd; and the variations in readings of the Qurn is the science of qirt. 98

For brevity, Bad, Bayn and Mn are collectively referred as Rhetoric.

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Some of his famous works: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Jaml Jawmi - a consolidated collection of 50,000 adth from over a hundred books of adth The other half of Tafsr Al-Jallayn Al-Itqn f lmil Qurn Ad-Durr al-Manthr f Tafsril Ma'thr Lubbun Nuql f Asbbin Nuzl Mufhamt al-Aqrn f Mubhamt al-Qur'n At-Tabr f lmit Tafsr Tansuq ad-Durar f Tansubis Suwar Shar ash-Shibiyyah Kashf al-Mugha f Sharil Muwa Isf al-Muba bi Rijlil Muwa At-Tawsh l Jmi as-ai Ad-Dbj l As-aii Muslim ibn-ajjj Mirqt as-Sd il Sunani Ab Dawd Shar Ibn Mjah Tadrb ar-Rw f Shar Taqrb an-Naww Shar Alfiyyatul rqi yn al-Ibah f Marifatis abah Al-La'li al-Manh fil Adthil Mawh Shar as-udr bi Shari l al-Mawt wal Qubr Al-Budr as-Sfirah n Umril khirah Takhrj Adth Shar al-qyid Al-Ashbh wan Naayir Tanwr al-alak f Imkni Ruyatin Nabiyyi wal Malak Shar al-Mulah Mukhtaar al-Iya abaqt al-uffa abaqt an-Nuh abaqt al-Usliyyn abaqt al-Mufassirn abaqt al-Kuttb usn al-Muarah f Akhbril Miri wal Qhirah Trikh al-Khulafa Al-w lil Fatw which contains a number of monographs

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ABOUT THE TRANSLATOR


Abu Hasan is a student of Sacred Law. Hanaf, Maturidi and aspirant to the Qadiri path, he is an ardent admirer and follower of Imam Ahmed Rida Khan al-Baraylawi d. He translates bits and pieces from classical texts in the course of his learning, for his own revision and as helpful notes to beginners like himself. Some of his articles and translations can be found on tanwir.org and ridawi.org.

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