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IMPORTANT NOTES ABOUT WILD EDIBLE PLANTS
Be sure of your identification of the wild edible plant BEFORE you eat it! Some wild edible plants have very poisonous look‐alikes. You may be allergic to some wild edible plants. If you are at all unsure if you will be allergic to a particular plant, eat just a little bit at first. *YOU* are 100% responsible for properly identifying and properly preparing wild edible plants that you eat. NOT me! You should supplement the information on this website with real‐life practice at identifying these plants, preferably along with one of the excellent field guides that are available, and with the help of competent people who know plants. Do A LOT of research
take less than 10% of what is available in any area.
need to find plants
Nettle (for hayfever) used for treating rheumatism, arthritis, allergies and eczema, baldness, bladder infections, cough, bronchitis, bursitis, anemia, gingivitis, hives, laryngitis, gout, multiple sclerosis, tendonitis, premenstrual syndrome, prostate enlargement and sciatica. Care has to be taken in collecting nettles to avoid it's irritating sting and the wearing of stout gloves is highly recommended. However, the leaves are high in nutrients and also very tasty, making it worth the trouble, whilst cooking them destroys the stinging effect and makes them perfectly safe to eat. They are an excellent addition to soups and stews, but the leaves also make a good soup as the main or even sole ingredient. They can also be dried and used to make a tisane, as can be done with the nettle's flowers. The shoots are also edible and like the leaves can be added to soups and stews or can be boiled or steamed alone. The shoots can also be used for brewing nettle beer, an ancient and much loved drink in many countries. Both leaves and shoots are used in Scotland to make nettle pudding and in Italy to make nettle pasta. They are also renowned all over the world as a spinach substitute and can be used as an alternative to it in any recipe calling for spinach as an ingredient. When squeezed they produce nettle juice which
can be used as a vegetarian substitute for rennet to curdle milk when making cheese. The root of the nettle, although better known medicinally, is not regarded as having any culinary value.
Confirmed plants in New Haven
Dandelion You can eat the greens in salad..or cook them in soup. Store sells these. Younger ones are less bitter. But Dandelion coffee made from the roots of dandelions…roast and grind.
Cut off crow clean good and towel dry.
Grind to a coffee texture then roast in oven 250 for 2 hours or so.. roast, going from a blonde color to a dark coffee color. Use 1 level Tablespoon Roasted Root for each cup of water. Or use 1/3 cup root for each quart of water or 1‐ 1/3 per gallon. You make need to adjust these amounts to your taste if you like it stronger or weaker. Notes: The roots can be stored in an airtight container after they have been dried in the oven. They will keep this way for several months. Dandelion plants, 2 years and older
Reg chickweed mouse air chickweed
Chop common and star chickweed, and add them, raw, to salads, or cook them like spinach. Mouse‐ear chickweedís so hairy, you have to cook it.Cooked, chickweed tastes like spinach. Include any of the species in soups and stews, but cook no more than 5 minutes to prevent overcooking. Unlike most other edibles, the stems, as well as the leaves and flowers, taste good. Cooking shrinks chickweed by 3/4, concentrating the nutrients and compensating for whatever vitamins cooking destroys. NUTRITION: Chickweed is an excellent source of vitamins A, D, B complex, C, and rutin (an accompanying flavonoid), as well as iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese, sodium, copper, and silica. Applied externally, finely chopped chickweed soothes irritated skin, especially when mixed with marsh mallow (Althaea officinale) root. It's good for cuts, minor burns, eczema, and rashes. Bandage it on the affected area by itself or mixed with clay, which adds a drying and drawing effect. Change the dressing often. Of course, try to uncover the cause of the skin malady and work to undo it. If you continually wake up with itchy, swollen areas on your skin every morning, you may find vigorous application of a fly swatter to the surface of the mosquito that's been camping out in your bedroom to be the remedy of choice! To make chickweed infusion, pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1/4 cup of chickweed. Cover and let steep, off the heat, for 15 to 20 minutes. Strain out the herb and drink the tea hot. A mild diuretic, promoting the flow of urine, this beverage is also supposed to cleanse and soothe the kidneys and urinary tract and help relieve cystitis. Unlike the more powerful pharmaceutical diuretics, it wonít deplete the body of minerals. Itís also reputedly good for rheumatism.
NUTRITION: Chicory leaves are a good source of vitamins A, B complex, K, E, and C, as well as potassium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, and magnesium. Add very young chicoryÝleaves raw to salads, or include them in cooked recipes, the same way you cook dandelions. More strongly flavored than commercial chicory, they cook in 10 to 15 minutes. To overcome the bitterness of older leaves, you may boil them in 1 or more changes of water. To make a caffeine‐free coffee‐like beverage from the roots, scrub, chop, and toast them in a 350†F oven 1 hour, or until dark brown, brittle, and fragrant, stirring occasionally. Grind to the size of coffee in a spice grinder or blender, and use like regular coffeeó1‡ tsp. per cup of water. A strong tea of the boiled roots, flowers, and leaves is reputed to be a good wash for skin irritations, including athleteís foot. You can apply a compress of the boiled leaves and flowers, wrapped in a clean cotton cloth, to swellings, boils, and mild inflammations.
Pour a cup of boiling water over handful of red clover flower heads, cover, and steep 20 minutes. Strain out the flowers and enjoy a tasty, healthful tea. You may also pick the flowers from the flower head and use them raw or cooked. They taste a little like sweet string beans.
Corn Salad (lamb’s lettuce or Meche)
Grows all year here in New Haven, only use is salad but a very tasty one and you can cook with spices lightly Daylilies
Use raw the shoots raw in salads, or sautÈ, steam, stir‐fry, deep‐fry, bake, simmer in soups, or pickle. Growing in dense stands makes the shoots easy to collect in quantity before most other edibles even appear. Cook the unopened buds like string beans. Once flowered, use flowers raw in salads, in hot‐and‐sour soup, or deep‐fried. Discard the flower's acrid, green base. Reconstitute the previous day's wilted flowers in soups.
Poke berrys (long hanging) elder berrys (in groups) POKEBERRYS ARE VERY POISONOUS!! This WHOLE Plant is!
Elderberry looks like this when it flowers.
he flowers make wonderful food. Try elder flower (sometimes called elderblow) fritters using your favorite tempura or pancake batter. Make a light, mild batter, so you donít overpower the delicate flowers. Try sautÈing them. Elder flowers make a pleasant tasting tea, especially with mint. They also make a potent, fragrant wine. St Gather the berries like the flowers. This is quick. The real work occurs at home: Pulling small bunches of berries from their stems, and sorting the fruit from the debris on a tray, takes time
Avoid unripe, green berriesótheyíll get you sick. Even raw ripe elderberries make some people nauseous Cooking or drying dispels the offending substance, and greatly improves the flavor. Baking this fruit in muffins, cakes and breads imbues them with a piquant crunchiness. They become the central ingredient whenever you use them in baked goods. Elderberries arenít sweet and contain no thickeners. Rely on other ingredients for these elements, especially if youíre making the European favorite, elderberry jam. eeped in vinegaróthey add flavor and strengthen the stomach. The berries have few calories and lots of nutrition. They provide very large amounts of potassium and beta‐carotene, as well as sugar and fruit acids, calcium, phosphorous and vitamin C. Many older herb books recommend using elderberry leaves, roots, or bark medicinally, probably because Indian herbal experts used them. This doesnít guarantee safety: Never use these parts of the elderberry. Theyíre poisonous. They contain a bitter alkaloid and glycoside that may change into cyanide. Children have been poisoned using elderberry twig peashooters, and adults have been poisoned using hollowed twigs to tap maple trees. However, there is a benefit to the toxicity: People use dried, crumbled elderberry leaves in their gardens as a natural insecticide. Ginko
The gingko tree's dull orange globular fruit, which grows on female trees only, smells like...vomit. But be brave, for a hidden treasure lies within‐a beige, almond‐shaped, thin‐shelled nut, enclosing a jade‐green seed. The kernels can be eaten as an appetizer, or in soups, stews, or Asian dishes. WHEN TO PICK IT: The fruit ripens in late fall. NOTES ON HANDLING AND PREPARATION: Discard the fruit wearing rubber gloves, to keep your hands from smelling and to avoid the poison ivy‐like rash the fruit sometimes incurs. Rinse the nuts in a colander and toast 30 minutes in a preheated, 300 F oven, stirring occasionally (raw nuts are poisonous). Tap the nuts with a water glass to crack the thin shells and remove the edible and delicious kernels.
FOOD USES: Best when 6 to 8 inches tall, the intensely tart, tangy shoots (discard all the tough leaves) taste like rhubarb, only better. A tough rind that you must peel (good for making marmalade) covers the taller ones. Slice the stems, steam as a vegetable, and simmer in soups, sauces, fruit compotes, and jam, or bake in dessert dishes. Use sparingly. I've made terrific applesauce and excellent strawberry compotes using just 1 part knotweed to 10 parts fruit. You may even substitute cooked knotweed, which gets very soft, for lemon juice, transforming familiar recipes into exotic ones. Or use a chopstick to pierce the membranes that separate the segments of 1‐foot‐tall shoots, peel, stuff the stalks with sweet or savory stuffing, and bake in an appropriate sauce. NUTRITION: An excellent source of vitamin A, along with vitamin C and its cofactor, the antioxidant flavonoid rutin, Japanese knotweed also provides potassium, phosphorus, zinc, and manganese. Itís also an excellent source of resveratrol, the same substance in the skin of grapes and in red wine that lowers LDL (bad) cholesterol and reduces the risk of heart attacks. Resveratrol may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease or slow its progression. Normally, glial cells in the brain support the neurons (nerve cells) and apparently modify the way they communicate, but in Alzheimer's disease, an accumulation of gunk called amyloid plaques signals these helper cells to kill the neurons instead. Resveratrol seems to block this deadly signal. And resveratrol will also increase your lifespan by 30%, but only if youíre a fruit fly. It activates sirtuin genes, which increase cell longevity the same way a calorie‐restricted diet does. Whether this might also slow human aging is still open to question.
Garlic mustard http://www.wildwoodsurvival.com/survival/food/edibleplants/garlicmustard/index.html
Garlic Mustard is a seriously invasive alien plant. Left to itself, it can completely take over an area, crowding out all native plants. Feel free to pull up (and eat) as much of this plant as you can.The crushed plant smells of garlic, hence its name. To prepare Garlic Mustard, simply boil or steam the whole plants (the part that's above ground). Pesto too.
use like garlic
Queen Anne’s Lace wild carrot
you want to find first year carrots. These are ones without flowers they taste better but you can eat the older one to. This biennial (2‐year plant) begins with a basal rosette: finely cut leaves spread out in a circle along the ground, arising from the taproot. The leaf stalks are fuzzy, while poison hemlock's are smooth.
when it looks like this… The seeds of the flower are also birth control This herb is generally used like a morning after pill. One commonly discussed method is chewing up and eating the seeds, but the tea or tincture may be more effective. The flowers can also be used alone or with the seeds. There are a variety of options. Robin Rose now generally recommends that the tincture be used 3 times after intercourse, once every 8‐12 hours, at a dosage of 1/2‐1 dropperful each, seeds and flowers. She emphasizes not taking it too much, that withdrawl from the herb is part of its effect. So I emailed and asked the obvious question: What if you are having sex every day!? Would you take it only when you were most fertile? Her response was quick and concise:“This question has certainly come up before. You could use that approach, take it only during fertile times, it works great unless you have a second ovulation or ovulate at a different time than usual during a month…so I’m more confident with that approach with women who chart their cycles /take their temperature, etc. What I would do is lower the dosage to one time after each intercourse instead of 3 times. And take breaks from the wild carrot when you are absolutely sure you’re not as fertile. Hope that helps.”
Puffballs (Warning there is one that will make you very very ill! So make sure you have the right one) The one that makes you ill turns black inside when it matures so may be worth waiting a season and watching and getting to know them)
WHAT THEY ARE: Puffballs are among the best tasting and easiest to identify mushrooms. Sauté them, add them to soups, stews, or casseroles, bread and bake them, or grill them. They have a rich earthy flavor, and a texture like marshmallows. But be very, very careful! There are no poisonous species of puffballs but one lookalike, the poison pigskin puffball, can make you sick enough that if you ate them, you'd wish you were dead!
and look like this inside. Always cut open small puffballs to make sure there are no gills or stem inside, indicating possibly deadly amanitas.Because poison ones can be white inside at its early stages…..never eat anything if you are not sure! WHEN TO PICK THEM: Puffballs appear mainly in late summer and fall. Eat them in their immature states, when they're white and very soft inside, like cream cheese. HOW TO RECOGNIZE THEM: The giant puffball (Calvatia gigantea) is the easiest to recognize. It grows on hard‐ packed soil or well‐manured pastures, and looks like a white soccer ball, beach ball, or mass of Styrofoam. Pear‐shaped puffballs (Lycoperdon pyriforme) grow packed into large troops, on dead logs and stumps. They're off‐ white, pear‐shaped, and the size of a golf ball or smaller. Look for them from mid‐ to late fall.
The gem‐studded puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum) is about the same size as the pear‐shaped puffball, only it grows in the grass, and its surface is studded with tiny spines. They are most common in early autumn. Poor Man's Pepper This common European weed of sunny, disturbed habitats, poor or sandy soil, and roadsides, grows throughout the US, from spring to fall. Use the spicy leaves, flowers, and seedpods in salads, soups, sauces, casseroles, and for making prepared mustard.
Strap‐shaped leaves spread in a circle along the ground early in the spring. Note the teeth pointing toward the leaf tip (dandelion leaves teeth, usually much larger, point downward).
The sap contains sugar and can be used as a drink or be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the water. The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods. It can be harvested in late winter but is not produced in economic quantities. About 25 grams of sugar is obtained from a liter of the sap. The sap can also be used to make a wine. The flow is best on warm sunny days following a frost. The best sap production comes from cold‐winter areas with continental climates. The keys of the developing seeds have a sweet exudation on them and this is often sucked by children. The leaves can be wrapped round food such as buns when baking them and they impart a sweet flavor The bark has mild astringent properties and has been used to make a wash for skin problems and an eyewash for sore eyes. The inner bark of the tree, containing the sweet sap, can be used as a dressing for wounds.
The trees are fast‐growing and make a good windbreak for exposed and maritime areas. They are often used in shelterbelt plantings. This species usually self‐sows freely and is often the first tree to invade disused farmland, cleared woodland etc. Its ability to tolerate difficult environments make it a good pioneer species for re‐establishing woodlands. It is a good fuel and also makes a good charcoal that can be used as a fuel. Propagation Seed ‐ best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it usually germinates in the following spring. Pre‐soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 ‐ 4 months at 1 ‐ 8°c. It can be slow to germinate. Seed should not be dried below 35% moisture. The seed can be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has dried and produced any germination inhibitors) and sown immediately. It should germinate in late winter. If the seed is harvested too soon it will produce very weak plants or no plants at all[When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions. Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus. Cuttings of young shoots in June or July. The cuttings should have 2 ‐ 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base. Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used. The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter. Cultivars can be budded onto rootstocks of the species. Any grafting is best carried out in September rather than February
Smells of mint when you peel the bark off the twig…brew in water one cup is equal to an asprin. The best time to get sap is mid November into december Maple is in the sap in the spring and Sycamore sap is the same. Pine sap is not a really for drinking or eating. The resin is usefully like a lacquer. Sapping a tree to me seems a bit destructive but I do like this technique that tree friendly people to they just snip the ends of a few branches see pic.
But for larger trees this is not possible so be gental and one whole per tree and cork it up when done. Drill the hole about 2 inches deep. Drill with a slight upward slant so that the sap will run out by gravity. 3/8 hole. You can do a make shift tap out of pvc or thin pipe even wood. Hang a bucket under it and make sure to put something over it to protect from rain and debris. syrup is produced by boiling water from the maple sap, concentrating it into a sweet syrup. NOTE: Sometimes trees suffer from unnatural blistering or oozing of sap, which may be caused by numerous things such as disease, fungus, or pests. On average, however, trees do not typically leak sap unless damaged in some way. Sumac
This Plant is Edible Mid‐spring, late summer, early fall, mid‐fall, late fall. The berries of various sumac species come into season from late summer through fall. Smooth sumac and squawbush ripen in late summer, staghorn sumac ripens in early fall, and winged sumac ripens in mid‐fall. And you can harvest the edible young shoots in the spriSumac usually has long, feather‐compound leaves, upright terminal spikes or panicles with many tiny, yellow to green‐yellow, five‐petaled flowers, and upright fruit clusters consisting of many tiny, spherical, hard, red berries.ng. This is a group of shrubs or small trees which usually use underground runners to form dense stands. They can reach from four to 30 feet in height. The stout twigs exude a white, sticky sap when broken. Their lemon‐scented alternate leaves, usually feather‐compound but sometimes palmate‐compound, can grow to over two feet long. The many pointed, toothed, paired, elliptical to lance‐shaped leaflets on the feather‐compound leaves, pointed at both ends, turn a beautiful scarlet in the fall. Fragrant terminal spikes or panicles two to 12 inches consisting of many tiny yellow to green‐yellow, five‐petaled flowers bloom in mid‐summer. They give way to dense clusters of small, hard, dry, sticky, spherical, red berries, each with a stony seed inside. The berries turn rust colored with age and persist through the winter, even more faded, and attached to their brown, stiff, branching stems. Don't rinse off these berries before use or you'll wash all the flavor down the drain. The best‐known way to use sumac is by making a wonderfully flavored pink lemonade with it. Submerge the berry cluster (minus any six‐ or eight‐legged stragglers) in a bowl of room temperature or warm water, and squeeze and twist it with your hands for a minute or so (you may also steep the clusters in hot water, but lemonade is better cold). Strain out the berries through a fine sieve or cheesecloth‐lined colander, sweeten to taste, and enjoy. You can also make sumac concentrate, which you can use like lemon or lime juice. The young growth at the tips of the plants—the shoots, are also edible, raw or cooked, after you peel them. They make quite a tasty vegetable you can use in a variety of dishes. I've discovered that you can make a very useful and tasty sumac concentrate by processing about five batches of sumac through the same water. When you achieve the acidity of lemon juice, you can use this in any of the thousands of recipes that need a touch of acidity or call for lemon juice or lime juice, or vinegar. Sumac will imparts its own special flavor to any appropriate dish, from salad dressings to desserts. It's especially good with mulberries, which lack the acidity of other berries, or other non‐acidic fruits such as bananas, papayas, or pawpaws, not to mention mild‐flavored vegetables such potatoes or cauliflower. You can also freeze sumac concentrate in ice cube trays, pack the sumac cubes into freezer containers, and defrost as needed.
Sumac berry clusters, unwashed Lukewarm or room temperature water as needed 1. Place the 1/5th of the sumac in a bowl, cover it with water, and squeeze and rub vigorously with your hands for a minute or so, or until most of the color has been transferred into the water. 2. Strain out the used sumac in a colander, and put the colored water back in the bowl. 3. Repeat step 1 with the remaining 4 portions of fresh sumac branches successively, until you've used up all the sumac. 4. Strain through a cheesecloth or fine sieve to remove all the debris. Medicinal Uses: Sumac is an astringent, and it's been used in herbal medicine as an antiseptic and tonic. Sumac pink lemonade was used for fever. It may not get rid of the fever, but like lemonade, it will make the patient fell a little cooler. A decoction of the cambium or an infusion of the leaves has been used for diarrhea, dysentery, asthma, urinary tract infections, sore throat, chronic gum problems, and cold sores. The Native Americans chewed the root to ease swollen or infected gums and to stop kids' bed‐wetting, and they applied sumac compresses to burns and cuts, to stop bleeding, and reduce swelling. This plant certainly merits scientific testing. Poisonous Lookalikes Make sure the flower clusters are upright, and the clusters of berries are upright and red or red‐orange. Poison sumac (Rhus vernix) has drooping clusters of white berries, quite different from the edible species. Touch it, and you'll have a severe rash for a month that can recur over and over. Poison oak has leaves similar to skunkbush, but the flowers are small and inconspicuous, and the berries are yellow‐ brown, not red. Cautions Sumac is related to cashews, mangoes, and poison ivy. If you're you're so sensitive to poison ivy that you can't eat cashews or mangoes, you should avoid sumac too
Thin Leafed Plantain (Fairy BandAids )
Yes you can eat these in salad but chew on them a bit and apply them to stinks and bites and it makes the pain go away!
The other kind of this plant is called Broad Leafed Plantain (Plantago major) Same uses as above. This also has seeds in the
fall which can be collected and used in oatmeal, breads, flours, and as a substitute for psyllium seeds, which are also a Plantago.
Soft, red, globular, long‐stalked fruits, containing hard seeds, ripen in early‐ to mid‐fall. Enjoy the red, pronged, globular fruit rawóit turns bitter cooked. Burdock Rosette and Root
Leaves are more for the goats but the roots You can harvest the large, deep, beige taproot from the basal rosette form (as soon as the flower stalk appears, the root becomes tough and woody) from early spring to late fall. Its hearty flavor is a little like that of potatoes, although itís related to artichokes. Scrub the root with a coarse copper scouring pad, but donít peel it. Slice it razor‐thin on a diagonal, oriental‐style, or use the finest slicing disk of a food processor. Simmer 20 minutes or until tender. You may also sautÈ it, but add liquid and cook it in moist heat another 10 minutes afterwards, or it may not get tender. You may also harvest the immature flower stalk in late spring, before the flowers appear, while itís still tender and very flexible. Peeled and parboiled for 1 minute to get rid of the bitterness, it tastes like artichoke hearts, and it will enhance any traditional recipe that calls for the heart of artichokes. Cook this for another 5‐10 minutes. is the official herb. Your would roast the root the same way you do this dandelion to make a coffee sub.
Recent research has shown Burdock is one of the foremost detoxifying herbs in both Chinese and Western herbal medicine. The dried root of one year old plants is the official herb, but the leaves and fruits can also be used. It is used to treat conditions caused by an 'overload' of toxins, such as throat and other infections, boils, rashes and other skin problems. The root is thought to be particularly good at helping to eliminate heavy metals from the body. The plant is also part of a North American formula called essiac which is a popular treatment for cancer. Its effectiveness has never been reliably proven or disproven since controlled studies have not been carried out. The other herbs included in the formula are Rumex acetosella, Ulmus rubra and Rheum palmatum. The plant is antibacterial, antifungal, carminative. It has soothing, mucilaginous properties and is said to be one of the most certain cures for many types of skin diseases, burns, bruises etc. It is used in the treatment of herpes, eczema, acne, impetigo, ringworm, boils, bites etc. The plant can be taken internally as an infusion, or used externally as a wash. Use with caution. The roots of one‐year old plants are harvested in mid‐summer and dried. They are alterative, aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic and stomachic.The seed is alterative, antiphlogistic, depurative, diaphoretic and diuretic. Recent research has shown that seed extracts lower blood sugar levels[.The seed is harvested in the summer and dried for later use. The crushed seed is poulticed onto bruises[The leaves are poulticed onto burns, ulcers and sores. that seed extracts lower blood sugar levels Dock Rumex
The 'milk' of the dock leaf is known to contain tannins and oxalic acid, which is an astringentA tincture of dock is helpful for problems of the menopause. According to folk remedies, dock root has a pronounced detoxing effect on the liver and it cleanses the skin The leaves are often applied externally as a rustic remedy in the treatment of blisters, burns and scalds. The root contains tannin and is astringent and blood purifier[. A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of jaundice, whooping cough, boils and bleeding. An infusion of the root has been used as a wash, especially for children, to treat skin eruptions. One report says that the root has been used as a contraceptive to stop menstruation. The root is harvested in early spring and dried for later use. Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed; Stem. Young leaves – cooked.]. A bitter taste, especially if the older leaves are used[. The leaves are usually cooked in at least one
change of water in order to reduce the bitterness.Leaves can also be dried for later use.The leaves have a much milder flavour when they are first produced in early spring. Young stems ‐ cooked. Seed ‐ raw or cooked. The seed can also be ground into a powder and used to make a gruel or added to cereal flours when making bread etc.It is rather small and fiddly to harvest. Golden Rod…50 different kinds This is the most common one in New Haven.
All are ok and have the same uses but this one (sweet golden rod has a better medical effect) An infusion of the dried powdered herb is antiseptic. The leaves make a very pleasant‐tasting tea that is mildly astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge and stimulant. It is useful in the treatment of coughs and colds, dysentery and ulceration of the intestines. The essential oil has been used as a diuretic for infants, as a local application for headaches and for the treatment of flatulence and vomiting. The flowers are aperients, astringent and tonic. An infusion is beneficial in the treatment of gravel, urinary obstruction and simple dropsy The root can be chewed as a treatment for sore mouths plants can be cooked. flowers are edible raw. seeds are edible raw. The fresh or dried leaves and flower buds brew up into a delicate, golden, anise‐flavored tea. I prefer mine dried, the flavor is more mellow and less green. . Drinking Goldenrod tea relieves my itchy eyes, post nasal drip, headache and persistent cough; caused by other pollen bearing plants clip the top ½ of the plant; making sure I take less than 10% of what is available in any area.
But beware! Wild parsnip grows near and looks a bit like golden rod!
Wild Parsnips But
beware! Wild parsnip grows near and looks a bit like golden rod!
The foliage of Wild Parsnip is toxic and irritating in the presence of sunlight, particularly when it is in bloom. This is the result of the foliage releasing singleton oxygen, which is chemically highly reactive (to an even greater extent than triplet oxygen, or ozone). Thus, the foliage in this condition can irritate the digestive tracts of herbivores and raise blisters on the skin of humans. It is much like poison ivy on the skin but last way longer!!! But with that said. Everywhere I have read says that the root is edible parsnip. Not sure if I have the balls to eat them. Mugwort
Leaves ‐ raw or cooked. Aromatic and somewhat bitter. Their addition to the diet aids the digestion and so they are often used in small quantities as a flavouring, especially with fatty foods.They are also used to give colour and flavour to glutinous‐rice dumplings (Mochi) The young shoots are used in spring. In Japan the young leaves are used as a potherb.]. The dried leaves and flowering tops are steeped into tea[. They have also been used as a flavouring in beer, though fell into virtual disuse once hops came into favour. Mugwort has a long history of use in herbal medicine especially in matters connected to the digestive system, menstrual complaints and the treatment of worms. It is slightly toxic, however, and should never be used by pregnant women, especially in their first trimester, since it can cause a miscarriage[7, 238]. Large, prolonged dosage can damage the nervous system. All parts of the plant are anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic,
digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, nervine, purgative, stimulant, slightly tonic and used in the treatment of women's complaints[4, 7, 13, 21, 147, 165, 178, 201]. The leaves are also said to be appetizer, diuretic, haemostatic and stomachic[176, 218, 222]. They can be used internally or externally. An infusion of the leaves and flowering tops is used in the treatment of nervous and spasmodic affections, sterility, functional bleeding of the uterus, dysmenorrhoea, asthma and diseases of the brain[176, 243]. The leaves have an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus typhi, B. dysenteriae, streptococci, E. coli, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas etc. The leaves are harvested in August and can be dried for later use. The stem is also said to be antirheumatic, antispasmodic, and stomachic. The roots are tonic and antispasmodic. They are said to be one of the best stomachics. They are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The leaves, placed inside the shoes, are said to be soothing for sore feet. The compressed dried leaves and stems are used in moxibustion[176, 178, 218, 222, 238]. Another report says that the down from the leaves is used. The fresh or the dried plant repels insects, it can be used as a spray but caution is advised since it can also inhibit plant growth. A weak tea made from the infused plant is a good all‐purpose insecticide. An essential oil from the plant kills insect larvae. The down on the leaves makes a good tinder for starting fires. Acorns and oak nuts
Acorns were a traditional food of many indigenous peoples of North America, but served an especially important role for Californian Native Americans, where the ranges of several species of oaks overlap, increasing the reliability of the resource. Unlike many other plant foods, acorns do not need to be eaten or processed right away, but may be stored for a long time, as done by squirrels. In years that oaks produced many acorns, Native Americans sometimes collected enough acorns to store for two years as insurance against poor acorn production years. After drying them in the sun to discourage mold and germination, women took acorns back to their villages and cached them in hollow trees or structures on poles, to keep them safe from mice and squirrels. The stored acorns could then be used when needed, particularly during the winter when other resources were scarce. Those acorns that germinated in the fall were shelled and pulverized before those that germinate in spring. Because of their high fat content, stored acorns can become rancid. Molds may also grow on them. Native North Americans took an active and sophisticated role in managing acorn resources by using fire, which increased the production of acorns and made them easier to collect. The light ground fires killed the larvae of acorn moths and acorn weevils by burning them during their dormancy period in the soil. The pests can infest and consume more than 95% of an oak's acorns. Fires also released the nutrients bound in dead leaves and other plant debris into the soil, thus fertilizing oak trees while clearing the ground to make acorn collection easier. Most North American oaks tolerate light fires, especially when consistent burning has eliminated woody fuel accumulation around their trunks. Consistent burning encouraged oak growth at the expense of other trees less tolerant of fire, thus keeping oaks dominant in the landscapes.
Oaks produce more acorns when they are not too close to other oaks and thus competing with them for sunlight, water and soil nutrients. The fires tended to eliminate the more vulnerable young oaks and leave old oaks which created open oak savannas with trees ideally spaced to maximize acorn production. ground until the meal is so fine that "it will stick to the basket sifter" when it is turned upside down. When you have determined that you have ground the acorns to "primo" consistency, you must then leach it. This was traditionally accomplished (before we had woven cloth to work with) by building a mound of fine sand, near a spring or the river, and then scooping out the center. The meal you wished to leach was placed in the center of this mound and water poured over a clean cedar bough which was placed or held above the acorn meal. The tannin would leach out of the acorn meal and harmlessly down into the sand. When tasting it showed the tannin had been removed, the meal was carefully removed from its sand "colander" and put into a cooking basket. Water is added ‐‐ the correct amount for the amount of acorn meal you are going to use, which is something that takes a while to adjust to. Too much water will require cooking longer to get the consistency you want. Not enough water and the acorn will burn. Then special cooking rocks were heated in a fire, rinsed off, and using special stirring sticks, the rocks were stirred in the basket to heat the acorn solution thoroughly. As each rock cooled down, it was removed, and another hot clean rock took its place in the cooking basket. The rock that had been removed was washed off and placed back in the fire to reheat and await its turn to become a cooking implement once again. In what seems like no time at all, the acorn soup is boiling, and the stirring continues until the soup is of the desired consistency ‐‐ either thin to eat with a spoon, or thicker to eat with a fork, depending on what the "cook" has in mind. Though the above "soup" was eaten straight by the traditional people, I usually add a little salt, and occasionally some dried currents or blue elderberries, or even raisins. Some people like to add a little cinnamon. The rocks are saved for the next time, since finding perfect rocks that won't explode when subjected to heat, or won't crumble into the food, or give a bad taste, etc., are not as easy to find as you might think. The baskets, tools, implements, rocks, etc. used to cook acorn are considered a family legacy and kept within a family to be passed down from generation to generation. What makes a good cooking basket is the subject of another dissertation and shall not be gone into at this time. Ask the next expert basket weaver you meet to explain to you how a cooking basket is made. FYI remember 3 leaves and shinny!..poison oak has a red tint to it.
And you know those vines in the woods that look like grape vines well NOT they are no good for eating They are vines moonseed vines.
But a gound plant that looks kind of like has berrys you can eat. The Thimble Berries
Pretty much the same as a “Purple‐Flowering Raspberry”, just white flowers. Rubus odoratus
This plant doesn’t have thorns and are quite pleasant to pick! They’re pretty much like a raspberry but a little drier and more tart. They’re used a lot to make jams. The reason it’s typically not seen in stores as a berry is most likely because it doesn’t hold its shape in containers very well. You take it off the plant and it’ll break up very easily, so putting them in a bucket, they get squished and broken up really easy. I prefer to eat them as I go, or throw them in my metal bucket mess kit rather than my canvas water bag as it’ll get messy. I think they’re delicious. On occasion you’ll find the plants in tiny groups, but most of the time, you find thimble berry plant there will be a ton all over the place, if not a huge patch/field of them! They’re pleasant to pick, unlike raspberries at times lol.
has many names, most probably forgotten. This Wild Vegetable is actually a fast growing weed that is generous in all of its life stages. Other names include White Goosefoot, Lamb's Quarters, Dungweed or Dirty Dick. This weed isn’t just famous here in the UK, it’s names continue in other countries where it is names include Grasse Poulette in France, in Germany it is called Fette Henne or in the United States where it is called Pigweed. Although Fat Hen has so many names and is globally renowned it is largely forgotten as a food here in the UK. Indeed a close cousin of Fat Hen is now commonly grown in gardens and vegetable patches. Tree Spinach is now planted in its place whilst the shoots of Fat Hen are pulled from the earth.
Fat Hen is a tall annual and a member of the beet and spinach family. It’s leaves are lance shaped and grey‐green with the plant reaching up to 1m in height. Both stems and leaves are covered with a light white very fine hairs and the leaves can be easily recognised due to their close similarity to a ducks foot. The small, greenish flowers grow in clusters from leaf joints on spikes and are also edible.
Fat‐hen will practically grow anywhere, it can be found whenever the frosts have ceased but is most prolific from May to October. Fat Hen prefers rich soils, a good reason why it is so often found in well cropped gardens! This love for good soil, like all good vegetables, leads to good and downright delicious leaves that are enjoyed by humans and many other creatures alike. The iron rich leaves and young shoots may be eaten raw as a leaf vegetable or sauteed in plenty of butter and seasoning, try it with a small grate of Nutmeg and a splash of cream as well (thank me later). Fat Hen makes a great soup ‐ cream of Fat Hen soup, can be used in a quiche or flan ‐ Fat Hen and Ricotta Tarte. Or simply served as a side. As well as the leaves, shoots and flowers that are all edible, each plant produces masses of black seeds. The Fat Hen seeds are extremely good for you and are high in protein, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium to name but a few of the elements. The seeds can be ground and used as a rough dark flour, this dark flour can then be used to make pancakes or even bread, just writing this I am inspired to make a loaf from the dark flour and make open sandwiches with wild Horseradish cream, flecks of green Dill and slices of soft smoked Salmon… Yummy! Fat Hen although disliked immensely by most Gardeners should be recognised and enjoyed by more people. Although world famous this forgotten Wild food is definitely the victim of the success of other vegetables and for this reason has fallen off the radar of non‐foraging folk. This plentiful and delicious wild vegetable is just sitting their waiting to be rediscovered so get out there remember this common plant and see what you can cook with it!
Wild Leeks are onion‐like plants that grow in the deep woods. They come up in the spring, usually before much of anything else has come up. The leaves and bulbs are edible. Please only collect when abundant, and then only collect scattered patches or individual plants. Ill effects may be experienced by some people if large amounts are eaten. If they don't smell like onions, they aren't Wild Leeks. **Please note that Wild Leeks have become quite rare in Quebec due to professional pickers denuding the woods of them. Now the same thing is happening in eastern Ontario! Unfortunately, this means that they should probably be protected and treated like a rare or threatened plant. Once again, greed is spoiling something for everyone.
The tea is popularly used in Europe for colds, coughs, hoarseness, chest congestion, laryngitis, bronchial catarrh. Hedge mustard contains vitamin C and mustard oil. t is widely used as a condiment in Northern Europe (particularly Denmark, Norway and Germany). Its young shoots ‐ raw or cooked are also edible. They have a bitter flavour and are used as a flavouring in salads or cooked as a potherb. Seed is also edible raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder and used as a gruel or as a mustard‐like flavouring in soups etc. Hedge Mustard is part of the order Brassicales, whose common characteristic is the production of glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. Plant substances derived from glucosinolate are responsible for the bitter or sharp taste of many common foods such as radish, horseradish, cress, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, turnip, swede, rapeseed and, of course, mustard. Hedge Mustard is said to have a bitter, cabbage‐like flavour which is what makes it desirable as a salad component.
Filler crap water
Charcoal can be from firewood.
I’ve had a few days during the HMX build while I’m either waiting for parts or waiting for something to dry and had some free time. I’m not exactly one to sit and watch TV when I have nothing planned, so I set out on another project.While I have electricity out to the garage now, heat has been an issue all winter long. Mattar graciously lent me his kerosene heater, which did an okay job of taking the bite off the chill. Insulating the garage would go a long way to help keep the bitter Vermont cold out, but that’s a project for another day. I decided instead to take advantage of the south-facing side of the garage and build a solar furnace to collect some of that sunshine just bouncing straight off my garage. My dad built one years ago and said he recorded a 110-degree temperature differential between inlet and outlet. And I had enough scrap materials around the basement to do something similar to what my dad built.
I started with some 2x4s and plywood to build a simple box. I’m no carpenter, but I learned that if it’s wobbly, just add more nails.
I actually built the box to certain dimensions, based on what scrap materials I had and on the dimensions of my heat collection method – aluminum cans. That sure was a lot of Sprite. Fifty cans in five columns of 10 will funnel the air upward.
Sealed the box using adhesive caulk, just to keep any heated air from escaping the box.
So you may have already thought, “How can air climb the columns of cans when there’s no hole at the bottom of the can?” Answer: drill press and 3/4-inch bit. Times 45.
The last five cans, the bases of each column, will sit on the bottom of the box and thus will be unable to draw air from underneath, so I poked holes in the sides of each of the five.
Stack the cans with liberal doses of adhesive caulk. Give them enough time to dry.
Once they’re dry, I painted each column with black BBQ paint. Black to best absorb the sun’s heat, BBQ paint to keep from flaking off the cans. At the top, I drilled an outlet hole. I left an inch or two of space between the tops of the columns and the top of the box to permit air to flow out of the columns.
I drilled the outlet hole based on the diameter of some wet-dry vacuum hose I picked up, about 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
At the bottom, I used another wet-dry vacuum attachement that would more evenly disperse the incoming air. Screwed it in at each end, then caulked the seal.
Then started to caulk the columns in place. At the bottom, you can see the inlet hole I drilled. At about this point, I realized that a better place for the inlet would have been through the plywood at the bases of each column. In this location, the air can simply pass over the cans (there’s about 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch between the cans and the upper edge of the 2×4 frame) and not really pick up that much heat. If I were to relocate the inlet, it would force all the air to pass through the cans and pick up the absorbed heat. Next time.
Had some red paint left over from one of Heather’s previous projects, so slapped on a couple coats to at least keep the weather off the bare wood.
The caulk is pretty strong. Kept the cans from falling out while I had the box inverted.
Also had some 3/4-inch PVC pipe from another previous project. Bought a couple elbows and T-fittings and whipped up a simple frame to keep the box off the ground and to angle it upward toward the sun. Didn’t give the exact angle too much thought.
Caulked a clear plexiglas cover on the front and sat the furnace out in the sun for a full day over the weekend to see how it would work.
Using some advanced technological equipment, such as this precisely calibrated pyrometer, I determined the intake air temperature, which should have been the same as the ambient air temperature, to be about 80 degrees.
Using the same equipment and methods, I determined the outlet temperature to be about 95 degrees – thus a 15 degree temperature differential. Not 110 degrees, but not bad , considering I didn’t even break $50 in materials – most of that being the plexiglas window. Obviously don’t have the inlet and outlet attached to the garage – figures that the day I finish the furnace, it’s 80 degrees and sunny and it looks like we’re finally done with winter. Dad recommends wiring a pusher fan at the end of the inlet tube to keep the air circulating through the furnace. Were I to do this again, I’d first make the furnace larger. As I recall, Dad’s measured something like four feet on each side. Obviously, the more surface area, the more heat you’ll pick up. Second, as mentioned above, I’d relocate the inlet to the back of the box to direct all the air through the cans. Or at least I’d cut a piece of aluminum to act as a baffle and prevent the air from rising straight up. Third, I might use those small soda cans I’ve seen in the grocery stores lately, just to get more surface area. Fourth, I’d finish the build at the beginning of winter, not the end. UPDATE: Welcome, MAKErs. I appreciate your comments and suggestions on improving the design of the box. I also appreciated the comments over at a similar project page on Instructables. Version 2.0 will be a lot better, so thank you all. UPDATE UPDATE: The response on this has been fantastic. Thank you all for your comments and feedback. If I didn’t have the HMX to finish, I’d already be working on the next version of this box. By the way, I’m no engineer and only have the vaguest understanding of thermodynamics. I know how old cars work, that’s about it. But common sense tells me to build this thing bigger, to insulate it, to add a fan and to snake the air sideways as a few of you have suggested. Keep sharing your ideas and your successes in building your own boxes. UPDATE (22.June 2010): I’ve taken many of the below ideas into consideration and finally finished a second version of the soda can solar heater. From 180 cans, I’ve so far achieved a 120-degree temperature differential.
JUST NOTES NOT PLANS ON HOW TO MAKE A WINDMILL GENORATOR. (AGAIN NOTES AND IDEAS ON THE WINDMILL) AND SOME BITS AND PEACES AS I FIND THEM ON THE GENORATOR PART.
The vanes attach by folding the aluminum flashing over one spoke and hooking a bent nail around a second spoke, The bent nail is inserted through a drilled hole in the vane.
This shows how the blade is attached. The bend is made by hand, simply bending the aluminum flashing over a metal rod about 1/8th inch in diameter. The metal flashing we used (years ago) was thicker than currently available. You will have to laminate (rivet or use two‐sided tape) two thicknesses together to obtain a blade that is stiff enough. But you can also make blades out of wood (1/8 inch plywood or door skins) or plastic.
This just gives a bit more detailed view of the generator, pulley and endless belting.
Now from what I have seen and read you can some how use a car altenator (saw on a tv show) as the generator…and the site with the windmill pics said a 24 volt DC permanent magnet motor from an old tower computer works. (The generator is a 24 volt DC permanent magnet motor. This one was surplus and used in old main frame disk drive units.)
The generator is mounted using a simple L bracket. Should be sturdy (not the typical shelf bracket) and both the motor and the bracket are secured with radiator hose clamps. The windmill pole is electrical conduit that 1.5 inch PVC slides over. A short segment of PVC pipe is screwed into the metal conduit to create a bearing that the windmill pivots on (PVC to PVC). The tail has to be counterweighted to balance the unit. Ted used a bunch of pennies and got it balanced perfectly. What else are they good for? :‐) And here is some more info and ideas:
DoItYourself Wind Turbine Project
4 Foot Wind Turbine - option for 6 Foot Sweep
There are 2 parts to this project:
1. Build the Wind Turbine 2. Variations for your science project
Build the Wind Turbine
INTRODUCTION There are several DIY wind turbine science projects on the internet. This project is appropriate for high school level and was originally sourced from http://www.velacreations.com a very good site, maintained by a couple living off-grid. Their site is definitely worth a look. Another good website to visit for wind turbine projects is http://www.otherpower.com though these turbines can be fairly large. We have included some modifications to the original instructions for a larger treadmill motor which weighs more, takes larger blades, requires better fastening for the blades and uses a bearing to attach to the tower. Making a wind powered generator from scrap materials helps keep those materials out of the local dump. Most of the items you need, can be found in your local hardware store, your own garage or from one of the "Freecycle" groups in your area. . Try doing a search on Google for "freecycle" to see what parts you can pick up for free. For the wind turbine built in these pictures, we picked up the motor on eBay for $10 plus shipping and the PVC pipe for the blades from a junk pile. The tail is made from an old roller paint pan. Safety should be your first priority. Your health is more important than a DIY project, so please follow all safety instructions you read, use common sense and get help if you are unsure about something. Wind turbines can be heavy, dangerous machines, with fast moving blades and the chance for electrical shocks. This wind turbine is based on the Chispito Wind Generator with it's simple and efficient design and assembly. We have included several photos showing our changes, using the larger 20 amp motor. Generator The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) - You'll need a PMG that produces at least 1 volt DC for every 25 RPM, thus if your wind turbine blades turn at 400 RPM would would generate 16 VDC. A 260 VDC, 5 A continuous
duty Treadmill Motor with a 6 inch threaded hub is well suited for a small wind turbine. These motors are available locally and on eBay or other internet sites. You can get about 7 amps in a 30 mph wind. In other words, it is a simple, cheap little machine to get you started. I picked up a 90 VDC, 20A treadmill motor off eBay for $10 plus shipping. This motor requires an upgrade to most of the original instructions due to the increase in size and weight. It also produces a lower output voltage. The motor is better suited for a system with gearing to increase the RPM. You may use any other simple permanent magnet DC motor that returns at least 1 V for every 25 rpm and can handle upwards of 10 amps. The Ametek 30 is one of the best motors but is hard to find and the price seems to be getting rather high.Try to find a motor that comes with a 6" hub to attach the blades too - a circular saw blade with a 5/8" shaft adaptor might work. For our larger motor we initially used a metal slow moving vehicle sign, bolted to a 3.5 inch pulley. The triangular shape was just what we were looking for. We reinforced the sign with a wooden ring. This hub ended up blocking much of the wind on the smaller blades and we eventually switched to a six inch wooden hub, reinforced with metal plating. When hurricane Ike went through, that hub was also damaged. Thus we'd recommend a metal hub such as the saw blade or a used thick metal frying pan bottom.
Mounting the Generator
6 ft of "L" tubing misc nuts and bolts 3/4" Self‐tapping Screws For the larger 20Amp motor, I used a caster wheel with a hole in the center(Caster with a Hollow Kingpin) to attach the motor to the tower. This allows the heavy motor to turn very easily and doesn't provide wear to the tower or flange.
90 VDC, 20 A continuous duty Treadmill Motor 30 ‐ 50 Amp Blocking Diode (one‐way) 4 x 5/16” x ¾” Motor Bolts 8" X 16" PVC Pipe ‐ or larger depending on the size of the treadmill motor (cover)
1 sqft (approx) lightweight material (metal) ‐ used roller paint tray will work 2 X ¾" Self‐tapping Screws to attach the tail
24" length of 8" PVC Pipe 6 X ¼" X 20 Bolts 9 x ¼" washers
3 sheets of paper and tape
ASSEMBLY Cutting Blades - makes 8 blades (or 2+ blade sets) and a thin waste strip. I have created a separate page with more pictures and expanded on this process a bit. After you've done this once, it makes sense. These instructions could use a little help for the first time wind turbine blade maker. Here's the link to the page: Making PVC Turbine Blades
1. Place the 24" Length of PVC pipe and square tubing (or other straight edge) side by side on a flat surface. Push the pipe tight against the tubing and mark the line where they touch. This is Line A. 2. Make a mark near each end of Line A, 23" apart. 3. Tape 3 sheets of A4 paper together, so that they form a long, completely straight piece of paper. Wrap this around the section of pipe at each of the two the marks you just made, one then the other. Make sure the short side of the paper is straight along Line A and the paper is straight against itself where it overlaps. Mark a line along the edge of the paper at each end. Call one LineB and the other Line C. 4. Start where Line A intersects Line B. Going left around Line B, make a mark at every 145 mm. The last section should be about 115 mm. 5. Start where Line A intersects Line C. Going right around Line C, make a mark at every 145 mm. The last section should be about 115 mm. 6. Mark each line using a straight edge. 7. Cut along these lines, using the jigsaw, so that you have 4 strips of 145 mm and one strip about 115 mm. 8. Take each strip and place them with the inside of the pipe facing down. 9. Make a mark at one end of each strip 115 mm from the left edge. 10. Make a mark at the other end of each strip 30 mm from the left edge. 11. Mark and cut these lines, using the jigsaw.
Note: we also made a set of blades 38 inches long using the same measurement - only the length was changed - 24 inches to 38 inches.
Sanding the Blades You should sand the blades to achieve the desired airfoil. This will increase the efficiency of the blades, as well as making them quieter. The angled (leading) edge wants to be rounded, while the straight (tailing) edge wants to be pointed. Any sharp corners should be slightly rounded to cut down on noise.
Making The Tail The exact dimensions of the tail are not important. You need about one square foot of lightweight material, preferably metal. You can make the tail any shape you want, so long as the end result is stiff rather than floppy, we used an old aluminum paint tray (flattened). Our 6 foot long rail has holes already in it, so we will simply bolted the tail in place near the end of the rail - see instructions below about "balancing" the complete setup. Drilling Holes in Blades - using the ¼" drill bit
1. Mark two holes at the wide end and along the straight edge of each of the three blades. The first hole should be 3/8 " from the straight edge and ½ " from the bottom. The second hole should be 3/8 " from the straight edge and 1 ¼" from the bottom. 2. Drill these 6 holes ‐ 2 per blade (3 blades in total)
Drilling Holes in Hub - using the
7/32" drill bit and ¼" tap
NOTE: You may want to modify these old, used 7 1/4 inch skill saw blade. space to screw or bolt the blades to. We and tapping holes. I've also see old purpose. They are light and solid!
instructions. Try replacing the hub with an The larger surface area will give you more also used 1/4 inch bolts rather than drilling aluminum frying pans used for this
1. If the Treadmill motor comes with the hub attached, take it off, hold the end of the shaft (which comes through the hub) firmly with pliers, and turn the hub clockwise. This hub unscrews clockwise, which is why the blades turn counter‐clockwise. 2. Make a template of the hub on a piece of paper, using a compass and protractor. 3. Mark 3 holes, each of which is 2 3/8" from the center of the circle and equidistant from each other. 4. Place this template over the hub and punch a starter hole through the paper and onto the hub at each hole. 5. Drill these holes with the 7/32" drill bit. 6. Tap the holes with the ¼" x 20 tap.
7. Bolt the blades onto the hub using the ¼" bolts. At this point, the outer holes have not been drilled. 8. Measure the distance between the straight edge of the tips of each blade. Adjust them so that they are all equidistant. Mark and punch each hole on the hub through the empty hole in each blade. 9. Label the blades and hub so that you can match which blade goes where at a later stage. 10. Remove the blades and then drill and tap these outer three holes.
Note: the metal slow moving vehicle sign is not solid enough to stand-up in high winds. We screwed on a wooden ring to the back of the sign to give it the required strength. This blocked to much wind so we ended up replacing it with a 6 inch wooden hub, reinforced with a metal plate on the back. Even later, we ended up replacing this hub with a 6" metal hub for added strength.
Make a Protective Cover for the Motor
1. Draw two straight lines, about ¾” apart, along the length of the 8 ” x 16” PVC Pipe. Cut along these lines.
2. Make a 45º cut at the end of the pipe. 3. Slide the cover over the motor and secure in place.
1. Remove the rubber wheel from the Caster. Drill through the caster and bolt to your tower assembly (top pipe of your tower) 2. Place the diode on the "L" tubing, about 2” behind the motor, and screw it into position using a self‐tapping metal screw. 3. Connect the black wire coming out of the motor to the positive incoming terminal of the diode (Labeled AC on the positive side). 4. Connect the red wire coming out of the motor to the negative incoming terminal of the diode (Labeled AC on the negative side). 5. Place each blade on the hub so that all the holes line up. Using the ¼" bolts and washers, bolt the blades to the hub. For the inner three holes, use two washers per bolt, one on each side of the blade. For the outer three holes, just use one washer next to the head of the bolt. Tighten. This points the blades away from your tower. 6. Hold the end of the shaft of the motor (which comes through the hub) firmly with pliers, and turn the hub counterclockwise until it tightens and stops. Our motor didn't come with a hub, thus we attached our "pulley‐hub" to the shaft. 7. Attach the caster dolly to the motor and "L" rail. Balance this whole setup by moving the 1 square foot tail section along the 6' long rail. Once you find the spot where everything is balance, bolt the tail to the rail at that spot. 8. For our larger (heavier) motor, we used a rotating caster with a hollow kingpin, bolted to the top of the tower. The dolly/caster needs to have a hole in the middle that you will run the power wires down, through the tower. The dolly is bolted directly to the DC motor which made the complete mounting system much easier.
For a longer life span of your wind generator, you should paint the blades, motor sleeve, mount and tail. On the larger 20A treadmill motor, we attached a dolly bearing directly to the bottom of the motor and then onto the top of the tower. Get a dolly wheel with a hole in the middle, which you thread the power wires through. We also used the same PVC Blade Pattern to cut 3 foot blades. Just make the length 3 feet rather than 2 feet. The measurements at both ends stay the same - 145 cm wide sections that are next cut into 2 blades. This gives the same curve to the blades. Depending on the size of your motor, you may want to experiment with different lengths of blades. Our larger blades were not balanced as well as the shorter blades initially and thus turned slower. We cut them down in length from 36 inches to 32 inches and balanced them. To balance the blades, we placed the blades and hub, onto a long pointed nail. We than slid a washer along the blades to find the balance point. Then epoxy the washer in place (try to account for the weight of the epoxy as well).
How much power can we get from the wind?
Power AVAILABLE in the wind = .5 x air density x swept area x (wind velocity cubed) Example: air density = 1.23 kg per cubic meter at sea level. Swept area = pi x r squared. Our 2 foot blades = 0.609m, 4 ft = 1.219m. 10 mph = 4.4704 m/s, 20 mph = 8.9408 m/s. How much power is in the wind: 2 ft blade, 10 mph winds = .5 x 1.23 x 3.14 x 0.609squared x 4.4704 cubed = .5 x 1.23 x 1.159 x 89.338 = 63.7 watts With 4 foot blades and 10 mph winds = .5 x 1.23 x 4.666 x 89.338 = 256 watts With 4 foot blades and 20 mph winds = .5 x 1.23 x 4.666 x 714.708 = 2051 watts That's the MAXIMUM power in the wind. However, it's impossible to harvest ALL the power. The Betz Limit tells us that the maximum percentage of power we can harvest from the wind is 59.26%. Thus our maximum power from these turbines would be: 2 ft blades, 10 mph wind = 37.7 watts 4 ft blades, 10 mph wind = 152 watts 4 ft blades, 20 mph wind = 1,215 watts These values are the maximum power achievable. Your results will be less, depending on how well you shape the blades, how well balanced the blade assembly is, drag going over the hub, copper losses, etc. A very well built DIY HAWT would not likely get more than 50% of the above numbers.