Collected Works

Edward Sapir

Mouton de Gmyter





Edward Sapir


The Collected Works of Edward Sapir


Philip Sapir


William Bright

Regna Darnell
Victor Golla


Richard Handler
Judith Irvine

Collected of



Southern Paiute and Ute

and Ethnography

Volume Editor




Mouton deGruyter

New York

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a Division of Walter de Gruyter


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@ Printed on acid-free paper which
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Edward, 1884-1939. Southern Paiute and Ute linguistics and ethnography / volume editor, William Bright. cm. — (The collected works of Edward p.




Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 3-11-013543-4




Southern Paiute language. 2. Ute language. 3. PaiIndians. 4. Ute Indians. I. Bright, WiUiam,








1884-1939. PM2094.S258 497',45-dc20




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Cataloging-in- Publication-Data

Sapir, Edward:


[The collected works] collected works of Edward Sapir



board Philip Sapir

ed. -in-chief.



New York

Mouton de

ISBN 3-11-010104-1 (Berlin) ISBN 0-89925-138-2 (New York) NE: Sapir, Edward: [Sammlung]
Southern Paiute and Ute linguistics and ethnography William Bright. - 1992 ISBN 3-11-013543-4 NE: Bright, William [Hrsg.]

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1992 by Walter de Gruyter


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book may be reproduced or transmitted

In glasses, with



Mrs. Dodd's, Uintah Ute Reservation, White Rock, Utah


Alden Mason peering from bushes.
(Courtesy of Sapir family)

Edward Sapir (1884-1939) has been referred

to as "one of the



scholars in linguistics and anthropology in our country" (Franz Boas) and as

"one of the greatest figures in American humanistic scholarship" (Franklin Edgerton). His classic book, Language (1921), is still in use, and many of his papers in general linguistics, such as "Sound Patterns in Language" and "The Psychological Reahty of Phonemes," stand also as classics. The development of the American descriptive school of structural linguistics, including the adoption of phonemic principles in the study of non-literary languages, was primarily due to him. The large body of work he carried out on Native American languages has been called "ground-breaking" and "monumental" and includes descriptive, historical, and comparative studies. They are of continuing importance and relevance to today's scholars. Not to be ignored are his studies in Indo-European, Semitic, and African languages, which have been characterized as "masterpieces of brilliant association" (Zellig Harris). Further, he is recognized as a forefather of ethnolinguistic

and sociolinguistic studies. In anthropology Sapir contributed the classic statement on the theory and methodology of the American school of Franz Boas in his monograph, "Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture" (1916). His major contribution, however, was as a pioneer and proponent for studies on the interrelation of culture and personality, of society and the individual, providing the theoretical basis for what is known today as humanistic anthropology. He was, in addition, a poet, and contributed papers on aesthetics, literature, music, and social criticism.




Sapir, 1909





Southern Paint e, a S/ios/wnecm Language (1930)
Texts of the Kaihah Pamtes and Uintah Utes (1930)


315 557 753

Southern Paiute Dictionary (1931)
English Index to the Southern Paiute Dictionary

Wick R. Miller) Kaibab Paiute and Northern Ute Ethnographic Field Notes (edited by Catherine S. Fowler and Robert C. Euler) Kaibab Paiute Ethnographic Field Notes Northern Ute Ethnographic Field Notes, 1909 Maps/Figures Editorial Notes


867 889

903 917



Volumes I-VI of The Collected Works of Edward Sapir consist, for most part, of shorter papers; by contrast. Volumes VII-XV are devoted to longer works of monographic nature — grammars, dictionaries, text collections, and extended ethnographic accounts. Many of these were published by Sapir during his lifetime; others were edited by his students and published after his death; still others are now being edited and published for the first time. The organization of each individual volume in this latter group brings together, in most instances, works on a single language and culture; in a few volumes, however, the unifying element is one of linguistic family or of culture area. Preparation of these monographic volumes has been aided by grants from the National Science Foundation (grant no. BNS-8609411), the Phillips Fund of the American Philosophical Society, and the WennerGren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Sapir received his doctorate at Columbia University in 1908, and took up a position at the University of Pennsylvania. His first field work thereafter, in 1909, was in Utah, with the Uncompahgre and Uintah Utes. Back in Philadelphia in 1910, be obtained a much greater amount of data on a closely related dialect, the Kaibab variety of Southern Paiute, as spoken by Tony Tillohash, then a student at Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. The major publication which resulted from this work, Sapir's Southern Paiute Language — grammar, texts, and dictionary — was written in 1917, but not published

1930 — 31;



reprinted in the present volume. Permission for

this reprinting

has kindly been granted by the American

Academy of

Arts and Sciences. In addition,

we publish

here for the

time an

English index to Sapir's Southern Paiute dictionary, prepared by
Miller, as well as


ethnographic notes gathered by Sapir from


and Paiute consultants, here edited and annotated by Catherine S. Fowler and Robert C. Euler. A topic index for the present volume has been prepared by Jane McGary. The Editorial Board is grateful to Robert C. Euler, Catherine S. Fowler, Jane McGary, and Wick Miller for their participation in the
preparation of this volume.


work on

Southern Faiulc and


volume was carried out by William Bright while a Research Fellow of the Center for the Study of Native American Languages of the Plains and Southwest, Department of Linguistics,
University of Colorado, Boulder; thanks

given for the help of that

The Great Basin of the western United States was, aboriginally, occupied mainly by tribes who spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan family, specifically of the Numic branch. In older literature, this branch is also referred to as "Plateau Shoshonean," and the term "Shoshonean"
has been used for a putative larger grouping within Uto-Aztecan.

Within Numic, three divisions are generally recognized. The Western group includes language varieties labeled as Mono (or Monache) and Owens Valley Paiute, in eastern CaHfornia — plus Northern Paiute in

Nevada and Oregon, and Bannock

in Idaho. Central





CaHfornia; Shoshone in Nevada, Utah, and

Wyoming; and Comanche in the southern Plains. Finally, Southern Numic consists of Kawaiisu in California; Chemehuevi and Southern
Paiute in southern California, Nevada, Utah, and northwestern Arizona;

and Ute

in Utah and Colorado. The term "Paiute" itself, unfortunately, has no

clear ethnic or lin-

guistic reference; nevertheless, the term "Southern Paiute" is well established as referring to some sixteen Numic "bands" or subgroups which share a geographical center in southern Utah. (For a survey of Numic hnguistics, see Miller 1986.) Among linguists, at least, it seems likely that the currency of the term "Southern Paiute" has been reinforced by its use in the title of one of Edward Sapir's most important works. Sapir's research on Numic began with a field trip undertaken early
in his career. in 1906,

After fieldwork on

Wishram Chinook

and on Yana

in 1907, Sapir

on Takelma doctorate at Columin 1905,

bia University in 1908 and accepted a position at the University of Pennsylvania. In the summer of 1909, with his student J. Alden Mason, Sapir arrived in Utah to study Southern Numic speech, beginning with


Uncompahgre Utes


Ouray Reservation. Finding

that few Indians

there spoke adequate English, he soon


to the

Uintah Utes


White Rocks (see Sapir's letter to A. L. Kroeber dated 7 September 1909, in Golla 1984: 43). A brief report, "Some Fundamental Characof the Ute Language," was published in 1910 (Sapir 1910c, reprinted in Volume V of The Collected Works). Back at the University of Pennsylvania in 1910, Sapir hoped to find a Ute speaker at Carlisle Indian School near Harrisburg; instead, he



Southern Paiutc and Ute


found Tony Tillohash, who spoke the Kaibab dialect of Southern Paiute. moved to Philadelphia for four months, providing Sapir with much more comprehensive data than had been obtained on Ute (see
Fowler and Fowler 1986). Four short papers resulted shortly thereafter:

"Song Recitative in Paiute Mythology" (Sapir 1910d), "Two Paiute Myths" (19100, "The Mourning Ceremony of the Southern Paiutes" (1912c), and "A Note on Reciprocal Terms of Relationship" (1913c); these are reprinted in Volume IV of The Collected Works. However, the major descriptive result was Sapir's Southern Paiute Language — a grammar, a text collection, and a dictionary — written in 1917, but not published until 1930 — 31. This work is reprinted in the present volume,
along with a previously unpublished English index to the dictionary,

prepared by Wick R. Miller.

work on Numic



noteworthy from three viewpoints

in particular. First, his

1910 report on Ute described the typical


phonological alternation of voiceless stops (p

k k\v) voiced stops (h


g\v), voiced fricatives

( fi

r y y\v),


voiceless fricatives ((p



Xyv); in his

work on Southern

Paiute, Sapir not only found the


alternation, but also confirmed

Tony Tillohash's intuitive awareness of famous article, "La realite psychothe relationship. Reported logique des phonemes" (1933c, in Volume I), this finding remains one of the paradigmatic examples of modern phonological theory. Second,
in Sapir's





possible a historical study, "Southern Paiute

and Nahuatl" (1913f and 19151) — his first important work in the comparative/historical study of American Indian languages, and a pioneering application in the New World of the Neogrammarian methodology established in the Indo-European field. All subsequent activity in comparative Uto-Aztecan linguisfics is founded on this work of

Third and

finally, the

Southern Paiute grammar




to be recognized as a


of American descriptive linguistics: a

model of accuracy,


thoroughness, and insight which later schol-

ars have striven to emulate.

on language, Sapir collected ethnographic information from his Numic consultants, and organized these materials with eventual publication in mind. The resulting manuscripts had an "unIn addition to data

derground'' existence after Sapir's death, being consulted by several

ethnographers. They have at


been edited for publication

in this

volume, by Catherine


Fowler and Robert C. Euler, whose introduc-

tory essay explains the detailed circumstances.

1984). Rogers (1967). and Franklin and Bunte (1980). Volumes on Chemehuevi ethnography and oral hterature have been published by Laird (1976. Chomsky and Halle (1968: 345-351). and by Calloway et al. Lovins (1972). There is an unpublished dissertation on Southern Paiute by Bunte (1979). Recent surveys of ethnographic and historical information are provided by Kelly and Fowler (1986) for the Southern Paiute. Powell during his nineteenthcentury expeditions.Introduction 15 Little Sapir's day. however. and on Chemehuevi by Press (1979). Important ethnographic sources include Stewart (1942) for both the Ute and the Southern Paiute. and Smith (1974) for the Ute. W. collected by J. Manuscript vocabularies for a number of Numic dialects. are given by Fowler and Fowler (1971). Kelly (1964) for the Southern Paiute. Proposals for the reanalysis of Sapifs data on Southern Paiute phonology have been published by Harms (1966). . see also Bunte (1986) and Bunte and Franklin (1988). 1980). (1986) for the Ute. Cairns (1978). there has been published on the Southern Paiute language since is significant work on the Ute dialect of southern Colorado by Goss (1972) and Givon (1979.


Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language .


PAGE Preface Distribution and literature (§1) 3 5 Phonology (§ § 2-16) Vowels (§ § 2-8) Fundamentals vowels (§2) Qualitative vocalic changes (§3) Quantitative vocalic changes (§4) Glide vowels (§5) Nasahzation of vowels (§6) EUsion of final vowels (§7) Syllabic structure Syllables 6 6 6 7 16 21 Vocalic unvoicing (§8) and accent (§ § 9-11) and moras (§9) Accent (§10) Loss of one or more moras (§11) Consonants (§ § 12-16) Survey of consonants (§12) Consonantal processes (§13) Glide consonants (§14) The glottal stop (§15) Treatment of consonants in composition (§16) Morphology (§ § 17-63) Grammatical processes (§17) Compounding Prefixes (§ § of stems (§18) Enclitics (§19) 20-22) (§ Adverbial prefixes 20) (§ 22 24 27 37 37 39 43 44 44 48 56 59 62 70 70 73 87 98 98 101 Instrumental prefixes 21) Reflexive and reciprocal na.CONTENTS.(§ 22) 108 110 Derivative and formal suffixes (§ § 23-37) Types of suffixes suflSxes (§23) HO Ill Noun (§24) suffixes (§ 25) (§ NominaHzing Verb 123 Verbalizing suffixes suffixes (§ § 26) 27-34) (§ 132 138 138 28) General remarks Suffixes of 27) (§ movement Suffixes of voice (§29) Suffixes of verbal aspect (§ 30) Suffixes of 139 143 148 159 number (§31) .

1 20 2 ^ Southern Paiutc and Ute CONTENTS PAGE Temporal suffixes (§32) Modal suffixes (§33) Order of verbal elements The diminutive (§ 35) (§ 162 168 34) 169 171 Numeral Pronouns (§ § suffixes (§ 36) 174 175 Suffixes of quasi-pronominal force (§ 37) 38-46) 176 pronouns (§ 38) Personal pronouns (§ § 39-41) Independent personal pronouns (§ 39) Enclitic personal pronouns (§ 40) Combinations of enclitic pronouns (§41) Post-nominal pronouns (§ 42) Demonstrative pronouns (§ 43) Interrogative pronouns (§ 44) The relative pronoun (§ 45) Reflexive pronouns (§ 46) Noun morphology (§ § 47-50) Noun and verb stem (§ 47) Plurality of nouns (§48) Classification of 176 177 177 182 192 199 204 207 21 211 212 212 213 Syntactical cases (§ 49) Postpositions (§50) Verb morphology (§ § 51-56) General remarks on verbal form (§ 51) The imperative (§52) Internal stem changes (§ 53) (§ 215 217 234 234 235 336 241 Singular and plural stems 54) Verb syntax (§ 55) Substantive verbs (§56) Negation (§57) Reduplication (§58) Numerals (§59) Adverbs (§60) Interjections (§61) Idiomatic usages (§ 62) Text with Analysis 243 249 252 256 262 266 272 273 276 .

To extend and deepen the insight into Plateau Shoshonean linguistics then obtained it seemed advisable. a Shoshonean Language 21 PREFACE. and conThe Paiute siderable ethnological information were obtained. The present volume is to be followed by a series of Southern Paiute and Ute texts and by a Southern Paiute vocabulary. there is enough phonetic. Utah. Director of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. publish a briefer sketch of the Ute language at some future date. Gordon did all that lay in his power to make these studies possible. who proved to be linguistic study of his tribe. It is a great pleasure to recall the unflagging patience and helpfulness of Tony Tillohash and the kindness with which Dr. I worked an excellent informant. put at my disposal for the ethnologic and with Tony. and the authorities of the Museum for permission to have these Paiute studies published by the . which was completed in December. supplemented by considerable grammatical information. J. a large number of songs. indeed necessary. A. under the auspices of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. morphologic difference between Ute and Southern Paiute to render I hope to the attempt to describe both at the same time confusing. Tony Tillohash. G. linguistic data proved so much superior to the Ute which I had previously secured that I have decided in this sketch to limit myself Moreover. Mason. to undertake Hence arrangements were made by the late further researches. with the collaboration of Dr. My first field acquaintance with Shoshonean linguistics was gained in a short trip during August and September of 1909 among the Northern Utes of Uintah Reserve. lexical. in Philadelphia from February to May of 1910. typical of the whole group in phonologic and morphologic respects must be left to future research. much supplementary grammatical material. A number of Ute texts were secured.Southern Paint e. 1917. This trip was undertaken. and to the former. Gordon. the Secretary and at that time Acting Director of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. The following sketch of Southern Paiute. B. with the authorities of the Indian school at Carlisle to have one of their Paiute students. is offered as a contribution to the scientific study of Whether or not it proves to be fairly the Shoshonean languages. A series of texts. My thanks are due Miss Jane McHugh.



Southern Paiiite and Ute


American Academy of Arts and Sciences. To Professor Franz Boas I owe a special debt of gratitude for arranging with the Bureau of American Ethnology that

prepare the present paper, later transferred to


of the University of Pennsylvania,


for his


recent efforts in enlisting the interest of the cation of my Southern Paiute manuscripts.
University of Chicago,


in the publi-



April 14, 1929.

Southern Paiule, a Shoshunean Language






The Shoshonean dialect that is more particularly treated in this paper is Kaibab Paiute, spoken in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona. The name Kaibab is an Anglicized form of the native qa'ivavitci "mountain-lying, plateau." The Kaibab Paiutes are only one of a large number of tribes or bands in southwestern
Utah, northwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, and southeastern California that have been loosely grouped together as Paiute proper or Southern Paiute. The linguistic differences found in the speech Paiute itself belongs, accordof the various Paiute bands are slight. ing to Kroeber's terminology, to the Ute-Chemehuevi branch of Plateau Shoshonean, a branch that includes, besides the Paiute dialects, the Ute dialects of western Colorado and most of Utah, Kawaiisu (spoken in south-central California), and Chemehuevi (spoken in southeastern California along the Colorado; the Chemehuevi are probably nothing but a Paiute band that have been subIt is doubtful if even the geojected to strong Yuman influences).
graphically extreme Ute-Chemehuevi dialects, say Uncompahgre Ute and Chemehuevi, are not mutually intelligible with considerable The two other branches of Plateau Shoshonean are Shoshoneease. Comanche (including Shoshone proper, Comanche, Gosiute, and Shikaviyam, spoken in California) and Mono-Paviotso (including Mono, Northern Paiute or Paviotso, "Snake" of eastern Oregon, and Bannock). Southern Paiute and Northern Paiute should be carefully distinguished; they are not dialects of the same language, but distinct and mutually unintelligible languages. Indeed, UteChemehuevi differs from both Shoshone-Comanche and Mono-

Paviotso in important morphological as well as phonetic respects. Thus, pronominal elements are suffixed (or enclitically affixed) in Ute-Chemehuevi, but prefixed (or proclitically affixed) in the other two branches of Plateau Shoshonean. The Shoshonean languages, according to Kroeber, comprise four
groups: the Plateau Shoshonean languages; Tiibatulabal or Kern River, spoken in south-central California; Hopi; and a group of southern Californian languages comprising the Serrano dialects, the dialects of the San Luiseho-Cahuilla branch, and the Gabrielino



Southern Paiute and Ute


The phonetic, lexical, and morphologic differences between these four groups of Shoshonean languages are evidently considerable. All the Shoshonean languages, taken as a unit, comprise the northernmost representative of the Uto-Aztekan stock. This stock includes,
besides Shoshonean, Nahuatl or Aztec and the Sonoran or Piman in the long stretch of country between the Mexican

languages spoken
state of Jalisco

and the Rio Gila (among these languages are Cora;

Huichol Yaqui-Opata-Cahita-Tarahumare Pima-Papago-TepehuaneTepecano). So far as is at present known, the Uto-Aztekan languages are not genetically related to any other American languages. The published material dealing with the Ute-Chemehuevi dialects We have some sketchy material of Kroeber's;^ a phonetic is scanty. study of Southern Ute by J. P. Harrington ;2 and a brief abstract on Ute by Sapir.^ Some linguistic material on Southern Paiute is also contained in Sapir's Song Recitative in Paiute Mythology.^ A comparative treatment of Uto-Aztekan, primarily from the point of view of

Southern Paiute, is given in Sapir's Southern Paiute and Nahuatl, a Study in Uto-Aztekan}

§ 2.

(§ §


(§ §


Fundamental Vowels.

Southern Paiute recognizes five primary or organically distinct These are a (as in German Mann); i (as in French fini), which interchanges freely with i (as in English fin) u (open as in English put, rarely close as in French bout), which interchanges freely


A. L. Kroeber, Notes on the Ute Language (American Anthropologist, n.


1908, pp. 74-87); notes on Chemehuevi and Kawaiisu (pp. 256-262) in Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern California (University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 8, no. 5, 1909).


P. Harrington,

The Phonetic System of

the Ute

Language (University Language (American

of Colorado Studies, vol. VIII, 1911, pp. 199-222). ' E. Sapir, Some Fundamental Characteristics of the Ute

Anthropologist, n.
* ^


1910, pp. 66-69).

Journal of American Folk-Lore, 1910, pp. 455-72. Part I (Vowels): Journal de la Soci6t6 des Ara^ricanistes de Paris, N. S., X, 1913, pp. 379-425; Part II (Consonants): American Anthropologist, N. S., 1915, pp. 98-120, 306-328, also in Journal de la Soci6t6 des Am^ricanistes

de Paris, N.
is still


XI, 1919, pp. 443-488.


III, to

be devoted to morphol-


; :

Southern Paint e, a Shoshonean Language



with close o (as in French bean); o (as in German voll, hut much rounded, hence tending acoustically towards a); and i (high back unrounded, probably like ao of Gaelic aon). Of these vowels, is characteristic of most Shoshonean languages. It is often
less clearly

o, but is really not at all related to unrounded, the lips being perfectly passive. It is most easily acquired by setting the back of the tongue in position for u and carefully unrounding the lips without at the same time disturbing the tongue position. Each of the vowels may be short or long. The long vowels are indicated as a-, v (or r), v (or o), o-, and v. Diphthongs are common ai (also modified forms di, ti), ui (or oi), or, 'ii; and au. Long diphthongs, e. g. a'i {aai), o'i {o'oi, ooi), are also frequent. Such diphthongs, however, are only secondary developments of short diphthongs no three-moraed syllables are allowed (see § 9, 1). Triphthongs sometimes arise when diphthongs combine with simple vowels, e. g. ooi. Actually there are many more than five vocalic qualities to be recognized in Southern Paiute. According to their vocalic or consonantic surroundings, each of these is subject to a considerable gamut of modifications, running from comparatively slight changes of nuance to complete assimilation to other primary vowels. The following section gives examples of all the types of vocalic modification that have been noted.

heard as a dull or muddied
these vowels, as
it is



§ 3.

Qualitative Vocalic Changes.

Many of the modifications here listed are optional; that is, they tend to take place in fairly rapid and uncontrolled speech, where
complete or partial assimilations in articulation are particularly apt to occur, but may be absent in more controlled speech. Thus, one hears i{y)a, i{y)d, or i(y)E, all equivalents of a psychologically fundamental ia. It will be most convenient to list the changes under the five fundamental vowels.

Modifications of


(a) Palatalization.

After a syllable containing




palatalized to a (as in English hat) or,

further, to

(as in English

This takes place particularly when a directly follows

or without glide y, see § 14, 2), or


v intervenes.






from here

8 qani-vantuywa-


Southern Paiute and Ute

house- to
qani'vdntuywa-viiipi to their


ivd'tci', ivt'tci





wood-from, some

u^qwa'-pim'dnt'i, -m-ent'i




to his

own mother;








standing between a syllable with
further palatalized to close
(like u of

a following




Dulling to a



(b) Dulliyig to a.

English hut)


particularly in unaccented syllables.

is extremely seems to take place

chiefly before or after nasal

consonants {m, n,



^ontco'yii ani'i

with one eye lack-


-na- verbal abstract



I shall


that (anim.)

the one






midway between a and

o) in partial

assimilation to an

of the preceding or following syllable; this
fully distinguished in recording

was not always care-


grouse white > fo^ca'-,
(§ 13, 1, b)



Vho:'pa{i)y(xmpats- white-breasted, gull (also recorded as nor-


mal tD'ca'pa{i)yampats-)
Further labialization to

takes place very frequently after labialized

gutturals {qw, yiv, yqio), wo being often simplified to






with preceding -ru- to -ru'qwaor -Ruqwa'-yw'aito go in order to
to drag


him back and

qivUca'yiv oip'iya'^





while dragging


-mnayqwa-pa-qwa'aito go






went home

Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language



Modifications of


(alternating with





This occurs pretty regularly after immediately preceded by a and o respectively. ai is quite frequently heard as di, ei or as "t, H with rather fleeting glide-like a or e; H is sometimes heard still further reduced to i (see b). After a labialized guttural i > ai may be labialized to oi, H (cf. 1, c). These diphthongs are not treated as organically such, but regularly count in accentual phenomena as simple vowels (see
to ai, oi.


7, yq)


§ 9).



payi- to\\'d\k{e.g.'mpa'xiqwaai-







he went away)




go away; pay'i'na-Tjw'irn-payi-Y'i cloud stands up and walks (sixth and seventh syllables)

walk; pay'i'-qwa'"

durative iterative suffix
to stop (rolling)

after another


pop one





to stick in several

(e. g.


in iSLTjwa'xikaiy'iavi

they are



all kept on though stuck; tsLtsn)wax''i'p'iyainC all went in as though


sticks several


mam- a' "cay witoyi-,




-caywHts- old

toywi- just, precisely

toyo'iaruqwaxi right under toyo'ituywanu midnight




not infrequently even loses its i and appears as toyo'- (e. g. ten), but such recorded forms as toy^i'arjaruqwA

RIGHT under him and tdyH'mava'anA right above that prove
clearly that the second o
(b) Dulling to



i is

regularly dulled to


a high un-

rounded "mixed" vowel (to use Sweet's terminology) that sounds acoustically midway between i and i. It has been often recorded simply as i, sometimes also, though exaggeratedly, as Examples












Southern Pahitc and Ute





with the point of a stick-like


having killed him; p\?iL'avtvatsi'qWA being about to lie down and watch it tsiyu'in'mvxwiy'ini is poking me; stuck (one obtsi'nikipiycC

(9, 7. ^.




gutturalized to



after guttural consonants








order to


he comes to punch










as he


Consonanih'mg before nasals. When standing before n or rj and coming after ts (sometimes modified to /, see §13, 7, a), less often after q, i not infrequently loses its vocalic character altogether and assimilates to the following nasal, becoming syllabic ri or 2/ (cf. English kazn. from cousin):


gerundive diminutive

+ -ni- I + -ni- my

qa'vatsv,ni being about to sing,




(d) Consonantizing to y.

Rather infrequently the combination
vowel, simplifies Xo y vowel,
e. g.


vowel, via



glide y


present here


compare u{w)a'nu(3)

present there


wa'nu- (see

5, a).

Modifications of



too frequently an



assimilated to



of a following syllable or, as




then apt to dissolve to

vi, i'.

an immediately following Examples are:


to be in a hurry to take


takes several times






done so (<

hortatory adverb





hurry up thou! go ahead ye me! (contrast 'iv^'i'ni go ahead thou me!) regularly so appear, never with





Southern Paiute, a Shoshonecm Language


(b) Palatalization to

After c and

tc, i

often loses



articulation, passing into

t. This secondary i, with primary i, t; unlike it, e. dental consonants (see § 13, 4; §

and even (at least so frequently however, must never be confused


cannot palatalize guttural or

13, 3).






coyote put

clna'ywa<pi, ana'ywacpi



coyote put while

going along

to arrive






modified from
(see § 13, 3).


the -ta- of the last form were primary, not would have changed the participial ~ri to -tc'i

Dental consonants {t, r, nt, n) also frequently modify an immediately i to i, t. Indeed an i or t following t, r, or nt is practically always modified from an original as an old primary i has regularly assibilated these consonants (see § 13, 3). Examples are:


part of body

mywi"a{i)yayA body (obj.)





to eat





to chase



chased him
Less frequently



becomes modified to yi, yi; e. g. pa{i)yi- to reAs might be expected from its position, best preserved after guttural consonants, e. g. payi" fish.


pa{i)yl-, pa{i)yi-.





If i is

obscure u, the nuance
possible, indeed, that

frequently recorded by students as an tends to be heard as an obscure o. It is


pronounced with

slight inner rounding, as

It is a "wide" vowel, probably also slightly lower in articulation than i. Though i is a difficult vowel to define, it represents a nuance clearly distinct from that of i. Acoustically it may be described as a duller form of i, tending to be heard both as u and a. After labial consonants {p, v, mp, m; less often w) the change of i

appears chiefly being "narrow"; it

in labial




regular, less regularly before









own house



plant suffix




Southern Paiiitc and Ute


to paint

m\y'i' Tjqannp'i

gopher house


qwi{iynL-k-aione's breast

Rarely qwi simplifies to q'i: to strut out

qi'{iy Ni^'kaai breast

struts out




analogous to the change of qwa to qwo, qo (see

1, c).

When coming before a nasal consonant fol(d) Labialization. lowed by a labial consonant or vowel (e. g. vip, rjw, yu), i, in its frontal modification i, is further developed to a corresponding slightly rounded vowel iX, acoustically midway between i and the true highfront-rounded w. Our iX is probably only inner-rounded and not articulated as far front as the standard il; often it sounds like a
rapid diphthongal








my mouth




mountain divide




to return
(e. g. in tirjqa'ni, tiijqa'ni





A somewhat

similar (juality, yet slightly

more rounded and


tracted, probably equivalent to the standard


wide), sometimes develops from




above) before nasal


guttural or labial or before nasal







pvrjwa' ntuxw A




to see




(too far back).

This quality was generally recorded as simply ii (too far front) or For practical purposes i does well enough.

A still stronger degree of lal)ialization is attained by t when it stands before v"" or yw. This quality has been generally recorded as u, i. e. u, but it is rather flabbier in sound than the true rounded
open u (varying with








his clothes

The same

modification occurs in

which frecjuently

loses its


(cf. 1, c; 3, c),





Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language




animate plural


with his own


















This and the following modification (f) Assimilation to o. from the labializations spoken of under (d) in that they reprecomplete and regularly occurring assimilations. Before a
d, i

syllable containing

appears assimilated to


w'iy'i- vulva -f o'paq'i- nA toHsiqari'7ihnpl- saddle


saddle horn




Less regularly

i is

assimilated to a preceding

our (exclusive)


our tongue



Before a syllable containing u

assimilates to



deer hide




a deer hide


wake up


cuwa'pUcutui- to wake up (tr.) towards them; amu"ura'

avvv'wami in front (< avv'i- -\- -uwa' mi-)



present tense


-rua- inter-





coming a medicine-man?

This assimilation takes place also after a syllable containing u
-ru to




present tense


-yhn-arjwdwywa- away from .yi. -j- -n-oa- modal enclitic

I make a turtle uyu'maijwd-uxwA away from


someuwa'i-uywaVu' a{i)yon-OA body is walking in that direction

Only infrequently does
occur sometimes



to assimilate to u.

This seems to
e. g.


a glottal stop separates the vowels,

ni'u'nantux-WA opposite to me;
yu'u-, yo'o-.


leg, more often


Consonantizing before nasals. This takes place, though less imder the same circumstances as the analogous consonantizing of i (see 2, c above), but after a c:



Southern Paiute and Vte

to like


to like

Modifications of

Between two a-vowels an o is sometimes semi-unrounded and dulled in quality to a sound approximating that This quality appears to be identical with that of the of a itself. w referred to above (1, c). Examples are:






around it had a




Rather infrequently we

find o palatalized or

after y:






mourning dove




ing doves

(both wide and narrow varieties) is found as the regular In Ute correspondent of Southern Paiute o (e. g. Ute dd'<t)i salt: Southern




to v.


o is

assimilated to an u of the

following syllable:

several travel

poru'qup'iya' several started out
-puru-, like certain other examples of o-u

The compound form

alternation, belongs rather to vocalic "ablaut" than to the purely

phonetic phenomena here discussed (see

§ 17, 7, a).

Modifications of


(alternating with o):

Passage into the corresponding semivowel w, when standing before a vowel, sometimes takes place:


demonstrative stem







a canyon





An unaccented u


rarely assimilated to an

of the following syllable:


element "also"



though under them too {-c-uni' was also recorded)

Southern Paiute, a Sboshoneati Language





to i.

An unrounded





sometimes develops

after iy or before y,

also quite frequently immediately before
i, t

This secondary



be further developed to

(see 3, b).



with the point of a stick to poke


tsV {y)'L vvuxWLp'iyaiyariA

poking him

-cnya-ywa-Jioa- would that

-CLyaytoa)noacausative suffix


caused to see

kwdu- anus


yoyo- to copulate

place, passive pederast

(d) Assiviilation to

Between two





rarely assimi-

lated to











into a shirt for



to o.

Before, less frequently after, an



times broadened out to an open

ua- demonstrative


-ya- objec-


modal adverb








went towards him




example shows, two successive o- vowels both tend to of them is so modified (cf. f). An original u (o) tends to become opened to o before and after -7-. This is particularly true of the group -uyu- (-070-), which seems to develop regularly to -oyo-; e. g. yoyo- to copulate with, toyo'aipi RATTLESNAKE. Sometimes comparison with Ute, in which primary appears as (Ute is an open form of u, 0), is necessary in such cases to determine whether Paiute is primary or developed from o.
develop to

As the

when one





An u


vowel assimilates to

before a

syllable containing 0:



to"ovan'naijqA black goose; to' ponton' i^kayit'inC like some-

thing black and spherical










Southern Poiute and Ute

Infrequently u

assimilated to o by the 5 of a preceding syllable

(contrast 4, c)



+ -^w-






Infrequently ii loses its vocalic (g) Consonantizing before nasals. nature when standing between q and rj, appearing as syllabic jf (cf. 2,
c; 3, g):









(pi. obj.)




§ 4. (1)

Quantitative Vocalic Changes.

Vocalic contractiox.


less often short,

vowels some-

times result from the contraction of two short vowels or of a long and a short vowel. The vowels may be either of the same or of
different qualities.


shall take

up the examples according

to the

quality of the resulting product.

Vowels contracting
a- is




The most common source

of a





-ntcu'a- interrogative
-ntcu'a- H


aya- he

that-inter.- he





-ya- objective



tixrnpa'{i)ya-rjA his



-aT)a-xwa- preterit suffix -atja-7ia- verbal noun suffix -aqa- it -»H(//)a- usitative



he died



which he dug up





a- results









pA^qa' rjqiTjinn par)' amini



thee for


to sing


-aqa- imperative



Often, but not necessarily, di contracts to












perfectly round

and hollow



Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language


Also la


not infrequently heard as

a-, a:

animate plural
present tense






j active







don't laugh!

+ -a'paAn
absorbed, as

-\- u (see b), is sometimes p the labial vowel being

an, itself usually contracted from a

further contracted to

before qw,



were, into the following labialized consonant but

quantitative value behind in the lengthening of the pre-






hang oneself snow

na' tjijoaiywa^ii na' qwiyqi-


go hang thyself!




to fight



see § 13, 5, b)

distinct a

Vowels contracting to ai, au. and i, or u, combine:

This results when organically



in (such a)

fire (obj.)



ma- that




in tiiat



A long a- -\- i also contracts to ai. This is because organically long diphthongs are not allowed in Southern Paiute. E. g.
cold water






have cold water

qava- horse



u (o), however, remains as disyllabic «











qavau- resulted, the above form would iiave been qava'upanutni




Vowels contracting








from an original further reduced to i:

ui (see § 3, 5, c)

u which sometimes sometimes heard still


causative suffix



a fire



got dark




Southern Paiule and Ute




advances beyond

yi, yt

(see § 3, 3, b) to contracted i:

indirect! ve




tu'^qwi" airjqiir'on' i' ^






appears as a con-


long r, not infrequently heard simply as

tracted product of











my locust my house
r sometimes
his friend

Voiocls contracting to v,








sometimes reduced from

(see § 13, 5, b):




Rarely does






whicli normally gives







in front of


in front of



Vowels contracting

This diphthong sometimes results



i, i'

cvyi- sugar

+ or + -i'nii,


(for loss of 7, see § 13, 5, b):












Vowels contracting

to o-, 0.

The contracted product


from either


assimilated from u

(see § 3, 5,


u- demonstrative stem

0' aydux-w a




-oayU-uywao- -{-


or from







through the


Ordinarily, however, the


in the latter case






0, 0-:


which sometimes appears as a broadened form
ua- (oa-)
(see § 3, 5, e)


appears also contracted to






though I medicine-man


become a

h -a))a-


ya' a'iva- niar' o- tjaxainL


as though he will die

u{w)unu- yonder





there he


Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language





Vowels catiirading to oi. This diphthong sometimes results -\- i ov 0- -\- i, being itself sometimes a broadened form of u

after a (see § 3, 5, e)







my trail

(foroa <o-

see 2, b below)







Voiccls contracting to

contracted to
§ 3, 3,




v. The u -\- u that is frc(iucntly found u (see primary or assimilated from i





they (invisible)
in front of

+ -u{w)to sing a


in front of





+ -u{w)a^mi-


in front of






namo'v'^itu' p'i-ya song

sang the

Vowels contracting
-\- i



This diphthong sometimes results

from u






tu'y{w)v- to cache


-m'm- pos-





Vocalic lengthening.

Several phonetic

phenomena may be

conveniently grouped under this head.

Secondary lengthening.

Very characteristic


Southern Paiute,

as contrasted with Ute,

the secondary lengthening of organically

short vowels.

often in unaccented than in accented syllables;

This seems to take place, strangely enough, more it occurs with parti-

cular frequency in initial syllables, though found also medially.


lengthening has neither morphological nor mora -determining (§ 9) significance. Where advisable to indicate its inorganic character,


of length


enclosed in parentheses,

e. g.





from there






twywa- night oa- back -\ va'nnwith the feet ta-


neck (obj.) through the night o{-)'a-va(-yna)U on my back n'iv"'a'ta{) maya- p'iya' went out to test depth of snow with the







Southern Paiute and Ute



from inside the house
That, to take the last two examples, we are really dealing with -varjivi- respectively, is proved not only by the testimony of the overwhelming preponderance of ta- and -vaijwi- in other forms but also by the treatment, as regards unvoicing, of the vowels following the a(). A primary two-moraed a- would have demanded the incorrect forms: *n'iv^a'tamaya.i^p'iya and *qan(.'var)WitumanaijqwA (see § 10, 1).
organic ta- and
(b) Pseudo-diphthongal or -iriphthongal treatment of long vowels (and diphthongs). Any long vowel, less frequently secondarily lengthened vowel, may be pseudo-diphthongized, i. e. weakly rearticu-

i\ t*", u" (o", o°), o". Examples will meet us frequently, none need be listed here. All organically long vowels, whether resulting from contraction or not, may be broken up into two short vowels or even a short and a long vowel or a long and a short vowel e. g. organic a-, a° may be further heard diphthongized to aa, aa-, aa. Throughout aa and a- are to be considered as phonetic equivalExamples ents, similarly for other vowels (e. g. ?/r' or yvi" doorway). of broken-up long vowels are
lated: a",



preterit tense




tona' { uatcaarjanoA



qvp-aya- to

struck him; ovi'nti'qay'wmtcaarjA

he turned into wood

water out of the

it spill

Analogously, organic diphthongs
e. g.

out of




be pseudo-triphthongized;



aai, oi




au > aau. Even secondary lengthening of sometimes found: d{-)oi < oi. Examples of pseudoooi,


triphtiiongs are:

remote past




again peeped out arja"uraaicu towards him again qoo'i'napcya' (line) fell right






yauqwi- (sun)




§ 7, 1)




1, a),



being elided (see

or unvoiced (see § 8,

are sometimes,


! :

Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language


for reasons of rhetorical emphasis, lengthened


and generally followed

by a

glottal stop:


one with it kwiHu'ni my anus






in here

tvp'^'i' , tvp-i-'





sometimes rhetorically lengthened to


final -a'" is also


that only thou

"^m^a'icampa'a' enough for thee

shut up

Medial vowels are
not u{w)a'nu yonder


sometimes lengthened

for rhetorical reasons

not so!

§ 5.

+ nu

way over


Glide Vowels.

Inorganic vowels
as very


develop as





glides are often heard as full vowels,


weak vowels that may be appropriately written

as superiors.

It will be convenient sometimes,

to avoid ambiguity, to indicate

the glide by
glides before

of a parenthesis.

after a guttural

The a and o which appear as consonant preceded by a or o have

been already spoken of

(see § 3, 2, a).

This appears very frequently, one might almost (1) Glide i. say regularly, before y after all vowels but i itself. The resulting diphthong, however, always sounds briefer, less sustained, than the organic i- diphthong; it does not count as two morae (see § 9) nor can it be pseudo-triphthongized (see § 4, 2, b). Examples are:


to appear, look like to


putcutcuywapresent tense




appeared puHcu' tcwywaii)' yiq-w a knows
pa{i)yu' tju p'iya


to return
to fall asleep







). xw. above under -yicaci- 1). Here belongs after of. -xu-.4 7iL'{n)<f)A at me (in". a) ampaya-ya-. before -yu-. Nasalized vowels are fairly frequent in Southern Paiute. Before an initial labialized 14. They are either reduced forms of vowels ?. 5. Examples are: horse-tail horse + tail qava'{v)x\v. b) vi^'a- Prothetic a prothetic U-. (3) 3.) or o before a syllable with z (chiefly before -mi. "m'"a'm that (in- animate) Nasalization of Vowels. -v'i.) while talking his ordinating suffix objective -v'i- + -4>i own moccasins own < nit'iva- I + -va. ii. i (§ 3. and before is appears after i before v. This glide sometimes appears after a before labial- ized spirants or nasals (yw. less so than in Ute.s'i- at a distance diminutive (2) Glide It also u.Vcmiixu hair xirjwa-varjivi- he -\- -Tjwantuywa- from ur)wq'{xi)i)ivantuxwA iiv^q'{i^r)\vif€ from him in it (obj.40 22 In the last X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR example the %i of -i)u- is unrounded before the of glide i (see § 3. 2. the occasional assimilation of to a following Examples are: piin- to see pi'iu'lcdip-'Lya saw little ini{if)o- at a distance -f -/.diphthong resulting inorganic qava- (cf. § 6. see § pine-nut fi'(n)(j)A pine-nut > -</)..^'-m'^a'ni in that that way.or -tsi-).vt- //////o"7. ijw). 'i also the not too common appearance i an I- glide (i. subone's a)npa'ya{u)x-u pA'tca'ia{u)(^i (obj. -la- to talk + -7^'-. They arise from two entirely distinct sources. in being in a. + . " is frequently found: {u)rn'"ani. or they are due to the assimilating influence of an immediately preceding or following nasal consonant. {n)m'"a'm. c). a). qanL'va(au)r)Wi the house (an < a- < see § 4. The u. 3.

where it tends to become the norm (particularly when the vowel is followed by t/w). in other words: na{-)vi'ayw am\ mother-and-daughter tiiey Somewhat infrecjuently a final nasalized breath has been observed It is unpreceded by a nasal element. where ij does not occur at all. y. when following a nasal consonant or a nasalized coyote q'ljwantuxiVA at him {q- < q + cinaywavi- a) CLnq'wa4>i coyote uywai7ia- hang iiwa'i-kai^^wa'" reflexive + -urjwai- nq-'wa'tp-'iyd' go and hang hung himself 1 (for loss of u. 23 Reduction of vowel speech in Southern Paiute. is itself sometimes heard as nasalized (represented as \) 'q[ interjection of surprise left CLni^'i'x-qai'imi them ( K&im^'ia-) definite vocalic timbre. a Shoshonean Language 41 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (1) ?. far more frequently in Uintah Ute. Examples are: tj. ni. or yw: y'viai yes m\miywant'i one of you mq'imiy'waiti never saying that c^na'ywaxpi coyote like u''qwL\nL m'ini'cip'i'ya' an arrow turned around early in the q{-)'iio'tA\'iayqu morning yfywA he (invisible) piiyqa' NU'qwixai^ paq"aywA his keeps calling on aunt ( < paa-ywa-) + NU^'qwi'iri'viLqi' runs along A final or medial breath (including its (3) Nasalized breath. 1. Nasalization as reduced form of vowel occurs + to nasalized fairly often in rapid arja- he + to -ywantuywa. and regularly in Uncompahgre Ute. generally representing the unvoicing of a vowel (see § 8). see § 4. is Sometimes the nasalized breath has a voiceless nasalized vowel.: Southern Puiute. development to z). barely possible that this is . This occurs frequently before or after n. a) (2) Inorganic nasalization.

42 24 A' Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR the remnant of a "nasalizing" force of the stem or grammatical element (see -va-" at § 16. g. tively Elision of final short vowels. syllabified a-ru-ywa'ij)-pi-ya\ Examples o"" are: -aqa- it + o'" then (obj.) aunt + our (dual inclus. except in poetry and in certain infrequent They are either wholly or cases also in prose. The latter processes are operative before words beginning with a vowel (a glottal stop or breathing preceding an initial vowel does not take away from the vocalic beginning). before a word beginning with a vowel. e. elided before a following initial vowel: . Final vowels are never. partly unvoiced (see § 8. 3): (e.ani'ntc'i how doing blanket miiru" aRi the blanket inanimate article. of course. without qualitative or A prequantitative trace. but echo which so often follows the glottal stop is. or else they are entirely elided or quantita-^'i'tc noun ^'i'tci- this aro'^amC this saywa'xari-y'i- being blue saywa'xar iiru" ap-'iya' present tense + a'70/ now purj'wi'yqly a''i4>i wont to be was blue makes a peepis ing noise now imi'ntcux-\VA said -CM- again a'ip'iyaaic- again to thee A the final glottal murmured stop protects the preceding vowel from elision. A final short vowel of the form of the word is lost. Elision of final vowels. aruywa a'ip'iya to-him said becomes aruyw (1) ideally complete a'ip'iya. preserved as such. 1). -vant'i- being at) -va\ at (more often heard as -va') § 7.) tiTjiVA animate singular coyote paa'iram iiywA wVciavL u'viA on the feathers our aunt article-pronoun CLtia'yivavi- ana'ijwav au'p'iya lying coyote was aya'niimiru"i-f (iRi in what way aya'n.) 'iv"''i'aq- go-ahead-it then! qa'iva-ya- mountain qa'ivay uru'qwAtuxWA towards the mountain wTn'avtapaa'irami- feathers (obj. vowel beginning the with directly syllabified is ceding consonant of the next word. g.

there then u^qwiyuaiii the arrow a'ip'iya i{. away Before am from qwau a'y'i'viaijwduxWA o^ •d. c) (for w of A final short vowel. may combine into a long with the vowel of like quality that begins the following word. except that third personal pronouns (at least animate singulars) before the verb lose their final vowel and insert a glottal stop (cf. a Shoshonean Language 43 25 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Reduction of final long vowels and diphthongs. which retain water The above rules do not apply to monosyllables.) (pi.arrow qwau. 1.Southern Pa kite. 3. e. reason back of this usage.) ta''^mp'iniyar)W n'im^i' 'a'ikanu we you ( do. (3) Retention of final vowels. their second mora: the water the arrow pa- pa' ani o' 0. via'up- THROUGH THERE THEN. e. while the second vowel of the diphthong is lost without trace: -vaat uqwi'yva'ip'iyai- arrow said mava' tinirjuts.m^u'rux-WA said to them -qaiperfective tspi'ijuqwa aya'v'antuxiVA has appeared on him -qwa see § 14. tspi'rjuqwa''r)'a'v'antuxwA. imi- There is probably some morphological Examples are: imi'^aik-A thou thou say est are tired of riimyi- we (exclus. ^ai- to s. g.g. reduced as above.-vy subjective independent personal pronouns keep theit" final vowel. i. § 41. e.y^'d. the long vowel is shortened. enclitic -aya'ya- < -aya- + what say The same rule applies to subjective independent personal pronouns before arvi'-k-a. e): . A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -i/pct'C) through go ahead! ma'wpa' then V»"'t" imi liru'tjuts- through there i^"'i'(*) go ahead thou! Very rarely do forms turn up with eUded vowel ttm'yuts(2) + glottal stop. A final long vowel or a diphthong loses its second mora before a word beginning with a vowel. the latter being then absorbed in a preceding consonant.y it ai-.

e.(see § 19).g. g.and -{ii)tca. })y taking on a This is true of nominal or independent pronominal subjects immediately followed by a substantive verb (see § 56).: 44 26 n'ivi'^i- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR we (exclus. A protecting glottal stop added -ywa. provided they are directly preceded by an independent personal pronoun and followed by a word beginning with a consonant.) lii'ywa' to'iiA I punched n'im^i- we n'im^L'-^wa'" qa'tcu we did not + itcin'i- -ywathis (phick -teadci'tca''^ some of his feathers) + pAHca'n- am I these my moccasins have (worn out) I + what -ntca- ni'ntca' pi'pi'tc'i have arrived With these examples anui-\ contrast: cina'rjwavi- coyote —ywa— -\ ani'axw a'ivV what did tea- (he) say? cina' ijwavitc uyw o" coyote-did he break-wind xi{w)an-oyu-ntca- from over there -|- u{w)a' noyuntc yaiyiX'rju retnmeA m- I -\- ntca- from over there m'nte iy'i'R pi^pi'tc'i rived I indeed ar- .: Certain final vowels are protected from elision itci- this little girl itci" ^aru'^aviC this is wont to be it is na'a'intsdsL- na'a'intstsi aru'^'^ a little girl imi- thou last imi" iiwaru"" thou art With the imiaIt is example contrast: ivii (of) thee 'uraru"'^ it is thine likely that here again we is are not dealing with a purely phonetic also to the final a of the preterit phenomenon.) n'ivi^L 'ani'k-A we are doing hut: m^arja- that one (animate) final vi^arj ^ani'k-A that one does Apparently other ani-ka-: qatcu- vowels are sometimes preserved before not qatcuanik-A glottal stop. enclitics m- I -\ — 'ywa(excl. e.

it. according to the nature of the final vowel and the element preceding We must distinguish between final short vowels and long vowels or diphthongs. tj) preceding the unvoiced vowel remain unaffected. The final unvoicing may be either complete or partial. g. -aq'^). q. a'ika- several say > a'ik-A. the timbre not being always distinctly perceptible. or before a word beginning with a consonant (not including and initially or medially under certain conditions to be defined below. -pi > -/>'/. unvoiced. while unvoiced a and Where the timbre of the voiceless vowel is obscure. A stopped consonant (including tc) becomes a strongly After a aspirated surd (e. (1) Unvoicing in final position. a to detect.Southern Paiute. in Vowels are unvoiced (indicated our orthography by corresponding ' small capitals) in two circumstances: when final in absolute position or '). a'ik' or a'ik-A. originally voiced vowel. A vowel or nasal (m. young man "yonder. after elision of initial ' the originally following vowel.or rjq. -aqa. -aq' or -aq'^A. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (4) Irregularities. n. unites into rfw: with an of the next (inv. mere is used. g. indicated more simply as -pi). i and u are the are not always easy clearest of the timbres. indeed. Very rarely do we find a final diphthong or long vowel completely elided: -p'Cyai- remote past ti'nti'qap'iy liwaywantV ate well a'ip'iy a'i<i>Apnts- from said her. after an anterior palatal k. be appropriately defined as aspiration with the vocalic timbre of the Very frequently the breath alone is heard.) word 'ai- ania-Tjwato say what he + ani'aifw a'imi to say what he is wont § 8. the final breath is sometimes sharpened to a glide ' (e. always sounds distinctly breathy in quality and may.or 'i ' rjk. a Shoshonean Language 45 27 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A final completely unvoiced vowel (a) Treatment of short vowels. a'ik-). though often the latter part of the nasal More rarely the nasal too is heard completely is also voiceless. this glide is palatalized to a ? (as in German ich\ e." (he) uv'^a- there v-\-v^ a'ip'iya^ said A final tjw. g. Examples are: . Vocalic unvoicing.> -aq-A.

the independent is vocalic quality as subsequent to the consonant release also fre- quently heard. such an orthography as -cu is to be interpreted as a long c with {v.) -n ta- numeral with suffix ina{-)n-u'nLA. final -s. -c. -aitf what house front -arja-r]u- his momentaneous suffix ivi'tju to take a drink in -u{w)a'mi- in front of qanLu{w)aMi house piy'i'pi of the -pi-nU- body-part participial suffix heart uv^a'^nti tTqa'q-A jri'tci being there several eat -qapitci- plural subject to arrive to arrive c. simultaneous lip-rounding as for u. s-. my house (several) -na- a'ikavanA. However. r) the unvoiced not already unvoiced. if After spirants and rolled consonants in vowel turn unvoices the consonant. e. i. and r are respectively A final -tsi. z. Frequently the vocalic timbre is hardly perceptible. -rV being light-gray (obj.regularly <f>. -nt' all mocoa-ma-ni- piibic hair md^co'a a'mA pubic hair with it qani'ii my verbal abstract noun suffix his qani'ni. in -0/ < -vi-. 7. 7. and -x are always long. The unvoiced forms of v. It is itself not typically isolable as a separate element but appears generally as a definite vocalic timbre of the unvoiced spirant. -van will say qani'arjA. e. becomes -vi- -ts-. Examples suffix are: body-part . and r. g.46 28 -fi-a- X Southern Paiiitc wul Ute SAPIR participle (objective) quHca'qafiA.

a) thy house (b) Trcatme?it of lo short vowel. whispered. what to the same thing.Southern Paiuie. 1. though it organically of 9). 7)qw. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE partly reduced in voice. Such syllables are one-moraed (see § examples. probably. a. In the latter case. see § 15. Examples are: If the amounts -n'ni- continuative suffix i^tu'RanL''^ several keep doing paya'y'wL-7ii my bowstring paya'ywt''^ -upa- through via'upa^"- bowstring through there There is. 1). a distinction in treatment between a glottal stop that belongs properly to the final syllable. l)oth the to and the vowel are unvoiced (im voiced w is indicated as w). a preceding nasal is in such cases apt to be more completely unvoiced (whispered) because of the presence of the glottal stop. yw. and one that. 7]w) short vowel. end). the final vowel is unvoiced (better. It does not lose its voice altogether but becomes a "murmured" vowel (indicated by superior vowels): aru'a-tilltaqiOL-'o- to be 7ii' 'aru"" I am to cause to run toyo'qn'itu'^ roasting tray tA'^qu'L-"" is Sometimes the murmured vowel aru'ato be to heard assimilated in (juality to the vowel preceding the glottal stop: aru" pay (generally aru". Examples are: -n'na- momentaneous thy --mi- tska'pui na to cut something (cf. end). consonant + vowel + glottal stop. -mi (more frequently qa-ni'imi. as in the above it may actually appear in it. tska'vmA to be cutting) qani'mi. a Shoshonean Language 47 29 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. however. 2. indeed. § 7. + + . is not but belongs properly to some part of the word preceding the final syllable or is an accessory element (see § 15. 2. aru") fiv'^LCL'a- tiv^LCL"- word ends in a consonant + glottal stop + vowel (or. see § 15. Such syllables are two-moraed (see § 9). y a lengthened x. cf. The preceding Examples are: q then becomes aspirated. In words ending in a labialized consonant (gw. The "echo" is not alwaj's clearly perceptible. the final vowel appears fully \oiced and followed by the glottal stop + a murmured rearticulation or "echo" of the vowel (cf. 2).

as a.plural subject imperative mi{y)ofar off + -ya- plural qa'qai{Y)A. pa'ai' tava'i' . pa' ..and the tendency of a. 2. owing to the i. acoustically quite distinct from -ai\ -a. A final y short vowel become unvoiced to r voiceless vowel (y is much lighter than ch of German ich).appears normally as -i\ -'' after all vowels but i. Indians pivi'ararjWA (c) Treatment of y -\.and ai to break up into aa and aai respectively (see § § 5. 4. indeed.i' y'i- sets fire to brush . after which merely -' is + + ' ordinarily heard. b).i' pai. the latter somewhat languishing in character. or. a true diphthong in which the a and i melt lazily into each other. Ordinarily. If the vowel preceding the y is a.numeral suffix -\ to set fire to brush — paa'ivu. among co-yu. Hence a final -ai' < -a(. ?/.) ivi y iqwA to pana'yqwa-ruywa-raywa-vaywi-rjw'i- down (incl.pitci' pitci-.) pana'rjqWA rirti"'u'ruxwA to them our in animate plural our mothers qani'vaywi in the house mTjtvl'ntsLTjn'L men. or is generally heard as voiced glide.— 48 30 ivi' y'iqwa- — X Southern Paiute and Lite SAPIR drinks it (inv. 1.water tavai- -\ — Examples are: ya- objective paa'iA. plur. though not necessarily so long as to deserve the orthography -ai'. Examples are: -qa. however. pa. paa'i'. before y + vowel. o.or -ai-y'i-. pa'. final -y'i. i.i' < -a-y'i.i)-yi.glide after a. (lit. wakes up pa'anito be high a- nearly arrives) + -y'i- pa'a'ni' is high -\- A long vowel indistinguishable phonetically. pitci- to arive H arrives.the other one co'yu po'yam'vna^^ runs along -m'miaalong -7)11- moving + -y'i- present tense momentaneous passive + -y'i- ivi'rjui takes a drink is -t'i- + -y'iy'i- ivi'fuiyuii-^^ pita''^' caused to drink cu(w)a'. Both appear as aai. the Y becomes a mere breath merged in the following voiceless vowel. -qai sing ye! mi'{Y)d "'a'xavaiYU in it -axava{i)yu.short voivcl. a clear i or The timbre of the final vowel is least clear if reduced from 'i. the former -ai' is sharp.three H yu.i. very characteristically before final y or an ai before final y generally) are practically + vowel (and.

-i is lost without trace and the then ". Examples remote past while lying are: a'ip'iya^ avi'-^a" -p'iyaiavi'-^ai- said -uraitiv'^ai- toward down.i' Final glottalized diphthongs (see § 15. causative Final -a\a)i-. the i- Treatment of diphthongs.several sleep < A'qo'{p)i-. 2.i" of (d) sees < pmi-kai-y'i-). are shortened. b).diphthongs lose the second This breath has not -i.plural 31 medic-passive + -?/t- pa{-)ya'itca. timbre. a Shoshonean Language 49 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. All final long vowels. e. a final breath taking here to begin to sing ''i'va (see § 3. All final i. g. a). -i as a "murmured" vowel (see a above). i. stop is followed by a "murmured" hang -ywa'aiya'ai- to go in order to iiiva'i-kaiywa'" to go in order to to die narjwa'ai- both ya"" naywa"'* .i' (clothes) are worn out navai. however. gather up H Contrast the y'i- na'vaaV gathers up ai-ka-y'i-) final -kai^ of a'ikai' p'iriL'ka. 1.i' several say (< ( with the final -kai\ -ka. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -tcai. its place being taken by a breath.— Southern Paiiite. Vqwi'yuu(e) arrow u^'qwiyu' mora. aside from -a'{a)i-. which includes doubled short vowels (see § the place of the lost mora: "'i'va- 4. Treatment of Imig vowels. a) qayaqiywaA'ci'a- qaya"^ edge outer surface qlywa'' A'cia" viotl" mori-«i-- bean irrealis aro"avV qw'iyw'i" would be qwiyvni- several take one object u^qwi'yv-. A'^qo"'. west u'u'ra^ Eti'^a'^ toward it Note that: original -ai- original -a-y'ioriginal becomes final -a' becomes final -ai' -ai-y'i. is -/•w''. retain the treated analogously to final glottal -ai-.becomes final -a.

: 50 X 32 Final -auis Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR treated like -a-\ — u-. -ijivi -rjWA w. particularly if that identical or homorganic with the consonant preceeding A germinated or nasalized consonant (see § 12.oft" ni\ niI pa'' po' qwa'u'' wr"' A final -«/.it in front of off them + vm"'v''^cx'miYU far oft' in front of them + qyvi'qvn"i' takes 7ti'aqwi"qu-i"i' I take it several several times times . in a sort of crasis.) um"'v'"avii mi'vu far n'i'aq-A I.yum-unL is we four Not infrequently a final breathing or voiceless vowel completely lost before a consonant is the unvoiced vowel. strongly aspirated surd).> -pA^.(p. 2. the -u- is unvoiced (see a above) purau- flour pura'u All monosyllables.i'. with the voiceless beginning of the next. except those (f) ending in -ai-. Particularly noteworthy is the formation of voiceless labialized consonants "across" woras. sustain no loss of mora. Thus. pa- water po. i.> -yw'i'-. a. take on a "murmured" echo vowel: Treatment of vwnosyUahles.> -q \va'-. lost as + + + taywA we + + a' p'ii- to sleep to ta' rjw a'^ pi' i we sleep all -qu objective + H'/'/j//'t- shake ma{)no'qivifo'n''-p'iya'aiklVA out tarjiVA shook them out we iVA'tcuywi- four tar)WA'icu'i]wi. first monosyllables becomes -a': 7nq' ma(a)i(g) to find A final breathing or voiceless vowel is such before a word beginning with a voiceless vowel or voiceIn such cases the voiceless ending of the less y or w (see 2 below).is here a /". § 16) results: word beginning with a consonant.i'. miyj'n-LA to go arja'iac faraway him + pay{a)i- niiyo'ni paya'ikw'ai' goes ofi (a.r away u + cina'ijwavC aya' iacuia' ijwavC coyote (obj. -q-A wa^. e. Examples of such mergings are: Special developments.trail qwau. -pi +. They end in free breath or. if the stem ends in a glottal stop.> -i)U\\-.

breathy quality. the vocalic timbre is not always of-water sitting (obj. n) completely unvoiced (a/. only in-ni-. less frequently before other stops. a Shoshoneon Language 51 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. a-c) The Treatment of short vowels. Such a breath-glide may also occur under appropriate conditions finally before a word closely linked with the preceding.develops to a weak (q. Here we shall deal only with the manner of such unvoicing. A nasal (w. pa' A a' qafi'riA preceding the voiceless vowel of the lake. q-. -6'/- to -s-.r -. the -i. g. when unvoiced. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 33 under- qa"nami thy singing qa"nam voiced again to -i pu'tcu'tmywai stands thy singing A final voiceless -/ is as a glide to a following y-: q'i'aywi (2) yesterday in qi'aijwi ya"" died yesterday certain accentual Unvoicing non-final position. often clined to be less spirantal in quality). Hence a moment of free untimbred breath (indicated as -'-) is generally audible after the unvoiced vowel proper and before the consonantal closure.Southern Pahite. n) when initial and generally half-voiced {niM. 7in) when acoustically like ---.). e. before guttural stops -'. t-. -c'i- often unvoices to -c-. an initial y becomes completely unvoiced (y.palatalizing the n (see § maywa'vato'qiva- to creep to be black A^qa'nayqwopA near maywa' 4)Aqa{i)yiaini creeping to'qiVA'qarju they are several become black ayqa'yato be red arjqa'xqayu several become red . 1) a short vowel or the second mora of a long vowel or diphthong loses its voice in initial or medial position before a geminated unvoiced consonant (p-. qw. however. -ya. g. (a) final position (see 1. this guttural spirant (indicated -^-). Short vowels are unvoiced as in with the same effect on preceding consonants. ts. s-. qiv). of these non-final unvoicings is even greater than in final position. is very -. which has palatal timbre after i (indicated ---. As in final position. a very brief but sharp x sound as in German ich). c-. appears as n'^-. 4) and unvoicing to a spirantal -. Examples ap'i'i- are: A'p'i'i to sleep sleeps tac i'pa- evening tA\Lpa{u)xu evening when it it was aqa. t-c). Under conditions to be defined below (see § 10. e.

for normally expected -ya'hiNU''-. Unvoiced vowels directly follow^ing other vowels quite frequently sharpen to a secondary be round puca' mit'i' rjwa- fawn keeps calling call on hill piirjqa'MU'qwi-^ai' on point of singing to M'i't'i'yiVA qa'-nanuqwi'pay{a)'i- qa'riNA'cuv a'ip'iya^ still-his-ownsinging said stream NU^qwi'nfi 7mqtvi' to stream started to go + pa{-)ya' {lyn'^-qwLp'iya' off stream. g. in the last example.iiywa- pi-ka'mo'' around to cover w'iqa'm'mitira'c'iqivastill to come to a stand- having come to a being round looked for po'toq-wa. which then appears as -x{-)u-. run on wav Note. Rarely / develops a parasitic * or '^ before a following is or tc. 1.52 34 X Southern Paiutc aiul Ute SAPIR beat me! sore-handed tspi'yupLya' appeared aya'oaxtuxiVA around him wi^qa'm'mLrjuntcayani covI ered him kwi'pa'ni fira'cqwatsstandstill kwipa'. the curious merging of original -y{a)i'nuto -ya'{i)yV-.fawn muqwi'-^a. u frequently develops to "u or simply . hit pika' sore to appear tsipi'-oa'yd. -'U-. as well as after '': q- and yq (cf. -u\ -V-). This happens most frequently with -11. "^m^a'uxupa'" through there After T).to look for -yu-campa.(normally unvoiced to -U-. ta' pi*'tcaqaip'iya^ (they) were tired.although po'to'qwaR'i pu'ca'yaip'iya' a'xYUcamparjWA although he said YVqu'ts- yuqu'.< -A'^-) pina' siiaxu pa' a4>i through his own legs. Examples cim^'i'a- are: to leave cim^'i'xqwa''^'pLya left to start -upa'- through away (-X-. e. -xix{-)u- (with glide -u-). po'^upa''^ through the trail . a).

Owing to the immediately preceding final treatment.attack is sometimes heard before a ff voiceless 'wTcia4>i feather. 1. end). is preserved intact (cf. '. consonant) glottal stop (or glottal stop After a consonant the reducible vowel is. + + + wise the vowel. vowel is whispered rather than fully the reduced closure. pull bowstring pL7np'i'n'7ii- wa{-)v'i'n'i^p'i'ya'aimi they 2 pulled their bowstrings severaWook {<phii-'-) p'inip'i' n' i^kaiyiaijA several look with inserted -ii7ia( at transitive him painted momentaneous -'-) atjqa'n'NA'^piya^aikwA it < -iva. which causes a following more sharply. e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -r]u- 35 momentaneous suffix tlv'^i'ij''upiya" yaij'^pL'ya asked.durative transitive with inserted With these examples -upa-n'ni- contrast: "'o'pat'iA through continuative being through it (obj. Examples are: ^ or ? release to stand out all the qwi"nL-kaibreast to strut out one's qwi"Ni-kaai' breast struts out (his) wav'i'm. g. a." uru"ato be e. impersonal ya{a)'i7)q'itu'ap'Lyd' was hunting with people . na{i)ya'appeared. seemed vowel. a reducible vowel is "murmured. further: -t-u'a- voiced. a Shoshonecin Language 53 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. glottal breathed. g.: Southern Paiute. other- An initial e.and -i. completely unvoiced if the glottal stop belongs properly to the preceding syllable.are protected from the reduction which their phonetic position would warrant by the glottal stop inhering in the syllable. moi'n'nip'iya around Here the -a.) p'ini'n'nLp'ija kept led looking. After a glottal stop preceded by a vowel. as in the preceding cases. counting for two moras. uru"''p'Lya' was fully Yet such vowels were quite often heard as vru" ap-'iya".

2. but retained intact if the glottal stop inheres in its own syllable.see § 14.above). broken. Under the appropriate phonetic conditions the second mora of a long vowel is unvoiced. Particularly frequent is the development of the voiceless part of a long vowel to x-. e. g. m'i'aA'^qu-) Examples occur. -a'- not to be qaijqa m'ia' qut-ii acampA though *qaijqa'- others are not jack-rabbits (not. g. however. if in a loses its voice and undergoes the developments . e.resultative -r'o'( < -r'tia'-) it + -aqa- > -r'uaq-ato sit io'aya-qafi-mi via- watching after hands iiwa'vanLar'ox-wqaxainC it looks as though it will rain (for -w. -'a-. The i or u of a diphthong.: -\- kwitu(c) anus -njra- througli hci'tu""pani through my anus reducible mora. as one might expect. the reducible second (cf. Examples are: to frighten cTci'fi'ya^diiyini cifi'ya-tui- frightens me several times tuyivaniantca - fire to goes out put one's hands interrogative tuywa'yiya fire went out + inantca' A'^qa^ to hold out one's -qai. 3. Treatment of diphthongs. A reducible second mora is unvoiced if the glottal stop belongs properly to the preceding syllable (see -ctr'i'ya. in mora appearing which the glottalized long vowel is as a murmured vowel end).voweled syllables (see a).: 54 X 36 Southern Paiulc and Ute SAPIR (b) Treatment of long vowels. c) too'ayaxqaR'i'piya' sat watching y^nirjumiHsLarjA having done so to him with the hand + potoqwa- to be roimd WLa'm-avoxioq-WAqainA what had been hand-rounded out of mud {wia-) ma- + toqwaSalt to stretch via{-)ro'0''qwa(i)y"iqiVA (I) stretch sori-'JcL- it Lake sori'^hiyioduxwA to Salt Lake is The parallel rule for glottally affected syllables having a long vowel to that of short. a. It is treated precisely like a short vowel of the same quality (see a).

as suggested vowels 10) suggest the former. of a vowel (long or short) or diphthong preceded. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 37 already given (see a).to die pA' pa' q-a{i)ya' aip-'iya' groaning with pain of pain) (lit. a. tj) that is itself followed by a stopped It is w (e. au\ au'. A syllable may be either entirely voiceless or only so in its second . Syllables and jnoras.. ap-'i'i- as or ap-p'i'i-). ai-. g.glide as ail. ai becomes ai. full unreduced vowels were generally recorded end)." aq-o"(o)i- several sleep off A'qo"'^p'iya' several slept left in -qwa'{a)i- diii^'i' xqwa''^^p'i'ya' going off Nevertheless. of It is quite by etymology. a^u. is before geminated stopped consonants (see § direct phonetic observation apparently the possible. U-. (§ § 9-11). syllable consists. or unpreceded. in such cases (cf. Every Paiute (e. a Shoshonean Language 55 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. somewhat doubtful whether vowels followed by geminated consonants are to be considered as ending their syllable or not a-p'i'i(e. ya'{a)i. see is extremely brief. ai'. aln-tci-. generally with i. g. kept dying Syllabic Structure and Accent § 9. Urj-qa-. from p'ini'kai. e. au becomes au. va-n-ti-. e. a. better written a'). m-yiv'i- < *ni-7ni-).(i)-. g. g. g. ai{i)^ (the -ai. by a consonant 0-. pal-).: -i- or -u. Thus.of a glottalized diphthong is " murmured. g. properly speaking. consonant or n. Note that non-final ai is treated from final see are formed p'ini'ka' to see and pa-vCnikaipiya" saw water. or of such a primary syllable stopped by a nasal consonant {m. also best considered as belonging to the following syllable g. arj-qa-. pi-. that yw (e. a. Morphology and the unvoicing latter. niTj-w'i-). Examples are: UTjwa'i-kaipiya'i- to be hanging i{. to-.: Southern Paiute.wa'i^ka to be left over piyai' piya' was left over mava'i-i'i'yania'ivi^'i'i- to a distance ina{-)va'Hvyan-i '^ni^'i'ipiya' several arrive several arrived For treatment of -au-. 2. differently The reduced e.

see § 8. -n'i-. -up.of nampa"ami thy FOOT is -vaqa-. The first. 2.of qanL'v{a)'ami at thy house two-moraed like -va. moras. counting for two. every long vowel or diphthong (voiced or partly unvoiced) for two. The external syllabification does not matter. Similarly. fifth moras. g. diphthong counts for to die is two-moraed like ya{a)i. end. 'a. e. on the other hand. shortening of long vowels or diphthongs all have no effect. g. § 15. see § 15. moras. syllable.of qam'vani at my house. -ni'-. mora g.-ni < -7ii-).< -yu-|. hunt. not four. -qai'-). counting for three. however.of a'uparjqip'iya'^ came along through it. contrast twomoraed -pa. 1) (e. 1. Both one-moraed and twomoraed glottalized syllables may appear broken or truly monosyllabic. maai-. Thus. -n' mai. qanip-'imi or qani' p-'i'im'L their old camp (one-moraed -p-'i-). like -pa. -7i'7ii-. third. qanivantuzwA has six moras {qa-/it -va-an-tu. not eleven.-\-XWA < -ywa-). moras). Otherwise the glottal stop has no effect on the quantitative value of the syllable. end.of nampa'ni my foot. sixth. -'»(a)'a. fourth.56 X 38 Southern Paint c and Ute SAPIR (e. A glottal stop may be it found at the beginning or end of a (e. Of greater phonologic importance than the division of a word into syllables is that into units of length. boil.of 'a'-t'i. Syllabically final nasals do not affect the mora as quantitative unit. g. glide vowels. -pa'a. qa()nt'va(an)rjwi < qmu'vaywi has four. a'iYUcampayani has eight (a-i-yu. a/'-. -y'a-. vowel diphthong results in a two-moraed diphthong (e. no three- + + + + + + + + + + + + moraed syllables are found. sa'a.good).-cam-pa-a-rja. two moras.-\. will be styled uneven moras. Secondary lengthening of short vowels. g. a.continuative. even moras. 2. -pa-.a' a.or -up. The vowels are to be taken as the measures of these moras. or in the middle of -pa-. Thus. pseudo-diphthongization. a. -pa' a-. a"-. count as ordinary long vowels (e. g. A glottal stop com- A glottalized syllable with long vowel or e. and so on. moras). and so on. It is very important to note that all inorganic increments and losses have no effect on the mora-construction of the word.-aqa. ya'{a)i- . By way of illustration. In other words. A glottalized syllable with short vowel counts for two-moraed if the glottal stop is inherent (cf. moras. -pa'-). Long vowels resulting from contraction of long short vowels.through (two-moraed -pa-). 7nama" (a)yi{Lvaniar'oni will (they) lose me? < mama"T/tiiiivanLar'uani has thirteen.a. the second. not seven. § 8. not three. Every organic short vowel (voiced or unvoiced) counts for one mora. ma-ai. g.-\. -ni'i.

not three-moraed. inherently unglottalized. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 39 ing between two distinct vowels. an initial broken vowel. e. Actually the main stress is sometimes. The fundamental law of accentuation is a law of alternating stresses. a Shoshonean Language 57 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. in which case the main stress is thrown back on the first syllable. which vi^a'. or. g. qa{)ni' ntcm builds a house. but this displacement is as secondary and inorganic as the secondary lengthening of short vowels. g. theoretically strongest stress of the The the second mora. qw. all words beginning with a syllable containing an organic short vowel. if weak. word comes on Hence.Southern Paiute. e. is protected may now from unvoicing by the vocalic second mora. q-. which is always unvoiced. s-\ postvocalic sibilants are always to be understood as geminated) loses its voice. similarly. state the full law of non-final unvoicing. Aside from the final mora. kw) or sibilant (c-. e. pa'v'a xi over the water.and -ru'a. {'Yi'. what is equivalent. {°-ya'tir)qayii good house. which is always preserved intact (owing to the unvoicing of the following mora). counts as a two-moraed syllable.are both two-moraed. unless the second syllable is final and therefore unvoiced. An initial vowel preceded by a glottal stop. qa{)'ni house. only a weak mora may be unvoiced. all words beginning with a syllable containing an organic long vowel or diphthong or an inherent glottal stop are accented on the first syllable. We Aside from the next to the last mora. {^yi'p i. ts. On the other hand. Accent. (1) Unvoicing under the law of alternating stresses. but not at all frequently.THIS to i. ma(a)'ikainani what I said. mava"axi over that. not belonging to the preceding word. heard displaced to another than the theoretically justified syllable. P. whether these form a true diphthong add a mora to either. not syllables. -tu'i.THIS (sce § 43). tc. does not § 10. a short- .of m' ivi'tjU I drink. k-. e. A diphthong or long vowel can be partly unvoiced only when its second mora is weak. In Southern Paiute accentuation is governed primarily by moras. as its first mora. is always two-moraed. g.or i'i'of i'i'p-i-. all even moras are "strong" or relatively stressed. it is apparently related to maTHAT as is (')'i'.TO DRINK REPEATEDLY is two-moraed (contrast -' i. are accented on the second syllable. or not. According to this all odd moras are "weak" or relatively unstressed.that also is one-moraed). g. every weak mora standing before a geminated stop {p-.

though not with absolute regularity. or its close variant v'^ (first) variations tend to adjust themselves to the law of alternating stresses. end. The law of alternating stresses necessarily icaq(a)i-isi- younger brother tcA''q{a)'its- younger brother: nanica' q{a)i-tsi'ijw'i brothers to each other paqa- to kill pA'^qa'i* kills: t'iv^a'qai' kills game 16. ' To a considerable extent. g. c for consonant. see § -yu-campa- although -ing tiv^a'qarjwai'yucampA though not killing game: qu^qwL'rj'waiYUcampA though not shooting -ywituywa- toward uyu'm-aijwduxwA away from it: nam'n'naywituxWA towards different directions (-?i'no- counts for two moras) pucayai. consonant -v'v. 2. look remote past toyoqwito for + -p'iyai pu'ca'yaip'iya^ 7iampu'cayaip'iya' trail looked for: looked for nm toyo'qwituirjWA cause him to run: tdHo'zqwiyini I run repeatedly (< toto'yoqwi-) (2) Effect of law of alternating stresses on glottalized VOWELS. a). a. end). 2. as it can not lose both its moras. . a broken vowel (e.58 40 X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR voweled syllable with inherent glottal stop is always preserved. The group (or v'). end. c. a'a) constantly alternates with the types + vowel and vowel + '. 1) (-vaqa- < paqa-. Initially after a or welded with the preceding consonant. these v'v^ tends to preserve that form. "murmured" (see § 8. As we shall see later (§ 15. if the v is in a strong mora. Examples of alternation are: ^ In formulae of this sort v stands for vowel. but the form 'v (or ' "''v) if in a weak one. means that there is a constant alternation of voiced and unvoiced (or murmured) vowels Examples are: in non-final syllables of related words. at most. The weak second mora of an inherently glottalized long vowel or diphthong or a weak-moraed vowel separated from an immediately preceding vowel by a glottal stop is either preserved or. In the latter case the may appear immediately before. The form v'v applies both to one-moraed groups broken from v and to primary two-moraed groups. b.

with strong first mora. aa't'i-.) pA'^qa'yumpa^'ayiVA will him: lick- pA^'qa'qurjWA ing wa'a'sa'a'- give him a cedar to boil w(aya'pi s{a)'a'pi m{oyo'4>i cedar tree boiled.mi- mi-na- dual subject > -ya'am'i- verbal noun + -'.'(o^mpi nose-hole kill two-moraed) -'. also. g.i' a lie: tTti'- 4)^ictr'aC' tells lies several times (-aV < -ai-y'i-) Frequently. a weak-moraed vowel. penis initial (v)'v'. particularly a or elided before a glottal stop followed im'a' 'i. a'{a)i appears either. . -ya^'^mi^ run: ivi'y'ami hole {to'o- is mov"'t. {"ya't-'i. as Examples are: or. is by a different vowel.: Southern Palute. a'ai (or a'i). {"-y a' xamtcu- right into xwa right into (3) Apparent violations of law of alternating stresses. e. -na"'^mi talking: qa"nami thy singing toyo'qwLya^'ami.. thy to'o'pi-. is to be observed in the case of glottalized Thus. .is either w(iya'p-i a broken v- penis An tive or contracted from v- (e. There are several purely delusive violations of the law of alternating 1 The ^ indicates a secondary stress on a strong mora. a Shoshonean Language 59 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. {^yii'ra toward it. -'.that a- -\ — 'urai- toward u'w'ra'. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -ya- 41 plural imperative + . -Tfw{ayai- together with pavi'tsLrjwa''ai(f)'L with his own elder brother: -yw(ayai- to go (in order to) imi'yw'aCmpa" shall go with thee wara'xani\wa"ai-^a' going to collect grass seeds: pdci'yw^aV- plya Uv'^LC-ir{ayaito tell a lie arrived tells t'iv'^LCira^'a. as 'ai. it that + axavatcuyiva- a'a'xavatcuxWA. .are: u. -t-o'ompi- ye 2 ye 2 drink thy ampa'yana^'ami.. mush mo'o'- hand hand A parallel alternation diphthongs. + -'v-- initial (v) 'v'. with weak first mora. g.good) There is no phonetic or mora-ciuantitaExamples of contracted difference between the two types.ijwa- him (invis. .

may be really shortened from i'-. 'i'. An interesting group of violations. there has evidently been some contraction.\t NURSING. not three. On the other hand. 2. pitc'i'- Examples are: to arrive to follow with one's eye {pi')pi'tcip'iya' arrived p'i-fl'na- (p'i')pi'tlnap'iya' (their) eyes followed with several killed pA'^qn'tjupiya' one killed (one {pA^)pa'qa7)up'iya (one person) person) Uv^'l'p'l country {tT)ti' k^)"^ ip'iayai' pia4>i their form- er countries From as pu'tcu' only secondarily shortened from a two-moraed ti. certain cases (apart from m^a'. Of these. substitute for reduplicated pu' pu'icuicuywa- g. of the law of alternating stresses is embraced by forms with secondarily lost reduplicating syllable with voiceless vowel (cf. g. Less easy to explain are: zation or glides.\terdesert-at).(cf. the short vowel of ti'. intact reduplicated forms. moras. -yai. ti'rauqiVLvia4>L own unfeathered arrow HURRIEDLY is regularly so accented (except as adverb Urjwi'n a).(see § 3.60 42 stresses that are X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR due to such inorganic processes as pseudo-diphthongie. tt'campA ALWAYS is evidently to be explained by reference to its less frequently heard variant I'ti'c ampA. Judging by t'i'. biit t'i'ra-va' out in the open. ti'campA < Tti'campA above). no doubt either misheard or misdictated for A^t'i' x. ti'ntoyoqwi to run hard).iqaRipLya'.that. e. AHi'xiqanp'iya' developed from -yi. though less frequent tl'ijuH- than. r'- in vain desert. or apparent know are sometimes formed pv'tcutcuywa(e. as we find pa-r'i' yara-va out in the rain (lit. g. g. in an example like ti'ijqA'qaRi to run away hard. t'i'rjw'iRiqaynLyani I always EAT QUICKLY'. Aside from such only apparent examples.< ti'. incomplete i'p'inin'ni' looks around in vain shall ti'ra- Vi' ra^ c'oi' avixaivanti be his desert-dog. As for t'i'ra-. \c'i\'pvtcu- .(see above). but counts for two. e. already specified) of initial short-voweled and non-glottalized syllables that seem to count for two moras and hence to bear the main stress. however. in tcA^ca' payaitcA'qainA (its) having been TORN TO PIECES. w. a) and thus counts for only one mora. there are. Such forms alternate with. A few errors are sure to have crept in also.

not necessarily all.elk (lit.TO teach how to sing < qa' pu'icuHcuywatm-) An initial ?'. which follow the law of alternating sometimes lost before a following organic compounds: pa-ri'ia. also. where there is no real loss involved. compounds: w-rw'^w. however. a Shoshone cm Language 61 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Examples pa- water pa. Certain words lose a mora in some. 6. i/-7u'7ta. mud at bottom of water o- arrow u. Southern Paiute. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE tcuywa. g. are. qa' puHcuywatui. 2 and 3. iyo'vi(cf . in a sense. d. Loss of one or more fix an arrow. also found. of the word. pawaterfall. as they do not influence the original rhythmic framework Fundamental alternations of mora-structure are. Certain generally when occurring as the first element of a compound. Particularly common is alternation between a primary long and a are: reduced short vowel... arrow-bag) fi- up feather U-: tma'tjqwA upward. by haplology. a).. This also brings about an only apparent violation of the law of alternating mourning dove Ute aiovi-) yo'vi- This is diflferent from the consonantizing of prevocalic i and u to y and w respectively (see § 3.quiver (lit. 5. a'iaij iyiR that-he indeed (said) a'iarj gin -xain-La- too + iy'iR ninLaxwa'xaini indeed -^iR of me too §11.: Initial 'i of iyiR indeed is frequently elided (see § 60. from the to scrape fvTcta- west wTa'a-: w'ra'A'sivaia quill smooth . 2. only apparent. pA^-sd'rdroiic'i rjwi'ac^i water-deer). g.TO . All the losses referred to in § 10. suffixed elements.(e. 43 know how to dance) and. pa-^i'u. putcuywa. 3). alternate between a longer and a shorter form.

: 62 44 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR An element containing a diphthong or two vowels in immediate e. 10). (§ § 12-16). to let a person go Even found.usitative: also -min (see § 30. -v'an-tuywa- on to naywa'- track na-": nanti'natrack. a). but as with the vowels. if which case the preceding consonant also disappears trace in the "nasalizing" or. g. A post-consonantal vowel may drop out. cases of the complete loss of g. d) -mia. Examples are: u-yu'natiyia-vi- quiver deer-hide una'-: iin-a'v'iya. we Before taking up consonantal processes in shall give a descriptive table of consonants actually found. may leave its power of the stem. tiyiae. 6. see § put away a quiver tia'vi-: Ua'v'ira'^ deer-hide shirt (7 probably inorganic in origin. Survey of consonants. juxtaposition sometimes loses the second vowel.perfective: participial . is A of large number of consonants found in Southern Paiute. 1) ini'- what (person. 6. participial -ya-nt'i- -701- to have: having (see § 25. for tracks nampu'cayai- nirjw'i- person m-": nimpi'Tjwa^i else's somebody someNi'ci'- else's wife. -qa-nti- having -ed (see § 25. they reduce to a comparatively small number primary consonants. two contiguous moras are deer carrying strap U-: fiv^a'qa- to kill game urn" a- uru-: oHca'uRU strap by which carried water-jar is Consonants §12. -(^az. animal)? im-y'i'- what (thing)? pa'a'n-i- to be high pa'a-'':pa'a'nti- high to follow one's to look -v'ana- upon trail. nintu'arjqi- give birth to one. niTjqa'nKpi body to vi^'ia- house. . a nasal. detail.

A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 45 .Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language 63 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.

It is possible that the attack of the geminated stop and affricative (b) h-. g. affricatives (e) Anterior Aside from y (and its voiceless development y). 5. Aside from lo (and its voiceless development w). see § 10. North German Tage) or intermediate (x) 7 see below. b. 1) yw {rj) is or developed from intervocalic articulation. i/. w. It highly probable that this. probably modified slightly by its tendency to take on vocalic timbres. and s. '-) is a true surd. The "intermediate" quality is most certain after nasals before voiced vowels and in the release of unaspirated geminated stops and affricatives. p. x- generally occur as developments of y. 4. as determined . yw. an "intermediate" when nasalized. 7 in voiceless positions (see § 8). r. x-iv (xw). particularly original 7/.is their etymologically typical form and that Shoshonean intervocalic short vi. anterior palatals (including labialized anterior palatals) develop palatals). 'palatals. Long x-. fiv'^aqa-. Spirantization. s. for nr. b. either fully voiced (as in for 7 is . 2). Intervocalic is vi. r (/?) is h'ghtly trilled. n-. and s-. n. ifw) see § 15. see § 16. Aspirated stops and affricatives may also be nasalized or geminated The typical unaspirated stop or aftncative is probably (e. c-. b. stops c and affricatives see (a) above. 3) or "geminated" (e. 1) r) are developed w (see § 13. or medial after a voiceless vowel (in which case it is always geminated in origin. from back palatals (and labialized back (f) Rounded labial consonants. (c) For glottalized stops and and nasals {m'm. However. it was never heard as d. it is difficult to be certain as to these two modes of articulation. 2. n'n. moderately velar articulation. v {(f>) is bilabial in see § 14. apparent- ently in typically alveolar position. n. rarely intervocalically (see § 13. nt'i).64 46 X Soiitheru Paiutc and Ute SAPIR aintdi-. For geminated y. and a true surd when initial before a vowel. 2). i'ipi-. c. '. w. are very frequently heard long. geminated. for v^ (<t>"') from stopped coneither "spirantized" from m (see § 16. QA. or (c) Geminated long consonants. 3. c). see § 13. and rolled consonants . see § 14. Glottalized consonants. see § 16. (d) (e. 3. All spirants (except (r. ?. sonants (see § 16. By q Its is meant a back palatal stop of average position. 1). q-. ^. (g) Alternation of k and q. g. these are all developed from ordinary labial con- sonants. and s. possibl}' also have disappeared as such. g.

c before i (which often develops to i. SOpiki.wing a jack-rabbit think of. cu(w)ai.this also. except that c tends to approach There is some a quality intermediate between the true s and c. 7 of toyo'qwialso in the spirants 7 (x. (h) Alternation of s and c. s is regularly used before . e. ni. sarjwasagebrush. maa'-cayioa. dic' cu{w)a.TO peep. sayw{e)ia. SOa.gum. this position is here normally designated as After an i the k becomes an anterior palatal (see e above). g. but on the whole they are used with considerable distinctness according to pronounced as in For secondary assimilations see § 13. e. green (contrast saywa.\rk. cumai.Virgin River. si' whittle. both preceding and following vowel must be considered. regardless of what vowel precedes the sibilant. yet not so decidedly velar in character as q of such a language as Kwakiutl. Positions analogous to k (kw) and q (qw) are doubtless to be found Thus. g. itcicu.vulva.LUNG. on l. e.white.butterfly. cururuin'noa. and u. qwac'i. as between ts and tc. c regularly appears.squirrel.ARM-PIT. SOyO. cn^ eat up. paru'ca. tiv^i'cira'ai. Examples are: look for.TO SOUND LIKE FLOWING WATER. less frequent form of saywa.HE. Sana. 2.tinder.above). sa' let go. y'iv"'i'c'iap'L longleaved PINE sapling. e. Before i the back palatal becomes distinctly more forward in articulation. these phonetic is certainly more velar than 7 of tiyi'a-. caywa-.Southern BE GLAD.and toyoqwi-. SOr' bend. yw (xw. saywa. a. Initially. ayacu.squaw-bush. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE by such a group as aqa. tjca. 8.carrying-basket. These two sibilants are respectively English sip and skip.MOIST GROUND.belly. These rules are only infrequently violated. and 0. moeoi. t. Before a.long ago. tv'c'iaq am brown. b) and u. see § 3.brush-blue. coya. siyu. xw). is distinctly further back than our English k. SOO. qui lie II. be surprised. Only rarely does s appear before medial a. before and after 0. The analvocalic position. i. cir'i'ya. siva. distinctions have here been tell a lie. sporadic interchange between s and c. about like the k. when followed by any vowel other than i.TO URINATE. qavii' saywayatsLyanii h. k.mustache. siuGRAVEL. ci"i. cv.smoke-hole. a Shos/wncan Language 65 47 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. qwica.sound of English cold or perhaps even ca7i. nearly.position in cold.giant. i. However. puc-ayai. x). i. kw. oca. crim'^'ia. Hcii.navel. be ripe. Its greatest degree of velarity is reached in such examples as qo'oi. g. q'icavi. We shall use q and qw after all vowels but i.

(which These rules apply both and medially. MA'tca'iatjqito reach for. or o precedes. are not due to unvoicing of (a) Only such cases are here considered as moras (see § 8). 3). 'q surprise.this. as shown by assibilation of t to tc in aJicdcu. tcuxwi.66 48 ogy X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR of a simplex in sa- may explain many of these cases. Before i. haxa WHO? Initial is found also in certain interjections. 'ani. There is a slight tendency for ts to appear before a medially and before o both initially and medially. atci-. tc and V. e.shoulder. g. iump'"i'si'xax(xnii asia. nonoct. see § 3. viantsaywina. g.tail. tc and ts are not as clearly distinct as are ch and ts of English church and hats respectively. As for do. e. b). as shown by palatalized k in plural aTj'w'i'cka-. 4).to DREAM.bead.not < -c'i-. 'i. less frequently 'aya.between one's legs). ii'ras throw DOWN SEVERAL OBJECTS. while both s and c have been found when precedes. also when developed from t (see is probably purest before 'i § 13. pis' remain). whence ani-. e. aya-. is qocov'i- tinder. patcu'qu beaver. aicL. true -i-. 'atci.BOW. ts in particular tending to an intermediate point of articulation. frequently heard preceded by sneeze {-ct. §13.cleft in hoof (cf.TO say.TO APPROACH.< -ci-. at least. if i. tA'pa'ckai. Comparison with other Shoshonean dialects suggests that in part. to be regular if a or i precedes. asi. s seems tends to become a'cL-. rock having a crack.potatoes. qatsoa. these initial aspirations are the representatives of a Shoshonean h-. tc The rule far simpler for the use of a.i' chews. tsipi. '. osororjwi- to snore. ai-.was senseless (perhaps -a' siBefore o. s regularly appears if t or a precedes. see § 13. Certain words that begin with a vowel are e.what?: Agua Caliente Initial Aspiration. pi-na'sL^a.tends to vary with less as shown by palatalized x)frequent -aci-.children. e. The former i is regularly employed before o. see § 13.(see § 43).roan-colored. ta-na'ci^ make A basket.wrinkled. 'aa'ik-ivi oh! Initial does not function as a consonant. 3). ay'wicL.(also qatcoa-) top. u'qu'cL^La' nock (true -i-. tcoi. the latter only before then often develops to initially i. 2. ' ' . ^ai. demonstrative a-. cf. ai-. qwasi. (1) Consonantal processes. Of these -asi. totsiHEAD. and u. but c u. tsoavi. not -c'i-.SURFACE. ' but -asi'. g. e. pA^so'roroitc'i waterfall. tdiya. e. q'rtco'xwd. Examples are: tea. appear. g. g. and is. Occurrence of h. itci. g.basket (-ct. plural nono'cka-). '«-.

only medially. An When an w it -w. never in a final syllable. The -h.Vha'p'ini'rjiv'aqho'ywA sees (negative -rjw'n- counts for two moras) (c) Inorganic -' strongly aspirated and seems to be particularly common after a voiceless vowel. g.) all entered . e. Examples are: the preceding vowel. § 7)..api chiefs) to catch up with cu{'w)a' tjw A^tcip'i-ya' nearly w{')itsV- bird caught up with t'i'rar)'wLntsi\ts. to stand after a vowel. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE hence does not prevent elision (see INDEED THOU SAYEST. when w becomes intervocalic by reduplication: w'iy'i- vulva several enter w'iw'ixiA wayi- wawa'xip'iya^ vulvas (obj. 3. a'i Ljir 'a'zmt' that This sporadic development occurs (b) Developed from -s-. cina'7)wa<j)i may introduced before a take on the timbre of -'- coyote cCna'r]wa(i)i ^in'^a' icampaA' a-' ^m'^a'icampa'"- enough thou (see § sup to'ca'white pini'yw' aqucu' ywA while he not ivii' still imi'^hampA mama" haywoitsq'l'ha'pai- tdha'-. however. c) mama'fina.: Southern Paiute. ordinarily a glide comes. a Shoshonean Language 67 49 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.horned lark desert bird) (lit. e. This rule does not operate. \v. a). -r)w-: regularly becomes nasalized to waarjiw{ni- to shout Vi' Tjwa' arji- to give a good shout to stand yar)WL'r)w\ni-^a^ while standing council (of and holding waixaWA'tc'i'- to have a council nLa'vL7)wai-)(.several pursue maAma' nnaqup'i'yaic' wjw A again (they) pursued him intervocalic initial (2) PosTVOCALic (see § 14. by derivation or com- pounding. AcampA thee only mama"ca'ywoits' old woman qTca'pai. Rarely is an inorganic It voiced consonant or glottal stop. -c-. not LjiR. g.

to put itself (watci-) in HIDING. e.and -r-. lit. but these may well represent a group of loan-words taken in subsequently to the operation of the above law. its derivatives V. Belonging to a distinct and probably more recent stratum than the primary ts. -ri- (not -ri- < -n-. r. d) na-^a-'tct-tcu. Most Plateau dialects have ati in these cases. AssiBiLATiON OF DENTALS. found Comparison with other Shoshonean or Uto-Aztekan shows that an original Shoshonean ti became assibilated to tsi. Shoshonean *ati bow > Bankalachi ali-t. g. which constitutes a living process. forms are partly ayaseveral shall keep hidden). partly ayayiva'waicl- g. see (3) § 58. perhaps dissimilated from aya-ywantci-. t.(see rjwarjwantci(e. Further. before dialects 'i. 1). In this stratum. a'yaywa'watciymi hides me several times). g.bean. n. tc developed from t before original i are examples of tc that arise whenever a non-geminated t. *j)ati daughter Paiute padi S. dental consonant. Shikaviyam e^di.P. qiri'n'narjqa. stands after an /. § turn oneself into a rat . comparison shows that an original Shoshonean ati not only. that would ordinarily be spirantized to r (see § 16. patci*pati (original Shoshonean would have become *pan-) atsi with primary Cora hatsi older *pati daughter. noun ending -isi-: Tubatulabal and Southern Calif ornian -t. and i. mori. sari. assibilates the t but also shifts the i to whence atci.< There are a small number of cases of true § 3. i. 2.: 68 X 50 w'inaito Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR throw to w'iw'i'n'nai. a) to drinking make (§ 26. e. ts.sparrow^-hawk. r. e. 1. S. nasalized from ayaywatci. (cf. Hence S. e. 4. in Southern Paiute. g. aside from with very few Cora h often < p) with patci. e. t No is. 3). Examples are: ivi-td- -n-ru- participle (§ 25. e.constantly interchange. 6. Paiute atsi represents an old Shoshonean contrast primary patsi- older sister brother. Its reduplicated a'yar}wai]icantciqaiva (e. b). atci- Mono eti vShoshonean > N.several throw down several wa'a'tcijL- whoop also aya-waritci- wa'wa"HcL'yi- to whoop times Exceptional is to hide.P. tc and the ts. g. -tc. g.

Nasalized -7it- also regularly unaffected av'^Vnto'tsLxa' o{w)i' pintcu. however.having -ed < perThere are historical antecedents involved fective -qai. k.g. by the symbol like ky).being wont to say. g. g. A-? (written k^) < k'. for anterior articulation g.TO have (§ 25. na'a'i- t-u^p"'ikuqwa has burnt is up. possibly a shade less anterior in articuy^v. ai-ntci- changes a following -t-. -nt-. -rarjwa- we (inclusive. g. 4. (4) Palatalization. § 39. 2. -rami§ 40) tua-.sounds are k 2-. ij}a. There is. while singing pig pi^L'-tcu{w) become assibilated to -ntc-. f) pavi' -tcu' a-ni my brother? -ruywa- to (§ 50. a).after i. -r.he here. -ntc-. -qa-nti. cf. quality (less 7"^. e. e. e.HAVING < -yai. (e. tump'^i'-t-u. 30) tar/ make a stone. indicated. sari'ta-tcuxwA to the dog qa'qaxai-tcarjWA we. The 71'' (approximately like Russian "soft" or mouille n) appears most often between two i. < k. e. sounding approximately by a superior " in the case of n. ovi'tcuqWA -t-. § 39. rj). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -ru^a- 51 interrogative (§ 19. g. not -ntc-. not very common. 10) On here which can be unraveled only by comparative evidence. the -r- develops to -ntc. e. the other hand. in the case of back-palatals. x"' is < practically identical 7 is . qani-ntcu'a- house? Geminated -tc. particularly when the second is unvoiced. by a preceding i. make a canyon is cases the theoretical -nt- (< oi'pi-".(see § 16. as the combination e. -r- not -to-. The palatalized rj (approximately like French gn.(§ 25. g. inaa'in^i-kant'i having touched. ai-mi-nt'i. less (n. -t-. X^^¥ very close to y. -7anti. e. 6. but more spirantal in open or vocalic).like affection of the consonant. a tenovi'ntu' ayuntcaijA he became a stick. while singing qa'xai-tcayni (inclusive. g. a Shoshonean Language 69 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. In such sometimes even replaced by the " spirantal" under the stick develops to (but also ovi'yituqwA). 3).to say. saying.sound. frequently a dental or back-palatal nasal is Acoustically this It is manifested as a y. ? < with ch of German ich. An i palatalizes a following touch. The Q't palatalized k. § 40) tami-. q. dency for such cases of -nt. dv'^i'ntuv'"a-n-C will make wood. maa'inH.Southern Paiute. -rua- we 2 child we 2. After ai. form -tc-. d). see § 16. e. it should be carefully noted. usitative -mi(§ 30. does not assibilate to but remains. wooden-headed. 6. 3). 7) K < 7> x. little When t is preceded by a nasal consonant. possibly more posterior in articulation) -irj- is occurs only infrequently. e.

vowel. y (of which it is merely a variant) and Examples of palatalized k. t'i'iaRiqua<f>i deer-meat friend'uqwLy)qi- shoot at each other to shoot) < quqiVLya"^iOL- yauywLtiyia- to enter deer (-7friend may be glide. 1) fi'v'ini my -tiya-n la- adverbial element mava'i^tCauL Avay close off. to stand immediately before the g. to a glide '>' na-yu'q-WL-7)q'i- to fight (lit. between was practically never misheard as y. m'm'it raindani tuyxi- towards up (e. g.. -y of the preceding word comes. aside from unvoicing (§ 8). e. by elision of an initial 10. not infrequently stopped to when a final vowel (see § -7-. -yai-. The back-guttural y (§ 14. -xoi- lying. a'iyaicu as soon as (he) said -qaiqari- to have to sit p\ni'kan- -qai- resultative suffix -yu-. a'iar) 'iy'iR that-he indeed (b) > a'iarj gin. g. to na'^u'qwL7)qi-. e. An original 7 is sometimes weakened or even entirely lost before or after an v. above). end). ^ is the final -i. of the preceding word. -xu- subordinating suffix to go have a nose and look uijwa'ikaip'i'ya^ was hanging 'ivi':)^ii{w)ar}A when he drank vmv'^i'kcC to to sit -yw(ayai- \vn'iyxv aip'iya'^ several arrived -I Rather infrequently is an initial q. see tiy'i'v'i- § 14. In poetry y is In prose this occurs g (the sonant correspondent of q). 3. it X Southern Pohite and Ute SAPIR point of voicing. fii- up ward) . Vocalic contractions may then result (see Examples are: § 4).vowel. 3. (5) Treatment of y. more often after an 'i. c). uv'^'a'rjwi knni. is apt to undergo palatalization (4 various modifications. *t'iyi- > t'i-. and labialization (a) Stopping to g.70 52 lation.'nicuqwaina4>i therein HIS-OWN-MADE-HOUSE. Weakening or loss of y. iuyu'ntuxWA up- *tiy'i-.palatalized to k.sounds are: subordinating suffix avi'-^a" in z.

are -aia-.?/M. angry y apparently disappears as such. e. g. 13. under it > 'ani"ayoaik-fA .anger his foot (obj. 5. are sometimes opened up to the corresponding vowels Forms with glide -i.shame -\.) -aya- > -a{i)ya- > nainpa'i'arjA + y{a)'ai.y{ayaitsiwith the point yauywitcato cause several objects to tu'qxcL'ai- to be ashamed caused (them) + tsia' ^''wdcAp'iya enter to go in by pushing with the ]. point (§§ 4.: -ntcuqw{-ruqw) avi" underlies 'ani"ar)w'aik-^A what-he said? -ifwai. 1) are transitional.right among order to aa'xavaivu right in there -yi- to come in yu'{w)a'xi. a. This sharpening seems to be frequent after an accented a. b) A w immediately following a back-palatal stop or ij is sometimes opened to m or still further. Examples of -y.) iya'vaya(6) to fear iya'vaxan'navii whom you i feared Vocalization of semivowels. 3). e. tuqwL. g. Even before a voiced vowel sometimes heard not merely as an intermediate x> with which it varies frequently. e. g. before a. to o (cf. particularly in the neighborhood of a glottal stop.: : Southern Paint e. a Shoshonean Language 71 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. fusing with After an the < the preceding vowel. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (c) 53 Unvoicing to x in voiced •position. yu'{w)a'xwo'aivd" shall go to bring (them). but as a fully unvoiced x (or lengthened x)\ similarly y > x. nampa'-yarjA naya. The semivowels y and w and u (o).yanu come to take them away -yw{ayaito go in order to ya'^xwa'" go to fetch. wara'xa>ii''-^wa'" go to (another) house for grassseeds (wara-) -yuma- male na{-)ya'x'%viarj'waqu together mountain-sheep buck with (obj. g. die of to be i naya'iai- > naya'y'aii. -o-\ § 3.(§ 7.: 7 is -'a7az)a. end) imi'ntcuqii avi'^ lies lies aruqo avi'^ under thee. 4.(§ -W0-.> -i. development of -wa. e.

-xw sometimes melts with following qw. number (a)'a'vLTjw am'' the kinds of animals i'tc'i this tTqa' sometimes reduced to -tn-. -yw. When two successive syllables see § 12. tc.A e&tth\s\ (< i'tc'i tTqa-'q-A) -tn. less before a word beginning with a dental labial. iini'yut-^ marja'iacu him t'iv^i'ts- very fiv^i't- iuywa'r'xinjup'i'ya^ t'iv^d- got very dark. h). 2. "Unirfuts- n). n (see § 3. -tci Simplification of affricatives. -qw- 1. a final -qw-. found chiefly in sentence phonetics.nLA na'a'intstsLmA like a (b) Assimilation of -r to n-. § 8.: 72 54 (7) ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a Simplification of consonants. g.! na' a'intst7}. contain sibilants of different articulation {s.: yu'un aR{i) my leg yu'un an nantsi'n'arjqixi come word and joint my leg of the following Before an u or (c) Loss of labialization. . ts: c.: i{y)tiuxwA qwaiC (8) hither off i(y)e'tuqivau' Assimilation of sibilants. e. final -ts-t' ( < -tsi-) or. e. A -t-. 2. -rarjw(a-) 1. simplification of wo < wa after back-palatal stops to a. e. g). Examples are: let is we it 'iv^'i'rari unirjuts- us then it -q-w(a-) arja'^q- vv^aV who then? pina' r)qw{a-) Final soon pina'rjq 'o'" soon so (cf. This happens only apt to lose its w (cf. is sometimes reduced to (t. 7a' -pantci (it) niv^a'urjwap'i- snowed very much all kinds of man i' o'q'o pant. Here are grouped together of consonantal simplifications or partial losses of characteristic quality. c). less frequently before a word beginning with a then flew then it then 11711 ijut- nontsL'kup'iya off.before An internal -isi. c): wiHsLtsuii my great-grandchild girl wiHsitn. § 3. -yw-.

to make naya'tcdcuqwayumpa' (them)selves into rats turn did -tsi.). This uncommon (for type is lustrated.— Southern Paiitte. (a) 55 The Assimilation of s is example spark). g.surface). a). -cito-). c to s ASi-saywa. — : a Shoshonean Language 73 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.(e) e.-tea- preterital enclitic mama^utcdcarjA him avi'tcdciA little woman -tsi- diminutive + -tci- participle lying (obj. unlike diminutive § 21. suffix — — — ts). following types of sibilant assimilation have been observed. above examples).to — — Assimilation of s tc to c tc. assimilation.(§ 19. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE assimilation generally results either to the s. e. Kawaiisu ts Assimilation of is — c to tc — c or ts — s. little ridge The less frequent assimilation to ts is initial. -tsi-cu-.-\. k) -tsisu-.of qwic a. ts — ts is probably regular when {tsi- the primary ts-tsa'ijh'a- to carry on a pole wiTH the point. 1. seems regularly to maintain itself lini'-tsL- and to assimilate following tc to ts. g.(cf. -tssu-: pi'ka'xu- nav'itsLSuarjA only his little rawhide -tsi(-ts-)-campa. -asi. Yet tc — c also seems to occur. Generally — s appears.(§ 55. 9).§ 19. or nominal -tsi.(cf. sari'tcicuni only my dog < il- sari'tsi-cu-.light blue (contrast -tea.inter- a'ipatcdcu'" rogative -tsi- -f -tcu. An s.: — This also is not common. good example is cdcu. g. (d) Assimilation of tc — s to tc — c.or c. j) bag. subordinating -tsi. e. 2. -tsi- Moreover. A < *situ. -ts--cu- (§35. g. then + um'tsdsaywA then we -tcaywa- we .nail < sitcu(b) (c) e. g. -tsi- Assimilation of ts tc to tc tc (ts which occurs very frequently. in tca'cixani menstrual hut more normal contrast asia. 2.position. This seems to be rare.. tu{w)a'ts-suni only my son Uv'^itssamyA truly e. having so done. The normal a boy? will tc — tc is illustrated in: noun + -tcu'a.

The frequent sequence tc ts seems remain unaffected. may develop to Examples are: 'i'>a'pi to plant planted. ga'tvavdcUsLywi Kaibab Paiutes — MOUNTAIN-LYING PEOPLE.). uqu'v'^dcatc^ BUG (sp. consonant after -w. elk) Curious is m'u(yw)a'mi in front of me. iH. Glide consonants. When the ts is final. common between resolved to a primary and a following vowel. Evidence for this seems to be rather scanty. e.future gerund aya'mvdHsdsaijwa' thou. 'i. at the tii'a- g. PLATEAU PEOPLE). glide.-tea. normally to (lit. Consonantal glides are frequent after the high vowels u).: 74 56 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (§ 55. § 14. corresponding to u.glide always is. often represented as ^ when only weakly 'i articulated. in which -7- is a glide (2) glide y. (i.after u (see 3 below). b). 1. act as glides after i and u respectively. is preunrounded semivowel.not to have qWA^ciyarjA pu'i'y'aUi his tail having no eyes . didst to s is —him? Assimilation of c — ts — is. i. however. qwacL- tail pu\. An example m{ni's'its- several having returned < m'(ni'c-'i-. a) -m-<5i. i (t) and a following vowel. 'i A w really a high-back cisely as (1) weakly articulated y. (g) Unassimilated forms..eye + -arjA his + -'ai. does to y. The semivowels y and w 7 after i. g. Even when vi (see § 4.deer (generally so heard) deer. e. corn relative ppa'ni niya'ai my relative I call them doorway nia'-fi-y'i- wind present tense + -am'i- them ma' {i)yi'^ am'ini y'iH'va" y'li- doorway deer (e.water- ifVa. g. assimilated tc—tc seems to be not uncommon. iap'ia'iy'i.preterital enclitic (f) ing to act how. This occurs very frequently between e. intend- 4. g. Sporadic unassimilated forms for the assimilated types enumerated above also occur. 2. such as the y. pa-fi'ia. is GLIDE This rather i-.

TO let go. Examples are: tua- son tuwa'tsini my son -yu. This position may bring about a slight ^. An initial m"".to roast. When the A medial -vi^.position of the lips. however. Thus. they are pronounced with w.). that (see § 43).). e.demonstrative at. voiceless. + -OTa-r?<i.we (exclu. If the w. Examples are riimyi. ani'iitcini^ i'm'i (are) doing these (anim.(see below). clm^'ia. the "". co'v^^antim^'i others. often the second vowel if slips in before is an immediately following vowel.> xim^a'. Glide w. indicated as weak. (a) "* Glide w between vowels. vowel following the -m"'. e. Bilabial consonants {p. After a primary u (o) a w. 'i.glide is unvoiced to iv.) it + < uru'- tump^Lyuruq-WA under the rock qWA before (3) under Sporadically a weakly articulated y (indicated i. Initially vi^-. A medial -m"". with -u(w)L'tu'ywa above contrast causative -(ui.being uiiV"a'nt'i therefrom from . ") occurs initially H'mi thou i'mi. ti'm^a. uwi). p\ t. Several groups of cases are to be noted.or even um"^-. g. g.with diphthongal ui (rarely. sometimes heard exaggerated into ^vi^.: Southern m) are normally pronounced with unrounded lips.develops regularly after primary i. before nio'{w)ituxwA before me The use of unvoiced.also often develops after u(o). M. Labial glides are very frequent and are found in three distinct groups of cases. m^l'm^i ye. Under certain conditions. possibly this m^a'.glide between the labial and the following vowel. a Shoshonean Language 75 57 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. m-^a'-. </>.glide is also unvoiced ("'). (b) Roujided labials. g. m^'im'^i. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE tum. if ever.p^L{a-) rock (obj.subordinating suffix + -aya- ivi'xuwar/A pu'^i- when he drank he eye -u{w)d-uywapu't. e. is found in demonstrative two-moraed m"'a' developed from an older uma'.as glide seems incidentally to serve as criterion of the difference between a true ui diphthong and a dissyllabic u + i.also sometimes develops before an immediately following t.

too have a sound vywa'cuywain o'ywaivdtci la he too arrow + -7a/. (o) Labialized k. tu'p"'a'qt."'. qaninicuv'^anL will make a house.-f -7a- make to have an arrow qo'xWAp'iyainC there was a whirring sound as of wings are: wont Examples ayo. tiv^i'ts.wolf. The result.j "-.see § 15.tongue of k- sounds labialized by preceding ayo'yqicn to njto to carry -\. ni'"<^"'/i at me. liiv^a'tcuxwA to me. a) -qa- fiv^i'ijuqwai lute i'iv'^i'ijuqwA uijwa'cu- he + to -yainM. -mp. 'i + (c) Labialization of k-sounds.sounds momentaneous perfective to ask suffix + tspi'jjuqwa has appeared -q ai- tiv^i-yu- + -fjqai- sub- fiv'^i'yuyqwa'aiywA as (he) asked ordinating suffix tiv'^i-Tju-(- him plural subject (for breaking of -yqwaiseveral ask. After ov u. vv'"a"ax i over it. V is inner-rounded. abso- to -yqwa'ai. 04)^ a then.are frequently rounded to -j»"'-. a sound acoustically midway between v and w. -my'". are fiv^a'ts. by the intrusion of a wExamples of labialized k. 2.(unvoiced -mp-'') after u or i. Examples as y is to y. tu'p"'i'. This seems to take place particularly before be left qo. -. xw) are glide either primary or arise secondarily due to a preceding u due to u (a) are: -7)11- or o.i'ywini come to me on come in order to to (your) back! no- -f -q-L- come — ing no'qwi come carrying on one's back . whose timbre contrasts most clearly with that of p'^.to have on one's back + -71- have a tongue to carry n. It is phonetically related to xc very much Before voiceless vowels v^ is unvoiced to 4>^. qw.-ijqai.rock {tu'mp^i). yw.sounds (qw.TO emerge. is not v "'glide but a bilabial v with inner rounding.very. written ?.76 58 u- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR + -j/u- animate plural -in'imoinentaneous suffix ipii'"u- they is + -iniA wa\ir)Lr)um"'LA wont to shout usitative Medial -p-. Examples are tump'^i. 'iv^'i" go ahead!. ump'^i'cAcavipA just for fun.

one mora (see § 8.Soul hern Point e. and are often quite easily missed.thy. g. xiv by the (obj. -yw'ai. .< fathers and sons ( < plural reciprocal nana'tsLTjwi + moa'-tsi-). end. They are rarely exaggerated in articulation. The distinction is important phonetically. 2). (1) The Glottal Stop. g. In part this movability is conditioned . of a pre'ai\ ceding word. a puzzling and often disinitial concerting peculiarity of the glottal stop. apart from final position. -' stances to separate vowels brought together by composition (§ 16. but they probably belong to quite distinct historical strata.continuative) as in itself a grammatical process occurring alone in . (2) Mov ability of glottal stop.and -ywa. sa'a. 3). n.-i?ii. e. 2. 1.-\.to go in order to. while a short-voweled syllable with "accessory" glottal stop counts for only § 9. g. . .to be good. inasmuch as a syllable containing an "inherent" glottal stop counts for two moras whether its § 53. nana'rj'wa'tsLijwi -ywoa'-t sl. however. -'- to indicate momentaneous activity. end) of -mo'a-tsi. but within that syllable it may shift about with considerable freedom. . Rarely there is evidence to show that an "inherent" glottal stop may arise by way of compensation for the loss of a vowel. 2. end). (e. Glottal stops occur very frequently Southern Paiute. Outwardly these two types of glottal stop are identical. at least. of 7ia'7)'iVA'- father abd son (< reciprocal na. This seems to be true.) final i. 2. thee) in certain circumchiefly pronominal (e. 2. 'ayii. a. end. glottal stop. g. a. the second and third an "accessory" glottal stop. 3).-rjivo'Atsi-. vowel is short or long. in final position after perfective -{n)tca. a. 3 and 4) or in connection with certain enclitics. dubitative -'. The glottal stop may function as an integral element of a stem (e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 59 i An initial ' is rarely labialized to 'w.and after independent personal pronouns preceding verbs of doing and being (§ 5. movability. spirantized form (see § 16. . a Shoshonean Language 77 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Types of Glottal Stop. b § 58. with such grammatical processes as gemination and reduplication (§ 53. The last group of cases may be considered as inorganic or non-functionThe first group of cases may be defined as involving an "inherent" al. -n'ni. . 1. § 19. is its it and The phonetic consciousness attaches to a certain syllable. g. the "accessory" group no doubt representing a later development or influencing of the word boil) or grammatical element (e. to'o'iv'C xwai' bulrushes them < to'oi'v'i § 15.father).

The type particularly frequent in initial position. second part of the broken vowel may be stressed or relatively stressed. Broken vowels are extremely They are due to either an inherent glottal stop (e. n. The over into the end of or body of the preceding syllable or into the beginning of the following syllable. -ydi-). more rarely. closing its syllable {-yai'-). . particularly {a" a if second. g.resultative suffix p\ni'ka'aikwA see it qwa(b) it A glottalized consonant Glottalizatiun of consonants and vowels. m. si'i. a' a' >°'a'). 2).IT -f. "'a'ura' towards it < a. qani"imi thy house < qani.< -y'i.or -y'i.-u'ra^ towards).. or nasals see b below) breaking the first vowel of the diphthong {-ya'ai-. Hence it might be more appropriate to speak of the The type y'ai'glottal affection of a syllable than of a glottal die of such a word as tayv'-y'ai-ka. a'a'ura". . Examples of vowels and diphthongs broken by an accessory glottal the type a'" in final position. the unstressed part. is A broken diphthong broken (e. and yw form such glottalized immediately follows units. + -' . the accessory ')• or precedes (e.several ARE THIRSTY may appear with its immediately preceding its own syllable (-'yai-). but much of it is purely optional. it may appear immersed in stops. making a hiatus between the two vowels of the diphthong {-ya'i.verbal ijwa- noun suffix + -'.house). Thus. vowel with a glottal stop into a composite sound of unified acoustic effect. g.with murmured i). be defined as a welding of the consonant or. -y'i. or glottally affecting the initial consonant of the following syllable {-yaiK-a-).thy remote past ' .may be considered the norm.mi. g.present tense may ' + .TO urinate) or to the secondary operation of an accessory one Either the first or (e. e.or -ya'^. or ya"ai. one whose first vowel is stop are: paa'- -p'iyai- aunt H . g. see a below.. affricatives. glottal stop by accentual factors (§ may even spill ' — Broken vowels and diphthongs.. immediately following its initial consonant (-y'ai-. ampa'yana' aijWA his -ga?'. Only the stopped consonants. 78 X 60 Southern Paiule and Ute SAPIR 10. tends to be "'a' is murmured > a"°. from this type of glottal affection may develop a glottalized vowel. in the case of the other consonants. — paa"ami thy aunt qafi' p'iya' aim'i they two sat his talking -na. the syllable -y'ai. . (a) frequent. g.

p'ini'Jfaip'id'" did not see. g. e. fs) are pronounced with simultaneous oral and glottal closure. e.Tjica- told to (him) uv^itu.verbal his -{- t'ini'ayq'iqain'narjWA his having noun . stop often manifests a sing a. This makes than the snappy glottalized consonants ("fortes") of so many other American languages.. is meant one that is articulated by a rapid series of weak glottal stops or. while continuously interrupted glottal die + -. in glottalized 7) yw the ' slips in and w: y'w. g. . cifca'rjtvaip'iya'aim'i fooled them. Glottalized consonants result from either an inherent or accessory glottal'i- . By a glottalized vowel. . less often preceding one. cordal tightenings that approximate vowel sounds like a seems to correspond to what German writers on phonetics term "Pressstimme. twice or even three times in the course of Several examples have already illustrated Further examples are: cu{w)anearly ««"'a. simultaneous also.there + -y'ai.V". by the qw." at other times it (c) Sometimes the Over-glottalization.along -v'antuywa.. glottal closure: vi'in. uv^i'tu'imaV sings along *am-u'v"''anfuxwA is on them The movability ni-ci'tcaT)wa'i--^a' of the glottal stop well illustrated in the forms teasing a person. j. in which the glottal release is subsequent to that of the oral closure. glottalized fairly definitely articulated "glottal r. sometimes to a following syllable. qwa- -qai- perfective -' .on -nimia-. + -na. itself What is morphologically a single glottal this. a Shoshonean Language 79 SOUTHERN they cu(w)a' (i)' y' aip'iya nearly died uv'^d"{i)y\im'i there they + -' . probably more correctly. . citca'Tj'waiyiatjA teases him. the glottal stop of the glottalized consonant generally belongs to its own syllable. The glottalized stops and affricatives (p. d. Examples are: the two closures is The release of them far more difficult to perceive tca'aikai- to hold + -?/i- present it tca'a'ikai'y'iqwA holds it tense + + -'." The glottalized vowel may occur as an abbreviated substitute for the broken vowel or as an anticipatory glottal affection immediately preceding a more sharply articulated glottal stop. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 61 A glottalized m or n is simply a long nasal interrupted for a moment between (.Southern Paiute. song -mi' a. fc. n'n.

form: derivation and composition. after rj is In such an example as -r'oarj'aami he thee? the of interrogative -r'o. glottal stops may. On the other hand. by the processes of (ts). Treatment of Co7iso7iants in Composition. 2). thou? (see § 16. -ru'" on a stone they § 40. in These are summarized in tabular part. g. c (s). .mi. begin with either a vowel (which ' A word must by tc ') may be preceded or one of the following nine consonants: p. though far less frequently.on -ru'a- + -' .thee. broken. q (k). -p a'na. may even manifest itself immediately preceding word. n. (d) Contraction. two organically distinct merge into a single one. e. e. qa'uL u'a'xarux wa right THROUGH THE HOUSE (properly qmua-. take Initial . . though rarely. between the .: 80 62 qanintcu-xwa'ai- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to build a house + nam'i'xa'nintcuxwa^"- first go to to go in order to build a house over-glottalization. g.vii- interrogative + -' they thou tu7np"'i'pa'nam'i. of -aija'a-.he. . m. similarly qa'tu' aura* The in the HOUSE TOWARDS ' IT < qatii' a'u'ra\ the glottal stop separating a and u being here so faint that it escaped perception. qw (kw). up a medial position and are immediately preceded by a vowel. obj. while the intrusive of qa'uL was distinctly audible. by -' the — ' ' ' . . voiced or unvoiced.). one of three distinct forms. as it were. from -arja. caught. they assume.and intrusive. When these consonants. t.

g. 7i no Two factors are operative in the determination of the form that a consonant takes in medial position.will drink. or nasalizing — power (respectively indicated. is It is plausible. is historical (1) Spirantiz. the same adjectival verb suffix appears in spirantal form in arjqa'-ya. 63 there is distinction has no spirantal development. for. geminated. from what comparative that spirantization arose typically when an element or stem whose initial consonant represents no process of contraction was affixed to an element or stem whose final vowel evidence available. in participial ayjqaya-r'i-. with an inherent spirantizing. pai-". -q a-.several WILL ) and -mpania. -yqi. -7a. is qutca-^.Southern Paiitte. NU^qwi'-ii(i. or nasalizes. as part of its inner form. where necessary. Much more typical is threefold alternation. for tn and between nasalization and gemination. a Shoshoneon Language 81 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.(as in ivi'yumpariLa. less frequently. g. -rjqae. three forms according to the nature of the preceding stem or suffix. must be credited. geminating. Here the deciding factor is the nature of the preceding stem or be be smooth. A thorough study of comparative Shoshonean linguistics would probably make them historically intelligible. more often.streaming).(as in ivi'vania. e.-^ving. or nasalized consonant. quHca'qa-fi-. and nasalized in paii'-yqa. which. Paiute itself reveals comparatively little. Thus. the element -ya-.numeral objective suffix. and -"). as -^ -". g.indirective suffix to. -ai-t'inot h.will be wont to drink).will take a drink. Thus. is itself The particip- ial capable of appearing in geminated {-t'i-) and nasalized {-nt'i-) form as well under the appropriate circumstances ( be red. The initial consonants of suffixes that appear in two distinct forms are either spirantized or. e. On the other hand. the nasalization in this class of elements is due to the presence of a nasal in the preceding syllable. As a rule. geminated in qu'tca'-qa. certain elements (suffixes and enclitics) always appear with consistently spirantized. . In the first place. nasalized. future -vania. -qu. which affects all stems and many suffixes. all stems and many suffixes appear in either two or. g. consistently spirantizing (schematic form -qa-^).ation. ivi'mimpania.durative suffix. regardless of the stem or morphological element that precedes. As to the background of these processes. geminates. On the other hand. pdi'rjqa-ri-. -q avania. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Paiute itself. the stems may be respectively indicated as arjqa-'. as far as a descriptive analysis of Paiute is concerned. for purposes of derivation and composition one needs to know always whether a given stem -n- or suffix one that spirantizes.

(after syllable with nasal. -ts. as na-' reciprocal + pavi- elder nava'viriw'i brothers fastens brother 7na-' with the hand + -patc'i'a- viava'tciai to fasten Shoshonean *{h)ipi- to drink (cf. ivi- to drink Mono at-' hibi-) new + /ait'' shirt a'i'ra'i'^ new shirt cu{w)a-' nearly + tup^i'ku. -r- (ungeminated of -D-. -ts. but this "Spiris not deducible from Paiute itself and so does not concern sit was nearly Shoshonean *kafito Hopi gatb) iyovi-' mourning do\e child + fua- iyontcuatc little mourning dove house qani-^ na-' house + tua- qanLntcuats- little a-' quietly + + tca'aik-ai. be used up cu{xo)a'RUp^ikupiya used up qafi. -tc.82 64 represents X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Original ungeminated stops and -mits original ending. -ntc-).by the failure of weak moras to lose their voice regularly before it. -ntc-). There is some comparative evidence to show that c (s) and 7i originally alternated with -'. results of spirantization are: and -yw-. -nts-).to hold a'tca'aika' to hold quietly reciprocal + tcaq aitsi- nanica' qaitsLrjw'i qa p'iisL-^a ' brothers younger brother -p'i-' past -tsL-' diminutive a little fellow sang little diminutive + qani-" + -kai.) qam'-^ai- to have a house -' ci'yaitcoxu woman's basket cap Shoshonean *maka- to give (cf. -ts. have already been discussed Examples after syllable with nasal. may a- to give Mono nam'i-' qaiva-' v"'aiu maki) iirst -\- qwavhj camp over night nam'i'xwaviyunight first qa' ivaywitcuv^'aRi to camp over mountain peak + qwitru mountain peak . 3).can be most convincingly differentiated from geminated -tc-. -y-. The secondary -t-) -tc- -nic- arising from a theoretical (see § 13.(after syllable with nasal.{ sit ( have ci squaw-bush + qaitcoxu hat tiyqaiu-' cave house -isi- t'itjqa'mntsLA cave (obj. -r.and zero respectively as their spirantal developments. antized" -tc-. became spirantized between vowels.

4. c-f. seems to have spent its force.TO drink In part gemination is a grammatical process (e. see § 50. that m to -rjw-. Hopi saijiva'-cpi sagebrush muk used even after spirantizing stems and elements. (2) c {s) are is not clear. a.< -in.) (as enclitic element. we can not yet tell what brought Shoshonean ipi-: ^'i'pi- . As we have already seen. Cahuilla samu-t) Shoshonean *tami we (cf.. e. roll over ta-mi"'i{:na-i)qi- -\ — each other) m'in''icL- ma-rjw'i'n'icL-yqi- to roll one over to dig out by 7na-r)wi" iina-yqi. of 7noa- father to give na' rj' aHsltjw'l father and son to give maya- narjwa'ya- to pay (lit. ma-' hand Geminated -m.also has largely supplanted spirantized above). see § 40) -via- on to -rjwa- on (with pronouns. as in the more evident compounds and derivatives -m. (cf. Sometimes -m. 4. 14) -rjw'i. g. p'iyqa'muntun'i'kaip'iya' kept lying covered up (< p'iyqa-' continuously). Shoshonean *tama. see In general.(see 1 above). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Shoshonean *tukaLuiseno duku-mit) night (cf. you ( dig out with poking with one's foot rrV"'ivn- one's hands -rjijoinu-. to drink repeatedly). How geminated intervocalic consonants arose -7)w.forms are distributed in Examples of -yw. 1 b) . though abundantly enough illustrated in the material.and -rjw. na-ma'tjwicava'am'i two shall push each other ( (chiefly with pronominal stems. -rayjWA we i-tam'6) Gemination.w Southern Paiiite. g.animate plural (see § 48. ma-' with the hand to turn.) your. regardless of etymological considerations. tarjwa- tooth Fernandino -tama) Shoshonean *sama- (cf. g. hi. a) -ywL-tuywa. see § 50. however.animate plural (see § 48.- you (plur. e.are: other than a purely phonetic manner. < § 58.tooth 1 . a Shoshonean Language 83 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 65 tuywa'nu night While the spirantizations iHustrated above are live processes. Gitanehama-t grass. MA'cl'q-Laiy'ini my hands are cold (cf. -ijumi. 4. na-' above). intervocalic n and always geminated or long. 8) -im-tuywa- -ml.

(-kw-).to hang by the feet (cf. as indicated by comparaExamples of -p -. as results of gemination are: pantuwith the foot shake no -" to carry on one's back ta-' + to tApa'ntui 7io'payaito place. g.hither (cf.(-/r -). pa{i)yiki tu'qu comes back Shoshonean *tuk tsdsL-' panther panther scrapes to hold Luiseno dukwu-t) (reduplicated) with a tsisikwLyui' wavy lines point iteratively ta-' with the foot tA'qwa'°qaione's foot down with is not congeminating stems or elements followed by a stem beginning with a vowel insert a glottal stop.TO sleep BEFOREHAND (see i-" above). -t-. ' . it is evident that elements differ about the treatment of their final vowel before vowels. The contrast between intervocalic geminated and ungeminated consonants is doubtless an original Shoshonean feature.well takes a after it.TO SLEEP WELL. maa'ini. tauTjwai.qoi'na. wiHca'-^i bee (contrast wUca'-4)i calf of leg) with fire qu'tsi'k iva' will burn the with the teeth -|. both ma-^ and ta-" combine contracting. e. There is . i"A'p'u. g. that ' . -q . touch and taa'iniTO touch with the foot. e. some Thus. others inserting a directly with a following vowel. -ts-. -t c-. On the other take off one object to return u-\ qi'qo'Vnai' takes off with pa(i)yL-'' — teeth ki. g. though the evidence clusive. e. i'i{)'-". and -qwtive evidence. tl"A'pii.some reason to believe. wdca'- ivi'tca'i' ties. uijwaiTO hang).i iVA'tci'tjupiya' chews caught up with to put) wat CL- up with bee (contrast watci'- wdca'qu-" qi-' to tie. shakes with the foot to carry from place pack-horse no'qava {-' beforehand to t'ina-" what qi-" to hunt do + + tiq a- to eat to tell i'tTqaV eats beforehand fiya- titia'Afiyn Ri hunting-leader with the teeth to catch qTtco'xw'a.84 X 66 Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR about the geminating power of certain stems and elements and the presence of geminated consonants in the body of stems.

twyu'vipa. nasalized stops (and affricatives) geminated consonants. Hopi nalc^ve. but is merely a secondarily nasalized development of the spirantized group.with ungeminated -7i-. cf. though elision of -ain parallel Shoshonean * have.(-ts-) (this type is not properly "nasalized" at all. 2. *-kani-. ayo'Tjqwaia tongue . participle pa'anfi-. In cases like usitative -niia-. < Nasalized consonants that result from the nasalizing power of a may be grouped into three classes: 1. perfective -qai-. cf.or -yw- (e. but not geminated. original or itself developed from -t(see § qarjqa'ivi- houses qan L. pa'a-"" TO BE HIGH.(-is-). and internally in stems and elements from obscure causes (in part these internal nasalizations may be due to the assimilatory influence of a preceding nasal: e. d). see 1 above) 2. 3).)«iu. nayqavaear from Shoshonean *naka-. that is either inherently "spirantal" or rather ungeminated ( make to have a tongue. prov'ided there is a nasal consonant in the syllable preceding the -tc. contains a -y. yet internal nasalization sometimes appears where comparative evidence gives no apparent reason for it. of reduplicating stems with interior nasal g. nasalized stops (and affricatives) that alternate with spirantized. Mohineyam duguba-t. -mpi. -mi-". Gabrielino tukupa-r. Nasalized consonants occur intervocalically as a result of the nasalizing power of a stem or element. The presence of an interior nasal in the stem may be the cause in some cases (e. yet also Tiibatulabal dogumba-l). Elision of a syllable containing a nasal is demonstrable in a small number of cases (e. g.preterital) or "spirantized" by a preceding stem or element. parallel pa'an i-). g. as the result (e. but not altogether. which would disappear between vowels but assert itself as nasalization of the following consonant when the final vowel of the element is elided. g.(-nts-) that results from a -tc. alternating in nj-vi- CARRIER. cf. agentive 3. participle -qant'i. Examples of nasalizing power are: that alternate with spirantized and ayo-" tongue ayo'mpi tongue. Gabrielino -nanax. when the preceding syllable preceding element . g. -ntc. may be a preferable explanation. -vi-.Southern Paiute. cf. taywa-" tooth). *-qani. g. e. participle -kant' consonants and that seem to occur primarily. tarja-vipi- kicker).one suspects Shoshonean *-mina-. -kai. The primary cause for the nasalization in the last group is generally obscure. -tea. g. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (3) 67 Nasalization. a Shoshonean Language 85 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. see § 58. 07.

e.< -tu. but note qani-': to ntiki. hide. g. l.another's wife. e. g.g) g. but not altogether. nimpiywa. ovintu- make wood ovi'Tjkani wood- en house -vi-" agentive to + -kai- to be tona'viykai- to be a puncher pa- pay{a)i-" walk pay{a')impa-n-tay{a')ii]ki- will go. else's hoase ovi-" stick. Examples are: (4) certain wiisi'its- bird -ywintsids- in compounds {-nts- because of preceding -W-. pimpi'hang on several times o{w)i' pintcu-mpanL" will make a canyon (both with -ntcu. to come walking. Ina' mp'intsii]w'i badgers) nara'qwdcumpatogether assembled nara'qwtntcumpaform) (alternative Less frequently an original nasalized consonant takes a spirantal form. -mp'itsL- noun ending to be (see § 24. -rjw- < g.-. to pay(a')i7}qw'ai- pay{a')impuruplace to place to walk off. . (rare form of -vip'itst. nintuayqito liiywuru- to make a man) give birth to one. walk from Vacillation in use of consonantal forms. wood ovi'mpayV to wooden . niyqa'nL(f)i somebody fish. put in hiding (probably secondarily dissimilated from ayaijwantci-) MA'cl'tcompi p'irVr'i- finger-nail MA'ci'ntcompi p'int'L-rju- (alternative form) to hang on will qaru'ntcu-v^'a-7iL' build a house hang on. in part depending on nasal assimilation. There is a amount of sporadic variation between spirantized and nasalized consonants. oa'rjWLntsids- yellow bird) watci- to put a' make.86 X 68 Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR person ( m-" < myw'i-'.to oip\i-") -vip'intsLe.

represents the original turn red) acts like a geminating ayqa-" in such forms as ayqa'-payV red fish. A number of elements that are primarily spirantizing are geminating in certain isolated forms. which evidently constitutes an is no verb -piki.: hole to mov^t.) and walk by turns tump^i'naro'rjqwat'iA tive form) having (alterna- In the last three examples an original nasalized consonant has become geminated. partly for assimilative. are examples of stems which are inherently spirantizing but are treated as geminating when compounded with stems that occur independently. to toach with the hand mu-' nose (e. tuntu'quntvTju- become clumsy. g.Southern Paint e. ma-": MA'pa'iyavu(j)i ayq'i- palm. run) tump^i'naro'ijqwant'iA stone-clothes (obj. . g. e. that are so treated. assimilated to -tdtsL-.without prefix). heavy over one's body (reduplicated. to'o'pi infrequently also nasalized and geminated consonants intere. arjqa'-qani red house. for then -tcitcL-) Not change.'iomp-i nose-hole. there Quite distinct from this group. nostril to all tuyqu'tvyupowerless become clumsy. g. there is some vacillation also between spirantized and geminated consonants. ayqa-' red (cf. followed by noun or verb stems. MA'tca'i'MA^pi'ki- to reach for. aijqa-r'ua. 7nu-": Ma'p^'i'lcKpi mucus archaic stratum (thus. Thus. a Shoshonean Language 87 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. arjqa-ya. Finally. < tun- turjqutvyu. partly for dissimilative In the first example the geminated consonant probably interchange of nasalized and geminated positions) NU''qwi'7npa'y{a)i- to run and NU'^qwi'pay{a)ika- several run walk by turns (< NU^qwi'-'" to BE RED.NU'qwddtcLijw'i stream-people {-nfi-tsi- doubly -titsi-. It is particularly verb (including adjective) stems. strike with one's nose). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE NVqwi'nt'i stream to flow) ( 69 red- < NU^'qwi'-" arjqa' pa. ma-' hand. viu-rona.

did I drink at the house? Phonetically the form did-I-at-the-house? is a perfect drink This is shown by the fact that the enclitic cluster -{n)tcar' oani can be appended. changes of phonetic character. qauLvatcaroan ivi'rju house-at-preterit-interrogative-I g. doubtless of . to a preceding word in the sentence. A number tives. unit. both m)qa'-q wicn-m red-flashing. except for some of the pronouns. It is one of the most characteristic processes of Paiute. without bringing about any strictly formal modifications. but not a strictly formal. Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ivi-' to drink (cf. and the pronominal -ni I are enclitic elements. the resulting ments to any word preterital -ntca-. in all: (1) (2) Seven processes may be recognized Compounding of Stems Enclisis. lightning and (ujqa'-xu'ic a. Enclisis is thus neither true suffixation nor juxtaposition of independent elements. these tendencies are not consistently carried out.when drinking) forms ivi'-p aTO drink while walking.momentaneous. Enclitic elements. to certain principles of order). plus a number of exteriorly segmented elements that have no independent existence. morphologically it is a word {qanL-va." formally TO take a drink {hi. the interrogative -r'oa-. Such details are of merely lexicographic interest. (see § 18).to flash red arc found. (§ § 17-63). drink. By enclisis is meant the suffixing of certain ele- complex constituting a firm plionetic. of distinct processes are in use in Southern Paiute for others internal the expression of grammatical relations or for the formation of deriva- Some of these are affixational processes. not true suffixes. never occur in other than enclitic form. the true "word. consisting only of ivi'iju- + momentaneous suffix -yu-). the inner feeling of the latter. Grammatical Processes. The tendency to use geminated consonants in composition is probably due to the greater phonetic similarity thus brought about between a simplex and its compoimd. However. Thus. and towards their development into mere historical Morphology § 17. y{a)i- It is the first step towards the dulling of a consciousness of consonantal alternations survivals. It has the external characteristics of the former (including strict adherence e. In a "word" like im' tjuntcar' oani did I take a drink? The in the sentence. speaking.X 70 Similarly.

objective -a-. They have purely derivational. -ya-. Under suffixes are included both derivational elements (e. Less commonly e. g. These are quite apart from the in mechanical changes undergone by consonants Consonantal changes include: (a) composition (§ 16). A considerable number of elements prefixed to stems. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 71 Plateau Shoshonean generally. g. 3 and 4). Glottalization. 3 also frequently found in connection with certain types of reduplication and 4).fire). Like gemination. (3) is Prefixation (see § 20). Reduplication (see § 58).. Gemination and glottalization tend to be associated or equivalent processes.boy: aiva-iplfsi-) youth. iteration and (6) by the process momentaneous activity Consonantal changes. . -rjqai-). not formal. (b) aipa-tsi.Southern Paiute. grammatical process of all. As a formal process reduplication always initial. more or less movable glottal in stop in the body of a stem or This occurs most frequently connection with certain types of reduplication (see § 58. Final reduplication occurs only in isolated words and has no formal or derivational function. 2. the insertion of a suffix. e. -mpi-") and elements of strictly formal significance -qai-. b). independent quna. Sporadic examples noun derivationalso occur. This is the most important (4) Suffix ation (see § § 23-37). The ideas expressed are chiefly those of distribution. There are several (5) is distinct types of reduplication. at least in large part. it is employed alone to give in iterative force to the stem (see § 53. Gemination of stem consonants (see § 53. 2. it is also used to express momentaneous activity and iteration (see § 53. In origin they are doubtless. of the consonant or consonants indicates generally The geminating momentaneous It is or semelfactive as contrasted with durative activity. Enclitics include pronominal elements (see § 40) and elements of temporal and adverbial force (see § 19). cf. verb subordinating -701-. up the origin of the geminating power of certain stems (§ 16. b). g. agentive -vi-". (see § 58. a Shoshonean Language 89 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. significance. This may eventually help to clear 2). they consist chiefly of adverbial elements and instrumental prefixes. 2. independent stems that have lost their individuality and now appear only as first elements of compounds (with qu-" by meaxN's of fire. g. a). (e.

in which the same stem with 'i. 2). 5.. 2) vowels of the sound like a punch- ditto ing noise In the latter example the primary form is tco-^ with the fist (§ 20. (a) Sporadic interchanges. Cf. 2.vowel seems to have become assimilated by the i of the prefix. 3. -q-oq-oi. in part they have sound-imitative value. pA'-so'roroi-tci Examples waterfall are: curur'u- whirling to make down a noise of toyqwa- one (bow) snaps several travel toqwa-puru- to stretch (in poro.may represent an assimilation of -q'iq'ii. in: An alternation of a- (a) and o (o) is found para-xapanta-yanoise rain patters poro-xwahoofs sound of to sound like a slap on the buttocks (pi-" WITH THE BUTTOCKS. b) -toyoniatci-q'iq'ii- (rarer form of same) tco-qoqoi.90 72 (7) X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Vocalic changes. § 20. this is apart from the purely phonetic interchanges already spoken assimilated to the i- of (§ 3. e). conversely. Perhaps more frequent than any of these interchanges is that of o and u(o). . e). horse's to make a peeking ponto^wa- sound like a thud An a of the durative alternates with an i of the iterative form of the stem in ya-vayai- to be afraid y'i'i-paq ai- to be afraid several times i and o alternate in: -tiyania- adverbial affix (§ the o of the prefix (see § 3. these may be survivals in part of older processes. Certain vocalic interchanges are sporadic no functional significance. also pi-kiki. Other and of vocalic interchanges are associated with definite alternations of function.(poru-) compound verbs) to toca- white go back and forth pa-rucaVirgin River water-white) (lit.

with static or medio-passive ing. tuv^a-^{a)i-tcai. o. while new compounds can be constructed without difficulty. -mpi-. f -vi-. or u of the singular verb stem to an i in the the alternation of semelfactive 1. For mo'o-' hand is sometimes used ma-" (cf. The latter process. To the former belong the an a. 1. of active -a. are morphologically best interpreted as either verbs (adjectives) with incorporated noun subject or object (see 2. b). sometimes appear in abbreviated form. § 24. and the alternation 1.sev- objects come through (b) Functional interchanges. A large number are in constant and idiomatic use. Triple and quadruple compounds are always morphologically binary. • Compounding of Stems. (feathers) come out pulls out. g. . a-. (1) Compound Nouns. 1. g. f below) or. The qualifying element regularly precedes. g. compounds involving three independent stems. Triple compounds. pa-' water < pa-'. d and e). verb prefix ma-'. a Shoshonean Language 91 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. tovL- tup'^a-qieral one object emerges. are by no means infrequent (e. -i- with durative or iterative -a..Southern Paiute. c).blood-roast-ask for). The process of compounding is evidently very much alive in Paiute. 2). Even quadNouns frequently lose an absoluruple compounds are not unknown. e. qualitative change of plural Two types of interchange occur.-p'i-. d). § 18. (§ 53.(§ 53. partly in certain continua- tive forms. is -i. Compound nouns are most easily classified with reference to the nature of the first and second compounded terms. -vi. 1. e. m-" person < nitjw'i-'. § 24. Noun compounds whose second element is a participle or adjective. soyo'-(l>'i MOIST ground. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE topa-q-Ltcai- 73 (tree) comes loose. (fitca'-fi'ma-t'iv^'dcu. more frequently. i. one or both of the terms being in turn compound. participial derivatives of such verbs (adjectives). freely Both compound nouns and verbs (including adjectives) may be formed in Paiute. a and a quantitative one. NA^-co'yo-mavi.(§ 53. EARTH. § 24. -mp'i-. vocalic lengthen- employed partly to indicate futility. a and b. e. qava'{u)-xwA'ci-vdixi horsetail-hair. § 20. 1. Thus. Nouns stems. na-^ TRAIL < narjwa-'.to lie covered over with . particularly in initial position. the examples hair and bloodgiven above are to be analyzed as horse-tail + roast + ask for. emerge. -pi-. though logically substantival. tive or classificatory suffix when compounded (e. -Isl-. g.

moccasin ina-" badger (absolute ma'mpl'^s) yqwdc pipuTf'wa-' woodpecker friend I badger people.mountain sheep + nampa-' coyote-headed. pa?)WL'a(f>C of water ( < WLa'(f>'i mud) i. In is Noun + noun compounds. e. n{7. animal.92 74 (a) X Southern Paiute ami Vte SAPIR These are extremely common. back). the first element of the compound merely modifying its range of signifiExamples are: cance. Frequent also are "bahuvrihi" compounds. badger chief. such English compounds as hunchback. Examples are: compound is possessed by an understood or specified person. grizzly-bear brothers qwiya'-{tsL-) Wolf and grizzly his brother (Coyote) bear + qwLya' ma{u)via' uis- ma{u)ma"utsqava-' horse + young woman pana-" metal + woman qava'van apat CA ina! n'irjw'irjw'i 'ina'nia(f)i horseshoe patca. given by the second noun. many cases the primary force tiv^a'tsL- wolf + na-va' VL-Tjw'i- Uv^a'tsinavavnjw'i wolf-brothers. such as indicate that the noun referred to by the second element of the (cf. e. crazy-headed person qu'icu'ntana^iyaijwix'i (girl with a) vulva that is cleft like a buffalo hoof mountain-sheepnaxa'nampA c'ina'rjwavlntots- foot (absolute nanipa'(l>i) foot (personal name) None too frequently juxtaposition of phonetically independent . or object i.5'a'wi<>/ somebody else's horse niTjw'i'nts) water (absolute pa') paywt'a<t>C mud at bottom water-oak. ma'badger tail (absolute tail) qiVA'sL<t>i + t'iy'ivi- pi' purj'wafix'iv'CayA pecker-friend sana"atc'i MA''qu'na4>i his wood- sana-" + ma-o atci- gum (absolute sana'pi) bow mo'o'4>i) gum bow glove hand (absolute sack + quna'(f>L m-" pa-' person (absolute 7ii'yw'L. having a humped c'inaywavi-'^ coyote tj'tsi'<t>i -\- tjtsi-' head (absolute qutcu-"^ buffalo cleft + hoof + w'iy'i-'^ tanasiyavulva (ab- solute wiy'i'mpi) naya.

lake (plur. pa. e.Southern Poiute. pine peak.piya'plts. oyo'ijqwariRi sitting. dowed with gigantic power power iava'cu-p'i dried it up ( < tavac u- oyo'ntavacup i. As already remarked. qu'tu'cunarixwinapi. qa'ivaxafiRi clump of woods. (b) Noun -\- participle compounds. island.water on the ground a' OTfqov'iyw'imriA + up tree that was standing (obj. in some cases the participle of these compounds has taken They function as true nouns nevertheless.vdiy ami horse-tail-hair they brothers. pla- teau. maa'xariR'i brush-sitting. g. island ered knoll. to only a slight extent can the verbs be freely used with the incorporated noun subjects. while participial derivatives of such verbs are very frequent. peak. Mount Trumbull. female. qava'{u)xwA'ci. fir island -nafiywin a-p'i being powerful. timb- clump. power-endowed 7uyw'i'nar'iywi nap i person- endowed.) + pa'qafiRi. on a considerably specialized meaning. giantenperson power-endowed. y'iv^'i'ykafiRi mountain peak. ovi- Kaibab Plateau timber laid low dried wood + sa^ma'qa-nti. fir-dried up. snow fir- niv^'a'xafiR'i snow-sitting. filly. peak. notably qafi'-Ri sitting (plural ywywL-tc'i). paiyv'xwdc'i) -qafi'-Ri sitting. compound nouns are morphologically active or passive participles of verbs with incorporated nominal subjects or objects Indeed.lying ovt'sa'maqant'i spread out w'irvi-fiaoyqov'i. used in compounds to mean knoll. mountain-sitting. a Shoshonean Language 93 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.dried-up tree standing qafi'-Ri sitting pa-. yuywt'-tc'i ting. Examples of compounds in which the noun is morphologically a subject of the verb implied by the participle are: qaiva- mountain + avi'-tci lying qa'ivavitci mountain-lying. covered peak. the horse-tail-hair brothers. person endowed with unusual strength. Moreover. paya'fiRi lakes) water-sit- (plur. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 75 nava'vLTjWL nouns occurs in lieu of composition. dried dries up) up fir . such respectiv'ely. qava'ruwats.

. a "flat" AHa' RA^qayant'i "flat sand-flat (not sand") in which the noun back of the participle. also paa'iA qafi'fiA WATER (obj. ripe apples apple-rip- ripen.Aqai^ -pihaving been given (by many) qanimamaxqai^pLariA his housegiven (by many).wife + <u-7/u'a'i-/)i. Examples are: Very common are noun + participle compounds is to be thought of as the object of the verb to'd'iv'i- bulrush + ora-n-ani my digging. roasted head qani- house -\. pa'-qafiriA lake we have in inner. in which Examples are: (i. my dug-up ones pdi-" blood + mantcaqai-na(one's) UR my-bulrushdug it.head fl'vi^a'-p-i roasted own bloody hands to'^tsiti'vi^api + head-roasted. flowing) noun compounds. e. its participle.yap'L dried beef cut up and dried Such examples differ in inner form from compounds in which the noun is an ordinary incorporated noim object of an active participle. Stone-Clothes. stream (lit. beef picked up.) SITTING Rather different from these examples are compounds in which the participle is sense.'-naro'yqwa-nt'i stOxNE-wearing. Here again the compound is functionally a noun. flowing sand") tA'qa'^a-nt'i being flat. e. beside objective pa-ya'rinA.). g. form freely used in a substantival They are really ordinary is noun + the logical emphasis NU'qwi'-nti on the second element." not "streaming. his hands stretched out totsi. if not outer. the bulrushes that I dug up pa'mantcaq ainacp'i his own to'o'ivLoranan stretching out hands. his house given (him) by many piT/wa. g.mama' z.. the logical emphasis being generally placed on the first element. "stream with sandy bed. my who has been picked up (by me) + iya'-pi qu'tcu"i. tiimp^'i. blood-hand-stretched out. AHa'nv''qwLnt'i sand stream e.94 76 qfVA'ci'-p'i X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ripe ( < is qwac'i- to a'poficLXWA^cip'i ened. be done) Rarely the noun found detached from (obj. picked piTjwa'rvywaip'Cni my wife wife- up qut cubuffalo.

sore-headsonal (ed). adjectives with nominal suffixes g.sore-foot- jnjf-a-' to be hard ed (one) pi'ka"aiA hard-turtle. in compounds. particularly in a "bahuvrihi" sense (sometimes nominalized by -tsi-. e. song used NA^sa"a.a-) to bend vxCa'n^NO'q^o'Mi be white (ordinarily (e) paru'cA River water-white. rawhide bag . Examples are: pijc-a-' to be sore pi'Jfa'xwd'i sore-buttocks (per- name). sweat qa'ni house + mourning ceremony NA^sa"aqani sweat-house in Here must be included compounds of adjective. pi'ka'xuna<t>'L hard-bag.Southern Paint e. g. g. a Shoshonean Ltmguage 95 77 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. ever. battle chiefs yaya'uv^La<f)'L chiefs yaya- to cry uv'^i'acp'C song cry-song. short penised ("bahuvrihi") (d) Noun verb compounds.verb stems and noun stems. qauL- house penis + -{- itu-mp'i. 1. follow the noun they qualify. § 24. how(e.) bent-penised name) Virgin pa-' water tuca. b). old vn'a-" short penis-short. They seem to belong to the "bahuvrihi" type. which. (personal (intr. Examples + are: vri'a-' penis + NO'^qo"mi + toe. e. f) and in verbal derivatives in have (§ 26. pi'ka'nampats. Most adjectives are really verbs (predicative) or participles of verbs (attributive). -tsL-) There are. noyai- to carry to hunt nayu'qwi. no'saritspack-dog yaa'ik-ava" hunting horse nayu' qwinLniavn)w'i fight chiefs. which also are quite common. on one's back These are fairly frequent. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (c) Noun + adjective compounds.ts- qaniLiump'i house w'i'a'piHopits- house-old. Verb + noun boil oneself. pi'ka'mo'" sorehanded).old pi'to' pi. Nouns which are compounded of a noun stem and a bare verb (or adjective-verb) stem are extremely uncommon. land turtle. 1. pi'Jca' virjw'i + + qava" horse nin-i'a- fight + no'qava* pack-horse. a few cases of true -mp'i-.

Examples are: mLa"-pi-' -ts) little (absolute wia"pr- mia"p'im-^ontsjpiXttn-iwi*- little little hand. Examples are: future This type of noun compound manu- + -va-nt'i- manu'vantipa^ atsiviijw'i kinds-of-animals destined to be that all- participle are nana'x-qa-nfi. aijqa'q rvi'caRi red-flashing. trout. to'ca'paiyatsi. to'qwafi-nu'qwinti being black-streaming. e. black STREAM. e. e. qualifying. of course. true adjectives may also be used as the first.nt'i red-stream (pa'NU'qWL-Jlt'i WATER-FLOWING. all noun compounds. g.being of different kinds siTjqwa'narjqwa-t'i- being on the nana' x qantirjqani different kinds of houses SLyqwa'nayqwat'iayav'ini my other other side.). and adjective-verb participles. of the compound may. mia"house . STREAM). and nouns compounded of verb (or adjective) stems and participles that have substantival force to begin with. lightning. aijqa'qani red-house tocato be white to'ca'paiyanipa-ts- white-breasted (one). gull to tea- to be wrinkled tca'xuv^a-xaikled face. the other "'a'-t'i- arm tw^i'ts atLUv^iaia{u)4>'i being good very his- own-good-song very good song (obj. his own The noun form. g.NU'^qwt. elements of noun compounds.yant'i white-breast-having. gull.96 78 arjqa- ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to be red arjqa'p ay'i' red-fish. some of them (e. Aside from adjective-verb stems (g) Adjective + noun compounds. arjqa'- ora<piL red-pole. have a wrinto tea' irv'' o-xwai- have wrinkled hands Under this heading may also be included nominalized participles based on verbs compounded of verb (or adjective) verb. aijqa' pa. at-' NEW and i-" old) being apparently found only in such compounds. g. + (f) is Participle + not uncommon. itself be participial in g.

These are quite rare. As to their morphological force. of course. noun compounds. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE pa-vi-"^ ai-' clear + pa. including (i) Pronoun terms compounded with interrogative ini-' what kind of. Verbs compounded with'ni little house. to other independent stems. . + + Examples are: mz-* what + t'iy'iv'i- friend Hni'ntciy'iv'ini what friend of qima-^ other + qani. qimaqani'ni (j) may also qualify as an independent pronoun. g. my other house. Tioun compounds. -\- qima'ricu Adverb noun compounds. A great many verb stems may be used as the second elements of compound mine? qima'xanini my other house e.verb compounds. be included adjective-verbs (a) Verb -\. they seem to fall into two groups. Under compound verbs and participles.wife) old i'purjqvni my o\d horse. 2).water pavu'mpa' a^'inaywa tja clear water his new fresh tracks. These are very common and (h) Numeral comprise one of the typical methods of expressing numeral relations. An example tanti'v^ai- far west tanti'v'"aiuv'"La4>'i far-west songs. For examples see § 59. 2. those whose action is to be thought of as contemporaneous or coordinate with that of the first verb stem (here belong particularly verbs of position and movement) and those upon which the first verb stem logically depends as a kind of object (e. g. my Some adjectives may precede terms. These also are rare. which and qima-' other. particularly verbs and nouns. which has certain pronominal peculiarities (see § 39. to write-practice. songs borrowed from western tribes (2) Compound Verbs. a Shoshonean Language 97 79 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 'a'iv'^'irjwa-vits- newly-married i'p'iani one r-" ( < piywa. b.Southern Poiute. e. are extremely common in Paiute. g. old relative also the nouns they qualify as independent mia" p'i-ts. to practice writing).

to run. return.) go about.several sit. -qari. sit (sing. from PLACE TO place (cf. pax{a)'impuru- xwa" while walking from one to another . -puru. independent poro. .). also to have just done so AND so). in compounds generally while ON one's way.).to return.TO arrive. while traveling -pa{i)yito return ya'va{i)'yiq\VA bring it no' pa{i)yLkip'iya'^ came back home -pitci- carrying on (his) back to arrive irn'mtd" 'a'ivLtcLxw'aip'iya^ comes to drink. g. -qa.uU-kaiseveral lie (sing. -pa(i)yi. -kwipa. -qwavi.several journey).several lie. go IN order to. qa'miap'iya' (they) sang while on their way. start off.98 80 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Not a It is not easy to draw a sharp line between the two groups.several return. nontsJkamiaya (they) as flew along -pay(a)i- to walk qa-' pay(a)ip'iya' (he) sang while on (his) walk. while lying as described tA^pa'ckaiavi" lies senseless. -avi. if not entirely. went in order to sing. back. stand (sing. qwavi'rjupaxi- plya' (they) stopped to camp back.several travel (not frequent as independent verb) tu{w)a'mLap-'iya^ each gave birth while on their way. travel.panaYa. . tcawent and took hold of (her) as soon as (he) arrived -puru- to go about a'ivurup'iya' said as (he) went here and there. Some have become specialized in a quasi-formal significance (e. -p'ini. tTqa'- avtkaV position several eat in lying •mia. -warjwi several stand. -pay(a)i. -w'in'i.several go. -paiy' hit. as second elements of compounds. •m.. few verb stems are used chiefly. Among the former group are: Examples to lie are: -j^nt'amxct' while thus-do-lying. -pitci.

-maupa-. tiya'nimauqutsiaijA having finished butchering him vomit exercise try.TO LEARN call upon. talk. whistled a tune to sit "pini'karixcC while sitting and sat looking. pA'^qa^w'oitcLxci'XCi'' talking of going to kill -firjwavaya- to make a noise of -Uv^itcu- to ask for -tucuifwi- to exercise power sounds like mumpa'tiywavaxai' sounds like something rolling tiXWt'nat'iv^Ltcuxwai'iyw A go and ask him to tell a story. stop {-mauqu. -mauju.only in compounds). stood and listened ampa'xayw'inii' stands and talks Some of the latter group of verb stems are: -ampaya. Examples are: -maupa-. -mucui.TO ASK FOR. -qoraTO PUT out. -tucurj'wi.ap'i'yd' whistled and learn how. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -qa-qar'i- to sing u^cu'qwL-)(. talk finish. -p'ini(n'ni-) TO LOOK around for. try. -fiv'^itcu. cises power upon me (make me) die (so as) to The most noteworthy examples of compounded verb stems that have developed a non-concrete formal significance are illustrated below . -t'iya.Southern Paiute. -tiijwavayaTO MAKE A noise OF. -maq'irfwa. -mucui-t'iya- to try to pi'pL'ta'iu'mu^cui' (as absolute tries to measure w'Cit'iyai^ practices verb) kiya't'ixamip'Lya' he always commanded a round-dance to take practice. -pai.) qa'rjwaywV sing and -wXn'i- nayqa'icaijwiimp'iya' . cii'x-Aixv^dcup'iyaiyarfA asked him to go for squaw-bush ya'a'itu'curf'wty'iaTjani he exerampa'rLTjwavaxaV talking. -ttv'^itcu' a. -putcutcuywa. qwitca'xanp'iya' down and -watjwi- defecated several stand several stand to stand (sing. a Shoshonean Language 99 81 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. -mauquto finish tTqa'mau'p-A be through eating.

ayqa'- qoroV paints the face (gen- pa -saywa-' pimkai- to be water-gray to see. verb compounds are to be included Under the rubric of verb + also compounds of adjective-verb stem and verb stem and of adjectiveverb stem and adjective-verb stem. finish eating > > com- ivi'cuarju drink-finish.100 82 -paiy'i- X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR to return > to have been ivivniyC drink-returns. killing (they) kill-re- (they) having been -p'ini-mia. w'in'i'xar'iRi stand-sit- one engaged (to in standing. he must have been singing -panaya- dit. -cua-r)u. (plur.A when it was on the lookout to set. to be on the lookout to be just about to for > -qafi- to sit > to and and so so so. look -|- + erally but not necessarily. ya'uqwip'inLini{y)ayoaq.) wirii' yuxwdcimi (plur. Examples of the former are: to be par- smooth j}a'ntA'cLu'kwiyq'i to slip on some- thing smooth aijqa- to be red arjqa'xwLCA to flash red. (plur. has burnt up Such a second verb-stem needs only to drop out of independent usage to take on the appearance of a suffix. pletion drain -tup-^i-ku. is way. qa'vaiyikaiyiarjA he has on one's tT qa' plrumiaV to blue-hanging- hang down saru. one stationed in keep watch stand-sitting to hunting) those stationed to -yuywi- dit. keeps on eating. when the sun was about to set trqa'qariV look. has been doing so and so (sing. This step has undoubtedly been taken more than once (see § 28).to be used pletion up com- na'a'itu^p^ikuqwd' has burnbeen used up. to keep on doing be engaged in so is on the lookout about to eat. red) pa saxivat\mk a ip lyaiti t' looked ' water-gray in saxio^'vu'ir' '-pa is- (his) eyes saywa-' to be gray pifir'i.) be hoarse talk -|- down ampayato spring talks hoarse saru' ampayai" .).) pA'^qa'vanayaya' turning.

to pay no attention to. broken.being hollow -saywa-^a-fi- being blue hollow aywayaRi' light roan-blue. "'a't'impu'tcu'tcuywap'iya'aikwA WELL (he) understood IT. 29). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Examples verb to-" of 83 adjective-verb compounds consisting of adjective- + adjective-verb (or adjective-verb participle) are: to be black H m'unuqwa- become round pat-" to be smooth to to be level to-" to be black + + yua-yaipa'ji'noa- became to'm'umiqwap'iyaini like black and round pai'yuaxa" to be smooth and level to'panoayant'i being black and a^sl's yantt.Southern Paint e. Independent personal pronouns are not compounded with verbs. dark blue blue. It is remarkable that in most of these examples °-' '^'a't'i-'' i. except e. CLEARLY. light blue. 4. g. The doublets -7iai]- wa shows the struggle between the force of analogy of the simplex and the regular operation of the phonetic law. however.pA'qaTjup'iyaiyaijA killed him good and hard. and the following verb are treated is as accentually distinct. tv'caywayani black-blue. a Shoshonecm Language 101 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. the law of alternating stresses qa'p'iya'aikwA and -na'rjqAp'iyaaik e. are included verbs compounded with quasi-pronominal q' tion to pay no atten- mixed up with others niru'cu'aina''^ pay no attention pay no to me. including participles. "'a'tum. . HEARD IT correctly. Compoimds for (not merely adjective-verb stems). 2) and verbs compounded of independent personal pronoun + -ric u'ai-na'ai. GOOD shouter. very qu'tca'caywayaRi ashen-blue.other (see § 39. arja'R'i'cu'ain a attention to him '"^ The latter examples are just as readily explainable as verbalized pronoun + postposition (see § 50. and verbs (or participles) are quite first uncommon. compounds whose element is 'a't'i-" good. of true adjectives (b) Adjective + verb compounds. Examples are: other qtma'ntc'i'kiva 7jwa'^ shall qima- not be -ficu' ai-na' ai. '^'a't'inayqap'iya'aikwA or "'a't'inarjqAp'iya'aikwA a't'iwa' aijintc'i good-shouting. (c) Pronoun -f verb compounds. Under this heading.

but many cases of incorporation are fixed by idiomatic usage. naywa"''q-u-'^ An example of a verb compounded with both e. not-become.1 02 84 (d) X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Numeral is -\- verb compounds. The absolutive or classificatory suffix of the noun is frequently lost in noun-verb compounds. There is a good deal of option in this matter. e. These are very uncommon. Any of these relations may be. tive in form) (i. expressed by properly syntactic or morphological processes. . may (a) . There is some tendency to express what might be called characteristic or generalized relations by syntactic means. whether.tongue to be thirsty licks axo'rov^€ . g. and more often is. to kill in vain irregularity. to be sore with have pain ayo. I qatcu- not -f- -tiyai. The adverbs here referred to may (e) Adverb occur also independently. is hardly to be formulated. The syntactic relation implied between the verb and its incorporated noun may be of various sorts. it may have local significance. The incorporated noun may be an become qatcu't'iyaiy'ini tt'rjw'i-' (. to say I trailseek or I SEEK A trail. Any general and valid rule.. It is not possible to give a simple rule as to when noun incorporation is possible or required. as is ordinarily known it may be a predicate of the subject. as the subject of the verb.\n instrumental function is illustrated in: tayu-o thirst to + paqa- to be sore. it may function as a direct object. There is no real line of demarcation between them and specialized adverbial prefixes (§ 20). it may indicate similarity.nia-) quickly becoming exhausted ti'Tjw'iRiqamiyani I am wont to eat quickly. fi'rjw'Cnavaip'iyai- am niaqwA was up quickly (f) gathering them These comprise examples of what noun incorporation. tayu'pA'^qathirst. (objec- na7)wa""qumpA^qa7)U to kill both correctly both bone-positions in hand game). to guess verb compounds. it may function verb Noun + compounds. accentual I b above). . or it be a predicate of the object. however. Examples + are: nava'cu- in vain nava'cup-A'qayu (note cf.

pa-' as well as pa -' water.'-y'ai. tiyi'{i)-ya'ai. anger-die. a Shoshonean Language 103 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Examples are: (/3) A few examples have been found similative significance. TO be angry. Examples . ?w-" as are: well as niyw'i-' person. narja'-i'ai.Southern Paiute. tu'qwi. It is in quite doubtful tA'cLijwa-mpL nampa'-4)i coarse gravel tA^a'tfWLyuntaqay'V keeps changing color like gravel foot nampa'fiywayaxai^ footsteps sounds like (7) The use are: fish of the incorporated noun as direct object is very common.wa''^ go look am-" stick ov^'yavaiytp-'iya^ stick-bring-re- hunger-die. noun has which the incorporated if such can be considered as representing a distinct type. to be hitngry. g. smokes bow nose shall put away (his) bow muv^i'-pi Tviijw'i-* (for future use) muv^Ltcau'nai^ nose for a person! scratches person niywV(f>ucayai'ij(. brought back a stick pa -' wantsi- water antelope paru"umA to take water wantsit'inavuruxuni while I was chasing antelopes around e. Examples payiu-' qwo'a'-p'i atci- pay'i'unqai' atci'plyava" eats fish tobacco 9^i>^'a'^^ga^' tobacco-eats. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE pua-* "medicine" 85 (disease + qw'ii. a'tonap'i'ya* (his) struck at with strike horns wii't-onap'i'ya' stabbed with a knife. take pua'(v)x'^^^ object) takes out of by means "medil^it cine" qwasL-' tail + kwipa- to hit qwA^SLXWi'pap'ixf^WO^''^ it with a-" wii-" (his) tail horn knife + ton-a- to punch. wii'rjwTpaqirCNA to rip open with a knife The verb ya'ai. Some incorporated nouns appear in abbreviated form.TO die is idiomatically used with incorporated nouns of instrumental function to express various unpleasant psychic be ashamed.

tava"marjw'ici' sun rises my'Ca'toyoriiv^a- moon m^'a'toyoi'aV to rain moon it dies it snow + uijwa- niv^a"u7]wavan laqA snow-rain. namp'i'n'ini'i' looks for track. (1:^) Examples of the use of the incorporated noun as a predicate of the subject are . tiintu'arjqi- to give birth to (a to let a nirjw'i'nts) person). b). NTc(.if a'nantt'nai' follows trail. tavL- Examples sun (poetic) water are: taviavi^a* while lying in the sun will pa-' pam'i'nicik-w'aiva^ turn up- side down in the water. would befog would pay'i'narjwinipa- tava- sun cloud stands up and walks (poetic) tava' {i)yauqwi sun sets.a-' fog.'m-^\A person go pa-' water (absolute />a') (8) pa{i)yu"A^qi' brings water Less common is the use of the incorporated noun in a local sense. nampu'c ayai'kup'iya^ to look for a track started m-" person (absolute ni'ijw'i. begin to sit come foggy begin to yeiY'i sit).'pA^qaTjqiyini have a toothache house + payi- to walk qanivayin'nC the houses visits around in (e) Examples water of the subjective use of the incorporated noun are is pa-' payu' nuyoxwai" water boiling payi' n. tracks. qani. cloud + qA'qa'fi- payi'tiax qar'ixu to settle. (lit.-' mov'^i. para'- n' ly L-tsLijWL people who stick their feet in the water (tribal name) -pA'qa ijqi- to have a pain to'tsi' 4)A^qar)qiy'ini I have a headI ache.104 X 86 na-" track. 0/) trail Southern Paiiitc and Ute SAPIR (absolute na?. will will snow More common than verbs with incorporated noun subjects are noun-functioning participles of such verbs (see 1..

become the Dipper. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 7uavL-" chief 87 as chief.-past. ovi'ntrqaij'wLntcarjA he became The distinction between types (c) and CQ is perhaps arbitrary. a Shoshonecm Language 105 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. (§ 40). is predicative nouns. fiyi'v'^'itca'ai- grasp (each grasp t'iyai-. Two enclitic elements are used to refer to past time.I horse receive.kill) witn"tslatcaT) qo'qwi bird. 2). as already pointed out (§ 17. they regularly precede pronominal Enclitics. Enclitics.-past. (a) -tea-.Southern Paiutc.ampayai' talks in talks council.having hit. but to following pA^qa'iju. -ntca-. Examples I tona't'itcani have been tavi'tsdcayayii pA^qa'yuni having-hit-past-he-me kill-me. The pronominal enclitic enclitics. n'irjwl'Riqar)'wi very frequently compounded with to become a man. (1) Enclitics of temporal become e. he killed me (note that refers not to tavi'tsi. I received two horses tona'ntcani I struck (not long ago) . he shot the bird wa'q utcani qava'x A two-obj. catch. often best translated by the English perfect. somewhat {y) is The use of the incorporated noun as a predicate of the object not very common. in may the sentence.he shoot. -'titca' This element refers to the recent past and is For the forms -tea' are: hit see § 7.obj. nia'vtntTchief qarj'wi to tiy'iv^'i- become a to friend + tca'ai. word be attached to any elements will be treated later in connection with the independent personal pronouns Here we shall discuss only enclitics of adverbial significance. Except in certain specified cases. other's hands) as friends tTqarfwi. SDUi'arjw'i- nxt^iyu TO A STICK. having hit me. Examples are: quma-' pirjwa-' husband wife quvia'xmi'TjWA a husband for a wife to take him for pLr]wa'xw''ip'iyaiyar)A took her § 19. ?ua'vt.

contrast pA'qa'him [just now]) ni'xwa'arjWA pA'qa'rju I-past-him kill. Examples are: I him (narrative form. tini'tsiywa'an uv^a'ni then-past-I there-I. you arrived u{w)a'noyuntcA paiyu'iju over there-past return. morphology is not clear. 1).d). my father rolled but: 0-' atsar)a<i>'L qvm" arrow-obj. has been there and returned from there If a pronominal enclitic is used possessively with the preceding noun. 'iv'^'i'ican i^f^'" let-past-me- then. g.1 06 88 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR imi'ntca' pi^pi'tci thou-past arrive. I killed him aniaxw aiv'i qa'ya' what-past would-say while-singing? what did pA'qa'ijuywaijani ijuntcayani I killed have killed he sing? aya'x uru"" who-past he? n'i'ywa' lo'nA who was he? {-x < -xw. interrogative aia'itcarjWA apparently refers to present e. reference to the past. 2. I too .follows (aside from -<^t one's own). e. he took his (§ 44.suffix of present time (see § 32. then I nfmaxwa' axaiTiL qafi'i imi'axwa'axaini qan'i" were seated was there was seated thee-past-too-sit-present. the enclitic -(n)tca. imi'-^war'uaq-A viari'rjqaiy'iaqA thou-past-interrogative-it create- present-it? didst thou create it? ivi'y'ixwaq-ayA drink-present-past-it-he.(perhaps -ywa. let me then! (b) -ywa-. g.+ -a-. mqa'nintc off arjA mompa'qu father-my-past he roll-off. g. he drank it (long ago) 3) A Its broken form -ywa'a. where is he? but there is probably an implied It is sometimes e. Examples are: also occurs. no true tense suffix is shown by the fact that it may be used with the verbal -y'i. c) I-past punch.e. you too (it was said) me-past-too sit-present. e.(§ used with exhortative 60. c) -tea- own arrow With time. I punched (long ago) That -ywa. where has he (gone to)? tu"'i. a general preterital element referring to more remote For the form -o'wa' see § 7. 7. g. time than -(7i)<ca-.he-own take. § 13. g.-past.

itself is perhaps compounded of -wta.aint. when present.-^ainia.-^aini right here I was toyo'avLTjwaxaini. Examples are: mari'acuxwaini qanif'p'inC naya'<l>A'qai*p'i'ya'' turned-out old-abandoned. however. It may then be rendered it turned out. m'axain. -a-yainia. just. (2) 89 in the last two Enclitics of modal and sentence-connective significance. (a) -yainM-. It is Several of these are used in idiomatic connections that do not readily yield insight into their primary significance.m'vanL' I-too will-do A frequent modal use of -yainM. indeed he lay right among the rattlesnakes ." mice. The form -ayainia. their house. urpvA iiraxiiava'm avi p-'iya rattlesnakes-it-wasthat them in-their-midst lay. a below) compounded how it differs in use or are: rii'xainC I too uTjwa' cuywaini that one too cv'yuxwainC n'imyif-^ainC still another one (exclusive) too I also will we tTqa'xw'aivanixainC go to eat Examples nirjwi'axaini of -ayainia- too are: marja'iAcuaxairiL urjwaru" yaa'ika person-too died aru"anA his-too he-is to indicate a somewhat unexpected inference or an emphasis on an idea that might be seemed that (house) -it- qan-L'am'ixf^i^'i.y. as it seems tTqa'xw'aivanLar'uani-^ainC it looks. e. also. 4.<^Ri house-their-it-seems it. g. too of -a. that the chief elements and uses are given below. he belongs to him too Sometimes -{a)yainiais elided to -{a)jain-. indeed. believed.too. These elements always follow pronominal enclitics. as if I shall go to eat pu't'tcatsL-jf. a Shoshonean Language 1 07 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. indeed. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE For the objective form of the personal pronoun examples see § 39. it seems.also.(see 3.(see d below).is probably and -yairiLa-.Southern Paiute. it is not at all clear meaning from -^airiLa-. Examples of -yainia. as it turned out iva'n\ani.

except that -avi. then.(1. over there and first make a that one. you shall stay him! 'iv^'i'xwarjanoA go-ahead-should-him-probably. b above). be in^antavimiaywaruanoA dit. but precedes subjective or objective pronominal enclitic.nt'cum naya'payup'iya thus-again-like appeared. would that he might 'iv^'i'rarjwaxa'" return-hither-momentaneous-would-he-income back! fire it shall- quna'i 'oaV ya'vitava'aqwA let-us-then go-get-it no'q ani-x. that (b) -ya'a- what he did say then encHtics.'a'ik-A that-he-indeed said. go ahead and . cf. (d) -7iia- LIKE. OUGHT. indeed house vi^a'r)aya''^xa'°' This enclitic is doubtless identical (c) -^wa. with preterital ^wa. 3). which follows pronominal force. lie is substituted for resultative -kai-.follows possessive -nimy. It is particularly are: common in optative and hortatory sentences.interrogative-probably that is not how one should act. like before looked just axa'niniani naya' <i>A''qa how-like-I appear? what do so"itsini like a soldier I look like? Tmi'aninC like my father (note that -nia.108 X 90 Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPIR An example of doubly elided -yain- is: is a'tn'mayaxain.SHOULD.(i°- 'iv^'i'\a' first- do ye.resultative-usitative-should. it is followed by enclitic -noa. one should not be thus lying qar'i"miax'u>a'noA sit-usitative-should-thou-probably. it is employed in several fairly distinct nuances of meaning and Its primary meaning enters into many idiomatic turns of expression. — enclitics. emphasizing ! This element. Examples are: {u)m^ani^kaimLaywar'ua7ioA thus. has indeed. Though its is clearly illustrated in: (it) y. This is one of the most constantly recurring primary significance is that of resemblance. second example above) . would 'oai' that I might die! 2)aiyL'kL7juyqv ywaxa' deed.(see e below).there house-make-go. When used as modal enclitic of obligation or in mild imperatives. carry me! vv^a'nv nam'i'xa'nintcuxwa''^ go-ahead-thou-then over. go ahead. ya'a'i%vn-i%a^ ^oai Examples die-would-I-indeed (for ^oaV see § 60.

1.nia. of verbs.nia. say. 5) in a'in'niaijaxain. . to to say). may also shade off into that of limit or emphasis. . For -nia.nia. soa-. make a noise. § 60. . .following demonstrative ai.(§ 43. ampaiya-. . g. 1). 39. mind. acted as though about to shoot him dna'TjwamriL coyote. as though. . hum.with numeral stems. . chiefly such as indicate states of e. it looks as though he has been killed qu'qwL'vap'iyain'ni' aywA shoot-future-past-like-him. . ai-.: may be pA'qa'TfUtTqantmia'qarfA naya'vai" kill-passive-having-been-like-it-he seems. u'u'ywani'ami tini'ayqiqa'aimi he-like-thee maybe he has been telling you The idea of resemblance e. as it were. a Shoshonean Language 109 SOUTHERN be tired of.what does one care? (cf. from very bottom A number V'itamyaqa-. . were. see § 36. .to think (lit. .'a'ik-^A that-like (?) -he. g.Aqaiyian larat) 'urjWA roast-plural subject-perfective-verbal noun-like-our he. g. .(see § 30. Quite unclear cases like: is -n'nia. anta. . its tina''^vanttmanar)qwaniaqA bottom-at-being-from-like-its. with certain postpositions. arjwaiya-.nia.nia. it seems that he has been killed.Southern Paiute. . A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 91 A dubitative tinge is often present. 1. oqw'e-. . e. . . ready. . so deepened as to justify the rendering of -nia. 4: 7. tiyw'i-.indeed said. that is what he did say Its glottal stop is unexplained. .n-ia.TO SOUND LIKE coughing. and numerous sound-verbs with suffixed durative -ya..nia. d). are regularly used with enclitic be fierce. be be hurry. g.TO buzz. W ma' q. with certain adverbs. e. viva-. it seems This dubitative tinge may become e. . 35. as it .what? § 44. i-ywaru'a-qai. perhaps the one whom we have roasted tell-to-perfective-thee. § 50. Here belong also many verbs of sound or soundimitation. perhaps. ai- . nantcui-. .n-iaTO SOUND like FLOWING WATER. cf. in which case -niarendered it seems.nia.nia.

(used after is it are: sari'tcUcu' aro'" a dog? tja ovi'tcuarj ar aro" ana stick stick-interrogative-his it his-being? is it his Interrogative -ntcu'a.are: tona'variiar'oaya'ijA will he ivi'y'iro''^ punch him? art thou drinking? qauLvaHcaro' aT)a<i>'i did he (arrive) at his own house? qaicu'ru'axqa'" naTjqa'ywa'" not-interrogative-it-thou hear-negative? do you not hear it? it-is? is it his i) iaywa'ru'a y aro"" tooth-interrogative-his tooth? Examples of interrogative -tcu'a.are: of -ni. tona't-^'ava" no-matter-thee-indefinite don't care you are struck An example -iuais: of -noa- unaccompanied by either -ywa. somebody peeped over there somebody will sa'a'rjq'iiuavaniaTjanoA make-mush-for-somebody-will-him-indefinite. which it precedes. already given.with -{ ua. Examples of inter- rogative -ru'a. also after demonstrative imi'ntcu''^ at-) is illustrated in: tumpa'ya' thou-interrogative mouth-have? have you a mouth? a'inicu'an a'ik-A that-interrogative-I said? did I say so? .(used after i preceded by nasal. modal -7U'a.regularly follows except in the case Examples of -noa. ME. 14) in Examples of the former have been its own or the following word. interrogative. pa'iiua{i)y'inoani somebody calls me uwa'nuntcanQA sotsifrjuiu''^ over-there-past-indefinite peep-somebody.I. -noa.(see c above) or with an impersonal -iua.dubitative.(§ 29. It is nearly always combined with either impersonalizing function. It is definite significance to this enclitic. make mush I for him.(h below). f below) -ntcu'a-) -ru'a- {-icu'a-. mush if will be made for him strike- "mpa'i'campaminu' somebody-shall. When combined with pronominal enclitics.110 92 (e) X Soiiihern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR almost impossible to assign any It seems to render a statement It may have an either more doubtful or less definite in application. see also -cuya-^wa-noa.or impersonal not m^'a'nintcu' tTqa'noA thus-interrogative eat-indefinite? that is how (f) to eat! (cf. -noa.

e. The enclitic -niaPro(see d above) may be introduced between the two enclitics.Southern Paiitte. nominal elements may separate the interrogative (or following -nia-) (see a The from -yainia-. compound enclitic has been found only with nouns. Examples are: pua'r'uavar'onLxainL" ently? it medicine-become-shall-interrogative-I-apparI shall looks as though become a medicine-man ya' a' ikaip'i'yaitcoaTjaxainC die-perfective-past-interrogative-he-ap- parently? he seems to have died (long ago) tT qa' qai(ua{i)yir uanuaxainC eat-perfective-impersonal-present-init terrogative-indefinite-apparently? seems that somebody has person-under-to-shall-inI shall been eating nL'i]w'i'Ruqwatuxwavar'uoini{y)an-L-^ainC terrogative-like-I-apparently? it seems that go under the person.rjqim'^i interrogative-he those it is (inanim.{-tcua-. but This only compounded with interrogative -r'oenclitic -nia-. be beaten -rua. -nfcua-) -r'o-nia. -ntcua-. The element -rua. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Sometimes the interrogative an inference.(also -ntua-r'o-nia-) like. (g) i. implying um^a'nar'u(w)arjA ni'ni a'yawantci. employed as an ironical method um^a'ni^kaimiaywar'onoA thus-resultative-usitative-should-interrogative-indefinite? should one act thus? that is not how to do! ni'maro'" SA'pi'-^avani me-interrogative-thou overcome-shall-me! you can't overcome a'intcu'a-7) ^a'imC me! that-interrogative-he say-usitative? that is not what he really means! interrogative frequently combines with a following -^ainiaabove) in the meaning of it seems that.{-tcua-. g.)- me hide-from-usitative? so those (clothes) that he has been hiding from me! wa{a'i)yuvu^aitcuar)W have two been (here)? have been here! 'pu{w)a'ru'{y)a{i)yuru'ani I it looks as though two medicine-become-present-interrogative-I? must be getting to be a medicine-man is Very frequently the interrogative of stating the negative. e. is 93 used merely rhetorically.e. obj. Examples are: + . It follows possessive pronominal enclitics. g. -ntua-) has not been found alone. a Shoshonean Language 111 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.

nective or contrastive (and. would that you might wake up p'imp'i'n' Ni-kaiyujjqo. (i) will he eat? (i. g. there is no food to give him) -ca'a.moment- Vina'ijqwantiAcuyax^ono" aneous-might-would that!-indefinite. then.). -ni. there is no knife handy) imp'i'A^claywaTjA tTqa'va what. with what. partly as an emphasizing particle (then!). Examples are: impVmA^CLaxwan-QA what-with-would that!-indefinite. pray. e. tu' pu'nLy2i pucLaywoC)no^ wake-might-would that!-thou-indefinite. for my part but that one this dn"ca'°' and 'iv^Vca'" go ahead. but.) would get shot! qu'qwitu'acuywanoani would that In this sense -cuya-ywa-noairrealis is I might get shot! often attached to the verbal -yo-pu-.{-cia-.adds a flavor of unreality: what pray! more briefly.AND. -cuya-ywa.I. but). 1. Pronominal enclitics come between the -ywa.(see e above). -rjqo-pu- (see § 33.p.(see c above) and generally -noa. would that (they) might look up this way! With imp'i- what (see § 44. (h) -cuya-ywa-noa.u' cuyaxwono'^ upward-being-objective-would that!-indefinite look (plur.112 X 94 w'a'pintuar'ont' like like Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a penis a house like his penis (obj. go and go-ahead-thou-pray-him-then call upon him! call- . except.and the -noa-. ME.would that! -CM-) has not been found alone. I. Examples are: the nVca'" but ma-rja'ca''^ I. I shoot-impersonal-would that!-him-inwish he would get shot! qu'qwL'fu'acuywaraminoA I wish we two (inclus. c). Examples are: qu'qwL'fu'acuyaywa"r)a7ioA definite. as usual. 1).or. which follows -noa-. then! This element is used partly as a con'iv^'i-. but only compounded with modal -ywa. then! 'iv^'i" ca' a7)waxa^°' pau'x'u^'a'airjWA go-af ter-him ! go ahead. pray. In the latter use it is frequently appended to hortatory adverb. e. -c-uya-yiva-noa.) qanLntcuar'onC w' a' {i)yar)aruar oni The element -cuya. what-objective-would that!-he eat-shall? e. is one (to cut it up)? (i.

he says. -yu-campa. a Shosfumean Language 113 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. -cu. to say that though (he) is wont For regular concessive clauses campa-). cance of -campa. person-under-to-plural-nomi- our being beaten. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 95 signifi- The primary disjunctive (j) -cam-pa. but he broke wind The primary modal nuances. nnjw'i'RuqwatuywaqanacanipararjWA nal-only-our (incl.(-yqu- (excl. c. 3). even if they ask about me {u)ma'iv'dtccainpA say-that-al ways-being-only. see Concessive significance (although) is exemplified a and think.nta. (k) in -kai-campa-. that is all he says 'i'nicampan oni in-this-way-only-me do-so! enough of this to me! imi'campA thou alone. 2. .) .pan'im{w)i in-this-way-travel traveling (plur. .ALSO. a reduced form of cv. just as before rnava'{ai)yucu from that same place nontsl'qucu fly off again . except me m^'a'Vcampa'^y ^aik-^A that-only. in: qu'qwi'vatssampA shoot-shall-gerund only. just stay ma{)va'^campa''yA a'ik-^cavipaniani see d above) there-only-he. idea of e. right there he say-only-like-I. AGAIN. 1. only shades off in idiomatic usage to other g. Examples Etymologically this enclitic may be of -cu. its primary signifi- cance are: qu^qwi'p'iyaaicu shot again y:nL'cunL' thus-again-like. I think so { exemplified in: ni'carnpA only I. except.Southern Paiute. see § 55. it For its use with certain independent adverbs. 'i'nimiAcam. thou thyself! mafi'campA piya'tipiya Its use as disjunctive that-only was left connective (but) is illustrated in: u'tcA'caviparjWA break-wind-preterit-but-he. but. we ALWAYS do so when qafi'c-ampA sit-only.). e). though being about to shoot tiv^i'yuqwatu' acampan *oqi ask-plural-impersonal-only-me (for 'oqi' see § 60. -yu-campa-. qi'i'campani bite-only-me! even so bite me would seem § 60.

particularly It is also when accom- panied. is This element. then.was misheard are: for interrogative -ru'a-. they say uv^a^cuya''^ fiyqa'nLvia(i)ya<t>'L there-again-quotative cave-objective- own. wi't-ucu long separately. i.(see § 33. see § 55. (see It was not found possible It to elucidate is this infrequently occurring enclitic satisfactorily. he will die. by the dubitative verbal used in rhetorical questions. one (e. 2). perhaps -ru'u. ality in It has largely lost its individu1. only his sons tu{w)a'tsir]wac'u7)WA mafi'ccu' ^anikariV that (inan. (n) -' in that same cave of his.quotative. of -cu- evidently compounded k above). g. a'lv'^icu enough. that alone n'i'niacu It is is thus sitting me-just. For its third personal and reflexive pronouns employment with subordinating verbal suffixes {-kai-. nor me into it (m) -y'a. it is said DUBITATIVE. ya'a'iya'" Examples are: it is die-quotative.). na'a'cu (see § 39. and very commonly with independent 1. often best translated perhaps. e. Examples are: xini't)ufsL7}wa' ivd'ntV tA'tcu"payumpi* objective fall-down-might. (he) died. cv'qucutcani one-objective- just-preterit-I ago. 2). 1). as indicated by its double employment forms like mafi'ccu' above. g. -leu-). mafi'-cu-. which follows pronominal enclitics. Examples imi'Acuru'uni thee-neither-I. perhaps. that alone do-sits. perhaps he lives there wa vru"avV this-at-to-only-it-perhaps might. see § 59. -my'i-. said it is ya'a'iy'avi'i die-quotative-they. they died. myself regularly used with cv. with personal pronouns. only (this goes well with suggested etymology)."i)wa' qari'vi" there-he-perhaps sit-might. g. e. b. e. with certain adverbs (e. in the same or following word. perhaps it is right up to here . said marja'cuya' ya'a'ivanC he-quotative die-future. (1) -curu'u- NOR can. he 'i'va-ntuywac ar7ipa'q then-he-perhaps here-beingfell down around here be- uv^a. § 46).only do-sits. see § 00. neither (will) I (act thus to) you ni'macucuru' ava'rjwituywani could you (put) me-just-neither-thou it-into-me.114 96 Its X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR meaning frequently shades its oflP into that of just. suffix -vl-.

follow certain other enclitic elements see 2.I-just.I.Southern Paiute. see § 62) did not qatcu'ayani p'iriL'ywa'^ not -?- him .interrogative-thou? are you looking for something to eat? H-'c-'u{w)ani for fun ( < H-c u-a-ni) long-ago-?-I just-for-fun -?I nava'cti'an a'ik-^A yaxa'xa" say crying. he axa'ni-^aini pA'qa'xa. I - and I do. -tea-.perhaps.-^aini' {-a-n-L-xaini is this-at-be (§ 26. g. c) -?. see 2. be referred to (p) -ya. of doubtful significance.negative. I do nothing but sleep (for idiomatic use of -na-cu-.(1. not easily classified and. was meant (o) for welcome words will again -aqa. (a) -a-. I did not see him iva'71' tant.). may be conveniently grouped here. (2. -a-. right here I was enclitic correspondent of independent rii'-axaini. 2. -cu-.ini'^ how-subordinate-me kill-subordinate-mekill perhaps? why act thus to me? what-you (plur. This element when the imperative is discussed (§ 52). perhaps. a above. I cry just . be taken up under imperatives (§ 52). They are probably found in -a-yainia-ywa-a. I of these enclitics indicates. This also Two or three elements (3) Not easily classifiable enclitics.) food-look-for-sit- imp'i'aywL Uyi phiLkarixaim\''' subordinate-dual-perhaps? what (are) you two (doing) looking for something to eat? It is this enclitic. which appears in certain expressions that are difficult to analyze: via'ipi{y)a''^ so-say-passive'k-^A sleep-noun-again-? qatcu'ani not -? . b). see 1. a Shoshonean Language 115 97 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. but (e. as already suggested.imperative particle. a) k above).dual-plural will subject particle in imperatives. in part. a above) tiyi' p'inin'nLaro''^ food-look-for-continuative -?. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE maa'ivam'pir)warami'^ might find us two find-shall-might-he-us 2 (incl.I see. Examples are: A^p'i'inacuan y. (it) was (it) only said so cu(w)a'i'pi{y)a''' be-glad-passive participle-objective-perhaps. have been quite unable to determine what either They precede pronominal enclitics.

my auntie moa'n'i'putspiya'n' Inputs- my my (dear) father moa'ni my father) (dear) mother (more affectionate than piya'ni (cf. is believed to be substantially correct: 2 .and of such forms DEAR. e. my one mother) (4) Order of enclitic elements.116 98 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR this-at-to-preterit? . g:. The following scheme 1. I him at this place third. a The enclitics follow another in rather definitely prescribed order. d) + pa'a'nip'Us- aunt (paa-) -my-dear. Such examples as the second. rendered very a. and fourth suggest a is preterital value for these troublesome elements. diminutive -tsi. It seems to be preceded by an accessory '. 1.(§ 24. 1.I ivd'ntuywatca'ani 'pA'qa'rfuijWA killed kill-him.(§ 35) or -p'itsi. It is listed as an enclitic here because it may follow possessive pronominal enclitics. g).and -ywa-'a.(§ 24. This is merely a compound suffix: -p'i. but this doubtful by the occurrence of -teaas qatcu'-tca-ni not-preterit(b) -p-'itsLI.

In some cases. g. a'tca'aika keep quiet a'xani' a'^y'^'ai^ sits quietly gradually dies gradually catch up with them a-'ijWA'tsiy'unu (2) i-" BEFOREHAND. d) independent adverb nariLCU separ- nanipaaitcA separately-three-times. a plausible connection can be established with independent stems. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE doubtless in all stems which. to have just arrived Quo't Dvun'ni-^a when just waking up (assimilated from . a Shoshonean Language \\1 99 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.'' who is willing. gradually: to hold quietly. with his song e. three each nani'ti'qaqai' (6) (see Numerals) (they) eat separately On-O-" EARLY. have become restricted usage to composition. day -tuvun'ni-) ono'pitci earl^-arrive. This element is sometimes also found with primary nouns. (cf. namu'ruwatsmi first-son-little-my. (1) a-' QUIETLY.Southern Paiute. willingly. ready i-'potsLfi'i-kaini I (3) 'i'-o (am) ready to start oft" IN vain: 'i'p'inin'ni (4) looks around in vain first: nam'i-' nam'i'iviniV always drinks ( first naml'^'aip'i'ya' < nam-'i'-y'ai-) ( died first namo' ^v'^itu' piya < nam-'i' -uv'^it-u-) sang the first song first naml'v^axai' goes first nam'i' xaxa-yiav u'ruA first-sing-noun-own it-with. very early (it). READILY: eats beforehand. my first-born son (5) nani-" separately ately. indeed. 2. is Qno'tA^claijqu in the morning ono'tuywar'uinti' ono'tavai' early-night-become-participle. early in the night early in the early-day-present. to run is i-'Hi'qai' ready to eat i-'^k-A^qam away beforehand i" Lnik-qai^ p'iya got ready. once independent. § 60. were ready H' 'Tjwaru A^'qantLni. JUST PAST: early-dawn-when.

b): pim-i'rfw'i'LJcai* (they) dance back and forth (10) p'irjqa-' p'iijqa' Riqa'"^ to keep on -ing: keep on eating! kept lying down pirjqa'maip'iya' kept on saying keeps on talking p'irjqa" ampaxai' p'iriqa'ma{)nLyini I do so very (fast) p'irjqa' vaaip'iya'aikw A kept calling it p'irjqa' ywa'ayu keeps shouting pir)qa' avLp-'i-yd (11) cv-" cv'a'iy'ii' is very (probably identical with numeral stem cv. 1) pa'manunC pa'tsL7jqo7)qo'° entirely-all. feels very well very high cv'MU'qunta' miap'i'yd went right ahead su'tcaxt-pA very near sv'pa'ant'i (12) cu{w)a-'' nearly: cua'<t>A'qarfuntsani'^ nearly-kill-preterit-me-thou. 2. no. § 60.entirely (for a- < di see § 4. BACK AND forth (cf. instrumental pi-' very good. instrumental (9) pimiand independent pimi'tux-WA backward. every single one (as of field entirely destroyed trampled down by people) (8) pi-' BACK (cf. 3): pi-'v^nikd to look back pi-". ALTOGETHER (perhaps identical with adjecTO BE smooth): perfectly hollow (used of park or valley) perfectly spherical perfectly-just-straight (see 15 below) 'pdi'myan'noayant'i pai'mpo t D'^qwaRi pai'ntoy{o)imu'quntaR'i pdi'yuaxdnt'i perfectly-plain-being. 8 above. level desert with little or no vegetation Probably identical with in: this is ya. you nearly killed me cuwa' Tjw AHcip 'iya' aiin'i nearly caught up with them cua'royoMU'quntaRi nearly straight . § 21.118 100 (7) pdi-" X Southern Pciiutc and Ute SAPIR tive-verb pai-" PERFECTLY.

Examples are: (it) is toyo'itavaV toyo'nHv'^aiHim"''inL just-I-comparable-being-plural-like. in midst of. Instrumental prefixes. is about half through eating toyH'mava'anA right above that toy^i'ayaruqwA right under him toyo'iyqwtyumparjquni right on the center of my head § 21.Southern Paint e. nine in: cuwaWoyomA^ciiywiYU This element cuwa'pitci' (13) <a-" (cf. a Shoshonean Language 119 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. but not exclusively. used up (fire) was nearly out nearly-ten. in tantt'v^ai. used only. so far as known. more rarely toyo-" just. wakes up nearly-arrives) far. west): in tanti'v^aipa a far-western land far-western songs tanU'v^aiuv^i. Under this term are included a considerable number of elements of prevailingly instrumental significance. equal to me (in strength) (toyo'nH- < toyo'in'i-) toyo'MU^quntayqw'aip'iya' toyo'ip a ant'f toyo'iti'qai^ went right straight ahead just high (enough) is right in eating.. toy{w)i-^. ttv'^aiis probably identical with cuwa-" (lit. In nouns they may in part be employed non-instrumentally. f. right. was on a dead run tt-'ntoyDqwipiya" ti'nti^qai' eats well. They are used chiefly with verb forms. Their origin is largely obscure. all This prefix is very common and mid-day occurs freely with parts of speech. eats a grand feast ti"^ampayai^ talks well. has a good talk ti'ywa'ayu gives a good shout (15) toy{o)i-". A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE cuwa' Rup^iku piya' cua'ruywLp'iya' 101 were nearly all gone. thoroughly: ran well.far west DOWN. 2. nor is the properly instrumental function always apparent in verb forms. but certain analogies suggest strongly that they are on the whole specialized forms of incorporated nouns with instrumental function (see § 18. to some extent they may be related to verb stems. a). .a4)'i (14) /ii-" WELL.

A reached for it A few verbs have ma-^.1 20 102 (1) X Southern Pciiute and Ute SAPIR ma-' {man. independent vid'o-' hand.(before tc. see § 22. Pima ma-. spirantized from via-m-. Nahuatl via. tooth. g. ts) in noun compounds are: finger MA'pa'{i)yavu(^i create mayari. hands-completed?) Examples MA'ci'u(t>i of ma-" and man.i^ waves (his) hand mantca' rjqip'iyaiyaq. tam'i'\ina't)q'i to dig out by scraping or poking with foot) mao'pA^qaijqi to make a hole by sticking one's hand into na7)wa'{i)yunNA''qaaimi they two hold arms around each other's necks (< na-ma-. palm . Its great age is indicated by the presence of verbs in ma-yw-. This prefix is clearly related but not directly derived from. It is very common as instrumental verb prefix.before tc. protect via{i)yu'naqai{y)arjA to have arms around his neck maxo'pin'NA to break (trans. Luiseno -7na. It is found in one form or other in all Uto-Aztekan dialects (e. mavi'tcA'qirjq'i to crush with one's hand mayu'xika mavi'tsiyC to point at claps (his) hands maya'i' tests by feeling mayu'tcu'i' around. MA^pi'ki to touch with one's hand MA'tca'i' ayqipXya' aikwA reached for it MA'ciqLa{i)yini my hands are cold MA^cu'ywi. compounds and as instrumental prefix).) ma'a'ipa" to stretch out one's hands palm up feels ma'niki to stick one's roll marjw'L'n' larjqiarjA hand in (water) him over ( < ma- + vuti'lcl- to turn) maym" ipiarjqip'iya'^ tore out of ground with hands (cf. arm-pit) mayu'{w)ai'^ rubs with (his) hand mayu'm'u^kwirjq'i to nudge with one's finger mafiyqa. ts) hand. Tarahumare. Tiibatulabal independent ma-.ten (i. picks at (ear. Fernandino. e. many verbs not occurring without it. Instrumental (in part apparently objective) examples of verb forms are: to. 1) mantca'va.

pu-" eye independent pui-' eye) pTfi'na{i)yiar)A follows pu'ca'yaip'iyaiatjA him with (his) eye looked for him prefix. superciliary ridge (cf . A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE mantca'qoi(f)i manisivi(i>i flesh from elbow to wrist bone from elbow to wrist tc.ani of pi-^ in noun compounds are: rump-fat my rear-cleft. pimi- iuxwA backward. or of clothing) pi^ki'kinV part) to sound like a slap on the buttocks other soft Examples pi'to"ompi pina's (4) i-x. independent muv^i-" nose).i'' grinds. e. muv^a'ntui' shakes head from side to side muro'nA to strike with one's nose moyo'inai^ takes off with (his) nose muntca"aik a' to hold with one's nose muntca' Til I holds iip (his) nose in the air (like a horse) mu-° is found in noun buttocks. (cf.before Verb examples are: nose (cf. Mu'p^i'kL(f>i (3) pi-" nasal mucus (for pi. my crotch : pi-". gnashes (his) teeth chews (his) teeth qini pnxwL (mouse) gnaws hangs by qiu'rjwqV .Southern Paiiite. b). on article closes by pushing with (his) (his) buttocks trousers down (-qoi'na. pi'tcu'qwLtiNA pfVi'ijwaV pi^ko'i'nai lets § 60. a Shoshonean Language 121 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. This is an uncommon A nominal example is: pu't'i'r)qam(f)'i remove an (face. (5) q'i-" teeth perhaps verb-stem qV'i- to bite) : qTtcitcuxwC qTico'xw'a. 2. Verb examples by to crush with one's buttocks. g. ts) 103 (2) mu-' (mun. rear independent stem are: sitting cf.

in: tcD^pt'k . e. spaces between toes sole (of moccasin) tA'qu'c (7) I top piece stitched on to upper of moccasin FIST (cf. perhaps verb-stem examples of this very common prefix are: to kick). Verbal A^jm' scratch A*ci'n'aiy'ini A^qo'itcai' my feet around with claws burn from cold takes off (his) footwear touches with the feet ama'xai tests (its) depth with the foot rviv^a' RA''ton' Ni'iiijwava piya" snow-foot-shake-make-noise-past. Nahuatl tzon-tli): tco'pa'ntm tcomo'ntiyi' shakes (his) head shakes (his) head tco'qo'q oinH' sounds like a noise of punching hard on head (or face) As first L- element brains in noun compounds it jump A'qu'qwL.122 104 qVqa'vdcai^ teeth qrtcv'i" X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR breaks (them) in (his) mouth. aa'ini made a noise of stamping snow with off (his) feet Noun compounds tana'sL'xa<f)i tA'pa'ia(t>'i ta-" are. foot-shoot. e. by grinding with (his) squeezes between (his) teeth q'rca'raqaip'iya^ (his) mouth remained open tarja- (6) ta-' FOOT ( punch): (his) fist (at) to'tca'ro'C shakes closes to'pa'tA''qiijq'i to'tt'i)waV to' pa'raiva by punching up (a hole) by punching (his) fist (against it) niam-Lni I shall knock them down with (my) fist to burst (trans. to kick one's feet out into the air a'q'i. g. split in hoof. to-' perhaps verb-stem feel with one's foot aya' have one's feet dangling A'qwi'paarj'w'i'tciyi- to stumble to keep time by tapping with one's foot a'ora- to dig a hole with the foot A'tcu'n'na.) ioya'u'qwai' (8) tco-" pushes in with (his) fist HEAD (survival of old Uto-Aztekan stem for head. cf. g.

g.Southern Paiute. tree) with a pole tries to (e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (9) tsi-" WITH THE POINT OF A LONG cut notches. poke with the finger) wiyciTjql'na. g. a Shoshonean Language 123 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. WITH THE LENGTH OF A LONG OBJECT. a blanket) ear-instrumental-shake-iterative-present-I. WITH A STONE (cf. before y. wi'ya'yqina-q ai. is The sometimes w'intfruxwL drums moves a stick back and forth on the notched rasp wTqo'yin'NA to break against the edge of something fvrpo'n'noaV wTqa'vitcaV cuts several objects stick wTpa'raV knocks (them) down by slashing with a wTpi't-'kLijuplya grazed (it) with (his) wing wi'qa'm'mLwTto'n'no. meaning of this prefix Examples of its use are: have notches cut into (itself) BY THROWING. remove (splinter from flesh) by prying out with a point of needle) to tSLm'ntc'ikirjq'i tsnjw'i'naiva-rjA tSLrjw'i" lyqi shake with the end of a stick throw him (in) with a stick to knock down with a stick will tska'mnai" (10) W'i-^ cuts (with a knife) applicability of the primary obscured. may contain another form of this element: wiyu'mMU'qwLrjq'i to hit slightly (as with a willow switch) on the edge (cf. Examples are: 105 This is a isiml'ni'cai' turns (meat put to roast on red-hot ashes) with a stick to hold tstsa'yki'aqd' tstu'n'nai^ tsjpo'i on a pole tsqu'r'uV pokes in a hole with the point of a stick braces (house. Externally it is identical with ta-<' foot (see Examples are: 6 above). nayqa'varjwi'pantuywiy'ini I shake my A few examples of wi-. very frequent instrumental prefix. (11) ta-° tavitan'i'ntc'i'kiyq'i to shake by throwing an object at knocks (them) down with stones tar)wi"njqi to knock (it) down with a rock tA'pa'rai' (it) . perhaps verb-stem TO THROW A stone). mayu VI MU'^kwiriqi to nudge.i" to cover shakes ears (e. STICK.

This ele- ment also occurs only in certain stereotyped forms: (it) is taro"C hot weather (cf. tA^ci'rjwampi coarse gravel cirjivampi gravel) (12) qu-" FIRE (cf. (14) ia-^ SUN. e. also independent Shoshonean *ku-. e. cTpa'i'aiyini I feel cold I die of cold. Nahuatl in certain This element stereotyped forms. but occurs only g. COLD (survival is of Uto-Aztekan stem *se-.iyutjWL. split in two by hitting on a stone yu o' RA^qopin' N A leg-instrumental-break. HEAT independent iava. Tiibatulabal gu-t. day). cipa. cold (lit. e. cTp'i'raV (object) is not freely incorporated noun has not been otherwise found) cTp'i'xiirutca qaip'i'yaini felt as though a cold breeze were in his head cT(u"i (it) is cold weather (it is) cTp'i'nif^aini MA'ci'qLaiyini draughty. Cahuilla ku-t): qumu'ntuaR'ip'i'ya' heated stones by putting them on the fire fire quHu'nx^V drills for fire qu'pa'raxdi^ pops in the qu'tsLkiy'inl I build a fire qQno'yoxioai qu'tsL"ai^ water breaks boils roasts on a spit it qoqwavUcay'i' (13) ci-o cc-ti).fire.: 124 106 Ia'ci 71 X Southern Paiule and Ute SAPIR 1'qavaraijw A let us all play the ring-and-pin game tA^qa' .sun. in half by burning over tlie fire (song form) cf. c'i-tui- above) iA'ci'a-'^ to be dawn tA'cVpa-' to be evening Possibly also: tavai- to set (brush) to tavacu- dry in the on fire sun (15) ica-". in force. g.. to break a leg by throwing a stone at Cf. g. as (it) example of a noun compound: (cf. as This prefix is fairly common and is clearly instrumental shown. chilly my hands are cold (cf. by its alternation with other instrumental .. independent noun stem quna.

to the is just as possible. bracelets. foot) tcA'qo'itcai" takes off clothes ( tear to Tplsices. is far Perhaps it denotes indefinite instrumentality. tu'cu'y' above) (like tear. hairs) out by force tcA'pu'ruxwL' scatters (trans.: a Southern Paiute.n' n knife-edge-tear-momentaneous-causative. it ma-\ ta-\ tsi. 107 from cases clear. like ma-. Its precise force. -payt. darkness cleared up (o-" (16) exercise close one's eyes power upon. be used with true instrumental mao'pA'^ It z-" is to cause to do as one wishes) assimilated from an have one's eye's closed. e. tA'pu'qwL. indeed.-"). in a o-" before durative forms). . to rip open with a knife) tcano'-rjqwaTjqwatiL' will pull (feathers. objective classifier. participle Q'pa'q{a)itci with a hole. This element occurs only few stereotyped forms: to o'pa'qi- be (one-) holed. see under u'pu'qwi- to bounce is a ball) (cf. This element prefixes. This is nothing but the incorporated noun stem pa-\ pa-' water used instrumentally. but rather a stereotyped It may. mayo'itcaV takes armlets) tca-'viy'in'na- to raise so as to uncover {ica-i'myinna--) raise covering from) to tear into (cf. Examples are g. however. g. to tea- ov'^a'xdcai- have holes (derivatives from jump). however.i scratches with the off gloves. (cf. tcA^pa'yiajitca. vidi'- tcA'^pa'qLn'NA pieces (cf. sows (seeds) (it) tcA'pi'nikiTjup'i'Yain C appeared like open. hole before momentan- eous forms. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE prefixes (e. In some seems to refer. assimilated u- round object. It is listed here as a (17) pa-' talk in one's sleep. to'pa' make a hole by sticking one's HAND into. not a true instrumental.i' scratches (with the hand) (cf. few verbs in w-" referring to sleep or closing one's eyes may possibly contain this element (round opening metaphorically > eye?) A : u'tu'cuyw'i'i.- to cause to go to sleep (cf. uHcu'm'ma. tq'u'wa.). two pieces. that this w-" that appears also in 'it'i'ij'wa-ampaya. a Shoshonean Language 125 SOUTHERN rip open in several wii'ijwVpaqi. u'tcu'in'mi. tcA'pa'ntuV shakes (with the hand) feet) tA'pa'ntu- to shake with the tcq'u'wa.

plniuijwai- to see navi'nifuikai{y)aija?ii he let me see himself to hang aya-rusa'a- to make a pifion jay hung (him)self na a'^rjaRUqwqumpa shall turn nq. takes a (trans. MA'pi'k-i. c. wii'-rjwTpaqLn'NA TO RIP OPEN WITH A KNIFE (contains both instrumental incorporated noun wii. much more closely connected with any other elements preceding the stem. g. § so frequently and idiomatically touch (that ma-" is a prefix is indicated by parallel tA'pi'ki. that it seems advisable to treat it as a prefix. 1.with touch with the foot): w'ima'piki TO touch with the EDGE OF A STICK. (1) na-' SELF. i). Reflexive and reciprocal get wet.). 1). toma'piki TO touch with THE wash oneself patca' q'lTjwa- to water. e. Sometimes an instrumental prefix is so closely identified with the stem that it may be preceded by another instrumental prefix. g. e. however.(see § 22. adverbial prefixes. prefixes are the verb stem proper than g. forms in na-' are nothing but compounds of reflexive pronominal stem na. The element na. e. Owing to this close connection.knife and instrumental prefix -rjw'i. ts).) parixL- to wash nava'rixi-' sweat-bath washes (him)self .before tc. patca'qwi.(for independent na.< -w'i.) (non-reflexive -paq' be wet pari'yito wash (trans. 2. reflexive na. EACH OTHER (jian. navn'riyi. nouns. or incorporated An instrumental prefix comes nearest the stem. Its primary significance is reflexive.not found) The instrumental e. Properly speaking.: 126 108 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR because it occurs in a not found in use without it: prefix number of verbs whose bare stems are patca'qwa. g. irrigate Less probably also: nava'q'i- to bathe (intrans. so that the notion of instrumentality may be repeated in a preceding incorporated noun. the psychological analysis becomes somewhat obscured at times. see § 46) and verbstem or noun-stem (for type of compound see § 18.with the BLADE OF A LONG OBJECT).%'waip'Lya (them)selves into pifion jays to boil NA'sa"ai' boils (him)self.

verbs in na.: Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language 127 109 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 12) nayu't-ci'a. to fight to punch m'ayA fight naro'n'nayqii^ I-him selffist- punch-to-present. i. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Many ficance.have an indirect reflexive or mediopassive signiNot infrequently the stem is not in use without the prefixed are: na-. to express either iteration or distribution of reflexive-reciprocal activity (see § 58. I have a kwipa- to hit with him naywi'p a'^qap'iya" each other natjwa' zaijqito (they) hit mayatmtinia- to give self-give-to. even when not more than two actors are involved. is common. e. generally of the subject. g. i.) is in use) -qutdi'a- (for qu-^ see § 21. g. cu- to be one nana' cvyuyqwaiyucu (they) being one by one It is frequently employed where emphasis on reciprocity. e. Examples -qa-to'a- (stem not used alone) (stem not used alone) to bathe (bare nayaon to wear (clothing) naro'a-rjunava'qip'iyd' selves to have (one's skin) -paq'i- stem not bathed (them)(intrans. g. e. . burn up A e. is desired.: na-ro'qwacvyu-tjqwai to stretch oneself nana'roqwaV self several stretches (him)- times . as distinct from reflexive activity. 3 and 4). pay they tell to tell (on) nafi'nE7iia{i)yV'iin'i on tiv^irju- to ask each other nafi'v^iijuqwaV another nantsin'na- (they) ask one -tsLu'na- (stem not used alone) to joint. cause to be joined together Reduplicated nana-. less often of the object. to shoot at each e.a- to shoot nayu' qwiTjqiother. very common derivative of the primary idea of na- that of reciprocity.

e. e. nana' fiyiv^'iywi by reduplicating na. {or son) mother and daughter qum husband stranger friend nayu'marjw'i self-husbands. § 23.wife's sister. i. i. yiv'C e. elder brother g. six Plurals of such dual reciprocals are formed nana-. two brothers two brothers vwaitsi)- na'rj'wAtsLrjxvi self-fathers. suffixes. nana'vavLrjw'i (three or more) FATHER AND SONS. e. husband Derivative and Formal Suffixes.128 110 w'inai- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to throw down naruywaoneself to oneself. father and son pia- mother a- navi'aTjw'i self-mothers. sister's husband's brother.: nava'myw'C tcA^qa'itsi- younger brother father nantca' q aitsLywi. i. Types of derivative and formal By "derivative suffixes" are here understood such elements as have derivational rather than purely formal or syntactic value. Under formal suffixes are not here included strictly syntactic elements. to give to I throw each other with him. I wrestle with him nana'ruywa{i)y'iaqA (they) 2 give it to each other nana'yw'^nairjqiyiayani The pavi- idea of reciprocity leads naturally to that of duality of terms e. occurs only in: na'impiijwa. potential wife quma- husband na'irjqunia- (woman's) potential § § 23-37. which is perhaps compounded of reflexiveand an unexplained -/-". nana' -tj' watsi(three or more) friends. husband. . (man's) brother's wife. involving mutual relationship. brothers. such elements as help to build up the word as such from the stem rather than to relate the word to other words in the sentence. wife e. g. (2) riai-"^. e. reciprocal napirjwa- This element. hus- band and wife qimantsLnay'i' inanisirjw'i two who are two friends strangers to each other tty'iv"''i- nar'i'xiV^'irfw'i pai- three naval- 2 x 3. i.

nature. Examples moa'-m. ni'rjw'i and nirjw'i'nts. 2. embracing agentive. certain special noun-forming elements. preferably. Numeral In general suffixes. a Shoshonean Language 129 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.Southern Paiute. (a) -?)?-". and verbal noun suffixes. and tense elements. elements defining possession. They always disappear with pronominal enclitics and in composition. Nominalizing suffixes. and substantivized local concepts (e. of a general and colorless rather than of a specific or concrete nature. suffixes of 5. Noun suffixes. of something or. tense. Verbalizing suffixes. surface). -rnpi-" absolutive suffix implying indefiniteness or non-specification of possessor. affixed to nominal. -pi-". Some of these elements disappear in composition or when the noun is used with a possessive pronominal enclitic. 3. g. 4. verbal aspect. including absolutive or classifying elements. voice.i of -t)i-" are: moa'<})i paa'<i>i father-my paa'-ni t'i'ti'xLv'i-' aunt-my friends (somebody's) father (somebody's) aunt (one's) friends t'rti'xtvl<pi not reciprocal) taya'p'ia-ni servant-my (plural. 7. both predicating and denominating Quasi-pronominal suffixes of special it may be said that the derivative suffixes of Southern Paiute are. or relations that can hardly be thought of except in connection with other objects or persons. Diminutive 6.person. e. taya'p'in4)i servant. § 24. on the whole. body-part nouns. Verbal derivative and formal suffixes. These elements. affixed to verb stems. Some nouns appear with or without an absolutive suffix. suffixed to terms. e. adjectival. g. persons. -{n)tsL-. and mode. may movement. They may be rendered by somebody's. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Derivative and formal suffixes 111 be grouped into seven more or less 1. terms of relationship. Absolutive or classifying ELEMENTS. are used with nouns expressing objects. generally suffixed to verb stems. or demonstrative stems. number. (1) Noun suffixes. instrumental. little Many nouns end in a suffix that either suggests classification of the noun under a general category or that has assignable significance except to render the noun absolute. and participial suffixes. one who serves another . others may or may not. bottom. g. left untranslated. which immediately follow the stem. embracing clearly distinct types of elements.

g. . ayo'rjqwai. middle of -mpi-" are: tira'xuapi make xanti crown head mo'o'<f)i hand back eye oa'(f>i a back) pw'i-* eye (e. ayd'mpi tongue have a tongue) It should be carefully pounded or used without other derivative the absolutive suffix like noted that even when the noun is uncomsuffix. tatjwa'mpi tooth make a tooth) ayo-" tongue (e.130 112 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR tu'hi'xua(t>i tu'tu'xua-ni guardian-spirit-my guardian feather of the spirit w/'aa-* y'irii-' feather wTcLa<i>i yini'4>i crown of head (e.) it-toward-being (obj.{y)a'<^i name (somebody's) ar(of u''qwL{y)u^ u'qwi{y)v-ni tina'aq a its u''qwL'(y)v(f)''i arrow-my bottom fina-' row (e. middle (obj. yini'having a crown) hand mo'o-' oa-' back (e. ni'ni a'xo of-me tongue not ni'ni ayo'mpi. something already specified). pu l -tjwTtuv^oa- pu'L'(t>i to cover one's eyes) ni{y)a-'-ni name-my arrow.) Examples tarywa-'* (e. g. being toward the bottom (obj. bottom (of e. is referred to or implied elsewhere in the sentence. g. which would be intrinsically con- tradictory. edge w'iya-' naywa'-ni wixa''^4>i bank. tooth tarjwantu. ayo'ni. it does not take its when possessor (person or object) e. w'i'a'pLntuar'ont' like a penis (as such.). fina'i v'u'rainfiA i. g. g. tina'4>i bottom anything) bottom) bank. not thought of as belonging to any- one) Ura'xua-" center. nyi'a'{i)yayaruar'olike his penis (obj.) pai-' vyl'a-o blood nC viuv^i pi nose pdi'pi blood ufVa'pi penis. edge (at top of tracks precipice) tracks-my of -pi-" are: naywa'4>i Examples muv'^i-'' nose penis. oaru. ni.

u^qwa'tsatfi- small spider) si'i'nro-^rampi buml)le-l)ee . clna'rjwavintots- coyote-headed. wolf mourning-dove-children cina"a4>i clna' ywa(l>i coyote.yaruAtsirjw'i ayi'4>i po'a'(j)i tira'<i>i mosquito louse: po'a'ni my louse desert-plain. "recent- ness") pi^qo'4>i cactus-cake qa'inaca(f)i supernatural being who owns deer on Kaibab Plateau (perhaps contains agentive -w-". i. desert: ti'ra{i)yua- open plain shelter ava'(i>i shade: ava'xani doll shade-house. to smoke qu^qwa'pi y\ood: qu'qwa' no . -mpi-" classificatory suffix referring chiefly animals. cina'ywaviyjfairattlesnake-children to be coyote toyo'act)! rattlesnake: toy. These suffixes are in some cases constant.Southern Paiute. in others movable. never dropped. ant-hill bee pa'a'{tsL)4>i iyo'(i>i animal iyd'vdcuAtsiijw'i mourning eat tobacco. o{w)i'rjwaya7itj brush-canyon-in-to: canyon-having. my locust a7fa'''4)i ant red-ant: iA'ci'axa{)nLvi- tA'd'a<i)i wi'tca'(l)i ant-camp. It is perhaps identical etymologically with (a). canyon q{w)o'a'pi tobacco: q{w)o'a'tTqa. summer kiywa"a(t)i pv'tsL4>i di'<i)i star: pv'tsLywdcap'i at-* star-excrement. viaa"oipLmpar}ivUuxWA oi'tV end of canyon. 1) of -pi-" are: Examples pdya'tcA^qap I red-winged blackbird o(w)i'pi canyon. shooting stars now: to be new (at'-'yi- probably originally noun. and objects (chiefly movable). -pi-''. a Shoshonean Language 131 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (1)) 113 to -t)/-".to carry wood on one's back wVna'pi arrow-head of -mpi-" are: Examples u^'qwa'mpi tarantula (cf. see § 25. less frequently persons. e. Examples qi'(l)i of -vi-" q'i'vLtii (non-movable and movable) are: locust. topographical features.

to -2>i-".r/ totsioo(i)'i hair. wi{y)ampixarin berry-sitting (obj. This classificatory suffix can hardly be identified with -vipi. not nasalizing. and in nouns denoting HIDE. berry-knoll (obj. -pi-"^. tiijwampi. his wing. locust-berry-tree) (d) -v'i-". qTca'vl4)i (somebody's) wing pai''YL4>L 03'</>i. iva'a'mpi cedar-berry < wa'a-" cedar) and has spirantizing. tsCampL(i)'i wild-rose spring (place name) poxo'mpi currant.: is also combined with (stem -mp'i. e. my baby in'i' p-Lntup i ghost. A by combining {-vi-". mud). partly fixed.)-2)'i-" (. e. It is used in certain body-part nouns. SAND. power.' hair of the head: pat'. g.: : 132 X 114 Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR few personal nouns are derived with -tSL. -p'i-% -mp'i-' absolutive suffix. ghost-making-game (for final -pi. dlru.of (a) or (b) al)ove. Examples are: tirjwa'vipi service-berry. g. 5.). g. as regards range of usage.(see e below). g. and topographical features. in nouns denoting movable objects. -mpi-'^ (b above). oj"ani my bone . g. skull: oo'ru. wia'mpL<i>'i berry bush. by -vi-^ (see a above).. Examples pA^qa'(t>L tava'tsL4>L qi'ca'<i>'i of -vl-' are leg sweat bone qi'ca'v'iarjA (hawk's) wing. this suffix may be followed.(see below). poxo' m picf)! currant bush WLa'mpi red holly-like berry. When appropriate. tsia'mpivats- tsiampi wild-rose berry.<})'L service-berry bush (for -v'i- see e below) wa'a'mpi cedar-berry (cf. BLANKET.) piya' iHcavipi4>L locust tree (lit. head-bone. cu'v^'unpi squaw-bush. though infrequently. pa'i'yLHi my hair bone. very similar. wa'a'p'i cedar tree) wild-rose bush. It is partly movable. objects in mass (e.-mpi-'*) 'iya"pits'ini'pits- baby: 'u)a"ani evil make (c) a basket out of squaw-bush twigs) -mpi-' BERRY. a) Less frequently this suffix make a bone. ordinarily m'0i" rift-'. as it occurs in consistently nasalized form after all stems (e. see § 25.

poniavuru. 5. female) rawhide panther-hide tu'qu'p'i (< tvqu-" panther).(see § make a skunk-blanket fiyLa4>i tanned deer-hide (< t'iyLa-' deer) pao'7itsL(t)'i hair-wrapping beaver band (< paonisi-" beaver) pa'vlts: t'iv^'i' (pi. country. c) rabbit-skin blanket ti7)qwL'tca'a(t)'i pom'a4>'i skunk-blanket (< ponia-' skunk). for diminutive -isi. not my own Examples tA'^pa"ap'i of -pi'-' are: stockings.Southern Paiute.mother. Examples . hide (owned by one).see 2. b). light gray earth. wia'vmi : my mud: wia'naxuqwL- to fight with mud (missiles) soyo'^'i moist ground sox^' dxant'f moist little spring (< pa-' water. a Shoshonean Language 133 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. mants'i v'i<t>i (one's) bone from elbow to wrist: manisi'ani tTca'4>i my bone of forearm uv^a'4>i AHa'4>'i rope meat-soup: vv^'a'ca'ai'^ boils meat with soup little ssind: A^ta'RA'^qayant'i sand-flat yona'4>'i ivta'cpi. rocks lying around loose: yona'zanints- gravel-house mud. skin) t'iv^'i-'v^'ini my hide (owned by me. waxoa'v'ini to whittle a foreshaft for a cane arrow my foreshaft: wawa'- s-ivainantsi'(i)i scraper made of foreleg of deer. tu'qri'p'iyai- to have a panther-skin One or other of these of -mp'i-' are: may really be past passive participles in -p'i. post foreshaft of cane arrow. socks qiracCap'i qwi'{y)a'p-'i tA^si'p'i water-jar stopper fence flint. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE quna'cfC sack: ora'4)'L watva'(f)'L 115 nyu'nA arrow-sack. quiver pole.see § 35) pP'i'ayA his (animal's) hair p'i'*'i'a4>i fur (of animal) pu4>i hide: pP'i^'arjA his skin (for -a. tiv^L p-'iani my country: (iv^LnA'qiodcuis- earth-worm pia'p'i A'ta'p'i mare (< pia. tA^ SL pu<i)U\axai- to look for flint pdi'qap'i qu'tca'p tiv^i'pt L ice ashes: qu^tca'qaRi ash-colored.

flap of tepee ( have naro"omp'i clothes) qwi'noro'dmpi clothing. however.-x'^qu'ci own: firjqa'ni cave. is -v'i- apart from {-p'i- are added. i'i'ra- empty. -vip'i-' (cf. upper of moccasin) one's ear) top-piece stitciied on to narjqava-^ ear. possessive -a. -v'i-'. naro" oriqwai.arrow) for classifying suffix plants. is generally suffixed to Examples nest are: qani<i)i (< qani- house) I tA^CLaxani4>'i (irjqa'niviani ant-house. g. is clearly absolutive). -pi-\ is shortened (see § 11) from p'u-\ pi-' hide (see above. narjqa'vatpi qani na7)qava4)'i house-ear. superciliary ridge lip (cf.(see 2. hail: pa{a)'u'xn)wa. c'in'i'mp'iarjA her \iil\. blanket. When possessive enclitics Apparently distinct from absolutive it. though not easy to keep and -vip'i. it is rendered plant. also L'tuinpi old (e. leggings thong (lit." ar- royo toia'mpi gravel. qova'4>i one's face) tA pa'ia 4>i foot-surface. sole (< pain- surface) ti'rauqwiv'i(e) -2)1-'. tree. t. a below) -v'i-. mass of big and small rocks: toi'o'ipi creek running through rocky bed (probably pa{q)'xivip'i toia- + oi'pi canyon) (lit. Less frequently It may be used with nouns . leggings string-hide) underwear (< narSo-'"^ clothes. uqwL-(i/)v.are not found alternating with it) suffixed to nouns used in some specialized or metaphorical sense. clothing are only apparently pro- vided with absolutive -pi-' and that they are really compound nouns whose second element. bush. tA'qo'va(l)L foot-face (cf. unfeathered arrow -p'i-'.1 34 X 116 ayjwa'tampi c'ini'mpi rib Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR vulva. -vi-' of p'ii'4)'i hide itself. ant-hill tirjqa'mni my stone-house-owned-my. puHi'yqanLcpL tumpa'x'^SL<i>'i hail to hail-rain) qu^ca'^rumpi trousers string.. ca\e that cave (that I live in) eye-cave. -p'i-\ -nip'i-' that indicate hide.i drjwa'vip'i sandy gravel: pan'sLTjicaoipi sund-gravei "wash. These nouns are generally compounds.. blanket Here probably belongs shirt). L'tionpira '7 old It is not at all improbable that all examples of -m-'.

see a above) to qo''co'4>i tinder. It is 117 it is a movable element. timbered mountain oxi^i-'4>^ grass: oxwi'axai. ao' rjqov'iani my dried-up tree wii<i>i qana'(t>i ciya'<i>i milkweed: WL\'tTca4>i willow: qana'rV milkweed rope canyon-mouth bordered by willows sagebrush-singer quaking asp sagebrush: saywauiayatifiscrub oak: qwLya'fina4>i bulrush leaf sai]wa'4>L qwiya'<i>i to'oi'(f)L tla'<f>L oak-stump service-berry bush narjqamqa'o'4>'i.Southern Paiute. have grass) ao'yqocpi. Trum- yu'a'vLmpl s qu'mp'i opuntia: yu'a'<t)i opuntia fruit "rabbit-bush": stku-" gray squirrel . slow-match. -mp'i-^ Examples viaa'4>i of -vi.are: be grassy (but also oxt^'i-'viaxdi. Perhaps only a special use of -vi-'. phint. oyo'cLap'i apron of ina' p i- bark fir-sapling: cia'pia<t>i tree-sap so'vLpL Cottonwood: co'vmuqwLnt'i cottonwood-stream moywa'p'C cedar-bark: moywa'qani cedar-bark wickiup Examples oyo'mp'i A'qi'mp'i of -tnpi-' are: fiv. qj'co'vuru- prepare a slow-match of cedar-bark See also -mpi-4)'i berry-bush under -mpi-^ (c). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE indicating parts of plants.cedar-spring pinon: tiv'^a-^ pine-nut 'ina'pi cia'p'i cedar-like tree: 'ina'tiaywi sapling. dried-up tree. wa'a'pats. Examples wa'a'p'C (iv^a'p'i of -p'i-' are: cedar: wa'a'mpi cedar-berry. viaav'ini my brush: viaa'xai<pA brush-mountain.branch) pine-cone arrow-stick. -p'i-'. of (d). (< narjqa. a Shoshonean Language 135 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. stick from which arrow is uru'4>i to be made (< uru- to fix t:ina'4>'i an arrow) stump (perhaps related to fma'4>i bottom.oyo'ntava'ats- fir-chipmunk sunflower seeds cactus-spines sunflower-plant: a^'i-" long-leafed pine: tACi'mpi yivH'vip'i bull barrel-cactus clump: tA'ci'in-^ana^ii yWi'ykanRi pine-mountain.

g. Californian -t. -ntsi-'^ suffix. It is tory -tst-" wii'ts- knife: wiiy'w'inapi knife-point. fiv^a'ts- (when preceded by nasal consonant) classifying animate nouns. fiv^a'tsvnavavLTjw'i wolf and his younger brother mu'rats- mule qwi{y)a'ts.are: . -I. e.(§ 35).-" are: wolf (myth name). Paiutes y'iv^i'nfiHsnjw'i payi'idsLrjWL Kaibab not always easy to decide whether a nominal -tsL. chiefly for sometimes not.boy. plur. like its Nahuatl cognate -tl(i). not classificatory suffix) prophet. A number of inanimate nouns also end in -tsL.- dog: sari'vurjquni mouse: navu"dcaru. Paiute -tsi-) was originally used. g.(apparently not diminutive -tsL-). plateau people. Paiutes of pine-canyon-mouth-people. classificaor diminutive -tsL.: : 136 118 (f) X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR -tsL-^. qwL{y)a'tsLntTqa7fwi to qiCL'(y)ay(i?ifi grizzly become a grizzly bear: bear pill teatssari'tstavu'tsqa-'ts(-tsi. In Paitite. Uintah Utes Panguitch Lake qa ivavdcd. e. Animate examples of -tsi. tvi'p-u^cayai. e.grizzly look for a knife viara'ts- metate: ma'RA metate stone mealer mo'a'ts- Such nouns as these corroborate Shoshonean comparative evidence. The suffix is sometimes movable.urjWL mountain-lying-people. which shows that *-ti. *-ta (S. ]Moapa Paiutes fish-people. this element tended largely to become restricted to animate (including particularly personal) is instrumental change oneself into a mouse my dog (lit. g. a'ipats. however. my dog-pet) poke with a stick into a hole for rats cotton-tail rabbit: tavu'muru'^ cottontail-rabbit blanket rat: qa'-tsLn'noro.. -tsLyw'i. Examples of -ntst. inori'tsirjw'i bean-people. for all types of nouns. composer of ghost-dance song: par u'xuy want)' so"ds- soldier paru'xids- prophet qwi'ts- left-handed person (personal name) : qwi'ni : my left (hand) qu^tcu'mpiyats-tSL-" is buffalo-female (personal name) in tribal qu'tcu'mptA heifer common names.

wildcat. d above) and animate -tsi-'^ (see f above). cnclitic. -vipitsi-^ This suffix compounded of -v'i-% is -p'i-% -vip'i-^ (see animate nouns.' strangers. y'ini-^ crown of the head) newly married one (ai-^ new piywa-' wife) vna" p'iv^'itSL.v\ie\oY)&-co\oved.antelope.a' p'its- man (perhaps with diminutive < naji-a. It our examples contain diminutive Examples of -v'itsL-'^ are: yoyo'v^itsa''icLV'^'its- also quite possible that (cf.(§ 19. g. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qima'nts. e. b).yoUxNG female animal.little with diminutive -tsL-) + Examples wantsip'itslight gray of -p'itsi-" are: antelope: wa'nts. Cf. mia" grow separate examples of -p'itsL-^ that contain from such as are clearly compounded with diminutive -tsL-.. Another difficulty lies in separating -p-'i. mia"p-'its.crow hooting owl: raoo'nap'irjw old lizard (cf. a Shoshonean Language 1 37 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 5. qam-'i'oap-'its. ciy'i" mints- man Owl under f) a'i(f)Apits- young man: old a'ivam'i young men -tsL-) nan. 3.p-'itsi.a little). ^vanisL^an'i 2t. nan-a' p-'its- may be plausibly analyzed as little GROWN-UP one. tiiyw'i'ntsLyWL persons.little JACK-RABBIT.Southern Palute. b).stranger.wildcat: tu^qu'ts. Indians: irirjw'i-" tovu'nts- (male personal name) water-lizard: p. Examples Ina'mp'itsm'iy'i' VI p'its- of -mp'itsL-^ are: badger: 'ina'r)qwac-i badger-tail gopher: m'iy'i' ijqauL^i gopher-house. filly (cf.Cci'xi'mivaxaT'iRi water-lizard lake pA'^ci'y'i'maitsci'vii'nts- Muddy is River classifying suffix for (g) -v'CtsL-". piya'p-'i mare). gopher pile .small (cf. thus. piya'p-'its. ^ma'n^^iT/H^i. -p-'itsi-". Shoshones qiina-^ other niyiv'i'nts- 119 (> Comanche): person person.little one {viia" p'itsi. -tsL- spring under coyote (probably butterfly < yoyo-^ to copulate with) y'ini'v^'its- 'a'iv^iywavits- bald-headed (personal name. pa'v'its- some of d). tu'qu'p'its.of -p-'itsL-"^ from past passive participial -p'iIt is very difficult to animate -tsi- (§ 25. tu^qu'qaiicoxu hat of wildcat skin AHa p'its- moo'p'itsciy'i'p'its- crow: AHa'qwots.

objective).objective. 1.after past passive participial (b) -rjwa-. define the nature of the possessive relation. (2) Elements defining possession. -p'i-. see 3. of such objects as are not normally thought of as being possessed.: 138 120 y'iiji' inp'its X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR porcupine: bull-snake ruffed grouse buzzard cotton-tail rabbit (song-form for tavu'ts-) y'irj'i'rjqwac-l porcupine-tail oyo'vip'Cts- qa{a')mpitsvvi'qu'mp'its- tavu'mputsy'lv'^i'mpits- pine-man (personal name) < y'iv"'L-" pine Here are grouped a number appear chiefly with possessive pronominal enclitics and which. but may be directly appended to noun stems. d and e). -a- objective.) diminutive. see § b.sed (it) to have branches -a- For possessive combining with \erbalizing 2(5. It is generally preceded by -pi. 1). as a matter of fact.) little my dried-up woods his his tt7)qa'nivia(i)ya'7jWA t'i7jqa'nLVudsla4>L owned as house {-ya. seem to be used after classificatory -pi-' (1. possessive forms of this no\m -rjwa- always used) .(§ 29. d and e). it would seem. -kai- to have into -ayai. {-tsi- own cave (obj. qan L Atuip'iya narjqa' Adiip'iya caused (it) to ha\e stones caused (it) to have houses cau.'-' Examples are: (see 1. 4) Possessive -a- may also be used with causative -tui. before causative -(ui-. 12) to form verbs indicating to tiimp^i' Atiip 'iya" cause to have so and so. however. (a) -a- t'iv^Lp'ianimi our (excl.are: pa'i'ijwani my is blood (absolute pa'i'pi. on the whole.) country {-niini our). to see exactly what increment of significance they bring. These elements are used very much occurring both before possessive pronominal enclitics and verbalizing They do not -kai. g. It is not always easy.) {-ia.(participle -ayanfi-). spring that I own cave (obj. not. e. like -a-. Examples in of -i)wa. b below. -(/>!. seems to be used to indicate possession that is alienable. § 40.TO have. Uv^l p'iaian'imi our country pa'^viani a'orjqdv'iani (obj. -rj'wa-. § 49. for possessive -a. of suffixes that particularly.

1. This includes adjectival participles indicating (e.Southern Paiute. those of them (anim. g)-possessive-having. a)-possessive-animate plur. possessive-his. skin) but are -a- is is inherent without being strictly inalienable. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE u{w)ir)wayant'i 121 pan-a'qar'ui7)wayant'i canyon-possessive-having. the (iv'^itc good-present ptc. their big ones (anim. our leader = that one of us leader). qani'ayanti ampa'xafiy'iVA village's main speaker ava'i'iyw'ayw'urjiVA big-present ptc. saliva. a)-possessive-have-subordinating.) good ones (anim. 25. (as his own somebody else's wife taken away (by him) (§ 26. (§ 25. 5. village's chief ampa'xafiy'wam'i talker. a)-possessive-my. a very good one of them (inan.) (§ 25. atir)wa{iyyaq-WA very good-present ptc. one who has money quna'ywaxaiyup'i'ya fire fire-possessive-have-momentaneous. Examples are: . g)-present ptc.-obj. g. -possessive-animate plur.their (anim. a Shoshonean Language 139 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. if at all. selection the good one of several).obj. g. that In other words. -their (inan. snow belonging to me (snow-raining = snow) Examples of -tj'wafrom -ywa-) are: tump^i'rfwarjA (it is not clear how.) that are big "'a't-'iywaywla'ayWA their. 6.are used particularly to indicate possession group by the group (e. chief-possessive. it differs in usage his rock his ma' xar'ir"i7)waii)yar)A qa'ntuintLrj'warjA clump of trees (obj. -obj. thought of as indissolubly connected. partic. Examples are: rua'vLij'waraijWA our chief. 6. a)- sing-become (§ 26. it is suffixed to nouns indicating objects (or persons) that do often occur disconnected in experience (e. their talker.possessive-their.).).past.). canyon money -become (§ 26. 6.. 1. qaniayanfiA nia-'virfwA house-possessive- having-obj. song belonging to him Both -rjwa- of one of a WHO is and -rfwa. niv'^a'\i'r)wa{uintL7)xoani (§ snow-rain-become g)-present ptc. got person-wife-deprive-past pass. chiefly of body-parts. g. while having 1. bone.) (c) used to indicate possession. mmpL tjwaridcarjwapirjwaxaiYU wife) (§ 25.

amples are: my flour my owned trail (not merely: trail that I use) my owned belly. my ox. domestic.) qam'i"ini^a I jackrabbit-owned-have.\iestic. (some animal's) belly that I saxiv{£')iain'7iini possess (as meat). see § 26. 3j'<^t aya'v'ioo'" shoulder- bone-possessive. 2. fat of deer: absolute yoo'<p fat qafi'n'impjROtsi''^ saddle-head-possessive. my sinew: absolute ta)nu'4> ''t '^i sinew t'iyi'ayoo'" deer-fat-possessive. sari' vmjquxwaiqu'tcu'mpuTjquni buffalo-pet-my. with alienable nouns and has a specific reference to actual ownership Exas contrasted with mere possession in the grammatical sense.140 122 do" am X Southern Paint c and Ute SAPIR my bone (i.\ted .-our. is no true qava 'vur/quni a{i)ya'vu7)quni my horse (more frequently simply puyqu'ni) pig-pet-our.\ted animal. buft'alo-pets (for reduplication see § to have a dog quHcu' mpumpurjquyw'irarjn' a 58. hide qrtsi"" tqmu"'^ me saliva-possessive. Examples are: (e) -vuTjqu-\ -purjqu-^. our cattle . our pig pi'xLVuijqurarjWA sari'vuyquni my turtle my dog. e. do. saddle-horn pcrson-possessive-obj. 1. bone of my own body). Tiibatulabal pnrjgu-l dog).nimal. dog (cf.-its. -mpuyqu-^ pet. contrast saxio{E')iatii my belly qani"nini my house (that I own) contrast qani'nt my house (that pnra'oMnini poo'in'nini . It is listed here because it is regularly added to all nouns denoting owned animals. contrast qava" horse absolutely). its 7U7)w'i"a(i)ya QA (obj. I live in) quna'i'niaraywA our possessed fire (obj. I have a jackrabbit 7il' {qaml'xd' to be a rabbit. my saliva: absolute qTtsL4>i saliva me sinew-possessive. a) cold-water-owned-diminutive-have-usitative cTpu'v^'ainLntSLyaini C present. is wont to have cold water (cTpu'v^^'a-) This but merely the compounded form of purjqu-^ horse (belonging to one. originally pet. shoulder-blade: absolute bone p'iH"a(i)yayA n'i'ni n'i'ni his skin (obj.): absolute pu4>'i skin. suffix.a.) (country's) people This element is always employed (d) -in'{n)i-' (-'m/-*) owned. It is a suffix in the making. d) -animate plur.

my dead relation < ini'ani my relative inuru"L-^aip i oHca' (v'Cjyaip'C cast-away blanket formerly used water-jar (o'tcA) rat-hunt-place-be-past partic. a) and then turning the denominative verb into a participle. verbal Nominalizing suffixes. 7) § 25. a). place rats qa'yaaitiaxaipici''arjWA (obj. verbalized.(see § 25. spermophile marina- to chase n'iyw'i'jnarinacf)! man-chaser. in part idiomatic. -in pi-". only rarely used with noun stems. sometimes found combined with possessive g.-obj. § 32. 8. old camping place -a. This is the past participial -p'i. my in former youthful friend This -p'ia.occurs also combined with other elements forms (see -p'ia-yai-f ua-. one who used to be a puncher (b) -p'i. is abandoned house.(i>i cedar-ber- ry-crusher. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (3) 123 Tense can be expressed in nouns provided This is generally done by suffixing -kai. former. qam'i'xaivatc'i jackRABBIT-BE-USITATIVE-PARTICIPLE. Thus. § 32. verbal These are formed chiefly from verb and adjective-verb stems.-his. ALWAYS A JACKRABBIT. 5. (a) -yaip'i-. Here We shall specifically list only two compound suffixes relating to past time.: Southern Paiute. a) be (§ 26. a) as -p'iu-.past. use.: a'i4)Api{'y)anyiv^uii youth-past-possessive. a Shoshonean Language 141 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. g. past. 5. Examples of agentive -?j/-" are: muwaraxi- to crush wa a vipLinuwaruxi. (1) AGEtiTiXE -vi-". former. similarly. village site. because of their rather characteristic usage. they are first Tense elements. to be and past participial -pi.) where he used to hunt tona'vLTjkaip'i punch-er-be-past partic. e. -qaip'i-. lizard (sp. the future form of qava-' horse is qava 'xaivant'i horse-beFUTURE-PARTiciPLE. 1.) . qani'pi It e.(2. The noun in -na. A HORSE TO BE.(see § 25.and the various participles are in very frequent. -p'ia-y'i-.having been. -kai- compounded of Examples are: ini' ayaip'ini -yqaip'i.

This suffix is compounded of usitative 30. 142 124 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 7iaya'nr)(p. to guess the right in the kwi'pa'7i''imp'i shinnyis stick pA^qa'n' nimp'i bone that to be bone hand-game guessed in the hand-game . roc talker nir)w'i'no-'4>i ampa'x(i4>i hna'virjkalp-'i one who used to be a puncher Examples tarja- of agentive -mpi-" are: to kick taija'mpi kicker ororjwi- to grunt. bit and bridle to close to stretch out (a skin) qaju'ntdywq' n'impi door Tta'- Vta'n' n'impi hide-stretching beater. erer. and passive participial -p'i. to be perhaps of momentaneous significance (§ no clear difference of function between and Examples of instrumental -nimp'i.has accessory 53.4>i naya'nyqri. throat qafl- ride horseback to cover saddle wTqa'vi'miyum')nuxu'itsqivan'notA'cin'm- puLTjwTqam^ minim pi iayu'm^m uxwDiim pi spur tsqioa'n'nonomp'i tA\''in7unimp'i in cup-and-ball eye-covfoot-poker. 11) '. 2. (2) Instrumental -?ii-" (see § -ninipi-. -nimp'i- There seems -n'hnp' carry on one's back ampaxa. Agentives are used to refer only to permanent (quasi-occupational) Temporary or casual agentives are expressed by means of active participles (see 6 below). -u'lmpi-. yL'i'xinimpL qafi' n'impi talk tonato puncli dodger man-carrier.(see below) -n'impi. frame kwipapA'qa- to beat to kill. growl oro'ijwunpi grunter activities. a.are: 7nov^i''iX(m' nimp'i to enter nose-en terer. house-closer. blinder (for a horse) to poke to stir up (mush) mush-stirrer to play cup-and-ball rabbit-head used with a rabbit's head game Examples iyaUrjwa- of -n' dodge no. 3).are: yV'ixi- to swallow to sit.

formed from all verbs and often appear in syntactic combinations. nominalizing suffixes of more than ordinarily concrete significance. e. Examples are: ni'ni no' nam me carying-my.(cf. it refers to present or general time. In the case of transitive verbs. the matter of voice does ing.verbal noun. Here are grouped a few (4) Special nominal derivatives. 3) are also very common.with verbs and saying.: uru"anA being. not seem to be clearly defined in -jva. -verbal noun. vagina ava'" to be much < much of doing For the idiomatic use see § 62. durative.forms.are freely (3) Verbal noun in -na-. the action is to be thought of as passive rather than active. but their shouting became silent tD'o'iv'C'oran'narjw am bulrush-digging-his it. ampa'yanani my talkNevertheless.(cf. § 32. WHAT IS SAID BY ME.our. in -va-na. iTqa'van'aTjw u'r be vulva-perf orated. for about to him to eat nqno'c-ivarvani ngno'cjcainani what I shall dream what I dreamt my a ui vuruijuqwainani that-one do-resultative wounded7) 'ani'ka make-momentaneous-perfective-verbal noun-my. . our going under a person. our being beaten w'a' used with a possessive pronoun.g.%ir 'a'i'nirjucampA shouting-their it silent-become-but. of -na-cu. in those in -n'imp'L. my pack nltjw'i'Ruqivatuywaq anararjWA person-under. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 125 On is the whole it seems that the action in instrumentals in -n'lmyiconceived of as momentaneous. I his being shall do as you say eat-future-verbal noun-his it. a verbal noun in -na. When a Futures tense suffix is absent. the bulrushes he digs (dug) up ni' o-'pa' atu'van-L imi a'i'nami I thus do-shall thee saying-thy. a Shoshonean Language 143 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. § 32. e. Verbal nouns in -na. often in a subjective or objective relative sense. More often than not. 4) and perfectives in noun-forming or adjective-forming derivative without clear verbal force are uncommon.Southern Paiute. that one it is whom I have wounded Cases of -na. property vxiyo'D^paqlnA ava"''?iA < uru'a.

tuy{w)vqa -yaai- to cache tuy(w)u"tiani my caching-place. Perhaps it is related to -t'ia- place of. suffix -va-^ occurs a-ka-va. : -t'ia- forms a reduplicated plural (see § 58. Tiibatulabal dogu-mba-l. -t'ifia.contest. -pa-. passive pederast commonly house -t'ia. to cause to Examples burn of nouns in -t'ia- formed from verb stems are: naa'itui- naa'iiutV fireplace cause-to-burn place. obj. obj. Gabrielino tuku-pa-r sky. e. Mohineyam dugu-ba-t. Hopi nak"-ve. Examples qana'ri are: qana-' willow mouth of canyon bor- dered by willows (> Kanab) . battle with bows and arrows shoot-one- another-contest).canyon mouth.places of. 2. but is most conveniently listed here. fight.anus feet of shaking off feet snow from his + y-}y-J- to copulate kwiHi'ioyotV anus-copulating- with Less qani- place.: : 144 126 (a) -t'ia- X Soutlwru Paint e and Ute SAPIR PLACE OF. (b) -va-. a-ka-va (< *a-7)kava < ear.) hunt rats qa'yaait'iaxaip ia'arjWA where rats niv"'a-RA'ton'ni. nayu'qwipaiA fist-fight. qant't'iani my he used to hunt his place shake off snow mv'^a'RA'ton'Ni'ti'aijwA from one's kwi'tu. my camping place Alone among derivative suffixes. e. suffixed to noun stems. This suffix seems to be added (c) -n-. -nti. Examples nayu'qwip-A oo'mpA war. g. b) t'i'qa'tiA g. -mpa. cf. only to noun stems. eating place tTqa't'inA qanit'ir'iA eating places qani't'iA camping place camping places are: (lit. oo'mpaiA An isolated noun narjqa'vacf)!) < narjqa- SKY < tuyu-" UP. e. my to cache place (obj. Also isolated is -mpa-" in tuyumpa-° Both of these are old Shoshonean elements.. -t'i-. Gitanemuk *a-naka-va) in yiaijqa'va-' ear (absolute to hear.

occurs in: V'qwa'tsats- small spider (cf. : of canyon (apparently found only in com- mouth of rabbit-bush squ'rumpa'ya canyon oa'i- < squ'-mpi rabbit-bush.Southern Paiute. -pi. It has been found in: foreshaft to cane arrow also is wawa-' wawa'{i)'ya<i>'i foreshaft (absolute wawa'(t>L) tumpa- mouth tumpa"ya' pounds. of meaning there is between these elements. . meaning are frequently employed in Paiute to express the passive It is difficult to say just what difference participle. tenseless Moreover. a Shoshonean Language 145 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. mouth g. future -va-\ -p'iare naturallv far always preterital.and -p'i-.salt) (e) salt- Isolated elements. perhaps narjqa. On the whole. -pi- is primarily e. g. e.(cf. though they are not used interchangeably.ear-ornament) in bird nouns: qiri'n'narjqats- sparrow-hawk ova'n'naijqA goose -q-wa-(tsL-) occurs in: AHa'qwots- crow (cf.a more truly participial one. Uintah Utes apparently added only yiv'^ini'iHsLijw'i (d) to -ya-' FORE PART. x\mong these -n'narjqa. There are a few elements that (or may be is recognized as noun suffixes stereotyped compounded stems). but to which no definite meaning can be assigned. tumpaiiYya' mouth of canyon < oa. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE oi-" 127 canyon (absolute oi'pi) pine oi'tt yiv^i-^ y'iv^intV mouth of canyon mouth of canyon bordered by pines (> Uintah). -p'i. though derivatives formed from transitive verbs more common. u'^qwa'mpi tarantula) Two distinct suffixes of closely related (5) Passive Participles. parallel AHa'p'its) -tea. Both may be formed from intransitive stems. -pi. except when preceded by is specific tense elements. it would be incorrect to press this point. This suffix noun stems.seems to have a more substantival force. however.

cover on is having been spread which something put having been wrapped wi'tca'- to wrap about wiHca'p'i about. dream (as noun) iavi'kamipi who are (were) al- tixwina. story what shall (always) drunk.several gather together cv'par'uapi gathered-together.).passive participle. sheet) out. to do sa'a'pi (be) in what is boil ayani. to naiaywipi hand-game 'ini'pintupi to make a ghost-making game play at ghosts mavo'xoito make a pile of dirt mavo'xoip of dirt i game of making piles (b) -p'i- past passive participle. gathering place A considerable number e. naia'varjwq'" way? not-it how-do-perfec- tive-passive partic. heard some one talking cvpar'ua.-like seem- spread out (a blanket. Examples sa'tna'p-'i are: sa'ma. Examples are: saa. band . tavi-ka- nono'cLpi what is dreamt. g. naiarjwi'ini'pintu- to play the hand-game ghost. ivi'- be eaten imto drink ivi'pi Jf-aipi something what was evidently ampaya- to talk narjqa'p'iya drunk (by someone) ampa'xApiA heard talked ( t'l'qa- tell a story ways hit tixwr'napi t'l'qa'vapi to eat what is told. to be glad it does not look as cu{w)ainon-oci- though capable of handling cu{w)a'ipi (some one's) being glad to dream tavi- to hit.: 146 128 (a) ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR -pi. subj. mush what qatcu"qw aya'ni-kai'pini. of nouns referring to games are passive participles in -pi-.

qimi- to take wif e-taken- ora- to dig up whom he had taken as wife ora'p'ini my having-been-dug. mourning ceremony tu'u'n'Ni'qap'i scalp dance tic.ani'p'iya" partic. after i.: Southern Paiute. When 48.-obj. Animate plurals are formed by suffixing -m'i. dances.-his passive nayqa- to hear way-again it-did. that is what you heard pirjwa'xvnip lywA his.i ciprocal-lead away-passive par- yaya- to cry tu'u'yi'Ni^qa- to dance the scalp which each tries from others yaya'p'i having been cried. g. Examples are: . e. ki{y)a- to play. it happened as he had said mai'm imi narjqa'qaip'i'mi thatthy thee hear-perfective-passive partic. g. particularly in secondary substantival uses. saythat- pack to say a'ip'iaT) o'pac. -nit-'*. 1. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE no. -rim'i-.-thy. Participles of explicitly temporal reference may be formed from the present participle by prefixing appropriate temporal suffixes to -fi-". is -ti-". in game to head off rabbits dance cipial suffix The primary form of the active partiunpreceded by a tense element. -ntci-" after nasal + i). something that I dug long ago it qwA'ciqwiicasi'i- to be ripe qWA'cl'p'iaq-A ripe ripened-it. is tenseless. and games are really past passive participles in -pi-. dance a round ki{y)a'p'i round dance jackrabbit-re- dance -tiv^'C- to lead away qavi'i' nafiv^'C carry on one's back ai- 129 no'p'C carried on one's back. it refers to present time or. a Shoshonean Language 147 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. a). that (is) thy heard.(§ (6) Active participles. e. {-tc'i-"- (a) Present participle: -r'i-" -^^-". (is) to defecate qwitca'pi si'i'p'i excrement to urinate urine Several nouns referring to ceremonials.

For (b) -A. The usitative element -va-.148 130 ti'qa- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to eat tTqa'm nia'Ri eating ivi'-ka-' Tiia- several drink ivi'k arim'i those drinking to blow to run blowing. -mi-" -r'ui-^ usitative to a' imint'im'i those saying become to flow tuywa'r'uinti becoming night NVqwi-"* NU'qwi'nii . which also changes following -t.Cqa'riRi one who ani'ntcim^'ito say to be a'intc'i<z- HAVING being < -kai- to have. see Future participle: -vant'i-". -tc-. a. having ever dreamt wont to burn na'aito burn na'a'ivdtc'i phonetically treated as though terminating in -i-% suffix. Examples pi^pi'tci- to arrive pi'pLtciv^ant'i being about to arrive. Examples are: 7iono'c ivdtc'i accustomed to nono'ci. stream § 26. 37). dream dream. flowing. -mpa-" (§ 32.) avi'tc'i lying. It is . 3) "'a-o good not to sleep "'a't'i good one who does not fire A^pi'iywa'ai-" A'pLiywa'aiti sleep na'a'inti na'ai-" to burn burning. 1. plateau ani'ntci doing so. sayer (§ 13. wind. shall be arriving pi'ka"ayaxaiturtle to be a hard-shell pi'ka" axaivant'i destined to be a hard-shell turtle pA'^qa'rjumpani'i will kill pA'qa'yu-" to kill going to kill. qay'wi'p'iya q. anim. wise used as a verb is not otherperhaps identical with postpositive -vaAT (§ 50. formed from future are: -va-". nia'fintT- qAqa'fi-' away to understand pu'tcu'icuywa-' to drink ivi-" tcarfw'i'kiqwa' (a)i-' to die ofi" avi-' to lie ani-' ai-' turned into wind runs away thou i'mi pu'tcu'tcuywar'iqwA (art) understanding-it drinking ivi'tci tcaywCkiqwa' (a)itci[m^'iA those dying off (obj. 4. 4). (c) Usitative participle: -vatci-'\ -mpatci-'^. going to arrive. -mpanti-". to be.

Examples are: qu'tca'poto'qwanm'i blue-round-ad j. 6. participle. refers to the implied collectivity rather than to the person explicitly indicated. also in being more frequently are: used in narrative as a sort of equivalent for properly preterital forms in -p'iyai. A This takes place when the participle refers to a person (or animal) that is singled out from a number or is compared with others. based on perfective -qai- Examples p\Tn'Jcai- are: to see to go pini'kailcant'i pa'xiqwo'aiqam'-^ai(e) away pa'xiqwo'aiJcanti having seen having gone a house away to have a house qanL}^aikant'i who had Narrative preterital participle: -p-'iyanti-". to lie down (§ 32. based on narrative -p-'iyai-. The plural ending of the curious idiom allows of their use also as singulars. went to- wards (f) it participles Animate plurals of participles. verb-partic.-he . 4.. have been already referred Animate to. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qafl- 131 sits to sit to qari'vatc'i who always oxwainontsin'i- have an arrow to fly o'xwaiv'dtc'i provided with an arrow nontsi n' iviitci always flying a- -mi-" usitative round avi'mimpatci always accus- tomed (d) Perfective 'participle: -qanti-". one blue around (as contrasted with others of different color) who is . killed fiyai- maybe he has been having taken place to take place tiya'iplyant'i kill qA'^qa'yuyqv- would pA^qa'r)ui]quu'piyantini who would have 'u'rairju- killed me (am) havingI to go towards it rii' u'rairjup'iyant'i I gone-towards-it. preterital This participle differs from the preceding in referring more explicitly to past time. Examples pA'qa'yuti- to be killed pA'^qa'ijut'iipLyantVr) uru"av'"'C he- killed-preterit partic. is- dubitative. a Shoshonean Language 149 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. in other words.(see §32 . also § 55. 3). e). plurals of active They end in -ti-m'i-.Southern Paiute.-plur.

e. he qa'tc 'a'iyuijwait-\vi'i nixa'''vat'im'"'iarjA i'iv'^Lts- not good-negative-partic. § 57.-he. and demonstrative stems into verbs. not a good one (is) greater than I be becomes a'ipatsijai- to be a boy a'ipatsLyaquni boy when I was a For corresponding negative -a'-qu.ger- (you) are to be greater than I For negative -ai. 1. -qai-. The active participial form of this suffix is -yanti-''. equal to toyo'7i"opa' toyo'qwdcim'i in me running me-greater-partic. or participle may become a verb of being by means of this n'iTjw'i-' person qam-' house niyw'ixaiYU while being a person qam'^aiiju house-be-momentaneous. .: nf nan'xwinAp'irjwC I mighty-plur. -qanti-". see Before subordinating -qu-ka-. g. what had been saritsL-' tump^'i-'' his feathers dog rock greater than I ni' sari'tsiya^ I I tiXmp'^i'kaini am a dog am a rock I-great- mxa'^m'^t-" nixa'^vaHiyqaivat-nnL und-like. 2 c... if er-active partic. (§ 55. g. c. e) verbifying -kai.-plur. -yai-. -yqanti-". I (am) a mighty Verbalizing Suffixes.-be-future. Elements suffixed to noun and to be. person (as contrasted with others) § 26. Any noun suffix. see § 57. g. adjective stents.: : : 1 50 132 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR quite-me-like running-plur. g.-plur. e.. -rjqai-. contrast ttv'^i'ts- pa'a'nt'i very tall (no comparison involved) in other (§ 48. 1. 2. are in A number of verb-forming suffixes (1) (a) common use. to be already manifest as a house wTcia--' feather wTciaxO''ih'0''in(iVA feather-be- perfective-verbal noun -his.when not to be.not to be. They trans- form noun. b). Analogous constructions are found than -t'i-" forms. e.-plur. e. adjective. pa'a'ntim'i very tall-partic.

plain circular wTqo'noikant'i As may be seen from these examples. subordinate -ka-qu-. 2. seem to be more freely used than the -kai. tump^ikai. § 57. 2) before the -kai-. participle -kanU-"^). negative subordinate -a'-qu-. Many of these participial forms. however. Frequently. -ijqai. flat coun- try cii-' to be strong cii'xant'i strong *ontcoxL-' to be one-eyed ^ontco'xiyanti yu{w)a'''xO'nti yu{w)a-' wTqonoi-" to be circular one-eyed being level. -qai-.suffix denotes to BE or TO HAVE. -ai-yqi. -qai-.seems to. -kanti-" forms many nouns and adjectives. e.Southern Paiute. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE tA'qa-' to be flat tA^'qa-'yanti 133 being flat. the theoretical ambiguity is removed by the use of a nominal possessive suffix (§ 24. sari'tsiyaivatci' wont to be a dog. 1. g.verbs from which they are derived Compounded with indirective -yqi. but sari'vurjquxwaivdtci wont TO have a dog (§ 24. 2.not to be. e. 2) this element seems to appear as be a rock or to have a rock. On account of their particular frequency. indeed. This element closely parallels the preceding in all its forms (including negative -ai.(cf. "mushy" . g. From the form alone it is not always possible to tell whether the -kai. negative -ai. e). a) are separately listed.ani I shall have a horse ovi-ini-' tatja-' stick-owned knee daughters (§ 48. Examples of -yai-.(§ . -yqai. 2. forms in -a-yai. a Shoshonean Language 151 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. acts in (b) -701-. b) patci-tjw'i- I have a stick have a knee patcu'r)w'LX<^ip^ya (he) had daughters om/'ini^aini tarja'xaini I imp'i-' what nose tongue vulva clothes impl'xai' what hast thou? I mov^i-" a7J-" w't-yi-" nard'o-'' he has a nose have a tongue w'iy'i' rjqaip'iya (she) had a vulva nj" nard"or}qwa I have clothes 'mov^i'kai{y)aijA ayo'yqwaini An example of subordinate have are: puTjqu-' horse (owned) jpurjqu' xwaivani. It occurs in: to indicate to act like — c'iyia'rjwavL-ykai- to be coyote to be have. c). c'ina' rjwavC aiTjqii acts like coyote an inordinately amorous manner toward (her) to (her) .(§ 29.

-ntcu. village -7a-. moist quni'ayant'i house-possessed-havpu{w)a'yant'i ral ing. -tu-.152 134 piijwa-' X Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPIR wife pirjwa'xaqu (his) that (he) had as wife Examples of -a-yai- to have. -yqa- to acquire.(-tcu.after i. (c) camp. 3. tarjwa- tooth have a jackrabbit-camp taywa'yaxqoaq A that it (her vulva) had teeth (< taijwaaya-qo-) 14) Participial examples in -kantipo'a-' -ayanti-" are: louse po'dxanti having lice. Examples are wa'qutcani qava'xA two-objec- qava-' horse tive-preterit-I horse-get. be provided with (subordinate -aya-qu-) are: ox^t 'VI-- grass ox^t'^totxct' to A'ta'vX- sand trails (§ 58. The idea of making extended sense. 2. b) AHa'v'iaxciiaq A it is have grass sandy (country) had povo'- povo'ayaip'iya' trails (all over) qaml'xO'nt- jackrabbit-camp qain'i'xdnLayai'fuai^ people (§ 29. po'aqayanfim'i lice several having pu(w)a-' supernatural power nayqava-' 5370- ear moisture qani- house having supernatupower. I re- uru'v^'itiimp^'i-'' stick for making arrow rock ceived two horses uru'v^lxapiyo^ got arrow-sticks tump^i'kava'niani I shall get a rock ayo'Tjqwava-niani I shall ayo-" tongue get a tongue (d) -ru. -ntuin to make. medicine-man ava"HiA nana' rjqavaxant'i big (obj.after nasal is + i). plur. TO make into. c) -having soyo'axanti having moisture. Examples are: sometimes used a somewhat .) ears (§ 58. -qa-. lousy.

a Shoshonean Language 153 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. marries him n'irjivu'runi to person-make me. This suffix is appended noun and adjective-verb stems. § 29. tA'qa'xi'ai" around the feet (or ankles) (f) -ru'a-'' {-tcu'a-'' after i. commences to be a medicine man qava ru arjuntca-TjA he became a ' horse yuu-' grease. 12) (a horse) necklace puts loops necklace (one's (or around neck). clothes Examples are: viaav'i- qanriLmpL*a'nu'clqay{£)i- saddle puts on (his) clothes. TO BECOME.TO PUT ON FOR WEAR. Examples are: -ntu'a-" pu(w)a-'' to -tuaboth supernatural power pu(w)a'r'uai qava- horse turns into a medicine-man. TURN INTO.A it make wood I made a tooth out of (e) -a.Southern Paiute. -ntcua-'' after nasal -|- i). quma'ruy'iaijA impi * what basket impu'ruy'iaijA a person is he making? will make a "^a'tcdcuv^anC consider me what basket qani-^ piy'i-" house heart qani'ntcupiyci piy'i'tut made a house will makes a heart OOT-" wood tooth ovLntuv^ani' w|' iarjwa-"^ tarjwa' nturjuaq. to be dressed up qafi'n'im. viaa'vVai maa'v'i'aiju -(ui- harness 'a'nu'ddtui harnesses qay{(. plain would be- come level .) yuu'niap'iyd xjnyu'ar'uarjqu got fat (it) yua-' level. yuu'xn^dnt'i fat (adj. TO WEAR.')i'aV collar) causative.'pidtui saddles (ahorse. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE aici-' 135 bow deer-hide atci'ruv"'a-7ii fiyiavi-' pai'caya-' bridge make a bow made a deer-hide several pdi' caxaRuqwap iya made (it) into a bridge will fiyi avurup-'iya* pana-' quvia-' bread pa'naruV makes bread husband person nirjw'i-' (she) husbandmakes.

g. turn compounds and It is arjqa'-rua- to turn red) is TO BE RED. verbs of being out of adjective-verb stems. -qa-'. when (it) ono'tamar'uLTjqu becomes early in spring in spring. iuywa-' tomo-' to be dark. b-^longing to snow twyu-"^ me it to be clear weather tuyu'ntuLtjvqv'qiVA clear would up ijA qa- to sing qa 'ntuintirfwa ing to sing-commenc- ing-possessed-his. at to be winter to be spring commencing winter iama-' tama'r'umti commencing spring. -tu'i-". Most are: frequently it is used in its participial Examples .154 136 arjqa-' qani. which is evidently closely related to the preceding. -ntu'i-" to become. e. arjqa. particularly indicating color. formed arjqa-yastems stems.-' X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR red aijqa'r'uai turns red to house black stick qani'ntcu'aiju tv'iuaijup'i'ya' become a house turned black tv-o om-" ovi'titu' ayuntcayA he became a stick (g) -ruH-" (-tcu'i-" after i). night tuywa'ru\nti night tomo'r'uinti becoming night. from arjqa. song belong- him This suffix makes (h) -ya-'. -kar'i-". particularly such as relate to time and the weather. Examples are: less often with noun (cf. is used with verb stems. This suffix. wind niv^a^UTjwa- snow niv'"a"ur)wa{uintL'r)wani snowcommencing-possessed-my. -rjqa-' adjective-verb suffix. it may also common with adjective-verb make color-verbs out of noun form. early nana'p'itSL- old man nana' 'p'itcdcuirjum'inica-rj ^oaV he has already become an old man tatca' (mnii tatca-" to be y'iv^ana-" to be summer autumn yiv"'a'nA(uLnt'i commencing summer commencing aucommencing to tumn riia- to blow to nl{y)a'{u' inii blow.

-(ca. see § 30. 9). .(*'r'-). makes substantive verbs from demonstrative ato be (visible subject). e. Fernandino duu-t (as qwi-" prn-" smoke to be to be (in compounds) qwi'kaRi noun) smoke absolute 5a -" smooth raw 5m-" to be light gray (like rab- pa'irjqaRi smooth sa'yqaxo'oqwA when it is raw siu' rjqwam light gray and translu- bit's eyes) (i) cent -ra. e. nintd'ic'ishook. wants L x. This element g. g. a Shoshonean Language 155 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. perhaps ?/w'//H.occurs in: to listen nar)qa-va- ear.cold (as light gray rough tclrfka'zaRi yu^miyam -pa'^ warm water quHca'qan'i light gray (absolute qu'tca'p'i) to be black to'qwaRi colored.Southern Paiute. 1) (duratively for -ya. e.(cf. g. (a) -ro'a- and U-. narjqa- to hear narjqa'tca-qai- (for resultative -qai-.adjective-verb suffix. is found only in a few stereotyped adjective-verbs.see plya'^ ya' (2) shakes. to demonstrative stems. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE to'ca-' 137 to be white to be blue saywa-' wantSL-' antelope to be to be tclyka-' rough yu'vu-' warm quHca-" to-" to be light gray. For demonstrative stems ma- {m^a'-). aro'a- to be. yiintci'tcuqup'istarted to shake Elements suffixed a-. ashes white to'ca'xaRi saywa'xdRi blue antelope-colored. nana'rjqAtca'qaiva'^ (they) will listen -(ci- (two-moraed) occurs to shake . coal) black (probably coalcf. in: nmt&i'-ya- )untci'{c'iV § 30. Substantive verbs are dealt with in § 56. One or two isolated verbalizing (or verb) suffixes that can not well be classified are given here.under h) (j) cT p'i'rai (object) is cold yu{w)a'rai (it) is warm weather Isolated dements. cTp'i'v^a cold water) 2/w' (w) a. and u- ("'w'-) see § 43. i. cT pi.

.(§ 30. stem formed ivan'i. do so. stay right here. but the line is in any case not easy to draw. g. both are two-moraed. General remarks. (u)m"'a'va- there he was coming here waa{i)y {u)m'^a'van-\ka there-be-perfective. of verbal aspect. of plurality. also out of interrogative aya-. here. a)-he-indeed hither-go.TO go. This suffix makes verhs of action or of demonstrative stems. of voice. suffixes The may be grouped into . + ( postposition c above). makes verbs of adverbs and demonstrative stems (d) movement out of independent (cf. Examples be here. is is postposition (see § 43. DO. § 27. Verb suffixes. aya'ni how? manner out (c) -n'i- {-n-ri-) verbalizing suffix 1). e. + From is iva. ivd- are: here ivd'n'iy'ini I here-be-present-I. BE. Examples wA^qi'- are: hither WA'qL'lfa"ijA he to is coming < -qa-aya-) fiv^ai- down tiv'^a'ik-^A go down (away from one) til- up through here through it t'i-''k-A to go up (away from I one) i(y)u'pa- i(y)u'paqani here went through ua'xaruxwa- u'a'xaruxivaq A goes through the (house) § § 27-34.this-at. g. Many of these may be considered as more properly formal than derivative in character. g. 12). appended to demonstrative e. These verbs are often used absolutely as adverbs of manner. It possible that this element identical with continuative -n'i. of tense. and of mode. ani. added to verb stems or verbalized bases (see § 26) six distinct classes: suffixes of movement. to act thus.156 138 (b) -ni- X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR TO ACT. ivd'n'uiifaL xain 19. e. WA^qi'k-A here-be-a- (§ do what? to act how? For examples see § 43. 3. two two have been there -qa.

pa{i)yi. a). turn back m{7n' cqw^' aip-'i-ya" ing went return- ^amu'^upa-" (to go) past them '' home am-u' ''u pa{y qwairjup'i'ya went past them went and tu'uma-" to take (several objects) tu'u' jnA^qwai' p-'iya" took (several objects) Of -yqwa' ai-' NU'qwi-^ pay{a')i-'^ f/i'd'a-" to run NU'qwi runs ijqw a. off to go pay{a')i7}qw'a. to move. Examples of -^wa'ai-' are: nontSL-^ to fly nontsL }^w^ a. a Shoshonean Language 157 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.: Southern Paiute. 2. 139 Suffixes of movement. flies away w'ini- to stand. This is generally used only in verbs whose animate subject is singular.several MOVE is used (for examples see § 18.i' tA^ d' arjqwa walks to dawn goes. In origin these are specialized as second in all probability verb stems that have of verb become members + verb compounds (§ 18. This appears quite plausible in view of the fact that several verb stems of movement (e. ^07(0)1-" to go.i off goes return) are frequently used in composition in a quasi-formal sense. tA'd'jja-'^ aixu when (it) dawnwhen dawn approaches as evening to be evening tA^ci'parjqwai'ixu tuywa'-r'vi-'^ to get dark it approaches tuywa'r'iayqw'aixu when (it) commenced iiurai-"' to get (to go) towards u'u'rairjqiv'aip'iya' it dark went towards . (1) -ywa'ai-". a). -qwa'ai-\ -yqiva'ai-' to go while -ing. be stationed to say to carry w\ni'xw aip-'i-ya^ was stationed as (he) a?'-* moved said as (he) a'i-^w'aip-'iya^ yaywL-^ yaijwi.%^ goes flying. g.' xw' aip-'iya^ went went carrying Of -qwa'ai-^: to return pa{i)yiq-w'''a:i pa{i)y'i-'^ return-goes. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE § 28. For corresponding plurals the compounded verb-stem -mia. 2. goes back m'in'icL-" to return.

ya'aito die. shades off into that of BECOMING. g.pi' kw' ah]U p'iya through beyond toyo'qwiqwa' aiy'iayA went right toyoqwiwa'arfi-" to rim to yell (e. be a secondary sense to indicate e. emerge away is. keeps on talking I'll eat away. but a specialized use of the geminated form of the preceding suffix. away. cries without interruption ampa'xqwa' while on one's way) cu{w)a'a'aii- to consume cu{w)a"qwaaixu (it) up it while eating to be silent ^a-" inLkw^' airjUqwaqA as soon as became silent or duration Another common development in meaning is that of continuance (cf.i yells as he goes) going past in Quite often -qwaai-' off is used completion (cf. tTqa'qw'olvdni I'll keep on eating . payie)!-" Examples are: to go (see a above) pay{e')iqw'ai(carjar)A did he go carried away? yatsipi- to carry (one object) ya' q waip'iya'aik-w. This is evidently nothing (2) -qwa'ai-' (to move) off. element. wa'a'r/i- iva'a'yiqwa'aiyu to call out while xwa'a. let him pA'^qa- die to kill pA^qa' qw^' airjuqwani kill off.i" ampayat'l'qa- to talk to eat cries away. when have I when I killed kill (but also pA^qa'qw'ai.i' talks away.: 158 140 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR idea of going. It occurs. however. e.i it to appear. he runs off g. as The some of these examples show. to work away). dying yaa'ikvf'aiva die-off-shall. English to die off). g. after spirantizing and nasalizing as well as after geminating stems and is clearly felt as a distinct. though related. English to count off.: to cry yaya- yaxa'qwo.

under b) ani- to do so ya'xw'ai'yWA go and fetch him ani'xw'aip'i'ya' went and did so In many cases it is not easy to be clear as to whether examples of -qwa'ai. etymologically connected with plural mia. Examples are: similar in significance to -kwa'ai.several have (their) u'tcu'7n'Mi^kam'7nLava' eyes closed have (ye) (your) eyes closed as dance carried along yaywLw'i"i- to carry to yaywi'vi'mLap-'iya' im. merely a specialized use of the spirantized form of (a). but may be the periodic movement say of dancing. Moreover.ani in order to I shall go shoot uru'v^'iya- to get arrow-sticks uru'v'^'ix^^'O'i''' go and get arrow- sticks ya-.(c) are momentaneous and durative (see § 53. are reflected in its plural correspondent -m-ia-. which is perhaps (4) -m'mia. e. g. on horseback qar'i'm'vua. however. in the round-dance) ride to sit.'i'm'iap'iya'' dance danced back and forth phutiv^ai- to look (to go) piinL m' viiai' looks while walking west tiv^a'ivi'miap'iya' travelled west- ward .Southern Paiute. It is highly probable that -q-wa'ai.are to be classed under (a) or under (b) and (c).(b) and -ywa'ai.(a) poya- to run po- yam mLa. Examples qu'qwi- to shoot qu'^qwi'-^w'oivani. qa'mia.and -yiva'ai.several travel. qaqafi- to sing keeps on running qa'm'mia.several sing while on (their) way and SEVERAL GO IN ORDER TO SING.i" sings while moving along (e. The two uses of -ywa' carry (cf. related to each other as This element. the movement referred to is not necessarily the straight-line movement of normal walking or travel. 2. a Shoshonean Language 159 141 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. b for momentaneous gemination).continuous motion. while going and TO GO in order to.i goes running.V keeps on riding (ye) shall u'tcu'm'Mi-ka. The idea of continuity. seems to be more explicit. g. is very and to compounded -pay{a)iwhile journeying. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE This element also is evidently (3) -ywa'ai-' to go in order to.

160 X 142 Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR of this suffix. the inceptive form (5) -yi-\ -ki-'.) (to go) to us n\m^\'vaivuxwAqC comes to us Oi-yki-': pay{a)i-" poya-'^ to walk pay{a')i7)ki' comes walking those to run to lead po'yarjqip'iya mQi'yjkitcina mot-" came running who come leading It seems quite likely that. Some of the above examples suggest this. -yki-' correlative of (1). 8. no'qwuiTjA come carrying him) td'oiviora- to dig up bulrushes to' d'iv'ioraxipiya came to dig up bulrushes . analogously to -qwa'ai. This suffix is the to fly to ride nontst'xi' qar'i'xV comes flying comes riding 0f4-P: pa{i)yi-° to return ya -° to carry to carry to to put pa{l)yi'kV comes back ya'qi{y)aqA bring it (back) ya'rjqiki to bring to watci' k-L-^aini ya-rjqi- watci- having put off left me away and come c'im'^'ia- to leave c'im^'i'A'qifcaywA him and visit came (back) nim^Lvatcuywa(excl. nontsi-' qafi-' to come while Examples of -yi-^ are: -ing.xt' to -ywaai- (3). to carry ya'xikaai' yaq-Lbring) has come to get come carrying. to no- to carry on one's back no'xwLaijA come to carry him (cf. see § 30. -ki-' is used after all types of stems to indicate to come away. (6) -yi-' TO COME IN ORDER TO. For -m-iku-. qaya- to smg comes to to sing (cf. analogous qa. it would be the momentaneous correlate of durative -yi-^ (6).(b).

There are two groups of e. (see § 53. (5) -yia.transitive suffix of durative aspect and singular number of object (see § 31. correlative of -a. or indirect object. group (1-9) is a primary series that is not freely used. suffixed elements that indicate voice. This group will be only listed here for convenience of reference and taken up later under other headings. for the most part. suffix of mediopassive (intransitive) (see § 30. (4) -tcai- mediopassive (intransitive) suffix of primarily durative aspect and of plural number (see § 31. Suffixes of the latter to the former. that occurs in contrasting pairs of mediopassive (or intransitive) and active (or transitive). 1. particularly common preceding -q i-. 2. i.(see 9 above) sometimes becomes active -a. 2. (3) -7a- mediopassive (intransitive) suffix of durative aspect (see § 30. an -a. 2. 3). -a- final stem vowel indicating active voice d). 1.Southern Paiute.of the active stem of primarily mediopassive aspect. 1). correlative of (9) -i. 2. direction of action with reference to subject. Before it mediopassive -i. d). 143 Suffixes of -/. a Shoshonean Language 161 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. -yi. {-rjqi-) mediopassive (intransitive) suffix of iterative-dura- tive aspect (see § 30. that is welded with the verb stem (often w'ith internal stem changes).(8). namely verbal aspect (see 3 below) and number. stem vowel indicating inactive voice (see § 53. involve at the same time other ideas than that of voice. and that. (10) -rjqi-" transitivizing or activating suffix It is appended to verbs with and 2 above) and generally occurs with an instrumental prefix in the verb (§21). d).(9). momentaneous aspect and singular number (7) -tea. a). momentaneous aspect and singular number (2) -71-. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE § 29. b).(1 .(8). 2).transitive suffix of of object (see § 31. object.transitive suffix of plural (8) number of object (see § 31. c). (6) -n'na. The second group (10-14) is used with great freedom and indicates voice first The closely relations of a sort are often (1) -qi- somewhat more appended external sort.

with the hand) tayu' m' MU^qwirjqi to poke. (see 11 below)..(trans. This extremely common suffix and may be rendered to. The indirect object is always animate.). spur on with the foot qVpu'tsi. for. expresses dative or indirective relations FOR. I them . go in (momentaneous) maya' u'qwLrjqii^ tao'pA'qarjq'i opa'q{a)i. sing with see 14 below).xnjq'i to crush between one's teeth tsLijwi" Lijq'i w'i\- to fall to knock down with pushes in a stick yauqwL. WITH.A toqiva. viaru' xqwa-7)qip'iyai{y)aq. ya'yqlki to hide to bring to make tl. narjqa'fcarjq'i'qaiyuujA instead of him toq wa- to bet to'q wayqiy'irjiVA bets against him mantcu" aik sa^ato ai- to wait 7nantcu"aiyq'iqai(y)ar)A wait for for him make mush sa'a'ijqtni make mush I . me for qa- to sing qa'i)qitii'a{i)y'ini sing people ('ijk'ipi'ya^ made (it) for (him) a'yawanfci- a'yaxvnntcirjqim^^^ has been hid- ing from (him) U qwL yurii- to make a bow and u'qiCL yuruTjqup'iya^ made a bow arrows narjqa'fca-q ai- and arrows to listen for listens for.) stretched (his) it inar'i' rjwaTjq'ipiya shut with hands (11) -tjqi-^ indirective: to.\INST. FROM.162 144 is X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR lengthened to -a-.) tayu'7n'muxtL'i- to be poking with the foot (-putsLyL-) over (lit. be perforated (in one place) to kick a hole into toqwLt'irjwa- to stretch (intrans. Examples are: yauni- to carry to do. AG. -rjqi-'' No doubt Examples it is a specialized use of indirective are: t A pi' tea- to crush by trampling tA'pi"tcAqLr)qi'qwA to crush it (cause to turn.) to close (trans. roll over (in- it to become crushed) to roll by trampling m'in'icimayw'i'n'icirjqiarjA him have a hole.

engage with (cf. he'll first re- suscitated to spill (intrans. stand clothed in my skunk-blanket for me. please stand . e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 145 cases the person of the indirect object In such not really affected by the Such ethical datives with action at all but is merely interested in it.makes causatives out of nouns. to arrive e. give birth to (12) -(ui." is The for quite often leads axa'n-'iriqiijvqwaiynnL ajii'ka' what-do-for-momentaneous-resulta- tive-subordinate-me-thou do-so? what happened to you for me? . pray. also uni-vitcl. first person indirect object are frequently employed to indicate an affectionate attitude on the part of the speaker. g. naija'i'aituirjqmijani who are dear to me. g.? do- arrive. In a considerable number of cases the indirective -yq'i-^ has grown so to the stem as to give a new meaning in which the indirective With this last idea is not very prominent. did you do that 'PQni'av'in. a'p'U- Examples are: A'p'i'i'tui" to sleep to sing to take place to be puts to sleep qatiyai'aiyii- qa'txdni make me sing it fiya'i'iuiy'i'qwA to bring about first good nain'i" aiYufuirjup'iya caused oaq-L- to be good.) to oa' q''i(uivaA''qa tjA spill it na'aipini- burn (intr. .) make him angry example {-(ui-ijqi- contrast 7iaya'pajjqit'uip'iya' to cause for as ethical dative) caused (them) to appear. frequently -( naxa'''r)'w\niJ)q'i skunk-blanket-my it be-clothed-standfor (me). (you.: : Southern Paiute. idea of to the "ethical dative. e. see (13) below. g. freely suffixed to both transitive and intransi- tive verbs. attack) nayuqwitua- to reciprocally-shoot nayu' qwiijqinintu' arjqi- to fight to give birth to person-bear-to.) na'a'i(-ui- to make a fire (it) to see p'im'tuk a (he) let (him) see For passives Much less of causatives and causatives of passives. a Shoshonean Language 163 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. pitcl- pitcl'yqi- to arrive to.: . clothed in my skunk-blanket cause him to get angry for me.

covered (him)self wTqa'm'C covers. nav'i' ni{uikai{y)ar)ani he caused ME TO SEE himself. PoSsibly -uiis best defined as an indirect causative.)-he (vis. g. -niui-. suffix sometimes heard as is -t' frighten (at one moment of time). e. Causative -r'ui. 11). HE covered to himself.(see § o3. with this contrast momentaneous iyd'dvi.) (cf. 7iar)wi'qanHnip'iya (with leaves) (cf. which has become There seems also to have been an alternageneralized for all cases.1 64 146 tsia'mpLijua- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR wild-rose plain qani- house + possessive -a- tsLampiyunt'up'iya caused wildrose plain to be qani'Ahap'iya caused (it) to have houses A few survivals seem to indicate that -(ui. to frighten.(durative) is exemplified in iyd'r'ui. which are provided with reflexive prebe noted that the reflexive is better considered the logical object of the causative suffix than of the verb. This freely used to make true passives out of transitive verbs. tonato hit. he made a leg out of it self-cover-causative-past. (12a) -ni.(10. he caused himfixes. to Examples are: punch kill tona't'ih^aniani pA'^qa'yutl'qaqa I shall be hit pA'^qn-tju- (they) have been ivi-c-u(i-))u- killed to drink up pa- ivi'cuutjufivqa water has- been-drunk-up . An example of causative -niui.andd urative -r' cause to be afraid. e. 2. Contrast. not he caused to cover himself. like -i] but the geminated form of an older variable -r'ui-. Examples yu'u'run{. -(ui-. with ordinary causative -fui. whose -?/is perhaps a reduced form of -n/-. he made it into a leg. not HE CAUSED HIMSELF TO SEE ME. g. (13) -t'i-' passive. dirt also NA'so'xu'maplya^ covered self with dirt) In the last two examples.(12). it is to self TO be covered. it This element occurs so uncommonly that its has not been foimd possible to determine are: precise 'a'cinfui.p'iyai{y)aqa7)A leg-make-causative-past-it (vis. b). tr. tion between momentaneous -(id. NA^so'xo'ma'nip'i'ya^ covered (him)self with moist ground. but always two- moraed.causative.).

tcarjA maa'ifuiyk'i't'i v'^'ar/araywA catch-cause-to-passive-shall-he-us. passives of causatives. e.coming in between the causative suffix and the passive -t'i-. impersonal suffix is often employed as the ec|uivalent of the passive. That these forms are causatives of passives. it may be preceded by the pluralizing -q a. g. 6.and future Curiously enough. this would be retjuired if the fomr were to be understood as we shall be caused to be caught by him.and -p'iCon(§ 25. may be readily formed from causatives.regularly -va{nia). 10). a).. but precedes present -yl. or. two examples illustrate passive participles in -t'i-ri-" (cf. c) in the first form above. the same order is followed as is to be expected. in causatives of passives.and narnever simultaneously with it. people in general. a Shoshonean Language 165 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.he. § 30. if used sub to a collectivity. Here the causative suffix precedes the passive.(§ 31. These difPer from passive participles in -pi. g. is sA'pi'xamipi one who last The IS ALWAYS OVERCOME (-miPassives is usitative. 1. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE iai]a- 147 all to kick taTja'tiqafcararjWA we were kicked Jinivifcl- to attack xim'vitdt'iya when being one who is attack- ed SA'pi'-j(. not. he was CAUSED TO drink. less often. for instance. (he) caused cf.a- to overcome SA'pi'xAfiR'i overcome qo'oi- to kill several qDo'it'ifim^A are killed those (obj) who § 25.(see § 31. is proved by the absence of a plural subjective -q a. 1. an indirective -rjqi. rative preterit -p'i{a)'Yai-. the passive of the verb itself being apparently conceived of as the direct object. In the preceding examples the indirective is required to point to the logical object as the indirect object. ivi'tuirjufi- drink-cause-momentaneous-passive-preterit. g. trasting with sA'pi'xAfiRi. the passive suffix can not precede the causative.: Southern Paiute. he will get us caught (lit. Curiously enough. c). e. 5) in referring to passing or non-characteristic states. he will- cause-being-caught to-us. Verbs with impersonal subject an indefinitely defined person or In the latter case. present -y'i. (14) -tu'a-" {-fua-') impersonal. The jectively. It follows perfective -q ai. object refer either to . he will cause to us to be caught) kill-cause-to-passive-preterit-him. pA'^qanhdrjqiEtcarjA him to be killed (for -ndii- 12 above) In other words.(see § 34). as would be inferred from their appearance. e.

narrative preterit -p-'iyai-. it is frequently accompanied by enclitic -noa-.even in preterit tense forms 32.generally denotes cooperation with a group.are: yA" qa' r)u(ua{i)xjiar]A kill-momentaneous-impersonal-present-him." a term borrowed from Slavic grammar. I when fighting (with people) n'i' o'pa' anL'yq'i'iuaxw'oiva' that-way do-to-impersonal-go-shall. 2. here meant the temporal range of the action. § As already noted (§ 19. These and like concepts have no primary connection with the concept of relative time.: 166 148 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (cf. i. he is being killed kill pA'pa'qAqwa'irjup'iyai'(ua{i)y'ia7}n (distributive)- eous-past-impersonal-present-them. its definition with respect to such concepts as momentaneousness. g. -tii'a-' qa'7)q'itu'a{i)y'in[ sing-to-impersonal-present-I. . inception. l' eat-plural-impersonal-present-interroga- it seems that people are eating seems to be used only indirectly after As impersonal object -yqi-. he was killed tavitua'ami hit-impersonal-thee. which is the province of the temporal suffixes (§ 32). I shall go to engage one thus hunt-to-impersonal-past. is By "aspect.alone (e.) killed him. Examples of subjective -tii'a. also -p'ia-yai-i-ua-y'i-. (they) played the hand game with people.) nayu'qtvfi]qifu'a{ti)xu fight-to-impersonal-when.) kill him. 8). see above examples. you (were) hit (by somebody) ipu'fuavaqA do-impersonal -shall-it. I see some one drinking trqa'qAfiiayir'uatiuaxain tive-indefinite-indeed. they (indef. -yw'ai- TO GO TO. IVIoreover. as they occur before elements that would normally precede -tii'a. g. e). let some one do it ni' p'im'k'a. was hunting with the rest yaa' irjq'iiuapl'ya naia'yiviTjqiiuaq'^Api'ya' play-hand-game-to-impersonal-plural-past. Suffixes of verbal aspect. iteration. plural subject -qa-). I sing with them (indef. people went to pA'qa'ijuqwarfua^ijy'iayA go-momentankill them kill-monicntaneous-perfective-impersonal- present-him.i ivi'tu''^ I see drink-impersonal. the two suffixes form a close unit. follows -tii'a. § 30. durativeness. the hand game was played with them These examples show that -rjqi-tua. e. e. they (indef.

the iterative. 2. the momentaneous conceives of the action as taking but a moment of time (e. The aspects that may be recognized in Paiute are the durative. the latter expressed by internal consonant gemination. (e. Every verb has a durative and a momentaneous form. Moreover. No simple One simply has to learn. to drink). with or without accompanying gemination. 4. the continuative or durative by TO sit. For momentaneous (and inceptive) verbs formed by gemination or glottalization. the durative-iterative. action conceived of as an appreciable length of time ( burst into tears wi'-rju- to splash about qWAtca'-qit'l'qa'y'wi- to splash (once) to take place to fly nontsi'-ku- The various methods of forming the momentaneous exemplified above are to be considered as more or less equivalent. see § 58. (1) -ya-° durative of active is intransitive (mediopassive) verbs. the resultative. For iteratives formed by resee § 53. By a mediopassive verb meant one that expresses action without . the inceptive. ideas that belong to the category of aspect are sometimes expressed by means cessative -qafi- of compounded verb-stems or § suffixes of motion g. 2). g.Southern Paiute. reduplication. 2. -q wa'ai. that rules can be given for all cases. those of moraentaneousness and durativeness are the most go off. as its name implies. the suffixing of certain elements. A careful study of the nuances of aspect formation can hardly be given here. the momentaneous. glottalization. or a combination of these. a Shoshonean Language 1 67 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. e. § 28. Following are a few preliminary examples of the lasting for distinction: Durative qovo'qwito break to Momentaneous qo^po'qwi- naya'va- seem to crush mantcu'ywi-nayaya'. the former being generally the primary form of the verb. or both.. glottalization. The cry ivi'to drink qwatca'-yafiyainonts'i- naya'pa-rjumantcu'qwi-n'nayaya'ya. g. duplication. § 58. and the continuative. 18. by reduplication. a. such a form as *yaya'ijup'iya' is not in use. g. We shall simply list the various aspect suffixes with examples. 5. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 149 Among the ideas expressed by aspect suffixes. to take a drink). the usitative. but that yaya'zAp'iya must be employed. expresses continuous action. the by -maupa-.

It differs from the normal iterative (expressed by reduplication) in that the repeated (§ 29.: 1 68 150 ^ Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR definite agency. verbs. ampa'ya. see 12 below) is The momentaneous (2) -yi-. e.also -qi. e. 10). durative-iterative. It differs often transitivized by means of from talk po' these and other -ya. Sometimes -7a. The element -70-" is very commonly employed in durative verbs expressing a continuous sound of some sort.(or -rfqi-). acts cohere into a single durative unit.(see 3 below). Examples of durative -70. g. but broken up into a rapid -qi. taTj'w'i'tciyi Examples (his) foot are: keeps time by tapping with claps hands mavi'tsiyi q'itn'p uxiVL (mouse) gnaws tA pi'yana'xL7)q'ii' tA^'qu'tsL'tiixi-'-' stamps (on the ground to make it smooth) puts feet into (shoes. g. to shake (intr. see § 19. dragging (it) piyo'x Aqip'iyaaitjWA he came home yiu'xwaV moves around yu'mu'x{w)Api'ya (he) moved (it) wiggles qwimpu'xwai si'yu'xivai^ slides The momentaneous correlate of -7a. chiefly of active It is intransitive. as contrasted with transitive TO SHAKE and passive to be shaken. d). tiTjwa'vaya- to make a noise like rattling coins ki'yuxwa{i)y'ini' pa'raxa{i)y'ini makes a noise (rain) patters in qu^pa'raxa- to pop po'n'7ioxwa{i)y'in C no'ruxwa{i)y'ini burning sounds like drumming sounds like a heavy object being dragged on a like smooth level surface pi' i)ki-^a{i)yinC sounds dripping water si'yaxan-i'iy'inC makes a rustling noise (for -nii-. conceiving of the action as not "W" strictly continuous.verbs. stirrups) .Ap'iyainC there was a sound as of something going through (his) flesh (for -nia. sometimes transitive.seems to be used also with agentive active verbs.).are: n'intci'yaV (it) shakes piyj'xwaV (he) drags (it). (-rjq'i-) correlate of this -ya.

Examples of durative-momcntaneous versus momentaneous forms are: qovo'qwi- to break (intr. A few such verbs have -yqi. a Shoslumean Language 1 69 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.under a) (they) chipped (it) into small pieces tA'^ql' uyLTjq'iqap'i'ya^ ov'"o'qway{t)i'' (it) bounces up and down (like a rubber ball) tuv"'a'yHicai. and medioit passive verbs. emerged go to pieces (one object) come(s) loose to tear slowly (but in one tear): pA'qa'q to tear .).forms. e.several pull out (intr. e.are certain verbs in -q i. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 151 tan'i'ntci\i^ pokes with (his) finger keeps on shaking with (his) feet (cf. -qi- momentaneous.instead of pu^qwCair)qiyinL puy'wi'rjqiV ki(y)e'7)qiV (3) (he) pants (mouse. rat) makes a peeping noise laughs chiefly of active intransitive -qi-rjqi-. -qi- the regular momentaneous correspondent it of -yi-. g. Morphologically.and -yi. is Transitive forms in 2 b). with ungeminated consonant. break instantaneously i- paya'q{a)i. slip si'yu'qwi Midway between properly momentaneous forms in -qi.suffix. contrasts with both -ya.).several pop (one after another) w'irii' ruxwito make a noise on the rasp wa^a'uxwL barks (he) w'a'tcLyLyup'iya whooped -yi-. Examples of its use are: Ia' pL'irAqLtjqi qwA to crush it by stepping on it (it) mCna'qi feet (one thing) break(s) off (he) tani'nic'iqir]qipiyai{y)aqA shook by trampling once with (his) mava't-A^qirjq'i to burst by means of the hand (it) tA^qi u'^qxcujqip'iyai A^qa' mi tu'pa'q ip'iya to' pa' q I they hit it so as to have (one) pulled out (intrans.: : Southern Paiute.with nonmomentaneous form of stem.): qo'po'q wl. emerge mayu'm'muxwC may Sound-verbs indicating a continuous also have the -yi. formed from by gemination (§ 53. nintci-ya. g.and durative forms in -ya. These may be termed durative-momentaneous. i. series of sounds of like nature qu*pa'rax{f)ik'^.or -7/.

cessative. mentaneous after ivi- is by far the most common momost verb stems and is also employed many derivative and verbalizing suffixes. suffix.: 1 70 152 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR In such verbs -qi. starts to run yarpjoiivi- to carr\- yaijwi'rjU to start to carry along to drink ivi'rjuy'iarjA he is ivi'ijuxwa" while to about to drink. got near tspLyupiya came out. may but its true force of these is take on an inceptive or cessative never intrinsically inceptive or Examples developments of the primary moment- aneous idea are: (a) toyoqwi- to run toyo'q wi7)iii' gets ready to run. e. 2.suffix. This It follows to drink to touch (duratively) ivi'yu to take a drink maainiqvyii- maa'inLrju to touch (for a moment) to take (one object) qwii'rju to pick up (one object) maa'v'i'aarjqa-' to be dressed to return maa'v'Carju ayqa' r' uaiju to dress (intrans. about to drink cv'yu-cu- (to be) one cv'yuyucu become one . Verbs indicating a momentaneous sound also have a -q i.does not seem to alternate with -ya.) to turn red to be red pa{i)i/L- 'pa{i)yl' yu p'iya^ returned (con- ceived as non-durative act) unitsipi- to do emerge tcayi'p- iinL'yupi-ya' near did- to appear. g. ai- to say -?/«-" momentaneously.durative transitive with singular object: -n'nataneous transitive with singular object. (suddenly) appeared a'iijup'iya^ spoke out In particular cases significance. b and (5) -77W-" momenc. (it) makes a sound as of when something is thrust I through paper sa-'mu^qwiijinC makes a deep noise as when a stone is thrown into a ki-ka'q in well qi'kinC v'cu'qwC (it) sounds like one tear of a rag whistles (4) -na.and -7/-. Examples are: momentaneous. See § 31.

and -qu.are: qu^qwiyuntSLkomi ya'uqwnjuntsik-iA A'p'i'iijunts I am (the sun) kani I am ready to shoot (for -ka. a Shoshonean Language 171 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Some verbs have both -Tju-^ and -q u. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (b) cua- 153 to consume cua'tjumitsiqwA finished eating it after having ivi- to drink ivi'rjuntca i]A he (just) finished drinking These examples show that -yu-" in the present is {-y'i-) may indicate a momentaneous place (cf. 2). moreover. inceptive.momentaneous. as inceptive moment of beginning. generally with some idiomatic difference of meaning. occurs only in two or three verbs. This element. are: Examples -pA'qa- momentaneous -qu- to beat.Southern Paiute. fall out . These verbs are: Durative Viyai- Momentaneous tTqay'wipiyarj'wi- to take place to be left over piyai- cuwaqa- to breathe cuwarj'wi- to take a long breath -Tju-''. like seems to be primarily momentaneous in significance and in a number of verbs is used instead of -?. kill pA'qa'qupA'^qa'yu- to give to kill a licking: v/i'i- to fall u^'i'qu- to drop down. in one case.or. Examples of pre-inceptive the use of idea future).forms. as in durative-inceptive -ya-qu-. What nuance of meaning differentiates a properly inceptive more (7) -qu-. is about to set about to fall asleep. -qa-. be related to -tju-"^. -qu. compounded of -?/«-" and diminutive -{n)isi. a form like t'i'qa'yuntsL. easily comes to mean to be about to eat. to be a LITTLE OFF FROM BEGINNING TO EAT. 2. In many cases. which may (6) -ij'wi.Thus.-.momentaneous (intransitive). (or inceptive) activity that just about to take momentaneous forms in Russian to indicate the of imminent activity is still more explicitly rendered by -yuntsi. I am sleepy 2) This suffix. The -yuntsL. definitely it momentaneous of in probably indicates a sharp character (see § 53.see § 32. 3). (in(§ 35. Presumably -qu. CEPTIVE)-LITTLE.m-". its durative correlative being a rarely occurring -i. not clear.

This suffix seems to occur as a correlative to momentaneous make a wickiup maa'v'Cato be dressed qanL'ntcuqup'iya" started to make to begin to dress to begin to talk less ampaya- to talk 5) is ampa'xaqu -qmiisi.: 172 154 tu'p'^'i- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to be used to go up tu'p^i'kn- to become used up 'i'{Y)upatsipi- by here emerge 'i'{Y)upa'qu to have (just) gone by here to appear. to give chase to run away to jump off to run away yaywiporoto carry yarj'wihu'qWA carry it off to take it away. m' iu^p'"Lkwi(uiqwA up I cause them (inan. several proceed to flow to sleep poru'qup'iyd' A'p'i'ik-u (they) started off NU'^qwi'A'pl'i- NU^'qwikupiya' oro'ywLku a wickiup viaa'v'Caqu started to flow to fall asleep Drorjwi- to roar to start roaring qamntcu.yiaqA it is used up. Wp^' be used up (of. TO BE WITHOUT REMAIiNDER).TO BE USED UP. Analogous to get USED UP < tup'^i.) to be used up. tu'^jy^i' finish growing.(see An example is: to begin to which occurs fre- n'intci'yaqu shake nint(n'xAqv{)ntsLk-^A (it) is just about to shake (7a) -qwi-. quently. each in his turn say(s) nana'qum'i. I use them . a'ik-A^quto have grown up (for -m'i- see 13) An noivi- inceptive meaning to carrv is more clearly discernible in on one' back no'o'qup'iya'aikwA ivi'lcti'uqwA started to carry them on (his) back to drink to chase to start to drink it viafinaqA'qa'fi- mari'n'aqu qA^qa'r'iqu to (start to) chase.-. g. tspi'ku2/i'yu- to ride (a horse): tsto ai- to say nana- to grow up emerge say-plural-momentaneous. tu'p^i'kwdcaqA it has been used up. tu'pH-ku.

This suffix activity e.) to do in what manner? do thus co'ikai- aya'ni^kai- how? to ani'kai. to start singing : More e.RU^qwayim' mia- move qafi'viLku to ride off A'sL'aRU%wayi. g.inceptive of verbs of continuous movement. normal inceptive of -m'mia.) hang maainiyarjwi- to touch viaa'infkai- to have one's hand on to carry yaTjwi'kai.resultative. to remain so . however. a Shoshonean Language 173 SOUTHERN be hanging. which is sometimes found. Examples are: in Paiute. are qa"miaqu forms in -miku-.: Southern Paiute. to catch Resultative verbs are very tca'a'ikai- to hold (in one's hand) UTjwaito hang (trans.-yuto take a peep tiyaito take place wTtu'v^uaqaito have (one's eyes. have one's mouth open pin'na'raqaito stand bowlegged sotsilf-ai- to peep (duratively) to continue to be bent to be tiya'i*kai- coyaayanihow? ani- to bend (intr. to (intr. qarim'mia- to ride along to a' Si! a. or other part of body) covered qTca'raq-ai. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 155 The (8) -miku. common tca'ai- TO HOLD as resultative of to grasp. g. which is the result of the action predicated by the verb stem. hands. g.) uTjwa' be thus.(§ do so while moving along (9) x{.to have in one's hand wTtu'v'^ua- to cover q'i'ca'ra - to open one's mouth pin' spread one's legs apart in bow-legged manner sots(. 4) would be -m'miaqu-.nL mi^up'iya^ started to move on in so doing indicates a durative state or -qai.mi^kup'iya' start- qam'mia- along under the surface to sing along to carry along ed to travel under the surface qa'mi'qup'iya' started in to sing (along) yaywim'mia- yqwi'mi'quaqA it take and carry along unim'mia. qa-'miato sing along typical.

is wont to be they 2 are wont qan-L^ai- to house-have. The form in -mia. -mia- usitative.suffix. § 25. the usitative used to indicate customary pate i having always been wont more to lie down (apparently stresses duration of wonted act usitative to lie than regular participle avi'vatc'i wont tu'qwi"ai- to be ashamed down. 6. causatives of passive verbs (10) -7?« (§ 29. in habit of saying NA'ci'tii'^'La- to forget NA^ci'vi^'iami{y)aqA getting it keeps for- aro'a- to be to eat aro"ainiA always tTqa'viL{y)a^am'i to eat tTqa- is. is Examples ai- of the usitative present in -mia- are: is to sav a'im-LA always says.(§ 55. cause to be (do) so iiJu'f'iiJ^ajurjiVA he caused to do so Note that cf. 13). i-". causative -tui. to be doing e) resultative -qai. g. a and b).: 'a'lUikai- to be silent '^a'\nikant'i 1. § used as a usitative present (without -y'i. As its name implies. see § 32. g. Wqxvi'aimmii ashamed c) always being . resultative -qai. 1).: 174 156 X Southern Paiiitc ami Ute SAPIR active participle of -qaiis The -q-anfi.precedes it.appears as iinikai- %ni'kaqoayA while as (he) was has doing so to him -iimf-mkai. (cf. one who is silent -qa- Before subordinating -qii.(cf. a and b.instead of following as one would logically expect. 1. 1. e. d). in causatives of resultatives. e. the form in -7HI-" in all other cases. dwell qanif-j^aimuivii live they 2 always Examples t/?H- of -mi-" are: to do lie avi- to down iiniviLmpanuuii I shall always do so avi' VI. § 2G. § 25.

participles in suffixed -mia-.) always saying it (song form) a means of forming instrumental of the narrative past. 5. dwelt used to dig (right along) ora- to dig suffix ora'nhnp'iya^ The may usitative suffix -mi- be preceded. 2). yaa'tmipiya" or yaa'imimmpLyd' USED TO HUNT.are: piriL^ nu\nivip'LA (things) via'in\rjun'implqwani my always seen about (obj. b) and to phonetic rule. The common use of -n'iinp'i. 6.results.(see 11 below). e. by the common Examples of the combined (see 10 above). It is not obvious what difference in meaning.(§ 25. Curiously enough. -min'imp'iyai. urn'mmpiya dwell qafi'n'imp'iya^ uru'aqafi- uru'^ an'imp'iya^ to kept doing always was was living. but -n'impL{yai)-.are used also forms in -minimp'iyai. used only before past passive participle temporal derivative -p'iyai. g. Examples of -n'impiyai-. if any. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE tv'^'ai- 157 to reject (a suitor) tv''^'aimint'i always rejecting a while wont to return suitor yitci- to arrive to go out in'tc'iiniijka tspiyu- tspi'r/umiyquywA each time that he went out {-rju-jni-" momentaneous mayapa{i)y'i- usitative) to give maya'mip'iya' (he) used to give to return pa{i)yu'r)umtp'iya mv^a'tcuywaq-L- to come to me always returned 7nv^a'tcuywaqLmiywa''^ never to come to me Beside usitative preterits in -mAp'iyai.(§ 32. c) and -ininfi-. nouns has been already discussed (§ 25. as we have already seen. those who have as fire usitative. may also be made usitative by quna'qaxci7itlnn'aqwA it fire-plural-having-usitative-it. a Shoshonean Language 1 75 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 6). its Examples of usitative passive participial -n'imp'i. there is between usitative participles -fie.: Southern Paiute. Contrary not -n'ip'i{yai).are: . in -vatci. (11) -/it-" -ji-'i- (§ 25. the usitative form are: H-UL- to do to be sit.

here I am. moi'n'nij^wa''^ go lead around qara'xa. equivalent in meaning to such English locutions as TO KEEP -ING. This is a common durative with verbs of movement.(there is) noise of rawhide qara'xani'iyini (it) makes a noise as of rawhide -' Another form of this suffix is -ni-' or. It refers to an act consummated at one period.! 176 158 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR to kwi^paai- throw to say kwi'pa'minimpiya" always threw a'iminimp'iya" always kept saying a'irjumin'imp'iya' airju- to say (momentaneously) said each time There is little.and -min'impiyai-. It seems best defined as a continuative. which in turn may have a momentaneous -iterative color. that -n'iinpiyai. several Examples are: anika- do arn'kani'^a while (they) do so .(§ 28. not. however. however. . 'ani'n'nintc'i one who keeps doing p'ini'n'nLp'iya^ kept on looking i{y)t'nuan ^ani'n'ni moi- moi'7i'jiip-'iyai{y)ai]A he led around. shades into a significance not very different from that of -m'viia. -n'ni-. -nimpiyai.does not seem to occur after momentaneous -rju-. with preceding glottal stop. {-ni'i-') continuative. (12) -n'ni-' suffix that. partly in conveying a usitative implication. is The matter not altogether clear. if any. 4). sings while walking ki{y)eto laugh to ride ki{y)e7inx tspi'n'i is is laughing tsipi- riding around ani- to do p'ini- to look to lead here-I docon tinuative. Examples nontsi- are: to fly nontsi'n'nC qa-'n'L' flies around qa- to sing sings along. It may be pointed out. which requires a following -?«•?'-. These elements seem to differ from the more common . perceptible difference in usage between the forms -mip-'iyai-. jii-'. This may imply that the -?!i-" usitative tends to have a more strictly durative character than -mi-". like the usitative. partly in reinforcing the idea of plurality or distribution of the subject. TO BE -ING. to one which is repeated at intervals.

distinctively dual) . expressed in the verb in four different ways: 1. a Shoshonean Language \11 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.Southern Paiute. of the object. by properly a distributive formation but frequently expressing plurality of subject or subject (see § 58. Number is reduplication. whether its object is singular or plural. by the use of suffixes indicating plurality of the subject or. less commonly.') ^a'" do-continuative-future-just- 'imp'Cn'i- to be resting raised on (something) namp'inito look for tracks me-then! let me just keep doing like this (regularly)! 'imp'i'n'inv^ntcY being (permanently) raised on (something) namp'i'n'ini-^-^a^ while looking for tracks o'tca'nontsi- to carry (diminu- d'tca'n'ontnni-^va^ shall always tively. 4. 3) to arrive pdcifm'intca-T) 'oai^ he has already after arrived liTiika- several do burn (momen- iini'karjum-'Lq-a-m'i they had qu'tsi'lc-ikarjuall all done so after hav- qu'tsL'k-ikaijum'i'tslni taneous) § 31. in two pronominal elements (§ 40). the same time. + 2. This suffix indicates that the by the verb stem has already been attained and is thus either past (if momentaneous) or in progress (if durative). also. Examples are: (13) -ml- {-mi-) tVqa- to eat tVqa'm'iy'iaT] 'oai" he is eating already (for pitcl- 'oai' see § 60. ing (plur. cases. a stems being used only as second members of verb (see § 54). often. by the use of few of the plural verb compounds . 3) distinctive stems for the singular and plural. 3.) burned Suffixes of me number. but are differentiated in practice from singulars by their employment of plural (or. with a dual subject are singular in form. § 35) a water-jar be carrying a water-jar activity predicated ALREADY. Thus. AFTER. it is always possible to tell from the form of a verb whether its animate subject is singular or Verbs plural. by the use of suffixes expressing ideas of number and voice (transitiveness and intransitiveness) at Only the last two processes are here discussed. subj. Even aside from pronominal elements. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE to 159 this- do like this i'i'nini'v'cbcampani{.

It occurs. we Suffixes indicating plurality. ts g. yuywC y'iami they (more THAN 2) sit. 2.(§ 30.after nana'ruywa{i)yiaq A (they 2) give it to each other MU^qwi' >^ava{i)yi. (a) -rjwa. very uncommon. ivi'y'immi")! ivi'kayimmi'')! we (more than (1) 2 (exclusive) drink.avai^kap iya aiywA (they) returned from calling on him NU'qwi'rjqw'mp'iya 7iaiar]U'L7jq'i- to play game with For the use of plural (2) (a) -tcai- several NU'qwi'k axwa'aip 'iya" ran along naia rjwiTjqiq animi (for several) to play the hand-game with us see § return from calling (they) had done so nana'ruywaqa{i)yiaqA (they) give it to each other on ran along the hand- MU^qwi' }(.plural object. It is frequently added to distributive -yi. lim'kayum'i'ts. qari'y'iam'i they 2 2. c) (momentaneous) This element also is (b) -i'i. Examples of its use are cu(w)a' p qa - itci- to wake up cu{w)a'p{tciqA qa'qa{i)yiam'L several wake up all to sing to kick they sing taya- taTja'ti q atcaranjWA we were kicked ai- to say a'ik-Ap'iya" (they) said ivi'tc'i one drinking to ivi'kanniL those drinking iim- do so tint'kayuc-uam'C after they were doing so.plural subject. tstsC p-njivarju e. -q a. (or plural distributive) intransitive (medio-passive). g. ivi'yini I drink. formation of verbs with animate plural subject. sit. exclusive) drink. in: qini'vuxwLy'iq It WA (he) nibbles at qini'vuxwd iy'iqw a at (he) nibbles them This is the typical suffix for the (c) -qa-' animate plural subject. This element occurs very rarely.: : 178 160 qafi'yiarjA X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR he sits. 2) or replaces singular .in noun forms Suffixes indicating voice and number. tsi'pi- one keeps coming out many come out (§ 58. e.. 4.

see § 53. also used as transitive distributive. 161 -qi. sun sets ya'uywdcaiqam'tcai- one (thing) stops (it) (it) several stop several articles tear hat. above).. qovi'tcai- p i broken (arrows) several one (tooth. come out (momentaneously) tuv"'a'x{a)itcair)u. paya'-q(e)ipA'qa'-q i- tears (slowly). tears (at once) pay(a')itcai(intr.Southern Paiute.several pull out several (bows) snap through -qapi-n'na.transitive with plural (chiefly inanimate) object. 3). -n'na.. -/.of -q i- -nu- may it is be cvi- considered the transitive (inanimate) correspondent of -yi(§ 30. (d) -tea.(§ 30. comes tovL'tcai- come loose loose tTpa'-qitu'pa'-q one emerges one pulls out. comes tiv'^Ltcairju- i- several emerge. a Shoshonean Language 179 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. singular vowel to stem is regularly For a change of the b. -nayLa'xdcaiyutavL ^ifiyL-tcaai see b below) yia'qa(ir'i'qt. i. one enters. mocca- sins) are torn in several places. (clothes. breaks (at once) tree) qovi'tcai- several cut (trans.of cut (trans. yauq goes into qA'pa'-q i- iva - (e.) in one cut. the plural. (c) -n'na- momentaneous transitive with singular (chiefly inani- mate) object. with which . g. flesh). 2).is tcai-rju-. -qavi-na. The form of the e. Examples are: several go into yauqwi-.durative transitive with singular (chiefly inanimate) object.(u (§ 30. with ungeminated consonant.). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE momentaneous durative. 3). These three elements are best treated together. are o'pa'q (clothes) L-tc'i worn out. -tea. ov"'a'xdcaitci hole-ripping) hole-rip-several-participle) qovo'-qwi- qo'po'-qwito^pa'-q i- (it) breaks (slowly).) qavi'tcaiiju- duratively (for -n'na-. -na. pay{a')itcaiTiuwear out having holes (lit. having a hole (it) (lit.-tci one goes ledge) in several go in there are spots of sunlight (poetic) Observe that the momentaneous form of (b) -tcai.

are formed from noun and adjectiveverb stems to express the idea of laying on. Not all verbs have a definite temporal push in many with a point A number of verbs in -n' cut (one object): tska'- cut several objects takes off (momentaneously) with the teeth: tcA'qo'inai^ qTqo'i'nai takes off one article of clothing: tcA^qo'itca'C articles of clothing takes off several qo^po'-qwi. 1). two of the enclitic elements express temporal present tense. tcA'pa'y{a)itca.) to'to'pin'NA to break an object by stepping on one (cf.): to'pa'-ydca. (1) -y'i- discussed in § 51. painting. aijqa- to be red ayqa'ri'NA^p'iya'aikwA (he) paint- ed it (primarily. Besides the temporal suffixes here tear tA'qo'pin'NA break. Examples are: .: 1 80 162 dently X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR is connected (like -tcai-. red) saywaSana- to be blue gum § pull out several objects to rip open (cf. -teadurative consonantism in the stem).to rake out several (animals or plants) with a stick tsLya' push one in with a point: tstya' rip wTpa'qm'NA crush (an object) ski'yi'nai^ turns (his) head to one side joins (one object to another) nan'tsinai^ v)i'(y)a'yqt-n'a- to cut notches into (a piece of wood). to make a rasp tsqvn'rina- to rake out one with a stick: tsqw'i'ritca. is The use of absolute or tenseless verb forms relations (§ open in several places. regularly accompanied by Examples are: tska'pinNA vitca. saywa'yinai sana'n'tiaV paints (it) blue smears on gum Temporal suffixes. 2. to pull out tu^pa'qi. ( object pulls out): toHo' tear (one) to pieces manicu'qwin'NA to crush (an object) all at once: mantcu'ywina. g. but not neces- sarily. to cut in one cut: tska'vina. pA'qa'-qi. e. The specific reference to present great majority of verbs express a time by means of this suffix.

I think so ania- (to say) what? m' anLA'^qanC what do I care?. A SHOSHOxNEAN LANGUAGE qato sing 163 qai sings ( < qay'i-).forms are best considered as the equivalents of tenseless These verbs are (§ ai- WH. b. absolutes in other verbs. . are: to say. qa'y'iamC they 2 sing.\T?.to say and diminutive verbs at- in -(n)tsL. which refers indifferently to present or past time. ta'mpiniay a'ik-^A tired-ofwhat-he says. a'ik-Acarnpaniani sayI say-what?-like. 3).present and past tense. I do as I a7u'k-A burning it does-so. are used not with with -qa-. only-like-I. na'a'int ur it do.Southern Paiute. of extremely A number of verbs. some -y'i-. ti^qa'{iyy'iqiVA. a Shoshonean Language 181 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. poor fellow That this -qa.A is sitting and sing (diminutive subject) fellow is sing- ing yayayar'ito sit and cry yayai-YyafitsLk. Examples to sav 'am' an 'a'ik-A what-I said?. units a'ik- iimu'ruxwA fiyiaijw'iA I first-house-build. be so via'i-^ain ani'k-^A so-saying-I sosay. qa' Yicavipani even though t'/'qa- I sing I I to eat to tT qa' {i)y'ini a turtle eat aiyaru- make aiya'ruyuni -Tuy'i-) make a turtle ( < ivi- to drink to wi'y'iro'" dost thou drink? puHcAi'tcuywa(2) know pu'tcu'tcwywa'y'iqwA knows it -qa. be so Linp iinik-A Jiu'yu'xaxa" what that does-so moving? what is it ayani- to do what? to act how? moves? aya'ni^kayA qa'ts karjA a what did he do? little qatsi. of them common shown clearly in such a sentence as ni' navi'i' xanintcu{i)Y'i muri'A sa'ai'.is often equivalent to -y'i. qatc a'ik-ani not niru'xwA say-what?-thou meto. . then say to-them deer. what did you say to me? anito do so. 2. is something burning imi- to do so. aniA"".(§ 35. 2). eat-them. but Perhaps the -qa. verbs of doing in -r?/- 26. § 43. ania. beans boil.

An explicit inferential present-perfect (has evidently -ed) -?/?-: is formed by combining perfective -qai. Before subordinating -qu. 9) and perhaps etymologically related to it.: 1 82 164 (3) A' Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR -qui. its main point its and go out hunting maybe you have killed him {-qwa'ai.(§ 19. § 30.perfective.(§55. see § 25. Though For perfective participial -qant'i-. 9) e. e. e). of difference to sleep A'pCikai{y)ar)A he slept. This suffix is very frequently employed as a preterital element.Aqaiyiam'i sing maybe they did . 1. yaa'itjqw' aikaqoarjA after he had gone out . toyo'tsid(ui- to cause to cover over on top had (evidenttoyytsidfuk-aika ly) been caused to cover over on top The perfective idea frequently takes on an inferential implication. it is in practice felt as a distinct element. perfectly analogous in treatment to resultative -qai.(§ 19. Examples are: A'p'i'i- 1) being from enclitic -{7i)tcaemphasis on the idea of completion. -qai. has been asleep ivi' cuarjuVi- (water) to is drunk up ivl'c uaijut'ii^qa' (water) has been drunk up naa'itu'p'^ikii- burn up 7ia a' it-u' p"' ikuqwa (it) has axd'niyu. ivi- 1. pA'^qa' rjuqwa aiyjwa 1. fective. a). differing in this respect from enclitic -{n)tca. act how (momentaneously)? to have what happen to one? pA'qa'i)vto kill burnt up nxa'n itjuq wai'^ to you? what happened yaa'irjqiv'ai.(cf. §26. as shown by the occurrence of -qaikai. 6. Examples of inferential -qai(y'i). a and b. In general it seems that perfective -qai.appears as -qa .(§ 30. g.regularly implies lack of direct knowledge on the part of the speaker.with present -qaiy'i-. g.broken from -q\w\ai-) yaa'iyqiv'aika went out hunting.are: to drink ivi'kaipi what was evidently drunk (by someone) qaqa- several sing qa' q.

cry (momencry 5.(§ 55. In ordinary indicative forms element generally adds an intentive or hortatory force to its fundamental future significance (contrast -vania-. it seems to indicate mere futurity. let him sing! I'll p\nLkaiiimtuatTqa- to see p^nikaivarjani me see him! linL'fuavaq-A let see him. 1. a Shoshonean Language 183 165 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. c)-will-I else (§ I'll go away or Examples pA'qa'iju-" of -mpa-^ are: to kill pA'qq'vmpaywa''^ you'll pA^qa'rjuvipap-i killed kill who will him. be aiyu-'" to say ovaqayu-"' (momentaneously) several pull out let me say again! ova'qarjuinpac-u (let us) pull (them) out again a'irjutnpaAcimi These suffixes may be combined with narrative past -p'iyai(see § 33. 3) . in (6 below) or dubitative {-mpa. -v'i-.. It is used also in simple (§ 25.p'iyai-) future.Cpi'ivaiikai{y)ar)A he has evidently been sleeping a) -mpa-" future. to (§ 18. 1.below. 6. come back from have been sleeping from inferential evidence) . this qa- to sing qa'vani I'll sing. -vap'iyai- indicates are: an act the past looking towards the Examples . Examples of (4) -va-". to run I hit him. . such as gerunds in -tst. 2). § 58. -mpania.Southern Paiute. -vip'i- The former. future statements that are conditional on other acts. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qax^'di to go to sing qa'xw'aiRaiy'iarjA he has evising dently A'p'i'iva{i)yl- gone to (known to sleeping. b). let some one does someone do will (always) it! to eat tTqa'vapi what eaten to get be he) patcaqivatoyoqwiyaya'xa- wet patca'qwa°va will get wet tjyo'qwLva (if (if it rains. he) will run to burst into tears ini'tuywa'" yaya'xavan uru'acu this-away-thou taneous. In other forms. a) and participles 5). 60. intentive. qa'varjA he'll sing.

forms are formally the synthetic analogues of English perfects. participial -p'iyanfi-. diminutive -p'i-tsL-yai-). b). Examples qar'i- of -p'iyai. 6. SAID. this suffix indicates the simple future. Narrative referring to a Withrelatively recent past makes use of enclitic -yiva. g. move remote past. dwelt.may become disconnected ( treated analogously to -7a?. qar'i'p'i- tona- to strike to qam-^ai- have a house they 2 dwelt tona' p'iyaini struck me (long ago) lii' qauL ^aip'iya'^ I had a house y'aivii . SAID is to be analyzed as say-past passive partic. however. 2.1 84 106 qu'qwLto shoot X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR qu'qwi'vap'iyain'Tn'aywA will-past-like-him. c). tayato kick to find Examples of -vania- are: tarja'vani shall? will kick maai- impi'an viaa'iv'dni what-I find what shall I find? Oi -mpania-: pA'qa'rjn-'' to kill to be iimmt. b). dwell qar'i' p'iya' sat. b) and verbalizing -yai. 5. the functions do not quite correspond in the two languages. -vania-. -mpania. partly by the fact that -p'i.(§ 19.-have. In contrast to -ua-" from which it is evidently derived. shootas (acted) though about to shoot him pA'qa'rju-" to kill pA''qa'i}umpavi'p'i{'')arjA maybe (he) will kill him (5) (-mpa-''). 1. negative -p'i'ni-. partly by the fact that -p'iyai.are: to sit. out doubt -p'iyai.(e. Paiute -p-'iyai. This is the element employed in mythical have (§ 26. -p'i-a-yai-.and -yai. g. e. 1. § 57. § compounded of past passive participial -p'iThis is shown (§ 25. narrative past. has (6) -p'iyai- regularly In other words.future indicative.ampani (it)will to move.-" wont to do 'i'vupayoo'i-^a- to go through here flutter pA'qa'rjumpanCami I'll kill you i^jil' mLmpan-Lani I shall always do he will go 'i'vupainpan i through here ydo'iy(. Hence a form like a'ip'iya' see 8 below.

It seems to differ from the normal passive narrative past {-t'i. to have been killed (by one). a). Forms of this sort. and have been already referred to (§ 29. is Rarely -mpiyaio' a' xavatcuywam- (7) -p'iay'i- has been -ed. e.(§ 24. it is -a. killed may be combined with a preceding inferential perfective -qai-. see § 30. I wish he had been It e.several now dead) take (one person) qwiyi'xp'ia{i)y'iar)A he (long ago was taken by them and is there now) (8) -p'i{a)yai{ uay'i- impersonal narrative past. when final.and the -p'iayai. impersonal -( ua-. 2. seems literally to mean to be one's killed one. ya'ai- to die ya'a'ikaip'iyaitcoarjaxaini' die- perfective-past-interrogative- he-indeed.of -p'iyai-. 11. b).after usitative -?i i-".p'iyai-) in more definitely implying an agent and perhaps also Examples are: p. he seems to have (evidently) died (long ago) Examples qa - of diminutive -pUsijai. very likely that the -701. compounded -y'i-. g.Vqa'rjuto kill in referring to a continued state in the present. pA'^qa'yup'iai was killed is (long ago by people and qvxiyw'ii. therefore. b). of narrative past -p'iyai-. is to be understood as present there is . found as sporadic variant instead of -p'iyai-. possessive -a. a) is not clear. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE pA'qa'rjutito be killed 167 'oqi' pA'qa'yuti piyai^vayaxa' kill-passive-past-irrealis-he- then! (§ 19. 5. This passive narrative past -y'i- is evidently compounded of past passive participial -pi.are: qa'pltsL-x.a' to sing a little fellow sang wan aru- to make a rabbit-net wana' RU pits ty ate u (the boy) made a rabbit-net again For -vip'iyai. 14). a Shoshonean Language 185 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. and present (1 above). 2. as expressed by -p'iay'i-. 2. What difference between the -p'iyai. g. p'iya WENT RIGHT INTO IT.forms with possessive As for the use of the present -y'i-.Southern Paiute.(§ 25.(§ 24.

b. for the imperative.irrealis.. -y'i- which implicitly -yai-y'i- refers to present time) and that this implied needs to be expressed after an inserted -( ua-.186 168 A' Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (cf. activity expressed by the verb is unreal.!) involving -t)a -". to have people (impers.) -rjqv.nor. see § 32. (impers.. Further examples of the irrealis are: payH'kw' 'ai-^varjaxf^i '^ai^ go-away-irrealis-he-then! he ought to go away! nV naya'iaikaijA yaya'xAqai-^u' I anger-die-if-he cry (momentaneous) -perfective. )- him puTjqu'A pA'^qa'yupLayai'tuai^ (obj. it would seem. with future HAVE. In other words. 3.) had cattle § 33. enclitic -ya' followed by 'jai" have been already given (§ 19.) had a camp for they hunt- ing jack-rabbits qu'tcu'mpuyqurjw'Ljai. see § For perfective -qai. are expressed by the aid of enclitics (§ 19. e.perhaps uywa'ijuqv'qwaxO'' ^on'i dissimilated from -rjqv) °'a'iyuriqviiLy^a 'oai' would that I might get well! . § 26. including a reference to present time lack of -yi. Most modal we have inferential. had he got angry. Modal suffixes. The indicative has no special modal suffix. 3) or narrative past -p'iyai. 52. 2. Optative examples (would that .buffalo-pet- qu'tcu'mpuyqurjw'Lyaip'iayai^iuai* animate cattle plur. 2). {-qv-. they (impers. pA^qa'yuto kill have fallen together Examples are: to -yai-.(§ It is not used with present -y'i.-have.after -yai. 6). 1. but -yaituayi- 2^A'qa'p'Lyai'(ua{i)y'iar)A people killed. ideas.) have was horse killed he (some time ago). (1) -yv-. b). I would have cried pA'qq'up'iyaiyu uywA would have killed him would that it might rain! {-qv..irrealis. -701. There are only two specifically modal verb suffixes. In the latter case it is preceded by perfective -q ai.) killed qam'i'xon''^(^i- to have a jack- qam'i'xani-^aip'iyai''(uaV rabbit camp (impers. as This element indicates that the i. -7npa-". either merely potential or contrary to fact (potential in past time).and remains as such.(§ 32.

-mp'i. ivi'kav'i'raijwa'"- an-Laxwan ate? a'iv'C qa'ya what-preterit-I say-perhaps sing. I would take her as my wife (song form) A past participial irrealis.{-mpainp'i-) are common but. : p. . the question of the order in which occur the various elements that build up a verb form. I wonder (he) went away ivi'yump'r'^ maybe you did drink (he) will kill pA'^qa' Tjumpam pi{'^)ar)A viaa'iva maybe mpiywaramV^ he might beaten § 34. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 169 Participial The -kvp'i- irrealis is may .are: hi' v'i''' maybe thou maybe we did drink art drinking maybe drinking. this point suffix (prevailingly At we may conveniently take up positions may consist of formal in character). h). be participialized by means of -p'i-. it may (might) be THAT Future dubitatives in -vamp'i. It The dubitative verb suffix is fresame or a preceding word by an enclitic -' may be rendered as perhaps. (didst drink). Other examples of it is. the dubitative suffix is not employed with other tense suffixes. ivi'vC Examples (he) is of -v'i-. frequently used as a base in optative forms with enclitic . . he must be dead if ay aro"av'i i'ljA who is-dubitative this? I wonder who this is! pa'ziqw^'aikant uru"avi' having-gone-away might-be. killed me -mp'i. so far as known. would be extremely good pirjwa'rorjoqop'ini {-qo- < -yqo-?) my would-be-made-as-wife. is also found. 2. P>ach of these On the other . verbal theme. him it find us 2 (inclusive) will qwa' rjutuavamp'ini shall get they (impers. e. more than one element.Southern Paiute. n). 2. .i^qq'- uyqvVp'Lyantmi who would have (2) -v'i--. g. -kvp-'iyanti-. and enclitic.) perhaps beat me. Four main positions are to be recognized: prefix. a Shoshonean Language 187 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.ur uru"ai' instead of good-would-participle to say it would be good (somewhat as though one were he is a possible singer he would sing) (it) uru"axu sv"aiyuxvpi be-woald very-good-would-participle.subordin- how did I sing (long ago)? yaa'iv'irjwa" maybe he is dead. in the quently accompanied (§ 19. .dubitative.(§ 19. seems I Order of verbal elements. -cuyaywa 7ioa. its use are: 'a'iyuxvp.

(§ 30. 3). Indirective (or transitivizing) Pluralizing suffixes: -qa- 29.(§ 1.(§ 30. -qu. o. usitative -mia-. 9). The following scheme will be useful for reference (the letters and numbers indicate order of position) A. 10. 4.(§ 30. 10). d) -9i-(§ 30. for the most part. Momentaneous suffixes: -rju. though ordinarily one or more elements of the third position follow. necessarily verbal (unless B 2 Verbalizing suffix (§ 26) C.b) 6. 2. Instrumental prefix 21) B. -lywa- (§ 31. 7) Suffixes of 12) 8. a). 1. needless to say. however.(§ 31. -mi-" (§ 30. . Future -pa- (§ 32. It is difficult to give rules. Verbal 1. passive -ti- (§ 29.(§ 32. continuative -nni. rigorously determined. (§ (§ . c) . ' this extended verbal "theme" may also include elements (chiefly 1-4) be- longing to position C. P'ifteen positions may be recognized within the third. -tcai.(§ 30. 2. 13) Perfective -qai. a) 3. o). only a limited number of combinations among these are intrinsically possible. 1). Suffix 1. Resultative -qal- (§ 30. 5. -pania (§ 32. though. l. 2)1 2. Composition thus somewhat breaks in on our order scheme. be taken as unit and compounded with preceding (non-verbal) or following (verbal) stem. -riia- probably best considered as belonging to position 14) A 2 (or A 3) + B 1 (a) + B 2 may. Adverbial prefix Reflexive prefix (§ (§ 20) 22) (§ 2.: X 170 Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR hand. 2). last of which follows) (§ 18. 3. as composition takes place whenever two or more elements or groups of elements are felt as logically combinable or psychologically equivalent. 2. b).-na- 31. 13). movement (§ 28). Suffixes of voice and aspect: -ya(§ 31.-n'na2. or (b) combi- nation of stems. -m'i. 4).30. 11) (§ 31. c). 9. (a) theme Verb stem {or other stem if followed by is B 2). only the second position is necessarily filled.(§ 30. -mi-" precedes -qai-. Causative -tui- (§ 29. Indeed. -t'i- (§31. 3). Prefix 1.2. -/ra-(§ 31. -7/. The order of elements within each of the four fundamental positions is. 7. 12) -rjqi.

A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 11. yet follows Thirdly. Enclitic. 1) D. 14) 14. 7. modal -kv. 2. grouped together. 1 and 4) 13. it follows of this sort. regularly position 12. 14). a Shoshonean Language 1 89 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.(§ 32.) ask. Aside from doubts is There it some doubt thus. embracing: (a) Nominalizing suffixes (§ 25). be referred to in § 35. -(ua10). 15. is Nahuatl -tzin-). § 35. found both noun and verb forms. occurring in nine positions. The positions assumed by diminutive -tst. 4. which seems to be treated rather irregularly. evidently an old Uto-. It . contrast KILLED and ivi'karjiiy'i. with normal pA'^qa'yut'iiqaqai- TAKE A DRINK. dubitative -pi.(§ 24. Syntactic elements. First of all. or (b) Subordinating suffixes (§ 55.- (§ 35) Impersonal -fua.(see § used as indirect object of indirective -yqi-. b) regularly follow all other verbal suffixes.\ztekan element in The diminutive (cf.and the passive -t-'i-. 1). It will not be necessary here to give examples testing out the order scheme. as probably mutually exclusive elements. In these cases falls between positions 8 and 9. 171 Usitative -ni"-" (§ 30. there are a position 4 and precedes position 5 precedes future (see § 29. the position of pluralizing -qa. e. 11) 12. 6). it follows passive -t'i.(§ 29. 1 e) in spite of the fact that subordinating suffixes (C. will . i. which -pa--{n-ia-) (position regularly precedes in e. Thus. 1). as they can be readily found by the reader among the numerous verb forms scattered in this paper. § 41.(§ 32. a) or diminutive -tsi. impers. 5). g. as to the priority of certain positions in C.(§ 33.but precedes perfective -qai. one of which.(§ 32. may in turn be subdivided into three positions (see § 19.follows subordinating -ku. 2) 15.-. impersonal -fua.Southern Paiute.(no. suffix -tsi-'. Tense and modal elements: present -y'i. it is disturbed impersonal and passive forms.they (plur. present -qa. may number of disturbances of the above scheme introduced by the impersonal -( ua. no. be that 10 and 11 should be reversed or. The diminutive.(§ 33. when -fua. Secondly. which may be split into its component elements by possessive -a. Narrative past -p'iyai. momentaneous -rju- (position 7).and impersonal -t'ua-.several several have been tiv^i'7)uq{w)at-u'ay'i. 2). 2. Lastly.

g.little mia'ants.and after nasalizing stems. 1) . adjectives in denominating terms other than and adverbs) are: for a short distance vu{y)a" p'ds.: : 190 172 X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR seems to appear in three forms: -tsL-% -tsi-\ and -ntsi-\ the last of these appearing both as nasalized form of "spirantal" -tsL. e. tiny mi{y)o"HsL(j)A at a little distance The diminutive As such pavi'ni patsi'ni it is frequently expresses affection rather than smallness.yanti.arrow to' ca' doves v'tslittle arrow white pa(i) ija-ya7ifibreast-having white- to'ca' pa{i)yatsi.. nouns of this suffix are very common. e. pavi'tsmi qayu'ni pi{y)a'ni my older brother my older sister my grandmother my mother patsi'tsmi my (dear) older brother my (dear) older sister my dear grandqayu'tsLrjinni mothers pi{y)a'tsi't)w'ini 7iavL"'tsir)w'i my dear mothers.small. little arji'4>i mosquito arji'vits- iyo'vitciia- young of mourning- iyj'vdcuAtsLTjwi little mosquito) mourning- dove o. mother and child (§ 22.chicken little hawk (lit. pis'o'atsL- my children grass-stalk his tu'7np(")i stone grass turnp^i'ts- small stone little w^wi'^ii fir)qa'ni4>i uywi'vits- cave tiyqu'iuviatslacpiL own little cave {na ai-ntsL-) viia'yant'i (obj. g. qica{)n-a'nis- in eagle qwa{-)na'tsds.little breasted one.) little girl little naa'intsds- divide (noun) m'ia'''ntsLyant'i divide qa'ni house of the diminutive (i. Examples of a properly diminutive use (1) In noun forms. gull pis'o'atsiywL rjw'ini {pis'oa-} children.. frequently used in terms of relationship. eagle) flea (lit. qani'nts- little house Examples true nouns tovi'ds- e.

Naturally it precedes animate plural -rjw'i. a Shoshonean Language 191 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A Note on Reciprocal Terms of Relationship in America. The diminutive is frequently used in verb forms. qunu. qa-'tSL". sing! qa-'tsivaniarjA a little fellow will sing. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 173 In reciprocal terms of relationship (e. little fellow. you please wanaru- to make again (the tcana' nv' pitsLjaic u boy) made a rabbit-net 'See Sapir. It is not clear. N. Thus. classificatory -pi-. which w'ould correspond to Nahuatl -tzin-tli.but precedes -naand active participial -fi. In verb forms.(see above) suggests the latter analysis. to all be analyzed as absolutive + diminutive or diminutive + absolutive. man's great-grandchild) the form with diminutive is regularly used for the younger generation. 1 and 2 (e. .S. also to indicate an affectionate or pleading 132-138.^a' a little fellow sang (< -plya") o'tsLxahdtc'i dit. Such a form as qwa{-)na'tsds. -tsi follows passive participial -p'i- (probably also -pi-) and instrumental -n'imp'i.(§ 49. -tsi. 1913. possessive -a-). (addressed to a child) qa'yd'minia- to hop along be carrying a a rabbit-net qa'yo'ni7ni. qwdcu'v'"atsdci little knoll < qwdcu'v"'aRi knoll). g. g. however. (referring to a ing child) tiriL row tim'ayqiva'atni I shall tell you arjqitsiva' ami dit.see § 32.great-grandfather.< qwa{)na'^nts. American Anthropologist.^ though it may also be used to refer to the older generation (cf. qunu'ni my great-grandfather qunu'tsini my great-grandchild (man speaking) As regards its position relatively to other noun suffixes.. Examples are: qa- to sing qa'ts karjA (for a little fellow is sing- o'xwdivdtc'i w'ont to have an ar- -ka. 1). poor little d'tca'n'oniwater-jar to o'tca'')iontr}ni'va' be carry- ing a water-jar.Southern Paiute.antsLya while hopping fellow will if along.(e. g. As to nominalizing elements (§ 25).(§ 48. 2). grandmother above). qa'p'itst. whether -{n)tsL-tsL. 1) (2) and objective -a. chiefly to indicate that the person spoken to or of is a child.follows noun suffixes enumerated in § 25.

animate forms above one. it has been found to follow indirective -rjqi. -yu forms may 26.may on number as such.we (position 13 2). they become two for me nava'iYU six Combined with ployed enclitic -nia- (§ 19.(position 12) in two: Moreover. cv'y aR/ another it.are: usage where stress is laid be rendered in number.(position G). be treated as 1). 1. d). -yu- is regularly em- in counting.(position 14).(position 4). c)-also.are: cv'yucu ni'ijwi one h.(position 7).(see cuts -p'iyai. probably not having a little white breast).one above. one by one. It is not used objective forms -yu. waa' iyuyqiy' iim^'ini two-cardinal-formomentaneous-they-me. cv'yucu nana' cvyurjqwaiyucu reciprocal balizing-subordinating one day -at. 6). see§ 30. but without enclitic -cu-. cv'y arj. note that -n ia. without In -ijqai. its it seems to precede continuative -ni. it to it regularly following past passive participial -p'i. being one to one another. be interpreted to mean wont to have a LITTLE arrow.being verbalized from o'tsL-. in cv'yunC one (in counting. -m'mia. cv'YUqwayjucu several become one co'yu another. 2. yet cf. 1) is often inserted between -yuand replaced by -qu. It seems normally to fall between positions 9 and 10 Thus. another thing. -m'i.(§ 48. Examples lava' m a of -?/m. see o'tsLywaivdtc'i above (this may. § 36. little one who has a white breast.and -qu. for one day. 1 above.they are frequently used attributively as true numerals. another (see examples below). ordinarily in compounds (§ 18. Howusitative -mi-'^ (position 10) and present -qa. 1). except in the case of cvyuverbs directly or by adding verbalizing -ijqai(§ cardinal numeral suffix.i another he. (1) -J/U-" Numeral suffixes. however. td'ca'yaiyatsL'xant'i-. 5 and is 7.(§ 49.(position -p'itsi. Examples of -yu{m-u)n-ia. another person. h).replaces -cu-) . (reduplicated)-one-cardinal-ver- (§ 55. cv'YUcinaywav arjA the other coyote (Same stem as cv'yu. o'tsiywai. momentaneous -rju. including attributive -yu-n-ia. 1 Owing above). 1. of C.yai-. seems always to precede -kai. ever.1 92 74 X 1 Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR -rju-ntsL- For and -qn-ntsi- in a quasi-temporal sense.) waa'iru n\7]wi'ntsL7)wi two men. The position of the diminutive in verb forms not altogether easy to assign.

-tea. a). ur'i-. -ia(2) -^a-. (§ 48. 3.n'DS of. mar'i. e.\t stantively or attributively. and qimafi. uru. they did paa'itcA three times it each twice § 37. So far as known. Examples are: my is five houses suffixed to cv- suflSxes denote so cv'tacu once waa'tcA twice (< again-it-I did.5 two-cardinal-animate plur. (invisible). It is ap- pended to demonstrative stems. icaa'tcAcuA^qan iini'k-^A two-timesit just twice. all ami all-kinds-of animals they. 'u'ru-) th. see niano'q'^upantc'l pa'a'virjw § 59. a).can al. two in number pa'tyiim" three (in counting). -tea. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE waa'iyumtin-L wi'tsL'tsLyw'iarjA 17. paa'iyoviun i a'i<f>Ap'itsii)wi three young men ta't) (in number) WAHciX'riWLyumunL we four qani'ni mariLXLyunC house-my possibly identical in origin with participial (§ 25. also to qtma-% to form independent inanimate demonstrative pronouns.: : Southern Paint e.numeral adverbial suffixes. (§ 48. Suffixes of quasi-pronominal force. itci('i'tct-) this. ONE. These AND so MANY TIMES.another. nanLrjioarjivaAtcatcaA^qam 'linikaiju separately-two (reduplicated)-times-preterit-it-they do- plural-momentaneous.her. 1). l)-like great-grandson-diminutive-animate plur. g. -t'i- See § 39. kinds of animals viano'qupa{n)tci-". a Shoshonean Language 193 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Under this head are included a couple of suffixed elements that are not easily classified.(m^a'r'i-) that (visible). (1) -fi{-tci- after i) inanimate demonstrative suffix. g. 6.that (indefinitely) all the other numeral stems. this element occurs only after mano'qu. This (2) -fi. 1. c. -p a{n)tn-" ki.all (obj. mano' q^u panteirjqava' riwi mano'qupatcburjw'intsLrjwi all all kinds of horses kinds of persons . which may be used either subThese pronouns are ari. her greatgrandsons.('u'ri-. I wadid two).so be used as the first element of noun compounds.

interrogative pronouns. in the latter case is singular in form (cf. 1. § 31). part of demonstrative force) (in postnominal pronouns . The personal pronouns also appear in an enclitic form. The objective forms include possessive functions. the lack of plural suffixes for inanimate nouns (§ 48). Classification of protwuns. The inIt will be observed that the only specifically dual the 1st person inclusive. objective. only one of which implies invisibility (see § 39).: 194 170 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR suffix is This -vaici-''. Independent pronouns of the third person are formed from four distinct demonstrative stems. Aside from the first animate third person makes no distinction for number. § 38. . relative pronoun. cf. however. as follows The classification of pronouns as to person 1st person singular 1st person dual (inclusive) 1st person plural (inclusive) 1st person plural (exclusive) 2nd person singular 2nd person plural 3rd person singular animate visible 3rd person singular animate invisible 3rd person plural animate visible 3rd person plural animate invisible 3rd person inanimate visible 3rd person inanimate invisible form is that of person plural inclusive. The classification into visible and invisible in the third person applies particularly to the enclitic series. (closely related to personal pronouns but used practically as articles) strative pronouns reflexive pronouns. and All of these occur as independent stems. Pronouns (§ § 38-46). the verb. demon- large part identical with independent third personal pronouns). makes the distinction only and for for the second person one or two other forms that is will be specified later. 37). all the plural pronominal elements include dual functions. however. The independent personal pronouns are either subjective or The enclitic series. possibly related to participialized postpositive -patci-" being at (§ 50. Paiute pronouns (in may be divided into six classes: personal pronouns .

Independent personal pronouns. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Personal pronouns § 39. (§ § 39-41). personal pronouns are as follows: The independent . a Shoshonean Language 195 177 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.Southern Paiute.

-cu. both types are doubtless found in all animate (singular and plural) and inanimate siibjecti\e and objective forms.(cf. ^'i'- THIS. vi^a'TiiAT that (invisible). it is impossible to draw a hard and . (visil)le or referred to) .(§ 48. hence often attributively. -ntc.196 178 stituted. and u-.series is far less common than the demonstrative -r'i. never- theless. common stem ta-.or quasi-pronominal -n. The chief characteristic of -en. m-m"'i. «-).for the animate singular. -mX(sometimes assimilated to -in-u-) for the animate plural (doubtless identical in origin with animate plural suflix -m/i.of tarn-i.(§ 16. i-. however.i. while -r'i. § 48. ?'-. is third personal pronouns. 1).we (exclusive) and vi'^'Cm-"'!. The inclusive plural tarjivn. the one-moraed when used with postpositions. tiiey follow k) precede. but cf. to. other forms being employed with more clearly demonstrative nouns. which does not occur uncompounded in Paiute. An enclitic -c ?/- (§ probably based on ni. ninia-.probably goes back to *taf} probably identical with that of nivi-'^ comes -tc- after i.after nasal -f- ?").that (indefinite). The first person singular.forms are also found used in a demonstrative (and attributive) sense. is prol)ably ultimately identical The four sets of third personal and demonstrative pronouns are based on the demonstrative stems a. -qa.forms very frequently attached to except inanimates in -qa. The two-moraed forms seem to be favored when the pronoun is used without suffix.forms is apparently their more freciuent substantive noun.our. "'u'-) When used attributively. probably to all forms with two-moraed demonstrative stem.forms seem to be in common use in certain other dialects of Southern Paiute. Nahuatl t^ we. 7iiwhen followed by another element (e. The -ni-i. postposition or modal The two inclusive pronouns are evidently based on a enclitic).series.{-tci-) for the inanimate.instead of rii-. The doublets with two moras {m^a' The first person singular is ni' or m'* when used absolutely. based on an otherwise non-occurring nini. 1). In general. perhaps assimilated from *tami. "'m'''i'-. The second element in the third personal pronouns is pronominal: -ya. g. Both subjective and objective pronouns spirantize following elements (note that -r.and tiie use as true personal pronouns. 1). if this is correct. 1). the inanimate forms the more properly pronominal -qa. do not seem to differ in meaning from one-moraed forms (?»a-. 2. -rjivawith animate plural -yw'i. Hopi itamb we). ma-. has a peculiar objective form. X Southern Paiitte and Ute SAPIR This is precisely as with nouns (§ 49. In and -qa.

a Shoshonean Language 197 179 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 3. and. objective qima'r)aia-{cu-) anim. unless these are subordinate. inanimate qima'ri-{cu-) For non-pronominal objective qima'qu-. qima' y]a-{cu-) (the) other one plural anim. after arja'vinaijqwacu him again {-cu again does not function here as pronominal element) . jective personal pronouns (including pronoun and postposition) are: rii' qa'i' I sing ni'ntca' pi'pi'tci I-preterit arrive. without -c u-. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE fast line tives. as objects of imperatives (for examples see § 52). From this stem is formed a set of (2) qima.Southern Paiute. it is only I riiru'xwA me we two (inclus. independent personal pronouns. On the whole. the purely demonstrative value is strongest in ma. stranger.("'u'-) forms. qima' mti(c-u-) qima'm'ia-{cu-) qima'ria-(cu-) § 59. I arrived ni'camp an-i'k--A to I-only do-so. have you a mouth? imi' tx^'r(§ 60. as between independent third personal pronouns and demonstra- they are all in structure demonstrative-personals.) npn^i'ntcuxiVA to us (exclus. the personal in o. as bases Examples of independent subfor attached postpositions (§ 50. 3) tirjwaru"" thou indeed art m^'imi qa' q ai ye sing he-after-again. d.and u. 3). qima' m-'i-.) shall sing under us two (inclus. forms which closely parallel the independent third personal pronouns. see The subjective forms of the (3) Use of subjective forms.{m'^a-) and i (''i'-) forms.) imi'ntcu'" tiimpa'ya' thou-interrogative mouth-have.) we (inclus.other. These forms are: subjective sing. are used as subjects of verbs. as of other pronouns and of nouns.) sing ta'mi qa'variL tami'ntcuqwA ta'rjWA qa'qai tarjwa'ruxfVA to us (inclus.

bare demonstrative stem. he. assimilated ar'i- from ?//•'/-. his tail tihitp"'i'fs- his-tail it. e. ma'ini sing inam'iTjwa''^ it is said. generally. an'ruxiVA used. aru'x iv.. except in case of g. that (inv. see § 55. in that direction that? I m^a'm what would-be wonder what that is! mafi'cu piya'l'p'iya qwA^CL{y)ai] an)' that was-left-over that tail of his was left. 6) A'qa'natjqwdpA mat) "'a'iy'ii' near it he is good he-preterit arrive. he arrived vi"'a'r)anica pi'pi'tc'i viarjaruqwA under him yuorja'cuya yaa'ivayiC he. see § 43.) (inv.) wolf he. ma'q-A i'rjA rock that (uncommon) this? I ar) aro"avi who would-be him here wonder who this one is! hja'ruxwA ^'ir) to ov"'Liu^p'iya^ he here sang a song imu'rux WA itn" 'aruaiHL itci'riixwA ''i'tc'i to these (animate) this it is wont to be to here this (thing) tiimp^'i'ts i'k-A to rock this (uncommon) urjwa'vatc'i him (invisible) vi]wa'c u fiv^a'ts arjA he (inv. e) aJii'i'ruxiVA them (animate) used. afi'cu quiYn oRi that that fire (for postnominal aRi see § 42.) wolf. iiru'xiVA is more com- mon.t. ma mi qn'qavnni they will with them they will listen mamu'cu naiia'yqAtca'q aiva' ma'm qwau iinp aro"av'i that off. for inanimate pronoun iici-. the wolf 7imu'v"'ui(n)qicopA behind them uru'rux iVA to it (inv. cf. it was left. in hishouse (for he house-at-own do-continuative-partifinite use of participle.198 180 arjac X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR u qani'vav he stays to ipii'n'nintc'i ciple. 4. under above) . 1) fire it. will die qa'vanC they (two) will sing. it-to (rarely + is postposition.

)? what is what is it (selected from several)? matja'iAcampA pini' k ai p 'iym{ii)m]A him-only saw-him. women that (place) thereof? u it-at that (obj. your having killed (plur. thing) those (sticks) like-arrows be(inv.) uru'c. a Shoshonean Language 199 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. the (thing) belonging to us imi'A pA^'qa'qainA thee ha\ing-killed. is except for arja- with postpositions. (he) is wont-to hide from me ni'niA 7iayu'q wirjqifu'a{n)xu Tii'ni me mine when-fighting. I hit his head (note that arja.).and arjaia.are rarely. used without -c w-. pendent personal pronouns. (it is) that that he (has been hiding) . strangers qimancu qa'ni another house.). as of other pronouns and of nouns. ever. this probably to prevent confusion with interrogative ayja-. he is iarjwa'i am \\s (inclus. ours. they turned into arrows it v'qwa'naTjqwopA qima'rjac near (inv. as subjects of subordinate verbs (§ 55.) I-it hit m'^lmiAcampA except you ni'aq-A tav arja'iacu to'tsLA him head if (obj.)-interrogative-he.u'^qxcLvnC 7ia{i)i/a' jyarj^upiya came. § 44. only him (he) m^a'fiar'ua j)A that (obj.Southern Paiute.) the two old 'ava 'ar'i'ac fell them two-old-women (o})j.) u another one. objective personal pronouns are: nfm a'yawa7itcir}qim^"[ me is-wont-to-hide-from. 1) and as genitives. stranger foreign house qima'mucu others. obj.) it.). a) 'ajiil'v^'antuxWA kwi'pa'p'iya 'am'i'acu wa'ma^'caywoitsiyw'CA on- to-them (anim. The objective forms of the inde(4) Use of objective forms. there (at) imp aro" A^qa'iA what is it (obj. when I fight \waru'^" me he-is. 1. Examples of independent . (it) fell on them. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE "'u'r'i 181 that (inv. are used as objects (direct or indirect) of transitive verbs.

pendent subjective pronoun may be combined with an independent objective one. -' . . independent. imi n'i' n'i'niA pA^qq'umpaniA thou me m'^im'^LA wilt-kill pA''qa'r)ui)uni''i I kill-you (plur. the former apparently preceding. The enclitic pronominal forms are as follows: SUBJECTIVE 1 objective -n-i- sing.) land In certain sporadic cases that are not clearly understood objective forms seem to be employed subjectively.) As a rule. plur. obj. n'i' niaxwa' axain I qar'i'i" I too was sitting down An inde(5) Use of subjective and objective pronouns. g.)-only make-mush-for-pluralfor make mush only "'u'm"''iA him let yaya'yq'iqwoi^ava'am for those tcariwCkikwa^itclvi^'^A (us) cry (who are) dying off fiv'^ip-'iA pu'tcu'tcuywar uru'acu knowing that (inv. .) -' -n'im"'i- 2 sing. § 40. g. however. obj.) plural (exclus. e.: : 200 182 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR MA'tca'iar)qipL'yai(y)aqA niar'i'acu WLampiA reached-for-it that berry these (anim.) you is (plur. Enclitic personal pronouns.mi- -yw'i- -rjumi- . dual (inclus.) when-(it)-is-morning. these (animate beings) they seem to have been hiding from us 2 ^'i'tci I'icuqu this (obj. e.) hide-to-always-perfective. this morning 'il'icai/acampA sa a' tjq'iqava will.)-interrog^'i'm'iar'uam'iram a' xarjwantcirjqimika'^ ative-they-us 2 (inclus. only one of the pronouns 6).) -rami{-tcami-) -raijwa{-tcayica-) plural (inclus. the other being attached as an enclitic (see § 40. (they) will him (inv.

a Shoshonean Language 201 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.Southern Paiute. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Sing. 183 .

) now is they (vis.-preterit-thou kill? aya'm'iantca' pA^qa'rjU whom (2) did you kill? pA^qa'yuti iinpl'arjw 'v"'a''nLai)WL you 2 will get killed ani'k aril' what-obj.m'i-.that (invisible).\ order to is formed na u'i)W(uy(. unless. attached both to verbs and to other parts of speech.(§ 45). qa'qa{i)yirar)WA po"aq axaitcarjiVA qa-'yiniui"! qa'y'i'* we (inclus. are: ivi'rjuntcar'oani did 'oai' I take a drink? die! yaa't-^vnixO'' a'iv^'ini p\ni'kaiva would that I might now-I shall-see qa'y'irami we 2 (inclus. of imperative (§ 52).) do-sit-present? what do sit? you 2 do as (you) ivl' Tjuntcar' oarjA did he take a drink? house-obj. sometimes also as a possessive.o i.His.-w.he. but in .202 184 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR . indeed.) dwelt qa'qa{i)yia)in ( c.-he see. .(iiam 'am' mi' tive? why do they always do so? they (inv. his (Cahuilla yc he.) are good "' a' {i)Yuqwa{iy y'iin'H m^'avaami qarV p'iya there-they (inv.) hangs p aqw div^ uni"'^ near-it (inv. .) sing what-do-subordinating-they axa'ni-x. cf. The subjective enclitics may be (2) Use of subjective forms.) do-usita- peculiar contraction In connection with the use of second person singular -' certain phenomena are to be noted.) was killed (long ago) uyiva'i-kaiy'iaqA tcaxi-' it (vis. g.) have lice we 2 (exclus. San Juan Capistrano po.may be a specialized form of Tliis -' the inanimate. used as the subject of a non-subordinate verb or as the object of an The animate dual -' .his).) sing thou singest whom-plur.-you (plur. demonstrative "'w'.) sing. Subjective examples of enclitic pronouns. from -ywa ai. it be connected with relative ^i.waa'i' go thou and hang thyself!).) sing we (inclus. . which examples will be given separately. . probably also Shoshonean *pi. . The reflexive possessive -v'iseems to have no independent analogue. he see(s) (the) house qani'ayA pinika^ pA'^qa' rjv p'iay'hjWA he (inv. however. Ordinarily the ' pronominal -' does not amalgamate with a in the last syllable of the word to which it is attached (e. functions only as a subject. yehe.

) arrived tami qani'va'm tive-present. (it is) too bad (that) you say Tfi'ani aik-A ai-. a Shoshonean Language 203 185 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. . remains like that. cf. between inherent and accessory (§ 15.qwa-) are very often used.: Southern Paiute. are: maini qa'ylini they 2 in (vis. 1). see § 41. particularly in references to the weather. .(§ 4. a. the pronominal -' is lost in certain cases. . merely implied l)ecause of singular form of verb) inain'i'ntca pi'pi'tcV'iDd they 2 (vis. tami'ntca' pi' pi'tc'C'imi we 2 (indus. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE other cases such amalgamation takes place. for combination of enclitic pronouns. say and ani.'i- Subjective examples of animate dual . you are indeed lyir. as in English. Examples are: difference qatcu' na-'nia'apA to say ( a'i{y) igir a'inuA that-obj.) sing (not equivalent to qa'y'iin'i they 2 but to qa'y'iaini they 2 sing. you say ( = -Tjiva. . Examples are: ur)wa'(i)y'iaqA nrjwa' {i)' y'iqwA it is raining (said by one raining (said will who sees it raining) see it it is it by one who does not rain) nia'va 111 aqWA blow aija"q. not -ro'a) cu(w)a'ru' nQno'cC maybe you'll dream ' Probably this difference of treatment has something to do with the Furthermore. do not say anything indeed say-usitative. .ai-. art thou drinking? (< -ro'a- + -'. so that no specific pronominal element is apparent at all. mam'i qa'y'tnii duality is expressly indicated by -' in qa'y'iaini. g. -' then? .to do. ivi'y'iro'" e. This is notably the case with interrogative -run-.) then? who is it.) house-at-dual do-continua( we 2 stay at (the) house = qam'varam iini'n'ni') . in an impersonal sense. and before ai. you said ( = too-bad-thou say.) arrived inv.not. ii^ni'iini' we-2 (inclus. sing. after demonstrative ai. 5).nii-. notably after qatcu. as ma'm'i implies visibility.)-thou say. . a'ian iy'ir that-I wont = ai-a- indeed) "m^anikai7ni aik-A that-do-resultative-usitative-thou said.vv'^ai' who-it (inv. Td'anian aik-A it is too bad that I say) ( = -riMviani'rjumpanfirjw aik-A that-do-momentaneous-future-participlehim (inv. a final -a is then elided before following a-.-thou not-thou say-negative. end) axa'n i-^ai 'anik-^A what-do-subordinating-thou do? why do you do so? (= -:^ai' 'ani-) The third person inanimate enclitic pronouns {-aqa- and -' .3. being about to do thus to him.

exemplified only in noun forms.) it there to me y.) sing-causative-negative. bring rain-us 2 (inclus. refers to lirjwa'fi-. anticipates -rami of following verb) qwL ayanfirar) imi'vitciy'irayWA (inclus.) along in no'nnintciarjA carry-continuative-participle-him (vis.) i'mi pu^icu'tcuyvca y'iq WA tiiou tun'mAp'iya'alkw uru'v^'iA (he) sticks (obj.) (note that ani.] sing) Use of objective forms. who carries him around rvV qatcu'arjA qa'fuirjwa''^ I not-him (vis.) bear-us (inclus.) (he)-heard n'l manna{i)yiam'i I chase them (vis. 1.) comes-to-attack-us (exclus. I do not (inv.) qu'qwi'tu'acnyaywamminoA would that we pa'iy'imi 'u'r'umcalls for ^ini'ts- would get shot! thee that (invis. inan.) picked-them (invis. as subjects of subordinate verbs. subordinate verb forms.) would shoot me! (it) there-being-me fetch-to-hither.). Possessives.-his (vis. see § 55. inan.) sing-subordinating-dual eat- present.) eat while singing j'ou 2 sing (contrast m^'imi. you (plur.). we 2 (excl.) knowing. § 42.) killed-him man o'qoaq A it n'l pu'tcu'tcuywaiii all (obj. Examples of enclitic pronouns in a properly objective sense are: For their use qu'qwi'tu'acuyaywanoani would that they I wish I would get shot! uv"'a'''nfini ya'rjqiki (indef. m^'im'i qa-'i/'iml (3) qa'q ai" you [plur. while -ra))i.) let him sing pA'^qa'yupiyadirjiv.)-up arrow- m' pA qa' rf am"'/ I kill them (inv. the rain approaches us 2 (inclus.i cina' TjwavL L7]W A coyote-him (inv.). which comes in between.)-thee then pro- tnaxa'nv"'anfimi tect-future-participle-thee. 6. he picked up arrow-sticks qatcii'uqWA narjqa' p iya' not-it (inv.) head-obj.)-it (vis.) .204 186 Di'itn" I X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR qa'xaiim'i t'l'qa'i' we (exclus. in Objective forms are used as objects of transitive verbs. that will (be) protecting ava'r)wi7)U)ni will carry yva't)i')iiiava' you (he) it-in-you it (plur. knowing all ija tavt'aq-A io'fsi'a I hit-it (vis. I hit his head knowest it (inv. are treated below (4).) carry-along-will.T)wa'riram am tcuxwiijirami approaches-us 2. and as possessives.

their chief their (inv.).-I (or me. his property am that (inan.) or I (do so and so to) a house. paa'{iyyami thy aunt (obj. Thus. when the person referred to by the enclitic pronoun precedes with the plural animate suffix -Tjiv'iAnalogous {-m'i-.) are Instead of -am'i. a form like qaniani house-obj. a theoretical ambiguity sometimes results.Southern Paiute. sometimes found the corresponding singular forms -atja-.). is pia'ru'a'm aro"" pL{y)a'i]um u'tjWA mother-interrogative. as such an enclitic.) mothers paa"ami thy aunt. (song form) pivi'ararjiVA mother (distributively)-our our (inclus. appended of possessive enclitics are: purjqu'ni dci'ni my horse. followed by a postnominal article-pronoun.ywa-.). qu'tcu'?npuijqurfw'ini my cattle (lit. This takes place.) it. The form of the whole sentence or the context generally removes In practice a noun with possessive enclitic is generally the ambiguity. 2 and 5). his being. a Shoshonean Language 205 187 southern paiute.) is. mine for me you and I who are (inclus. though not always. Inasmuch. in which case no ambiguity is possible. however. .. 1). Examples with nouns. at its A'sL"a-{i)ya'qwA nia'vLTj'wavv aijA pi{y)a"am'i end surface. your (plur. my) may be interpreted as signifying either my house (obj.thy it mother-your (plur. = their inv. 1.) elder brother aru"ana'ijWA ari'cu taywa'q- be-verbal noun-his (inv. also subjective) significance. § 48. patch these moccasins of tiyi'v'iraini friend-our (dual inclusive) . into his your mother? mother knee his (inv.) chief-possessed-their (vis. evidently in order to avoid a double plural. e.) tooth-its (vis. that tooth of its it yaya'maqA end-at-its.). phenomena will meet us again (§41.) tarja'naxituywayA pavi'LijWA knee-in-to-his (vis. end) chief-his (inv.for. qanCan ani myHOUSE (obj.their (vis.) he. a shoshonean language (4) Use of objective forms as possessive pronominal enIn a possessive sense enclitic pronouns can be used only to a noun.) she. even when have objective (or.mi. in most cases.their (inv. buffalo-pets) it pA'tca'n- a R'i id'to'qxca'arjq'i this-me mocasin-my patch friends (distributively). Examples of this "number dissimilation" in possessive forms are: . bark (obj.) mother . e.. § 42. quvia'ijw'iavi- arjA nM-'^vi'ijiVA husband-plural-objective-their he (= them. § 42. 2. can clitics.) it. . their-husbands . g.) and -' . .

(§ 25.). chief of their husbands (for possessive use of noun objectives see § 49. -ya. . . .w'tVi. which are syntactically equivalent to the objecreflexive possessive indicates that the possessor The the same person as the subject of the sentence. 4).206 188 X Southern Paiutc ami Vte SAPIR (obj.appearing.2. Examples are: qani'vdntuxwa''m'i(f)L to their pur)qu'tsiami4>i por. 2) Explicitly dual forms of with their own canes made by the reflexive possessive are .i house (obj.see § 48. however. objective forms.) it-towards aunt-obj.) or-' . pa{i)yu'riupiya I you r\V shall cover your eyes there-again that mava'ac- ari'.(§ 49. § 42.V'V his own arrow own horses qaniva-4>i pi'pi'tc'ip'iya house-at-own arrived. . it Ordinarily in first it refers to the third person. (he) arrived at his ran off own house patci'yiv'aicpiC toyo'qwip'iya ya'a'iqwo'aiva therewith. 3) and is after postpositions. .-own returned.-his (inv. . after objective -a-. their (2) -mo(f)L own house own dear horse (obj. . they are compounded theoretical of -am'i-' .mov'i-. . but may also be employed and second personal references.) with their (2) own canes (cf.mauvi-. 1) after noniinalizing -n a. qani 'u'ra Examples Qf its use are: paa'iav uyn'.) cave-owned-little-obj. (he went) towards the house of his aunt o'a4)L niarja'cu quni'V j)urjqu'rjw'La(f>L he takes his kills qoy.) good ones (anini. e. their (vis. for pleonastic use of possessive pronoun. poro' q {w)ama{'^)mnu4ii (for -qa. (inv.- own she (= her.-own it- toward. towards their i'mi pu'{"')i'ya(f>X own lands w'itu'v^uaqaiva thou eye-obj.???t- THEIR . -v'i- obj.xiiatsia4>'i (inan. as -' .-own cover-shall.). their (inv. I returned there in that same little cave of mine Explicitly plural (or dual) forms of the third person reflexive possessive are also found.) and . 2)-obj. tive (§ 50. porj' )iia{u)4>i with his own cane).-t tlrjqci ni. obj. -I't-.) in The reflexive possessive occurs only . let Uv"'i' p-'inqayav yaya'nav um^a'narjqwA with his own daughter let-(him)-die crying-own (§ him "'u'ra die with his crying land-possessed-plural 48. i.) their-chief.~)'m'ai)iau4>L. good ones (anim. obj. 3). below) "'a't'iijwarjic'ia'aijWA good-possessed-plural-obj.

Examples of -v'C'im'i. g. (6) Combinations of independent and enclitic pronouns. in transitive sentences the seems to be normally attached to the verb only in combination with the enclitic object (§ 41. which are often l)een anticipated or redundantly referred to by pronouns. a).discussed't. In genitive constructions this is almost the rule. . have occurred in preceding lists.)-dual grinding-her mother-obj.) see house (obj. thy pigs thee aunt-obj. . e. the two brothers carried what she. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE compounding -v'i. ni'riLA yavi'ismi me my-elder brother viarja'iA paa'arjA him his-aunt (ol)j.: Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language 207 189 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. g. Particularly frequent as equivalent of the occurrence of an objective enclitic pronoun of the third person with i an objective noun. independent or Of such usages is examples have already given. Particularly characteristic is the employment of enclitic posscssives together with genitives (i. is abundantly illustrated also also in nouns. .-thy. also paa'id tja qani. e.with animate dual -' OWN. e. ground uv'^'a"am'L qarV p'iyaaimi qani'aijiVA pi{y)a' {i)yavi'i)ni qani'vcV (inv.m'i-. Double is (or even more frequent) Examples of the repetition of the subjective or objective pronoun. This form.) pi' %ds(.r)' w'iin ivii'A pigs-thy thee. paa'iaijA qam'ayA aUi\t-obj. though it seems sometimes to intercross it in usage. at their (2) mother's house there-they (5) Pleonastic forms. -' plural invisible .). both pronouns enclitic or one enclitic and the other independent.own-dual. as contrasted with -' shows clearly that third person animate is .-his house-iier. 2. g.own-dual house-at.//it-: -vi''iin'i- their 2 . There is a marked tendency for the objective enclitic pronoun to attach itself to the verb even if it is expression of pronominal elements very common in Paiute. there they 2 stayed (at) her house. . thy aunt ivii'A paa'i'ami Pleonasm enclitic. . elsewhere expressed enclitic subject in the sentence. i see-it house (obj. . e. objectives) of the corresponding independent pronoun.) stayed-dual house-objective-her mother-obj. his aunt's house. .are: 7iava'(f)itsLr)io ami yu'a'p'iyaiA'^qa'vH tu^cu'iiayA i)i{ij)a' {i)yav'L'im'i two-brothers they carried-it (vis. . . their (2) mother.m'i- not identical with animate dual -' .

) know I-preterit-him (inv.) drink. the independent pronoun being used predicatively.) see-negative-past. I've drunk it n'i'xwa'arjiVA pA'qa'rju n'i'aq.) will kill we (inclus. one can attach objective -arjA to ivii-: imi'arjA pA^qn'ijumpa ni thou-him kill-will. g.) lead-will-you I-him (vis. g. 3) (b) me (= my) Independent object (possessive) + enclitic subject.ivi'rju kill. e.) ni'ami qoxo"iva'' I-them (vis. he did not see it they (vis.)-him (inv. ni"'imi pA'qa'ijuvipanL I-thee kill-shall m'yumi mgi'mparjumi n'i'ayA pu^tcn'tcurywaV I-you (plur. g. ni'nio! pujwa'ruv^'anLanl me-thou wife-makc-will-me.)-preterit-it (vis.)-dual imperati\'e punch! you 2 pimch him! kill (§ 52)-him (vis. instead of saying i'vii yA'qa'either subjective or objective. e. (vis. you will marry me .)-him iar]wa" aijwa!'^ mama'ivnnijn 2.) forget-it inam'i'nicaqA yA'ci'm'^'iaq-A (vis.)-like-thee tell-to-perfective- seems that he has been telling you UTjwa'c'vqWA qatcu""qiVA p'ini'naipVa''^ he (inv.: : : 208 190 A' Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Independent and enclitic pronouns are often combined into a single phonetic group or "word. e.) might find him thou-me wilt kill imini pA'qq'uvipa vi'im^ifyarjA to'nA ivn'\r)WA pA'qq'umpa" you will him (inv. they forgot it A variant of this type is that in which the independent and enclitic pronouns are both subjective. it is not you on whom I have l)een depending (for use of "it" as equivalent of substantive verb.)-it (inv. see § 56. it he (inv.) will kill iami'aijA pA'^qq'umpa^ we 2 (inclus.) u'u'rjwani'ami tiriLarjqiqa'aimi thee.) you (plur. jjunipa 71 larjA thou kili^will-him. n) find (distributively)-future-dubitative. I killed him I-it (vis. The follow- ing types of combination occur: (a) Independent subject + enclitic object.) thou-interrogative-it whom-depending-on-perfective-verbal noimlike-my." the independent or enclitic element being Thus.)-perhaps (§ 19. imi'ntcii'aq-A n'i'niA p\T]wa'ntuywnqainanuini (vis.).) not-it (inv. we (inclus.

tTqa'xiini) imi"aqwA naya'i'aiRam would (the) earth axa'n'Ni fiv'^Lp'i t'i^qa'Tj'wLXo'' if -' . The first its object e.(§ 19. a Shoshonean Language 209 191 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 'i'tciararjiVA mama'aik-^A find this this (inan. how .m.anticipates -' . m'niantcaijA tTqa'ximi yaya'x-A me-preterit-he eat-while-me cry (momentaneously) while I was eating. I savi' him mano'qkilled. Or. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE me (= my)-he (vis.) find (distributively)- when. the second e.) that-doUTjwa'iAcu'qWA ni^a'ni-tiikaqurjWA causative-perfective-when-him (inv. .).)-it (inv.A novikaiu)x-u them plural-when.) get-angry. when they covered first cover (with bark)- with bark be the logical object. the second object. conversely.: : : Southern Paiute. appear? {imia. me talking thee-I first-sho\e-will-thee. . thy . the enclitic subject as the subject of the main clause. 3.anticipates -ni of . taijwa'{iyyaqWA mama'aik-A us (inclus. e.when-theehow earth appear-would? you get angry.m"''i"a7nL qw^'d'ip'i-ya^ all (obj. he hears my talking.anticipates . obj. when we find it him (inv.)-us (inclus.)-they (inv.) having-said.ijwa) (vis. be the subject of a subordinate clause. a) -I see. .)-it (vis.) will kill aya'tAcuani pintka' him-a.) talking-my ni'ruay avipa'xanani nayqa'qa' hear. independent possessive -f object: imi"ar)wa' a'ikainA thee having said (about) him (= thy)-him (inv. when we Still other combinations are possible. - .qWA anticipates Uv^ip-'i) (c) Independent object -\- enclitic object.) find-when. . while ni'nia.) them (invis.)-it (inv. I'll imi'ani yiam'i'maijWLcava'avii shove you (in) first imi'dijWA pA'^qq'umpa' thee-he (inv. g. he began to cry {-ntca-ijA is logically cut loose from yaya'xA. may g. e.) they killed all of them is A special variety of this type that in which the independent objective functions as the subject of a subordinate clause.) it mavi'i' Acuaq. when he has caused to do it {uywa'iA-cu. g. thee-it (inv. the object may the logical subject of the subordinate clause. y. g.

his-me. g. (c) In all coml)inations of the first and second persons but those coming under (b). ments are preserved intact. he-thy applies also to him-thee. not by function (e. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Combinations of enclitic (inv. me-thee -ijumini- you (obj. The order of elements is rigidly determined by form. also the objective form of the second person. which should theoretically result in -mini- and -Tjumini-. n'C -ayani can only mean i-him or i-his. g.210 192 § 41. he-my). but certain modifications need to be noted. tlie second personal element precedes (e. we-you) Morphology of combined forms. forms. -aya'ami. The following rules are followed in the combination of enclitic pronouns: (a) The combination of the first person singular subject and the second person object. the element referring to the third person precedes. The resulting -a-rjani. however. including possessive. -ijwTim'i. theoretical ambiguities are generally resolved by the context. is simplified to -mi.). the first person being thus Note. -i]winiye-me. -mini. the union of two such pronouns being extremely common. g.he-me. The combined forms tions of subject tions of listed in the table apply not only to combinaand object of the same verb but to all other combinaThe subjective and objective.)-us (also us-you.thee-me. partic- ularly as the pleonastic usages already referred to (§ 40. . The following table gives a survey of combinations of two enclitic pronouns. OBJ. table also includes combinations of objective + objective enclitics. him-thy. we-thee) -Tjuminim^'i(1) (obj.thee-us (also us-thee. the horizontal entries As a rule the pronominal eleare subjective. (b) The second person singular subjective element (-') always follows an element of the first or third person. (d) In coml)inations of the third person with either the first or second person. 5) give opportunity for further limitation of the syntactical possibilities. -aijani -ni (verb form) can hardly mean anything but he-me.) -miriini^'i. me-you you (obj. that of three not at all rare.). the vertical objective. Special double objective forms are: -mini.thee-me). e. i-him. insofar as objective forms are identical with subjective forms. Thus.and -Tjinni- (properly thee and YOU merely implied.)-me. F^nclitic pronouns are often combined.he-thee. i-his. his- THEE. my-him.

'^ C "co C "C C C.Se a c e e ^ Cr" Cr* Cr* & O^ 3 Cj< S >-( 3 ^• S !5^ fc i s C ..J.S . Southern Paiute.~ c c c 9 Cr O Cr "> 3 tr C C S i H s ^S ^ c S.. K ? ? ? ? r- c 3 S »> S •£ 5 H g s . s 5 = i :i :!> .::• ej d 'm s3 'to "O S. Z. c c ••.'m S. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 193 5. '5 'm C- — . a Shoshonean Language 211 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. e « S e :b :v: S: S i- S c e e c c i i § i S e S a 'e e I I cs s c e e c e e c 03 > .S cj 5-' > to > .s > .

) drink-vvill-it (vis. § 40. I killed him with it . in combined form only ivi'va-(vis. -Tjwav'i-.'-. -m'iv'i-.but to a' (or 'a)\ e. It precedes the animate dual. he (inv. the first enclitic becoming singular in form. -qwav'i-. -v'i.) will drink it (vis. but apparently are quite imperfect for the latter well as -ijwa-m'i-. recourse must be had to the separation of the subject and object.vowels coming together in -arja- composition do not contract to a.)-I killed-him (vis. and animate dual -' bined with an invisible one (e. vrjwa'c'uqw ivi'van-iaq-A he (inv.).)-it (inv.they 2-them (vis.) or ivi'va-riLaqwa'aywA 71 LaA'qa'ai) A he HE (inv. -ywa'm'i- < -m'i-m'i. including -v'i- above).-arja-. however (g) : -v'C'hn ' well as -arja-am'C-. (cf. two o. Data.) will drink it (vis. e.has not been included in not seem to combine with elements of the first and second persons. -aqav'i-. Furthermore.< "Number dissimilation" -arja-. g. be noted once more that subjective animate plurals of the third person function as duals if the verb is singular in form. which it follows: -arjav'i-.-\. 4) takes place when two animate plurals are combined.< -am'i- + am'i. which is regularly subjective. -aijatja. The relations entered into by the two pronominal enclitics are of various sorts. follows (see f all third personal elements. It may (2) Uses of two combined enclitic pronouns. -arja'rjwa. The following are the main types that have been observed: (a) Subject and object of viain verb. hence -arj'avu. Such a form as -am'i'm'i.) is compounded of -am'LA visible enclitic element is never com. while the animate is always preceded by the inanimate.212 194 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (e) In combinations of the third person.). precedes the enclitics of the first and second persons.) are possible. the singular animate precedes the plural impossible). Examples of this most fre- quently represented of types are: a-'xawantciv^a'^nLami p'inL'}caiva"Tjum^i I shall hide thee (plur. g. It is very frequently combined with enclitic elements of the third person. -am'iv'i-. .< -aqa. .). however.) will drink IT (iNV.) I will see you uma-'yani pA'qa'r]U'pi'yai{y)ariA it-with-him (vis. -aq arja. The animate dual.wi. (f) The objective reflexive possessive It does the table. Should it be necessary to contrast a visible subject or object with an invisible one. g.

-dual)-it (vis. he let people see his hand he ava'ywdcarj'ain'i.) took (sing. they 2 took them 2 into ava'rjwdcarj'ami watcl'qayu (note plural -q-a.) by name qwarami sotst'kaiva it let-it (inv.)? of me? how-preterit-him (vis.) all 'iv'^'i' no-'i all (obj.shall-him (inv. ava'rjwdca-yfavii yiina'rju (the) they (more than 2) put them 2 water 7iava'i^p'iyaiA'qa'ami all mano' qxiaqam'i (obj.)-he it. we 2 (excl.) kill let-plural imperative (§ 52) -him (inv.)-I carry-present. he (vis.)-them (vis.)-me so-do? when find-will-dubitative-he (inv. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE mano'qoaqani (inan.) put more than 2) water-into-them (inv.). he might find us 2 (inclus.) left him and came away tu'qwi" aiijqir' 071L ^ shame-die-to-interrogative-me-thou.) obeyed him (vis.)- we 2 (inclus. let him c'im'i'aki uv^a'ntux WACutcarjan'imi it-at-to-same-preterit-him (vis.). are you ashamed (vis.).)-thou kill-him did you kill axa'nintca'^ija''' pA^qa'rjoarjA how him? hear (distributively)-perfective-interroga(plur.) peep-shall.) they 2 divided .) nana'riq^Aqaitcu'a-qariw'i tive-it ( put 1 or 2.)-it divided (sing.)-I stab-shall -it (inv.of verb). let us 2 peep at 'iv^i"yar)warai]WA pA'pa'qqimiparjWA (inclus. a Shoshonean Language 213 195 carry SOUTHERN PAIUTE.) tona'vanLar'oaya'ijA will he punch him (vis.) put. all of it (vis.).) (excl. did you hear it? ^ano'qDxway'wan i^ni'k-A did he do so to me? maa'ivampi-ywarami''tWi'tsixatsaijan'iini when-preterit-he (inv.- own see-cause-perfective.)? nirjw'i'ijwa''qar)A vio'o'a4>i plni't'uk-a^ person-plural-obj.) obeyed us (vis.)-it (vis.)-us 2 (inclus. at that same place we (excl.).)-they (vis. yuna. hand-obj.)-we us all kill (distributively). I them on (my) back qwani it tona'va'q WA let-it (inv. watcu'rju it-in-preterit-he (vis.)-we (excl.they (vis.)-ye. also they 2 put them 2 him) in {or him) he {or they 2) put them (more than 2) in (singular-dual or plural nature of object determined by verb stem: watci. {or put them 2 in in.)-they pa" ayavatcwywaijw' avii qum'p'iya" (inv. )- perhaps.-dual subject and object). let me stab rua'{i)y'i('^)am'ini 'iv^'i" I call them (vis.-it (vis.Southern Paiute.).

but gerund in -tsi. ya'a'ik-A^qam'iii ni' I go-off -shall i. having hit while -tca- me.-when-them (vis. you'll get wet aik- die-plur. even though they did it customarily In such cases. e.)- thou get-wet-future. I say.-when-it (vis. here. I shall (sing. rains. g.v'd"am'in.)reciprocal-mother-diminutive-plural-obj. were lying and object of subordinate clause. y'irjqa'iinixaiifu-'i'im'i continuously-do-as-ye-them (inv.)-I say lie avi'^'timi ?iavi"'^tsLT)UHA jjayH'qw'aiva' when they die. he ran aija- that -ni serves as object of q.)-he trqa'xutcar/'ayA qaxa'^ (momentaneously) while he ate.) kept doing so to them . (c) mother and son. however. -ijiv'l- (§ 40). tavLtsdcaijani qA'qa'm off (note hit-gerund-preterit-he-me run.u(ie)aq(0)A liu l' 7jumL7)qucam while he (vis.)-dual.: : 214 196 X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR water-bring-for-hither-shall-dual-me. e. he arrives. Examples n'i' pL'tc'iqa'ijwani cu'a'iva' arrive-if-him (inv.)-them (vis.)-I go off here-them (inv. as you (plur. belong to following Subject (objective (b) form) of subordinate clause and subject of are: main clause. (ye) pa{i)y%i" aijqiqt. when we eat it Tini' x.)..)-us (inclus. (they) 2 caused them all to be people As a variant of this type may be considered that in which the objective element functions as the object not of the of a subordinate form.v' ain^'ini 2 shall bring water for me mano'q oam-'imi.)-them (vis. as they 2. S^lbject (objective form) Ex- amples are: ti^qa'qaxuA^qararjyvA eat-plur.). he (another) sang I shall . if be glad eat-when-preterit-him (vis.)dual people-cause-past-them (vis.-dual)-as-them (vis. a). nirjwl' m -ar)' wii)'i'yai{y)ain''ii)a all (obj. the objecti\e form of the second person plural is replaced by the subjective.-Cqa'R'i) tavi'tsL-.- (§ 55. (vis.) was doing it (vis.).) sing Hywa'yuqwa'qwa' patca'qwa''va'' if it rain-momentaneous-if-it (inv.) do-momentaneous-usitative-when-only-it pa qam'i (vis. say a main verb. 1. g.)-I I be-glad-shall .

. b). (he) went to where he had put him atci'm'aq2iqwa(j)LyaijWL'r)w'i7u-^a' bow-with-obj.)-own put-plur. he sits on top qani'varj'am'i pitci'xwa' aip'Lya" house-at-his-they (vis. a Shoshonecm Language 215 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Examples are: i' pirjwaiaruawA y.own having-put it-toward-went.)-me. 4. (ye) shall put in (your) own knees in relative clauses e. A SIIOSHOXEAN LANGUAGE 197 (d) Subject of main verb and possessive {of nominal object or noun with jiostposition).: Southern Paint c. (§49. watcl'kain "'u'raip'iya'' own bow taya'nax '^<:'U'a(l)L iiKira'ijikava' it knee-in-it (inv. c.a- as equivalent to objective -tpc'imi-. In most of the examples obtained the attached to a noun -f. -shall.'-.after some of (§ 50. g. l)-it (inv.(of objective force). 7) pLV"'a"ar)wa4>L cf. at his house they 2 (e) went and arrived Possessive is possessive and object. he took his own arrow qwLVu' a-ma. while standing and holding it together with his pirn. This type of construction can be used primarily passive participial -p'i- even with (§ 25. with which you will beat him which-with-ye-me win p'imaTjwbii qwaywa'ijumpan-arjwhnini (distributively)-momentaneous-future-verbal noun-your (pliir.nik-A to old-husband-ohj.) sits.) arrive (sing. The enclitic object is either the (direct (as in relative or indirect) object of the constructions in pi.) set-as-landmark (distributively)-past passive partic. are you doing so qxti'i' your old husband? (vis.)-he (vis. -preterit-he (vis.)-their (vis.)-he (vis. 5. qu'qwa'mant'i'iniini ma{-)'x-A wood-at-being-thy-me give.qarjA qafi'i of it top-on-its (vis. give me your wood p'ima'ya'm UR qwaa-' ijumpanA which-with-him (vis. above) which-at-him (inv.interrogative-thy-thou do.)-own hold-stand-while. see main verb or of a verbal noun Examples are: § 45).) o'atca'ij'a7jA arrow-obj.- dual)-go-past. with which you (plur.postposition or to a verbal noun in -7ia.) will beat me (note use of subjective -rjw'i. the (tree) the\- wherewith had iiuirkcd it .). he took his (another's) arrow o'atcayacpL qw'i'i arrow-obj.-preterit-his take.)-own take. p'im'"a'zqa'am a'm tu'tu'tcu{w)apL it which-with-it (vis. the wherewith thy being about to beat him.)-thy it winmomentaneous-future-verbal noun.

ini 7naa'intcaya'7)a7i ni'niaijA (vis.) yu'a'ijqiqaiHuavarjwa'"- not-it (vis. teach them how to do NOUNS. g. The folIndependent subject -\- lowing have been noted: (a) enclitic object + enclitic object. e.)-us 2 (inclus. The following types of combination have been noted: . cause them (3) to know it. my dear hide pcndc7it n'io' object (possessive) + enclitic subject and object. e. %ni'ri'ur)WA me-past-him (vis.ntcir)qimika^ these (anim.i^qa' ijqiqw' airjumpa he-thee-me kill-for-go-momentanyou "for" from thee (b) Enclitic subject.). or Examples are: possesses a direct and indirect object. Two objects may be employed either when doubly transitive.i^qa' ijqiriuin pa. and second object.)-indefinite- me it n'i' carry-for-resultative-impersonal-shall-negative. combination can be easily formulated from those already given (see 1 above).) see-cause. .). g. e. he'll kill (b) I-it (vis.)-me me-him (vis.)-them (inv. n'i'niantcaya'" patuyw (inv. (he) let plni'i'iiRaiqwani qatcii' A'qanu{w)ani me see it (inv. let no one hold for me! I give it (vis.)-him (vis. as with causatives of transitives. object. he found him killing me hide it a'xawantciriqV y'iqwami (inv. g. first object. they 2 have always been hiding these (people) from us 2 The rules of (4) Uses of three combined enclitic pronouns. Examples are: . (a) Enclitic subject.: : : 216 198 (f) X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR Object is the verb when it and object.)-thee-me like -arj'ami.) to 7naxa'{i)y'iaqam'L them it (vis. p. The possessive enclitic generally relates to a second object or to a noun with postposition.HE (vis. m'aqarjA p'ini'iuka eous-shall. g.1}' am.)-interro- (anim. e. and possessive. obj.) I he will kill thee for me pA\a'{n)x-u find-preterit-him (vis. he'll kill you. -aifamini. Two ENCLITIC PRONOUNS COMBINED WITH INDEPENDENT PROMany combinations are theoretically possible.) pu'tcu'tcuywat uiqwam'i know-causative-it (inv.)-he kill-subordinating.)- thou I- through do-him gative-they you did so to him through my help ^'i'ni'iar'uam'iram a'x(iV^"o. I let him see it ma'i]a"(nn uii p.and -' .) hide-from-usitative-perfective.

case. numerals. g..)- him § 42.) he (vis. adjectives.aijA fi'Y'i'v'^''iijw their (vis. case distinctions are neglected and primarily subjective forms often function also as objectives. pind'stxavaa{i)yuay'ani at) icpL A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (§ oO.) friend (vis. The following post-nominal pronouns are (1) arjA he: animate visible singular. This seems to indicate a tendency towards development Ordinarily an article-pronoun follows immediately into true articles. to some extent. primarily subjective. pnjwa'A^'qaTj'arjA to'to'pA''qar)qip'iyai{y)aqayA wife-it (vis.) they (inv. a Shoshonecm Language 217 199 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. g.)-his-I put. in which case they may stand after the first word of the group instead of at the end. crotch-at-acting 49)-hiin (vis. e. patch (distributively)-for-past-it his wife patched them (inan.-it (inv. he whose leg has been broken. I po''v'^aqaya7ii vmtci'i put it at his trail qwaia'rjqiVApatcwywaqwayw'Lni opposite-at-to-its the other side of it you (plur.)-own. the Kanab Indians (obj. qana' ritsLtjw'i' aq. g. visibility and invisibility.)-it. Post-noviinal pronouns. On the whole. Post-nominal pronouns (or article-pronouns) are identical in form with the shorter forms of certain of the independent third personal pronouns (or demonstratives). They are practically equivalent to postposed articles and are differentiated according to number.) for him (vis.).uvii Kanab-people-obj.) (vis.: : Southern Paiute. to preceding nouns.)-him (vis.)-chief he (vis. animate and inanimate.) he (vis. from between their own legs they (looked them trail-at-it (vis. e. the one with a broken leg nLtt-'vLywam.).)-his (vis.). their chief aijA friend-his (inv. but sometimes an intervening enclitic (pronominal or other) element separates the two. = them)-they (vis. on Enclitic possessive {of subject) and two objects. e.)-\e-me. his (inv. a group of two or more words as a denominative unit. upon the denominating term.). 4.) . They are closely attached. though not as phonetically amalgamated enclitics. leg-break-perfective-verbal noun-liis yu'o'RA^qdpCnaqahiar] aijA (vis. participles. which they serve Frequently they hold together to make clearly denominating terms.) (throw) me (c) (inv. and. and pronoims.).

that (vis.) X Southern Paiute and lite SAPIR ayA iu'cu'fuiy''ivii coyote-interrogative-thee he grind-causative-present-thee. arja'tjwa"- mother-obj.: ami they: animate ova'n'naijqaTjiv nava'isLt)w ami geese they (vis. g. the carrier of avi'i'rjwaiit arjA cv'yucu they (vis.(y)am A''qo"ixu them (vis.) deer them) house-in-thcm (vis. theoretically ami' a.)-t'roni-participle he (vis.) they (vis. = For arjA = ami. appears regularly as ami. the 2 sisters qam'y.). his) feathers-his remained.).. does (the) Coyote cause you to grind (seeds)? yu'a'riaq.i is An unexplained variant of e. only those feathers of the robin were left over (inan.: 218 200 cina' ywavdcua m(vis. g.) visible plural.). his (2) (= him.. e.-own she (vis. primarily subjective. iiytaiju-'i ami qam'naxi. the geese ami reciprocal-sister-plural they (vis. pi{y)a'(i)yav arj Examples are: (vis. they. it who carries it away. apparently used only after objective forms. aywA.). ay. were sleeping in (the) house qava'ywi ami horses (obj.). cina'7)wavi{y) arjWA coyote (obj. g.ay.) he (vis..: waa'{i)y ami to{w)a'tsa)wiarjA they two they (N'is. maml'acu (plur. = them).) toward the antelope vian'camp a7)qa'qwa"nay'wantsL wVciyaatjA piya'iplya him.). while they.) he atjA wanisL arj atja"ura = him) he-toward.i carry-participle-it (vis.) sleep-subordinating.) children- his (vis. his two children objective form. which replaces theoretical arfa'iA. the deer. with his own mother antelope (obj. his) wife own elder brother's wife (obj. my companions amu'cu The e. the villagers a' iva{i)yar)win ami companion-plural-my they (vis. = her) she- with. see 2 below.anRm'" ami house-having-plural they (vis..) obj.) he (= him) pavi'av arjWA pirjwa'iA elder brother-obj..)-only robin (obj. the horses (obj. one.-own he (obj.) he (vis.) they = . (vis.) one of them The corresponding objective form is also regularly aijA.).

cu{w)a'riyLk-^Ap'Lya'air)iv irja'iA nearly-miss-plural-past- him (inv. g. am he who wont have only one (arrow) aya'va x'iarj 'utjwa tA puq iciic'i he-over-he (vis.or clitic pronoun.(§ 48..).) jumping. qiviya'tslma{u)ma'ts she-here. as enclitic subject. the one who jumps over him. their wives tai)wa'{i)y arjA niyw'i'aTjw'iraTjWA us (inclus. e. 'uywA serves as article pronoun of arja'v'a xi.) he (vis.) she (vis. = him) say. in the chief's house ..) she (vis. Note that -uij summarizes.. subject of sentence) he (inv. ]) + possessive or objective en- daughters-his (vis.) youth youth here (inv.) plural-them he (vis.aijA wives-their (vis. found as article-pronoun. pavi'n n'i'ni uywA elder brother-my he (inv.). e. (will have it).: : : : : Southern Paiiite. they who chase them ami may be optionally employed (3) irjA in these cases.tA pu'qwdc'i As objective form of utjwa is generally found utjwa.. cv'qucamp urjwA customaril^-I wont-to-have is one-obj.-I he (inv.) him-here.) mother-my. the corresponding This dissimilation takes place after (sometimes before) (cf. 1. THIS (anim. = = they). "number singular dissimilation" nijA. our people mamu'cu maina'nnariiu^''ia)n ayjA they (vis. I my to (absent) mother nafi'v'^iyan 'aro"avatci.. piyica' ijxviam. ciTia'Tjwavt{y)an utjw a'ilc-A coyote-obj. animate plural -m'i. § 41.) Tiia'^VL utjwa quTiLvaa{u)y)Wi chief (ol)j. 4. (they) commenced to miss the urjWA {'uyWA) e. the bear-woman here clna'ywav irjA coyote he-here. I say (that) coyote (obj. coyote here irja'iA. by e). e. his) house-in.. ltja he here: animate bear-woman singular subjective. is also a'i4>Ap'itsi The objective form. he: animate invisible singidar.-only he (inv. paicu'rjxc'iai] ai]A -ijwl. primarily sub- jective.) he (inv. his daughters they). he.. e. = they).'urjiyA tA^pu'qwdc'i.) chasing (distributively)(vis. g.). my (absent) elder brother urjWA pi{y)a'ni me she (inv. g. = they) people- our (inclus. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Instead of ami (subjective or objective) is sometimes found.) (4) (obj. arja'vaxi. a Shoshonean Language 219 201 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. § 40. = him.). g. g.

qana'fiisirjw'Caq- umi mama'qo'mip'iA pu^pu'tcutcuywap-'i Kanabdance people-obj. e.. momQ'ayum It is umi fathers-your (plur. -them old-women she (inv. aiii e.-it (inv. what (obj. g.). look at the rock na'a'ituikanaratjWA us (inclus. (obj. = they). e.)-I giant he (inv. then. g.).-him).) it (vis. the Kanab Indians' having learned after (the) bear "Number is dissimilation" frequently takes place here also. umi they: animate ixir invisible plural.) s'i'ramamaotsnjw'ixanf vijvva Cedar City-women-then-them she (inv. g. your fathers indeed also used objectively instead of theoretical umiA.-our she (inv.). uywa'iA. the water p'inikaiaqA tump a'm look at-it (vis.) X Southern Paliite and Ute SAPIR qu'tu'ci I utjwa kill-preterit-him (vis. his tail was left pa' am water it (vis.. = they).. the old ma''^'caywoitsn)w utjiva women (6) aRi it: inanimate visible subjective.) bear-dance (obj.) = them).: : : : 220 202 pA'qa'rjunicariani (obj.. Examples ini'aijwiyaipia'am- urjWA relations-past-objective-thy he (inv. the Cedar City women. have killed the giant is Less frequently the properly objective form. primarily subjective. of your dead relations piywa'rfWLarayw utjwa wives-obj.-obj. see 5 below. tiyt'v^'iav friend-obj.) fire it (vis.-his (inv.). article used as pronoun.) was-left.) his own friend had said For uywA as equivalent of plural (5) tim'i. qWA'ci(y)a7) piya'iplya tail-his (vis.) rock (objects of imperatives are subjective) tarjwa'i aRi it (vis. g.) they (inv. = his) nrjwa'i a' ip'i^ a arjw a say-past passive partic. e.). = them).) having-learned (distributively).) indeed they (inv. the that we . our wives (vis. also sometimes after plural alone.. uijWA uin'i used instead of are: animate plural -rjw'i- + possessive or -tjw'C- objective enclitic pronoun.) burn-causativebuilt plural-verbal noun-our (inclus..-own him (inv.

).) it (vis.) looked-around-it (vis. e. ^ai^ the fire (obj. g.).) the lightning knew about qima'ian 'oai vv^a"ax fire-obj.'p'iv^a-'^nt burning it (inv.) uR'i.) (inv. obj. primarily subjective. a Shoshonean Language 221 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. but 'a' Li.).) house-at-his (inv.). -their (vis.) does. also be used objectively.) paya'y'wt.g.). (he) looked all around the land less often A'qa'iA.: Southern Poiute. at his house pu'tcu'tcuywap'iya'aikw arjqa'qwicafi it 'oa'iA understood-it (inv.). bow uRU ur (obj. instead of theoretical ut'la. as one would have expected. {'uRi) it: inanimate invisible. \va'iA.: 'atci'A^qaiA (8) e. obj. their (obj. (he) '''a'pi'qov"'a'' (inv.) it-over fire will-lean-back-and-forth.A land (obj.). correspondent of 'aiA (7 above) is ^oa'iA.)-it (vis. Examples 'a'iA it: jective form of are: quna'i 'aiA fire (obj. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 'i'vdnt 203 yu'u'n(7) am am here-being it (vis. 5). the liver which he to eat The exact invisible (9) 'oa'tA IT: inanimate invisible objective. the abandoned camp It may e. the is one he will eat.) it (vis.). is used as objective inanimate visible article-pronoun.) all (obj. obj.) it (inv.) it (vis. obj.: ma'°v''i'r)w thing(s)-his (inv. Far a more properly pronominal form. liver (obj. 5).) it (vis. nlrfw'i'mpLA tTqa'van'aij'" VR liver (obj. his things na'a'int ur ani'k-^A bowstrings tiv^i'p'i ^aiA bowstring-obj.) viano'qoaq-A yu' ca' yaip'i'yai{y)aq. obj.) it (inv. a true demonstrative form (§ 43. I will lean back and forth over the . the bow (obj. g. there is something burning ur camp-past-at-being it (inv.). obj.)» my inanimate visible objective.-I it (inv. what is at an abandoned camp.) eat-w ill-verbal noun-his (inv. Examples are: it qam'va'ayw oa'C lightning (obj. obj.). what leg is here leg-my it (vis. utu'a. a properly demonstrative form (§ 43.). The corresponding obam is not ordinarily am or afi' a. It seems to be more frequently used than objective urn.

in yonder direction (2) Demonstrative stems + third person pronominal elements.) it (inv. but need to be combined with other elements. .222 204 X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR Related to ^oa'iA as A'^qa'iA is to 'a'iA (7 above) is v^qxoa'iA. to). 1).). i-.that ''i- this.)-off. as already noted a- (§ 39.)-throvigh. as article-pronouns (§ 42). under mar 11 xw A that (vis. u'qwa'V t'i'^qa'p'Lya'aikiVA liver (obj. to inanimate demonstrative pronoun ava'^ + postposition. "'u'.) ate-it (in v. b) of the demonstrative stems. ma-. 2. There are four demonstrative stems. in function. These are extremely common and correspond.) pulled-it (inv.)-on. ma-^. obj. them here except to note once more that these personal demonstratives often preserve their proper demonstrative force. referred may (1) be recognized: Demonstrative stems followed by postpositions. Examples are: is nlijw'i'mpi. acting fre(§ 26. vi^'a'- that (visible. see § 60. 2. which also not infrequently used as inanimate invisible objective articlepronoun. The idea of doing. "'o'xpa'" (< 'u'-upa'") that (inv. These forms function as independent third personal pronouns (§ 39. 1): (invisible). 1). here. obj. Examples are: that-at. on that-at. Demonstrative pronouns. present away) L(y)tnu 'i'vix' (< /- a'nu-) this-at.) a' pa" (< u-u'pa'").-its (inv. and as enclitic third perThere is nothing further to be said about sonal pronouns (§ 40. there (not far this-at. and u-. These are nothing l)ut derivatives in -Jii(3) Verbs of doing. 3). liere 'i'vpa" this-through. in this direction uv"'a'\ 'u'v"'a' that (inv. to 7nava"anA m^'a'va' that (vis.) A^sia{i)ya'qw v^qwa'i^ maru""vur)up'Lya'aikwA it (inv. there (indefinite) it it it aru'qWA that-under. These stems are not directly used as independent demonstratives (except for rather infrequently employed adverbs: a-. (he) ate the liver bark-obj.)-at. (he) pulled off its bark § 43. d.)-to. there (inv. The following types of demonstrative usage THAT (indefinite).

don't do that! "m'^anivant iiwaru"" that-do-future-participle he-is. vi^a'ni.). do it this way. a Shoshonecm Language 223 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. you 2! qatcu'aq- 'i'nimiAcampajiim'^i this this-do-travel (plur. grinding? why are you engaged in grinding? man-i'karjuijaq. I did him that ^vi^anLat) 'a'ik-A i'711 in way he said in this way thus-again did. did the same t^nicuniA thing ^'u'n'Ni (4) thus-again-like. are: a'ni in that (indef.ani.and Substantive verbs. about to be done to near did. of these verbs are: ani'-^w'aip'iya^ do-went. here I am how-aet-subordinating-thou so-do axa'nixai 'ani'k-^A tu'cu'xwa" grinding? why are you doing so.) it in that way (as described) viani viikup'iya do-moving-inceptive-past. do (as indicated). Examples un-i. The verbs of doing are: ani.) do-negative. only we do when traveling iinLmLmpanLani do-usitative-future-I. unseen) manner.^m'yup'iya 'u'n. .stems a. do (plur. went in order to do i{y)Enuan ^aiu'iinC here-I do-continuative-present. mani'-. acted in the same do in that (narrated.' p'iycC in that (inv..Lvd I shall be wont to do pi got near do-future-passive partic.) man-i'ntcayan tiui'iju so (as described) to way thus-preterit-him. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 205 quently passes over into that of having something happen to one.4 do-plural-niomentaneous-plural imperative-it (vis. just as before do (indefinitely). Examples verbs of do in this manner. 'i'ni. he'll be doing so ini'rjuyaq-A this-do-momentaneous-dual imperative-it (vis. BEING.)-only-we (exclus. (he) started to do that while in motion ^m'^'ania'apA not-it (vis.'u'ni.I do-momentaneous.) way From the demonstrative . mi'-.).! Southern Pahite. (it) In their absolute form verbs of doing frequently function as adIn this capacity they may be combined with forms of similar morphology that serve as verbs of doing. .). he is about to act in that manner.

). These are extended forms of demonstrative a.: : 224 206 u. is say that? that (obj. particularly with verbs of saying. that's what he indeed always says 'a'r xyir 'aik-A that (obj.usitative. that indeed you said (for 'ai < 'aia'. Examples of subjective ai.) say-usitative. that's what I always say ^a'ivn that (obj. g.)-interrogative-he a'infcuarj 'a'ivn he wont to say that? does he really mean that? Subjective illustrated in: ma'in nini narjqa'qaip'ini that (quoted)-my me heard (partic.becomes rogative. maia. They are used as independent inanimate demonstrative pro- nouns.are: that-my heard (partic.and ma-. referred to). (vis.)-my. that (is) what I heard a'i{y)aqA qu' qo' q wijcanayum an)' that-it (vis. objective aia. 2) Curiously enough. they are not ordinarily found except followed by pronominal enclitics.are X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR formed the verbs of being: aro'a.) it (vis. e. However.)-interrogative-I said.^t (indefinite).).) and uru'a.are: ma'ian 'aik-^A ma'i{y) iy'ir that I say that indeed thou sayest {mai is 'a'ik-A < maia' as above) Parallel to maia- m^'a'ia-.) shoot (distributively)a'ini naijqa'qaip'Cni plural-verbal noun-your (plur.) (plur. 1. the ai- before the inter- two elements combining as aitcu' that (quoted. be See mat-.)-he (vis.)-my.) indeed say-usitative. g.)-thou indeed said. (talking. § BE (iNV. did (vis. a'iicuan (or a'in(cvan) a'ik-^A I that (obj.)-I say. ma-ya-).are: Examples a'ian 'a'imC a'iarj g'ir that (obj. see § 40. Their objective forms are aia-. that (is) it which you shoot at of objective aia. hearing). ai- is best translated as th. that's what I heard mai'm imi naijqa' q-ainA that-thy thee hearing. aintcu'a-. mai. (5) ai-. .(probably < a-ya-. As to usage. that's what you hear Examples of objective maia.

{iri^a'ia-) TO say that (which has been quoted) e.).) friend-obj. Note on § § 39-43. . qu^qwi't ua-rjA (vis. though it must be such in origin. u-a-ya-) is < not (6) Verbs of saying.) there-it (vis. 1.-thy he (inv.)? toy^o'iMuHaqarj^warjquTjWA his (inv. § 41. a Shoshonean Language 225 207 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.).) sit-when-it when the sun sets there § 44. see § 60. Interrogative pronouns. did you see your friend (inv.)-only-me I-to talk. those employed denominatively (interrogative pronouns proper) and those employed Interrogative stems may . 3. that's all he says "^mya'iAcampan nirw^w ampa'xA that -(obj. see § say (indefinitely) and mai. ALTHOUGH NOT SAYING that. but not entirely. ma. as may have been noticed. in which the same person or object is designated now as visible. Either these verbs result from composition with demonstrative a-.) -only-he say. aia(§ is also used as inanimate visible Its parallel invisible 'oa'iA objective article-pronoun: 'c'm 42. and invisible Nevertheless sentences occur. 2.) see-him (inv. be divided into two groups.Southern Paiiite. (if) = him). The three classes of pronouns already discussed observe the dis- tinction in the third person between visible (or present) (or absent) forms. qaic "vi^a'iaywai'yucampA NOT SAY-THAT-NEGATIVE-SUBORDINATING-ONLY. g..) right-forehead-on-obj. 7). Parallel to the demonstratives ai- and 77iai- are the verbs of saying: ai. for 'oa'iA as modal adverb. anybody shoots him (obj. . To a large extent this seems to be due to a desire to prevent the same phonetic group ("word") from containing both a visible and an invisible element (see. for combinations of two enclitics. a. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE in'"a'iAcampa"y 'aik--A that (obj.- shoot-impersonal-him right on his forehead tava'iA m^avaq-A qari'juqWA sun (inv. used as independent demonstrative. e).and mai-.(m"'a'-) or they are merely verbified forms of demonstrative ai. Apparently the difference between the two sets of forms tends to become a formal rather than a strictly functional matter. For adverbial-connective use of ai-. now as invisible. that only talk to me! stop talking to me! As we have already (probably seen. Examples of such contradictory sentences are: imi'ntcuarjA p'ini'^ai'iTjWA tiyi'v^'ia'm u'rjWA thou-interrogative- him (vis.

preterit-thou kill? aya' m'iantca' pA^'qa'yu whom whom (2) WHO? \\h.) are? to what are they (animals)? what (animals) does In all it belong? impi-' is WHAT (inanimate). appears as is unelided ini before aro'a. its subjective plural is Its objective form aijam'i. not to whom?.\t? of what sort? This is a generalized (b) ini-" animate interrogative pronoun.).are: who is it? who woidd-be this-one? I wonder who this is! 'aij ani'k-A who does-so? who is it that does so? ay aijf ainpa'xaxa' who says talking? who is that talking? (referring to one who is heard but not seen) whose is it? (contrast arja'iacarja'i aro"°. be. that perhaps to avoid this confusion that interrogative aya. e. referring to an animal. arja- who? is This interrogative refers to persons only. Examples of aija. further aya-. inia-. Examples aw' i'yA what is this (anim.i is? aro"nvi aro"°' arjai it is his) uyioa'nixWA ayam. 2. an animate being not undefined known to be definitely human or animal.whom (= whose) is? aru"'^ who irj.)? ini aro"" what is it (anim. ar) at) 3). 1).) are? he (inv. are? obj.see nominalizing suffix -p-i-. Subjective ini. found: (a) Four or five denominative stems are and ania-.226 208 A' Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR adverbially or serving as base for adverbial forms. imp'i-. probability imp'i- connected with ini-. which is always verbalized or adverbialized by suffixed elements.) aw"" what (plur.(see § 48. aya'ruxwA denotes to apparently never used with postpositions. for -pi. or a person of characteristics.sometimes objective in iyw'ia-. It must not be confused with arja.he. objective impia-. subjective plural iniyw'i.aro"" who did you kill? whom (plur. are: Its objective singular 1). aija-.)-to? to whom? who are they? (plur. f). It is expressed periphrastically (see § 50. § 25. .)? who-preterit-me person-make-me? who ever ini'ntcan niywu'runi made me a peron? who ever respected me? in- iniyw ini'yw'i (c) aro"'^ what (plur. The latter idea would have to be ONE (§ 39). arjaia-. Denominative forms. objective arjam-'ia-. They are not accompanied by the interrogative (1) enclitic -rua- (§ 19. g.(see § 48.

g. 2. and ai-.frequently appears as a verb. b? .: Southern Paiute. 'anoqo-. am' Aciirjw'in a'ikamC wh.)-he (vis. 2) say-what-subordinating-thou say-so? for what reason do you say so? ani'arjimtca riiru'xwA say-what-momentaneous-preterit-thoii I-to? what did you say to me? With enclitic -nia.(§ say. g. k) and followed by ai. Examples of nya.) say? (for -qa.denotes TO tease. 3).to have what? ivipuru.t im aniA nono'cLvatcf Aside from its use as an interrogative pronoun. SOUTHERN PAIUTE.again (§ 19. a Shoshonean Language 227 209 (e. g. ni' am'A'^qanL what do I care? With enclitic -cu. what? This is properly a denominating stem meaning what? but it occurs only with postpositions or as verbified ayani. impi'yai. nominal base for verbal derivatives.see § 32.what is it (vis. e. pronominal 'ania. d) this verb means to care for what? e.)? imp'i'arjA tVqa'va' what (obj. imp'iit with) e.)? imp uru"" what is it (inv.with postpositions are: (2) Adverbial forms. ' under Three interrogative stems are included head: aya-. ania. this . 2. to say what? As such it is treated analogously to ai- TO SAY.) eat-shall? what will he eat imp'i'ma' tiya'TiLvani' what-with-thou butcher-will? what will you butcher with? imp'i'xai' impu'ruy'iarjA (d) what hast thou? what is he making? This interrogative mental activity. e.\t-again-ye-me sayplural-usitative? ye are wont to tease make what? Examples are: may be used with at may also be used as a least certain postpositions -ma- of imp'i- imp aro"°.what? used only as the object of verbs of saying or g. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 5. 'ani'avatc'i Examples are: im thou wont-to-say-what? what are you accustomed to say? ani A'^qa rjA what did he ^ant'oxai' a'ik-A (vis. what-I say? what did I say? thou what being-wont-to-dream? what have you ever dreamt? ant'a^ cipna'i^ what-thou think-present? what are you thinking of? ^ani'an ' (§ 19. is ania. (a) act how? parallel to other verbs of doing in -u i.

= him)? what did you do to the baby? . even when reference is had to present time. ano' q-Dxwaij^ wan y.then (§ 60. Examples are: (c) is a'i(caT]WA where is he (inv.)-me do so? when did he do so to me? ^ano'qoxwant' %{nik-A when didst thou do so to me? ai. a).: : : 228 210 aya'va X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR what-at? where? to? in in axa'vantuxwA where aya'upa''' which direction? what way? Verbal examples of aya''k-^A when-preterit-he (inv.) then? where have we 2 got now? a'itcarjtvn' 'ii]a"pi. now? e.) would-be how doing? wonder what that means! intcarja^"' kill axa'n pA^qa'yoaijA how-preterit-him-thou kill-him? how did you him? in Subordinates to -7a/.when? e. ayani- is often in use as an ani'ntc'i that (inan.) say-so? having done what.) do? aya'nLi)utsL7)w' a'ik-A what-do-momentaneous-gerund (§55. are they do so? w^hy do they do so? what-do-subordinating-me-thou say? why do to wont you say so to me? (b) ^ 'anoqo.(to be) where? (to do) what? This verbal interrogative perhaps a specialized form of adverbial ai.tsL utjii'a what-preterit-him (inv. g. itself of demonstrative origin. he says so? what happened to him how aya'n i^kayA that he says so? Analogously to other forms adverb of manner. It is always followed by preterital -tea-. "m^a'r aro"avi aya'n 1 in act axa'nLvarjani how? to do what? are: shall I act with him (vis.(§55. a)-he (inv.) do- usitative? acting how-. 1. b) of verbal ayani. g.) he (inv. axct'ni-^aiam axa'ni-x. g.)? a'itcaram v'v"'ai' where-preterit-we 2 (inclus.)-thou baby (obj. 2.)? what shall I do to him? what did he (vis.. vis. 1.are equivalent WHY? e.ainL 'auL'mV a'ik-^A what-do-subordinating-they (vis.

5. pi. that is where I came from ya'cpiya' pu'u'raiv iinir] ^'n'nC flew-off which-toward-own domomentaneous it ( a noun. hence the logical subject of a relative clause is always objective (i. phna.with which.) which-at-participle-from-my do-past passive partic.) me which-in'nani which-toward-my me doing-my. do ye change him into your own appearance natjwa'ntuxwA pa'i^a' self-on-to call-subordinating. The is reflexive stem in Paiute is 7ia-\ This never occurs alone. b). -^(i)- preceding Reflexive pro7iouns. where. (they) flew off to where they go to Note that in the last example the absolute verb form ?fnt/. e.) which-at-acting (§ 50. followed by a postposition. A sentence like this is the stick that I hit him with is rendered by this is the stick with which (is) my hitting (or HAVING HIT) HIM. rarely a non-participial absolute. while calling (them) on to himself .i/- is it. pu'urai. that (is) the (place) where they danced "'u'fi'aq-A piv^a'ntim^anayqwan anCpini . objective relative clauses is afforded by participles and verbal nouns Properly speaking. less frequently in the form of a participle in -pi. g.whereto. but always either compounded with a following stem (see § 22) or e. can be used only with g. a Shoshonean Language 229 211 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.)it (vis.(§ 25. obj.)-it (vis.) change (distributively). whither. treated as a noun. this pima'(u)<j)L is where I stay na^iqwnjqidii avauA which-with-own fight-future-verbal noun.: Southern Paiute.IN which.(§ 25. Examples of relative clauses are: itci'aq-A ni'ni piv'^a" qafi'nani this (inan.)-toward. The verb following the relative is generally in the form of a verbal noun in -n a-. relative pronoun. (he made many shirts) with which he was to fight pu'u'raini ni'ni i{. post- The Paiute positions. 4. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE § 45. 49)-their (vis. inv. The relative pronoun. e. pi-.iyuam or kia'q-AqainA that (inan. to where I am going mafi'cu piv'^a. The equivalent of our own subjective and p'iv^a. possessive) in form. as is shown by in -7ia.that (inan. na'upayaijA vxama"^ self-likc-plural imperative-him (vis.) it (vis.) dance-plural-perfective-verbal noun.-my. obj. 3). the fact that it is frequently followed by an inanimate article-pronoun. as shown by the possessive § 46.

of three or more moras (e.) self-to. a'ip-Lya a'ipats an (= arj. nag. (§ § 47-50). e. inv. related to obj. (he) made (it) for himself Noun Morphology § 47. 37) also occurs. All Paiute stems end in a vowel or diphthong.i) naru'xwA navi najjqwop aq said the boy to himself also with postpositions. then (he) put them in front of himself while moving along \v A yuna'p'iya self-behind-them (inan. are also fairly common.bottom) are not at all rare. payia)!-" TO go. . § 50.TO run). ata-' sand. reflexive or emphatic pronoun. pdi-" great majority of If expressed in terms of moras. g. e.and -va. g. he himself gave it to him (inv. paqa-^ to kill.) then put-moving-past. moreover. g. qan-^ to sit. qan i-' c. so e. objective apparently nano'fia-cu- perhaps niniacii. both (§50.\che.myself An example self-it of nano'cu- is: nano'^co'oqw 2{. As in compounds.: : 230 212 na'u(w)a'mek- X Southern Paiiite and Vte SAPIR nmyuts- watCLm'vuap'iya self-in front of-them (inan. e. 11) An independent (cf. fina. nano'ov uni'rjk'ip'iya'^ nano'<i) self (compounded probably of 4.4. pai-' to call to-" black. qa-' to sing. practically all monosyllabic stems have two moras. the typical Paiute stem would probably be found to have two moras. or. inv ) put down-past. naijwa'ai- self-with. navi'n arjqWA self-after. of two short-voweled syllables. (he) put them down behind himself said boy he (vis. (?) self-at make-for-past. e.wa'ruywap'iya'aikvyA (inv. tuyv . far more frequently. i. may have a re- ciprocal significance. g. g. Trisyllabic stems. with one after another each asia. toyoqwi.). However. disyllabic stems of three moras (e. Noun and verb stem.). to consist of a monosyllable with a long vowel or diphthong. A peculiarity of the noun and verb stems is that they are primarily disyllabic. na-.) him-to-past-it An indirect reflexive nano. also occurs: nan o'-cu.surface. o-' arrow. The typical monosyllabic stem (or radical) of so many languages is conspicuous by its comparative infrequency. stems of four or more BLOOD.(subjective). tWi-" earth.

-ml.possessive -a-. the presence of singular and plural animate forms and the lack of distinctively plural inanimate forms in the third personal pronouns). The two-moraed stem ending in a vowel. g. there is a g. 2.really consists of niya. is clearly the characteristic type of stem for all Uto-. English berry and to berry).seems hardly and -m'i-'. Noun and verb stems are kept clearly distinct. c and §48. These elements apply to duals also. the use of the same stem now as evidently spirantized from an older -m'i. which both animate and inanimate nouns (see § 58. Plurality of nouns. which can. p'iv'^a w'inikaipantuxwA which-in standperfective-to. 213 Were extended comwould no doubt be possible to show that many of these trisyllabic and tetrasyllabic stems are capable of analysis.(three-moraed) name (it is quite possible. for the most part. but forms of this sort are far from common (e.2). plural -qa-. noun and verb are. without nominalizing by means of nominal postpositions. -tjw'i. for .is the corresponding geminated (and nasalized) form.wood. plurals: the reduplicated form. § 24. article-pronouns (§42). . be appended only to noun stems referring to animate beings (cf. tWitsiya. diminutive -tsL-. with exactly parallel fimctions and differentiated merely according to the preceding stem. However. it tendency for verbs to be nominalized. in There are two types of noun is more properly distributive function. 1). of both monosyllabic and disyllabic structure. being exceedingly uncommon. to where (he) had stood) see § 55. there being very few grammatical elements which are appended to both types of stem (e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE syllables are rare (e. 2. carefully distinguished.-\. (1) Animate plural suffixes. also to gather wood (cf. Their Uto-Aztekan prototype *-me actually occurs as an animate plural in Nahuatl (-i)i^).to obey). now as verb.(§ 16. 1. § 48. The clearest syntactic indication of a feeling for nominal form is the presence of slight suffix. Tn actual practice it . 2 for these forms) and properly plural suffixes. -yw'i-' Two animate plural suffixes exist. note also ni{y)a. . An example is quqwa. however.\ztekan languages. as we have seen.Southern Paiute. From a strictly formal standpoint. §35. g.(two-moraed) to call by name. §31. a Shoshonean Language 231 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. but ni{y)a. parative Uto-Aztekan material available. a so that niyawould be another example of a stem capable of being used either as noun or verb). that niya.

definitely (and nasalizing) stems.(objective). suffix. sing. I kill my . waa'{i)yumunL ivi'tsL'tsLtjw'iayA two-cardinal-animate (vis.i) our (inclus.: 232 214 feasible to assign X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR -rjw'i- to spirantizing stems alone. 6) forms to all geminating -tim'i-. sari't'i'qam'i Arapaho Indians DOG-EAT-PLURAL. aid'tA) mQ'vmriLrjwi Mormons (sing. plur. noun-verb compound noun.). qa'mi) deer (sing. q.). it is merely a phonetic variant of -rjw'i- (see §4.-niy kill (plur. -rjw'i- or -m'i-. yu'tats-. -m' very common.(subjective). g.. -m'iamountain sheep ducks Examples are: naya'mi qA'qa'rami tciya'mi a{i)ya'm'i (sing. -tsi-) has been dropped before the plural cf. -rjw'ia-. a'i(j)Apits yoimg man) Utes (sing. but further.of numerals for TWO and above. paa^ywini my aunts (sing. common. plur. This is not (lit. Examples of subjective are: nava'vL7]wi reciprocal-elder elder brother) brother-plural. e. thus. paani my aunt) qava'rjwi qam'i'jjwi fiyi'aijfv'L horses (sing. f) forms plural -tsLijivX-. No simple rules can therefore be given for the use of (objective). when used attributively with enclitic -ULa-. (b) -rjw'i. nominal -/. a'iA) wTtca'vii a'ivam'irarjWA yu'ta-m'i roadrunners (sing. -like great-grandchildren-plural-her her two great-grandchildren.(subjective). a). before animate nouns. pavi'ni my paa'yw'i aunts. na'xA) quails (sing.?i-" (§ 24. two brothers (sing. sari'tTqats).) young men (sing. also yu't atsLrjw'i) In the last two examples a nominalizing suffix of the singular {-p'itsL-. (a) -mi. 1. mq'muni) Examples horses of objective forms are: I rvC purjqu' rjw'iani qoyo"^ also appended to cardinal -yu. as their range of usage seems to intercross with that of types of stem. rjwa(-). The objective -rjwia- in -r)wa{). while participial -fi-" (§ 25. qava'^) jack-rabbits (sing. 1. tci'x/i) turtles (sing. fiyi'A) aia'iarjw'i Coconino Indians (sing.i^qa'm) (sing. obj. w'i'tc. Animate plural -m'i.

The objective is the case of the object of a transitive verb. also in the inanimate noun before objective -ya. tiv^^L itself.) with hair having come off from dragging along (referring to one particular animal out of several) This suffix has been already discussed as a (2) Plural -q a-. It occurs. c). -pina' p'itsirjw arj. 4. he (vis. and the apposition to a noun with postposition (see §50. cases. the genitive (possessive). (1) Formation of syntactical cases. g.. the smallest (boy) of all I om'mpimpinaraintsLrjw'i very-least-plur. tiya'n'imp'iqaniann seed-beater-plural-with-their with their (plur. 3).). This same usage applies to many animate plurals in -rjw'i- as well.-own they (inv. I will patci'ywav %m%t'rux\VA own daughters go to call my children for help daughter-obj. I (am the) very least in size (of my family) qavi\' ovL'nfuaqwoipLyw'i' jack-rabbit (obj. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE ni' I MU^'qwL'xayw'aivdtii n'i'ni lu{w)a'tsLi]wa I call-for-help-go-will- me children-ohj. the subject of a subordinate verb (see §55..(§ 25. the object of an imperative (see § 52). f). a Shoshonean Language 233 215 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. the unmodified noim with no specific case . 9). The former of these is in use as the subject of a non-subordinate verb.) country (obj. 1).) (hair)-having-come-ofTmoving-plur. verb element defining plurality of the subject (§ 31. 1).(§ 49.i ni' smallest-plur.). Paiute recognizes jective two fundamental syntactical the sub- and objective. though this may be Examples are: p'iaqa{i)yar)umi country-possessive-plural-objective-your (plur. jack-rabbit (obj. your (plur. though not frequently. postpositive -ma- with (§ 50. and as a base for the affixing of postpositions (see § 50). The subjective case is simply the absolutive.) that (you) own (vis. and possibly other post-positions to emphasize the plurality (as contrasted with duality) of an attached enclitic possessive pronoun.)-to. It does not. to his The use of animate plurals for singulars conceived of as singled out from a group has been already discussed in connection with participles in -t'i-in'i.: Southern Paint e. primarily indicate plurality of the noun implied. 1. e. 6. (obj.) seed-beater(s) § 49.). Syntactical cases. therefore.).

-via-. see §50. -qu-. the form is is felt as used as a base for the suffixing of a the ccjuivalent of an objective. -mpa-A. b).. The other uses of the subjective will be illustrated below (§ 52. g.4).). g. Rain's children enclitic. or w (o).) edge-at-participle (obj. The genitive function of the objective qly)wa'''va°-nfi is seen. 1). -vpa. being (obj.) at (the) edge of (the) land rain (obj. -ywa. 2. 'i.) aunt u^qwCyu^ my u^qwi'yuu (< u^qwifyva-) qaniani qaniarjA qnna'ma'ami paa'tA paa' iaraini nampa'yA nam pa-) his (vis. wantsi' aij arja'imi antelope he (vis.{-ia-) vowel is i.: 234 216 suffix.) children. is used after numeral stems §59. g. objective if of the noun. as (obj.T.) leg (stem tiampa'iayA Another objective suffix.through.) house thy sack quna'v'i'imi pa" water paa'ravii our (2 inclus. (see cf. 2. g. § 50). in: Uv'^Lp-'i land (obj. also the use of the object as the subject of a subordinate verb (§ 55. this is formed by suffixing -a..on.). = him) he- .(§ 30. final if vowel the final vowel Examples are: SUBJECTIVE sari'ts- OBJECTIVE sari'tsL dog (< -tsi-) (< -ista-) arjqa'qwicaR'i lightning aijqa'qwicariA qani'ni arrow (< u^qwL'yv-) house qam'aijA his (vis.-own. e.-her it-toward aunt-obj.) appositions to such nouns or pronouns are regularly put in the objective. -ya. ( the o. Coj'ote's liwa'rV tu{io)a'tsLr)w'i Often with pleonastic use of a pronominal dna'rjwavL iintu' (] ui)Wa coyote (obj. also adverbial trijqu. The subjective as a subject and the objective as a transitive object are so plentifully illustrated in the course of this paper that no further examples need be given here. e. (he went) toward his aunt's house While the subjective form postposition. (2) Use of syntactical cases. -7jica'ai. e. a) and after certain postpositions (e."aijw n'u'ra' paa'(i)ya(f)i house-obj.TOGETHER WITH.) back-flesh-his (he went) back flesh qani. -r)qu-. X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR The is a.

g. -vaywi. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE TOWARD. g. g. g.into. of these — seem Nahuatl to go ring elements (e. § 50. that are compounded in a postpositional sense with preceding stems (cf. They but not entirely.Southern Paiute. A third type consists of originally independent stems. e. (1) Types of -'aya-va-tcuywa. -yi-. g. The sporadic subjective use of objective forms of independent 39. -pa. chiefly adverbial and nominal. -aya-. one might are chiefly. of course. Some back to Uto-Aztekan prototypes. only or chiefly as compounded with others. A second type of postposition is that compounded of two (or more) postpositional < -va. or an independently occurring postposition preceded or followed by one not so occurring (e. -ma. A considerable number consist of simple elements that cannot be brought into connection with other Paiute elements. -tuywa-. thus corresponds to that of the objective Postpositions are pronouns (except. g.. gemination. 3). They are true suffixes (or suffixes). That -yamya-va- is a true compound postposition is shown . end). Several postpositions that now appear primitive are quite probably really compounded of simpler elements. aside from. -ruywa-. The position of the postposition (§ 49).with. under appropriate consonantal along). Etymologically. with -ua. tremely Such periphrastic forms are ex- common (see § 50. e. -va. -ruqwa-^i. 4. -rjwi-. -ntcuywa-. -vaywituywa. g. -tcuywa-. of fact local reference. and nasalization (e. Such compounds are often followed by a primitive postposition. at my side < qaniya-SIDE. These may either be independently occur-va-. g. A number of simple postpositions seem to occur e. e.into < -varjwi-" in plus -tuywa. -ywi-tuywa. as pounded stems that have that they precede practically all become enclitics and comshown by the that. e. personal pronouns in certain not clearly understood cases has been already mentioned (§ Postpositions. or.right into. they are subject to the phonetic processes of spirantization.'xa-va. suffixed to nouns. in direction.. a Shoshonean Language 235 217 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. -ntuywa.of. enclitic pronouns and postnominal pronouns). English around.through. apart -f -rjwi-. m^a"ni. non-syntactical case suffixes. as Paiute possesses a large number of postpositions prefer to call them. and demonstrative stems (treated as the equivalent of inanimate third personal pronouns). three types may be recognized.moving under). TOWARD THE ANTELOPE.

in yonder direction he (inv.)-through (-(//r«-)-past. i.postposition. a). SOME OF IT.atBEING-ON-FROM. g.236 218 X Southern Paiiitc and Ute SAPIR by its employment with a pronominal stem is like ni-^. ti'iiiA IT-ON.and tense elements) are directly Examples of such verbified uses are: it-back-f rom-thou it ! go out (of it)! "'u'x upa^p-'iya (inv. but um'''a'7iti ( prono:ni (or demonstrative stem) -|. -vanfi-ma-ncujqwa.). . g. (uv'^'ii'iifiA) instead of simply that. qanintcuqWA house-under). (2) Verbal use of postpositions. g. a noun compound raises 7i'i-ya')uya- impossible. there is a tendency for postpositions to attach themselves by preference to pronouns and demonstrative stems. g. e. (he) went off tlirough it (inv. was not there (tiiey) 2 started to jiuTjwa" ainnku piya ai iiu All postpositions may be participialized by means of -fi-" (§ 25. there (uv^'a").). Hence the postposition is often replaced by its periphrastic equivatype noun lent: noim (obj.)-on-to-momcntaneous-past. -vaiifia-. also All postpositions indicating movement. g. . all This type of postposition the question whether postpositions as a class are not in origin stereo- typed compounded noims (e. Sometimes the participial form takes on a specialized significance. avi'mitiiywa''^ -yu. obj. c. the noun may follow. house. e. g. (he) \n)wa"vantuywai)Up'Lya got on top of him axa'va ntuxwa''^ what-at-to-thou? where are you going to? self-with-movement-inceptive-past-dual. um^a'ndA) BEING THERE. go along together qa'tcu viaa'iiiiy^va'aik IVA not that (vis. thereon. Participialized postpositions may be followed by other postpositions.). e. 6.under < house-underness. verbified without further change in form. being at (-m-" at). HE g. Such participialized postpositions are often employed where simple local phrases or adverbs would appear in English.\thered sticks thatat-being-obj. -vant'i-. UNDER MY HOUSE = MY HOUSE-UNDERNESS).vT. some indicating presence. suffixed to the momentaneous postposition. AWAY FROM. may be and frequently are Formal verbal suffixes (e. g. While may be used with noun stems (e.\n independent ol)jective pronoun may also be thus periphrastically used with a pronominal or demonstrative (3) postpositions + stem. e.)-at-negative-it (inv. thereat. Periphrastic constructions with postpositions.

the (thing) yonder. to him List of postpositions.) he-to.). (cf. 30) along toward.being PRESENT AT and compounded: -anu. what is over there i(y)a'tuywam'mui(i)y'iar)A this-at-to-moving-present-he (vis. under the house service-berry-bush (obj. e. cross references make clear the relationship of the (4) includes various elements.) it-in way-again. -ayavatcuywa.)-at-from-preterit return.)-at-being it (vis. he stole it from me marja'iac. g. (he took) some of the bush pa. -ayava.(cf. 25) present at.(cf.) she-at-being. The following list of postpositions all elements that have been found on analysis.) it it-in cry-future-participle. here I am u{w)a'noyuntcA pa{i)yu'r)U that (inv. they 2 took them 2 right into (the) water . lim^a'nEA (he took) from the bush.) it (inv.-our 2 (inclus. being about to pa"°yavatcuywa)]w'a)iiL qwTi'p'Cya' water-into-them (inv.i u'a'xa4>A water (obj. IN AMONG.). i{y)tnuan ^am'n'iu this-at-I do-continuative-present. 30) right into. -'ayavatcumanaTjqwa. 49) acting right in. compounded forms coming under the first element.)-he ni'niantcaxqaTjA iilTjwa'ntuyw 'iy'i' rjqarjU (vis.(cf. Examples are: qatu ua'xaruxWA house (ol)j.(cf.) -at-being-obj. IS) out from among. 7.(cf. again in this way ^'i'tcl a'upac u me-preterit-it (vis. -aya-^ right in.) it-into. 30. 25. occurs only compounded: -'ayaruywa30) MOVING through.). 1.(cf. he walks along over here 2. a Shoshonean Language 237 219 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.arja'ruxwA him (vis. -atuywa.) it-in. to our aunt aru'qwA qani a it-under house tia'v'i (obj. -anu-yu(cf.. The entries are made for simple postpositions. 37.-dual object).)-they took (sing.i u'a'xaxpA water (ol)j. occurs only as participialized -ail. 49) MOVEMENT FROM. obj. right through the house right in the water pa. 37.) it-through. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE jxia'iaram urjwa'vatc'i (2) aunt-obj. 37. (he) has been at and returned from there ua't- am that (inv.: Southern Paiute. right into the water this (inan. among. u'a'xava(i)YU yaxa'vant'i cry while right in (inv. -ayavayu. -a-" PRESENT at. 37) right in. These elements occur only after demonstrative stems.) I-from steal-monientaneous.

-ina-" RESTING ON. BECAUSE OF. beside (cf. Examples are: thou-other-at-being. enclitic -n ia-.(cf.along. 18) from on. -)nauar)qivap a. 49) acting at side of.other. 5) moving beside. § 39.(cf. 18.. independent stem qamya. independent stem qima. occurs only compounded: -ya'niya yi. 45. 1 apparently only with enclitic possessive pronoun. 3. -mani'inranaijqxca. 38) . . while -ma.(cf. 7. (vis. 48.). else.). preceding short vowels. -y'imastranger. walk along the house at mxa"ni.) 7. but rare as simple postposition. -yaniyava.\TED TO.being — er than. other than (cf. the one greater than anybody 5. my side (something going on) -ya va'-.(see § 49.inant'i. § 19. 8) BEING other than. 21. out from among the bulrushes 3.xa"va' my at side (at rest like a tree) n'ixa"nL-)^a"va:iyu 4. not related to you inn'x'iinaTjwant'i qariLyiinarjWiiuxWA away from (the) house uyv'iirarjwduxiVA away from it (inv. g.\T side of. common e.seems to occur only without such pronoun). e.from on. 14) MOVING AWAY FROM. -y'imaijwituywa. proximity). . -nuini'iijica'ai- with some of (cf. 2.regularly lengthens 17. g. -marjqu. FOR (of time). see -yi. through the open plain. -ya'niya . d).(cf. -yaniyavayu.). obj. occurs only as participialized -yavat'i. he (vis.on other side of (cf. some of. 11). -mantuywa- (cf. NOT REL. the greatest one in -7/-" moving through. 238 220 ' X Southern Paiiite and Vte SAPIR to'o'iv'i' a' xavatcumanaijqw A (< a'a'xa-) it-in-from bulrushes (ohj. 26.: n'ixa'°vafim is ya'a'{i)y'iar)A I I-greater-plur.-I it-beside-moving walk.\t. -niauiaNEAR (cf. occurs only compounded: -y'im aywanfi. from one of (here -ma- occurs twice). Examples are: qani'an uxiva'n'tnxn-x-l yay{a)'i I house-obj. -inanai)qwa. compounded forms. 2).(cf. t'i'ra{i)yva XI desert-plain-through.: . BELONGING TO.plur.\T. tall-present-he he taller than nirjxv'i' xa'^'vat'im'^ arjA person-greater. 31. 37). also 15. 38. .being on. 6.(cf.side. For compounded forms.

when 18) followed l)y enclitic possessive -rjwanfi- pronoun). -viayu.and its compounds -ijwarjqu- are used instead of -7na. obj. for two years tca'a'ik aiyoay aya'vLmayqoayA hold-resultative-when-hini arni-atobj.) cv'quc.) wa-'tomoviA there arrive (plur. (they) arrive at Kanab from Cedar City yaa'ikwo'mva yaya'yiav uni^a'naijqWA die-off-shall crying-own itfrom. DURING. IS. 1.) it-at-being. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 30) also UP TO. however. one OF. 30.). by. on other side of (his) camp qani'an UTri^anC -pafiaYi house-obj. one of them ti'nt'i^'qap'Lya saitl y-waywanti himself well from her well-ate she-from-being-obj. FROM.). when holding him by his arm ci'ravianarjqWA qana'fi vv'^'a '(ml"'. BEING AT.(cf.) song-at-being-obj. I walk near the house na'a'int'i 2{mant'i burning (obj. 17. let him die from his crying qani'manaijqwopA house-from at.from.-I it-at-like walk. and § 24. -Tjioanfiywa' ai(cf. circling. up to tina'via{i)yuaqA from its base mi{y)o'maxi very far around For compounded forms. 25.uv'^Lamanfia4>i qaxa'^jnya one (obj. sang one of his own songs cu{w)a'roxWituywanuviantuxwA nearly midnight nearly-right-night-at-to. g. -ywanayqwa- from. (he) enjoyed .st-. see 45.after personal. at.) pA'qa'yutitca-yA qwiya'tsnjwanaijqWA bear-by. relative. from fire.own sang (momentaneously). Examples are: qani'mA on. -ywantiiyica- are: me right on toyo'iMU^taq arj'wayqmii my forehead kill-passive-preterit-he (vis. 8. f).Southern Paiute. also after (apparently used (cf. 49) FROM ON.Cedar City-from Kanab (obj. 7.(cf. 15. at (spirantized form of animate nouns in -/. vine) two-year-on. are not common) ^im^u'ywant aip'iya' they (inv.). 5) around. perhaps -mayi. he was killed by (the) bear (such agentive constructions with passives.-his (vis. 43. AGAINST. at a house (e. -ywa.. a Shoshonean Language 239 221 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 10. reflexive pronouns.being said. 38. Examples ni'yjVA (hanging) on 11) with some of. also 2. something burning (subj. -ywa-"^ resting on. 30) ON TO. 25. participialized (cf.

I li\e with you to'qwap'iya' piywa'ijw'aq uxjiL (it) together with his wife bet-past wife-with-obj. as is more probably. Examples are: 'ama"aicu with it nana'p-'iya" it-with-again grew. calling on to himself For compounded forms.: nar)wa"q uminayiVA pu'i'mani both-obj. probably It is -Tjwa. (they hit with their canes -ma'ai- 10. i e. bow-with-obj.-own. imp'i'ma i'iya'niva n what-with-thou hutcher-will':' with what will you butcher? tiitnp'^LmA nara'<i)ilcaplya rock-with reciprocal-throw-plural-past.)-from-being-\vith. -ma. together with is (used with inanimate forms) its . -minaijwa.e.WITH (as instrumental).)-own. shall go with you (i. doubtless related to -i]wa- Examples are: sari'vuyquyw' ai mi 7iV qani\a imiywa''^ imi'rjw'aimpa^ with your dog I house-have thou-with.)-own. -maqu-. 7. see 12. to local -ma- indicated by parallelism to -7)wa'ai- Objective -ma'q-u- used when coupled with an objective noun. 12. (they) threw rocks at each other poro' q wama{'^)mau<i>i it) cane-plural-with-their (inv. (7). with some of the young men naj)wantux WA pa'i^a self-on-to calling.(8). [). with both my It is eyes not certain that this interpretation of -minaijwa- is correct. This related either to instrumental -ma.(9) or. g.both (§ 59. 11. (11).: 240 222 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR aivam umu'ywantiywa'^ youths they (inv. obj. . compounded with found only suffixed to objective naywa'qu. c). 10. (he) grew simultaneously atcim'aquqwa4>i together with his 11. also 7. 8. (while holding) it bow (spirantized form of It is -rjwa'ai-" together with obj.-with eye-with-my. (he) bet staked his wife too) For compounded forms. used with (8). animate forms). g. -ijwa'q u-. (they) bethrew each other with rocks. 3. see 6. e.with (instrumental).-it (inv.

acting in (cf. -nayituywa- (cf.) -rjqwa-" direction. yimi'tuxWA toyo'qwi qivi'viihixwA F'or backward run! to the left compounded forms. -vii{y)umayi-^ (cf. also 15. including tuywavt'i-. opposite. 21. used only after qwaia-" beyond.mL"ooitSL(t>A at a distance from me it (inv.). 5). a Shoshonean Language 241 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 18. Examples are: from in- . riim-'^i' {y)v i{. I irjWLtux-WA if in this direction ^'i'ywituywmit uru'^av'i (he) is wonder coming this way 6. (of time. beyond it being beyond.(cf. 30) to beyond.) a 16. 47. g. 17. participialized -nayit'i.) at a little distance from little iinn'yiiinaxiW being (obj. 30) in — direc- tion.being 37) participialized beyond. see 20. 7. (cf. 223 found only compounded: -niit uywa- (cf. participialized -??ii(?/)ii7?myit'i.being in. 37) at a little distance from. For compounded forms. used after all non-geminating stems. cf. 18) side of. pronouns). it (inv.AT A distance from (cf. 7. chiefly compounded: -ywi-Tjwi- tuywa- (cf. as compounded -uarjqwa- (18). Examples are: . 14. on the otlier side qv'aia'tjqWApatcuxwA to the other side Generally -yqwa- occurs see 33.) day -on.(cf. 30) in direction of (spirantized form of 13.: Southern Paiute. 30) moving into. 5).being further away. on this day nanin'naywituxiVA qiina'rjwitux in different directions WA in another direction this-toward-participle be-irrealis. e. 49). -mi{y)u. far) diminutive -vnoiisiva. further away from beyond. occurs only compounded: -r/qivapa-ijqwapatci. For compounded forms. infrequent). and -yi-". into (perhaps compounded of older -Jia-. participialized Examples are: 'i'tciA tava'rjwi this (obj. independent stem mi{y)oAT A distance. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 13. Examples are: qwaia'yqwApaqA qwaia'rjqWApatci opposite-direction-at-its (vis. -n-ayiyu. -yqwap aicuywa- 37. -nayi-" in. -riayifiimanarjqwa. (cf. -mi-. -rjwi-" IN. 30. ON see 48.

participialized . (you) will put (your) own knees it ora'va t'iv^i'p'i iina'^yd'i dig-shall earth (obj. ent noun nariii)ya- . 17.: 7.) it it ana'ydumaijqw A from in-acting? noise) ? inside of aya'7iL)(. g. 18. see 48.) in. -narjqwapa. participial -Jiarjqwapatd. -nan{i)ya- down (the) mountain between. distributive -nanan{i)ya. also 2.being in IN — — — DiREC'JTON. in your direction. e. 7.{-n(ir)qwanti-) -nayqwat'imanayqwa. see 19. independbetweenness with reciprocal prefix na-^. 38) between.(cf.) betweenness.(cf.occurs twice). (he shot) on the other end For compounded forms. 18. -narjqwat'i. near you ina'ijqwApatciA this-direction-at-being (obj. qa'ivanapaijwi moving 21. e. 45. iina'ijwinainMi seen from 20. -nan{i)yana.( sight of -u{w)a-mi in front of. nafi'{i)yavani))ii at our (excl. 16) direction. 31. 8. e.(cf. (cf.: 242 224 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR in thee imi'naxi tarja'na X ikxoa<^'i mara'rjiJcava" it in knee-in-it (inv. occurring in adverbs. from north {pana'rjqwA pana'rjqWAfimanarjqwA down < water-ward) ivii'naijqwopA thou-direction-at. 18.(cf. -narjqwa- (probably compounded of non-independent -na-. 40. 18) from DIRECTION (note that -narjqwa. Examples are: Una i)qwa{i)yiar)A he (vis. (you) shall dig the earth being il:7ia'°yLtuywap'iya' ' (you) shall dig into the earth went into (inv.). 38. g. 37) DIRECTION. -nan(i)yapa. cf. 5) through' aik- iina'''yi. cf.)-own put-plur.(cf. 43. NEAR. 14).) -in-partieiple.YU how-act-subordinate-thou say in (inv. 48. 47) on between. 17. it (inv. Examples are: 38. 30) TO between. -iiafi{i)yova iduywa. -natju-'ina'mi. -nan{i)yayi.(cf.)- what are you doing there (that accounts for your For compounded forms. 32). and -yqwa-.) is coming up down-being-from.-will. it (inv. stuck between. g. 17. between us) occurs only compounded: -nafi{i)yava-.) -napaywi- moving down (perhaps contains -ijwi-.

into %mu'navas ariLp'iya' they 24. (obj.) eyes qaru'nananiava' among (several) houses (outside) pu\'nanyapar)A between taijwa'n afiyanarjA tarjwa'nariyaxiarjA between his (vis.assimilated from u-oa-)- around-to. 7) for (of time). seems to occur only compounded: -. g. 7. each to ana'uqWA country following. occurs only compounded: -nituywa- 30) moving aw . g. hii'tuywa''^ this-away-to-thou ! go away (from here)! 25. 30) up to e. houses (obj.. ooa. va. 30) (circling) around. cf. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qam'naniava between (2) houses his (vis.)-among. -navasu- imitating reflexive na- + 37.) houses (distributive)-obj. occurs only with nominalizes.) that (were) round about iiini . -nu- viantuywa- (cf. -nw-.. 5. -ni-^ (inv. old tarjioa'nauqwA each t'iv"'Lp'L we (inclus.)-following did.) it-among. night. participialized -oayituywanfi-. throughout (probably noun stem with reciprocal prefix na-^). e. to wa foot-cleft-obj.) teeth (on outside) tana' c i^a(i)yar)A nafi' yava ntux ness-at-to.) between- between his hoofs 22.also).\t.: : : Southern Paiute. also compounded: stem tuywa. cv'itoywanumacu for just one night cu{w)a'roxw'ituywanumantuxWA nearly midnight nearly-middle-nigh t-at-to. distributed among us. g. e.myituywaaround. a Shoshonean Language 243 225 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.(cf.) it (inv. 1.dark. which it -numa. up to For compounded -anu-. throughout the country 23. (placed) around the house aya'oax itux IVA vijwa'oaxituywanti" qarjqa'niA around him he (inv.)-around-being (obj. tuywa'nu night cv'ituywa7iu one night. (he) did as they did (cf.-his (vis. + enclitic (perhaps analyzable -cu.\y from.distributed among. -oa(cf. AWAY from. g. see 26.) (2) teeth (stuck like tooth-pick) between his (vis. -nauqwa. Ex- amples are: qani OD'axduxwA house circling (obj. e.

being negative verb suffix (see § 57.before -manarjqica(7. liiva'niywap'iya'aikwA gave it (inv.{-tc-. right among (the) people house-center-at-heing. -naai. 38) in CENTER OF. (the) west tuxu'ntuxwanti)n"'q{i)YU from upward . Examples are: nb]wi' firaxuopa qani'ntciraxoava?it'i people-center-at. 17. also 2. tuywanfimayu.{-tc-. wards.of -aya-. -firayuava. ACROSS.(2. -naydumanayqwa. -t-. e. g. across (the) water 28. cf.(17). c. -nf-. beyond. 30) to opposite.(cf. pa'qwaidntuxWA water-opposite-to. -ntc-). facing the other way tuyu'niuxWA upward t'iv^a'i'tuyivcnd'i west-to-being.(cf.). aTja'Ricu'airi a'" paying no attention to him § 18 2. only compounded: -qwaiantuywa- independent qwaia-" opposite. (cf.i to-will-negative-indicative-him I shall not-him (vis. Examples are: izcd -tuywanti-.: 244 226 27.and -yioa. -nciiai-na'ai- not heeding.4/. e. 2. -nt-. perhaps -ya. see 30.(or -ya-.being in CENTER OF. 7. 30) to center of.). -q waia-" § 60. always verbal 2.M'.appears This common postposition is probably compounded of non-independent -tu. 49) from — participial- as -r- -ntc-). middle (cf. 37). as is shown by dropping of -ywn. participializcd -firayuavant'i. RIGHT AMONG. 38. g. right into the toyo't house Iraxoovanhixwaq-i middle of it (the) 29. b). 2). 43) and one or two other elements.t7a" water-edge-to-past. being in the middle of right-center-at-to-its (vis. 37. -vatcumanarjqwa. went along (the) river ivain la (vis.) aruyw a'ip'Cya^ it-to said pax*^^o'''rMa. g. For another explanation of these forms. shore qatcu'arjani n'i' imi'titcuxwava tj' r).)-I I thounot give him to you qwaxd iiywac u off-to-also. independent noun stem t'irayuaCEnter). X Southern Palule and Ute SAPiR opposite (cf. -t. e. toward. paying no attention to. -t.) to him (inv.appears as -r.: in form. -firayua. often verbalized to give to. d)'.(cf. -t-. -tuywa-" to. only compounded: -tirayuapa-.

participialized -tuqwayiti.) it (inv. 35. g.moving under. 18) climbing (tree). -tuqwayi. -tuqwa-" under. Verbalized -iuywa. 19). -tuqwaipa. cf. 5. 25.i For compounded forms. ~nt-. its bottom paru'q waxi moving under (the) water qani'ntcuqtoa''xi-i'i moving under (the) house aru'qwa"x'^'yu i/ax^'vurup-'iya" past. 26. c. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE For compounded forms. 31. 10.)-under acting? what did you say under there? qa'ivay vru'qwAtiixH'. under the dawn.(cf. -tuqwayu. Una. 24. taiHL'u{iv)Ltux-WA moving pi'fc'i us 2 (inclus. 2. 38). 13. 43.) went about under it while crying its ava'''ruq waipa'qwA aru'qwanai]qWApiya under side of climbed up it shade mountain (obj. 45.appears as Examples are: -r. 5) moving under. 31.(cf. see 1.(cf. -tuqwayiyu. -tuqwatuywa. 30) towards under. 47.(cf.)-under-to. a Shoshonecm Language 245 227 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. during the day qaju'ntcuqwA under (the) house tump'H't-uqWA under a stone aru'qwAtiaq A it-under-being-its (vis. 5. towards under the mountain. 27. 49) acting under. to the base of the mountain aniantca airj iiru'q-wa{i)YU what-preterit-thou say-momentaneous it (inv. i'ina'HwYwan'ni. (cf. 48. 32. 17. 38. 33. 44.) (vis.)-under.under side of (perhaps misheard for -yipa-. 8.) it (inv.) (< uttjw'L-uwa'nii-) in front of (the) in front of person arrive. -tuqwanmjqwa. cf. participialized -tuqwat'i.(cf.{-tc-. tA^ci'ant'i naru'qwA under (him) self uru'qwA dawn-being just before (obj. also 6.) niu'{\v)ituxwatcarjA rived before I-bef ore-preterit-he he ar- me . -ntc-). 49) acting while moving under. it-under-moving-acting cry-go about( front of (evidently compounded. before Examples are: in vi(na\'u{w)aitii 7ii7)wv'''(w)aini front of them (vis. for -mi-.Southern Paint c.TO hunt).to be out on a hunting trip (cf. -u{w)ituyiva- 30) moving in front of. (of time).being under. 45. 37. 7. -u{w)ami. see 32. 14.TO GO TO may even he compounded with another verb stem. daybreak iava'tcuqWA sun-under. -t. -i-.).

came along through it (referring to trail.i 16. by means 36. with enclitic -cu. na'pantuxwA (< ua-upa-". Examples are: participialized going '''u'raimpa riLani t'i towards (the) house I shall go toward.(§ 19. k) -upa{)cu. me kwi'tu'xpaqoaijA (he bit him) rii' anus-through-obj. Examples are: I-by-momentaneous. after. 48). up towards it . -urai-'' you -uraint'i- TOWARD. thus toyj'n-^opa just-I-in manner (= toyoin'i-opa-). tracks) ma'vp (i"^ in that way. by. cf.(cf.being through. 2. modally). equally to (vis. compounded: -unayqwapa. 30) opposite to. look like you o'pac'U (fires) same direction. d) -upania. in -Mpa()-". around. in ployed both locally and.(§ 19. all a) reciprocal-in-manner-to. 2. 30) together with.246 228 33. together of o'pat uywap'iya^ went along on it imi'upaHux WA through you.(cf. -upa{)tuywa. distributed (inv. among. -upa{)qu-. pass by me n'io'purju tump^a'upa'ami through their (inv. with enclitic -nia. participialized -up at'i. ALONG. -una-''. after it 'a'uraintV up it-toward-being-obj.behind g. -upantuywa. only X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR OF. behind (the) house manner (emdirection. 37) outside Examples are: qan outside of (the) house 7iiii'nai)qwopA back behind me (at rest) nt'u'nantuxwA opposite to me 34.(to .) mouths 'i'upa'''p'iya'^ went this way. 30) moving THROUGH.. " through. direction as.(cf. BACK behind.)- through-being among the houses see § 4.(cf. obj. 1. e.: (probably related to 33. in the same manner it qayjqa'm o' p at'i liouses (distributively)-ol)j.).in the same way. I'an arjqwop-. -uuaufuyiva.-his through his anus I ivn'(Y)upa'anL uaya' (f)A''qa in the I thou-in-manner-like look. BY MEANS OF. also -vinap'i-. qam'o na^pi 35. in this direction a'up arjqip'iya — — it-through-come-past. -ona p'i. qanCu'ra' toward. no doubt secondarily.\ct) like.

(they) deliberated as to (wliat they were) to do tcayipA paa'ivacu near (= proximity-at) (jointed) in three places aiH'i'v'^atc'iA toijicaq ajumpa they-at-being-obj. 41) during (of time). participialized -vatci. got a way off wa'ixAp'iya tin-i'(f)A deliberated do-at.(§ 19. 16. 15. see 10. 18. from. -patcuywa. comes running toward 'u'ra. arriving at far-little-at my place little mi{y)o"HsL(j)A fi'qa'y'wip'iya' became.occurs less frequently. 2.used with personal pronominal including demonstrative stems. u'ra^ pay{e)'i' qani'an house-obj. -pa-' -r-. at.with pronouns and personal nouns. -patcuywa. -vayu. about. For compounded 37. (they fought) close together tuywa'vatcuq-u during (the) night tuxu-a'va{i)YU through. with certain adverbs and compounded. during (the) night mava' {i)Hiyan-L (probably = -xaYU-) that-at-acting-become 2. 30) moving to {-vatcuywa. -»a-". 33. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE ally Unlike other postpositions. k) -'oacu(jointed) in so and so MANY PLACES (after numeral stems). during.: Southern Paiute.-I towards go-present (= qatu'an qam'un u'u'ra. 18). .being at. an adverb with prepositional function. I go towards the house NVqiOLVi'vnan 'u'ra^ run-moving-me towards. 2. which are followed by after diminutive -tsi-. 49) acting at. distance 2. b). treated as though ending in are: Curiously enough. went to him pi{y)a' vatcuxwa4>'i (he went) to his own mother tcayi'patcux-WA near-to. a Shoshonean Language 247 229 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. shall shoot at tiiem pu'tcu'tcuyioai I nV 'arja'valciA know-present. it-toward). also 7. to. g. is through i. to a certain (§ (iO. certain adverbs). I know about him uywa'vatcuywayqw' aip'iya' he-at-to-go-past.seems often to occur as a phoneticindependent word. 30. -vatcuqu- (cf. and rarely after verbs. Examples he-at. 'urai. -pa-* stems — not — . aija'4>A where he is pi'tciRi ni'^4>"A arriving I-at. 48. e. shoot-momentaneoushe-at-being-obj.(cf. 38 geminated form -pa.(cf. perhaps me AT (spirantized form -va. 23. hence followed by -tc.instead of (of time). with enclitic -cm. see § 55. shall.

)-momentaneous-at-acting-own.-my. but freely suffixed to nouns. generally -va-"-. as spirantized ava" it-at.). from there mv'^'a'°ninxwA (coming) on to. "'u'v^'a' there (inv. -pa nfi. see § 55. aiu this-at-being that which is here uv^a'°'nUA pu'ca'yaHc-^Apiya' t'im'ayqiva c 'umi yii'ni there-being-obj. 31.sometimes with verbs. but also tiimp^i'vfV) ( VHa'°yantumpa' on (the) divide < m'ia'yanti-") toyo'tyqwiyumpa 7jquni right-crown-at-obj.-past. 7. own camping where they were staying over night tA'fcj'u'na. -payu. 2). *'i'vd' this-at. during their own porj' m' miapa ufuywa4)i traveling lci(y)ap- iva'a{i)YL' i'ixa'iva' round-dance here-acting happen-shall. uv^'a". there. ivd'.)-at-being-on-direction. from tliere both of them returned at their home qwavi'i)upayu4>i camp (plur. DTRING with verbs. -vantuywa (cf.(cf. concerning with verbs. from (less often -p ayn-. mava'\ m^a'va' house ( there (vis. 28. -mpayu-. 49) acting at. there (they) hunted for (him) um'pd that ntiani tell-to-will-thee I me do-at-beingstarting obj.). hunt for-plur. on to (less often -pantwywa-. here qani'vani tump^'i' at my pa stone-at < tump^i-". see .) nv^'^a'^ntuyicaywA u-'ina'i^ piya'aiijiVA throw- past-him (inv. 2). objective -mpayqu-. -inpaiid-.248 230 38. participialized -vant'iBEING AT (less often -pant'i-.(cf. -vanUmanaTjqwa. 18) starting from. place.about. down to (the) canyon travel-moving-at-to-own. I will tell you about what do m'^a'va-nfimanaijqWA (vis. only infrecjuently as geminated -pa-" or nasalized -mpa-"). -pa-ntuywaTO.). see § Examples of this most important of all postpositions are: 55.-my. 30) to.x\VA water-canyon-at-to. upon me there-to-him (inv. -pa -" X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR AT (parallel to^ vn)ii'i'antsLya)it'i)i)pa{i)yu divides (distributivcly)- little-being-at-acting scratch-subordinating. right there (he) threw him down pao'{w)i'paniu. 2). (hit me) right on the crown of 'i'vd ?>t my head it. For compound forms. 21. while scratching in little around divides 3. there-acting-dual recipro- a roimd-dance will take place here iiv'"'a'yum'i Jiaijica'aiiin pa{i)yl'q w\)ip'iya' cal-witli-dual return-go-past. see § 55. -vayu.

for normal -vaand -va{i)yu-.-it (inv. or -va. What the significance of the vocalic breaking is is not evident.during. -vaitoyj-" alongside of. and otherwise non-occurring -yau-. start(s) from here also 46.makes this highly improbable. g. -vatcuqu. a). + -a- vi^a'vaanim"! qanL:>^a 'i'va'a{i)y iim'rfU there-we (exclus. 18) compounded. BEFORE REACHING.) qanLvaitnm tar/wa'vait jx D house-equal-being-like. -vait'i- Here may belong 39. g. Examples are: toyj'nHvai'fim pa'a'(i)yinia-7)A just-I-e({ual-being-plural tall-presentlike-he (vis.) house-have. d).at is — 'u'v"'aiyauqu at that (inv. e. participialized EQUALLY TO. probably compounded of -va'a.(37). Examples are: enclitic 19.(3S).) -it (vis. we live there here-acting do-momentaneous.and -va{ya{i)yu.i kwrpa'p'iya' the antelope fell he-before-being-ob- jective-again antelope he fell.). this is the time at which the Kanab Indians learned it (inan. a Shoshonean Language 249 231 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.) time. only one more waa'vantic-u only two places left . then. down dead before reaching him -vaiyau- time (for -qu. he is as tall as I am (incl.) 42. AS — AS. 38). obj. about the size of a house (moving) alongside of us a77i'i'v"'aitoyor)qw'aiya^ while passing alongside of them participialized -vaianatjqwat'i- 40. generally followed by enclitic -nia- (§ 19. does not seem to occur alone. perhaps only -vant' e.) they (inv. as -vaIt is barely possible that -va'a(§ is to be analyzed yet the suffixing of non-enclitic -yu.) learn (distributively)-past partic. -vani'i- place left over (with numeral stems. occurs only (cf. cv'v^anticu one-more-also. Examples are: 41. 2. -vaiyauqu. 47. 37). : 'arjavaianaijqwAt'iacu wants afj. -vai-".: Southern Paint c. thereupon (very common as sentence-introducing adverb in mythical narrative) ^'i'trlaq-A p'iv'^a'iyauqu qana'ntsLijiv'Caq- umi pu'pu'tcnywapi this which-time Kanab-Indians-obj. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE There are also forms with -wt()'a. -vaia-. 3.

deliberate-verbal in through a their (vis. tiiy u' in pApa(i) yax. is unexplained). 5) moving through. -pa{i)yaruyiva. generally spirantized -va'ayi-". next to it uv'^a' (i)ya''ruqwA it tuyv' mpa{i)yaruqw A 46. OUT FROM INSIDE OF. from (the) sky qaiva'vaiarux WA mountain-surface-to. -pa{i)yamayu. inside (the) house right-it-in-being-obj. 5. -pa'ayi-" sky-surface-under. frequently independent noun stem compounded with tuyuvipa-^ sky (cf. their deliberating while in (the) house 44. perhaps < -ta-. far less and -ywi-'. Examples are: qanivarjwi in it house-in. fell. -tea-. and -mp. way up from (the) sky tuxii'mpaiA pa{i)ya'manai]q\VA sky (obj. 18) into. next to. along.(cf. -parjitituywa. up beside (the) mountain (inv. -paywi-' in. 30) up beside.) qani'vaywcYU noun- house-in-acting. 14. across (possibly compounded of -pa'a. 49) from. 37.)-surface-under. -vatcarjwiiuywa- (cf.are found) -pa{i)yayi. all particularly after tuyu-^. toyo'iavaywitiA kwi'pa'p'iya^ (he) fell right mo'o'vaywduywa r}A into his (vis.) surface-from. facing. participialized -pa'ayit'i-. 30) 7. 30) moving towards. 18) from.\T. towards (person) (probably contains 14. -pa{i)yamana7)qwa7. under (the) sky 38.) hand (it flew) qani'vaywitumanayqwA (he came) out from (the) house qana'uL7)wayantimpa7)WituxWA willow-bordered canyon wa' i}^an a' avii willow-canyon-in-to. (vis. -pa{i)ya-'. surface occurs (cf. -vatcarjwi-" -pa-'. Examples are: . frequently as geminated -p arjwi-. inside of (very likely compounded of -pa-'\ 37.) qam'vatcayyvituxwA 45. over. 7. and -rjici-'. surface. meeting. rarely geminated -p-a'ayi-°). facing (the) house -pa(i)ya-' f. (cf. 30. pa{i)ya-' following {-V-. nasalized -mparjwi-). -p-.(cf.) Examples are: inar)a'vatcai}Wir)up'iya met him urjwa'vaicarjWituxwA (rolled over) towards him (inv.)ya))ia{i)YU sky-surf ace-from. (cf. (cf.\ce). -pa{i)yaruqwaExamples are: 31) under. -parjwitumanaijqxoa(cf. generally appears as spirantized -varjwi-. and -7/-".250 232 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 43.1 (he sings flying) through (the) air tuyu')npApa{i. participialized -pmjicit'i-. -paijwiyu- 49) acting in.(cf. postpositions.

-vin-ayi. on. he walks on (the) house niv^a"anA I-on. -pa'ana. tump^i'panA on a stone (< am back-on-being-his the (thing) on his back (he sat ay'a'vantuxWA on to him. -vi-naplare: behind 34).(cf. § 21. (they) 2 (went) after everybody else (had gone) uv"'i'naijqwopa{i)YU wa'ixAp'iya' it (inv. 17. against. participialized -vinarjqwap-atci-. following. 37. pounded of -pa a. -vi-^ in back of (cf. in uv'"i'narjqjpA back of the house liviu'v^'mayqwopA behind them arja'vLnaijqwA' patcLA tavt'p'iya' (inv. instrumental prefix pi-". (he) goes across a canyon-creek 'aTja'v'ayd'iA (he struck) over him (with his wing) upon. 30) moving after.k-A canyon-over-verbal he-over-being-obj. -pa'anayu(cf. (cf. 37. against him ava"ana(i)YU it-on-acting.AT.) it. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qaru'v'axi 233 over (the) house (he (him)self flies) nava"axi over o{w)L'-pa"'yt. b). from above it and watched) 48. -pa' antuywa.) it (inv. (he came) out of the cave nau'nax qcviL I behind (him)self after tirjwa'vinarjqwA him house (inv.Southern Paiute. generally spirantized -va'ana-. of.) walk-continuative- present. 18. -vinaTjqwapa-. 18.) he-behind-at-being-obj. 38. lit.)-behind-at-acting deliberated. § 60.) it (inv. about (possibly comand non-independent -na-. participialized -pa'and-.(cf.)-back-out of. Examples tlyqa'm uv^'i'mituxwA cave (obj. 21.on. 30) on to. 2. (they) were deliberating outside . a Shoshonean Language 251 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. -vinar/qwa. 18) behind. resting above. 17) behind. 37) (resting) behind. (he) lit behind him nlrjw'i'v'^marjqwApatcuywa'arni person-behind-at-to-dual. about oa'van'tiay me tiimp^i-^) (vis.. rarely geminated -pa'ana-). -vinap'C-. also independent adverb pimituywa. qani'v'ana-ijA pay{a)'in'nL house-on-he (vis.(cf. 18. after.(cf. occurs only compounded: -vimituywa. 18.) (he sang) (obj. Examples are: 47. present.back. 3. vinarjqwapatcuywa.(cf. -vinayqwa- payu(cf. 49) acting on. 49) acting behind. 13) OUT OF.)-behind-at. -vinayqwapa.(cf.

1.i i. Tlie translation acting that has been given for it in the preceding entries is only an awkward approximation to its significance. but is be etymologically identical with the verbal subordinating . Such forms may be conveniently termed absolutes.). high up (he went and) came back. likely to It is not properly a postposition itself. g. 48) occurs almost entirely in composition with pre- ceding postpositions. (1) Transitive and intransitive. pon no-x{w)(ito make a dru. it will be recalled. STRIKE. With very few exceptions. 31. even aside from nominal derivatives (§ 25.and -vayu-) also often easily rendered as from. As has been abundantly illustrated. 49. 1 b. (2) Absolute verb forms. which may thus be conceived of as subordinately verbified. -yu. e. the verb appears as an absolute.: 252 234 niv^'i' na 'arfa'citin "^ X Southern Paiute and Lite SAPiR p. 3. ic'i-p ou'iua. to be 'lo not altogether without doubt. 1-6). The only examples noted of verb stems that are both transitive and intransitive are: kwipa.(see § 55.mming noise (intr. l. 37. General Remarks on verbal form. c). 45. . -yu: 17. g. and. -yu. often appear without either enclitic or suffixed tense elements. changes from one voice to the other being l)rought al)Out by means of sufhxes or changes in the final stem vowel (§ drum (with a drumstick). 30. They are used under various circumstances (a) When tense (and pronominal) elements arc appended to anin other preceding word e. It seems to indicate tiiat the action of the verb takes place under the circumstances indicated in the postpositional phrase. hit and to fall on being struck. have an inherently transitivizing force. Instrumental prefixes. p behind me behind him This important element (see 1. paq-a- kill. verb stems are inherently either transiti\e or intransitive.: the sentence. 51-50). 7.aid low.seems to occur in: high-acting-like return-momentaneous(he) returned Uncompounded pa\i'{i)y()n l' pa{i)yu'iji'piya' past. to suffer pain. 47.(particularly from is higli up Compounded most -mayu. 38. verb forms. also 2. 43. (§ § Verb Morphology § 51. f ). beat (one person) and to be sore.

) this (inan. 1. d). take an object in the subjective form. {aru'a-. 1 a and b) take no -xjitoexpress present time.)! arise-gerund i'tc'i tVqa'qA ya'ijq'ikl it (§ 55.(see § 29. element.) dog (subjective) he (vis.)-I shoot.reappears after an intervening . a Shoshonean Language 253 235 I SOUTHERN PAIUTE. imperatives are remarkable in that they object. g. take a avt-'mituyica" 'iv^'i" ivi'rjv drink! qatcu" ii-aat)L{y)(i pA not-thou shout-negative! don't shout! ovi'maxani stick-give-me! give me a stick! mayio'qon^m^i io'nA all (obj.)! after getting up. (e) Verbs of being and having in -kai.(§ GO.Southern Paiute. The imperative. as usual.) punch! punch all of us! kill-him (vis. object. e.represents an old contraction of -kai-yl-. but are tenseless. qaru':>^aini I have a HOUSE. 14. a)-it (vis. It is probable that in such cases -kai. then shot him. i. e. subjective) eat-it (vis.(§ 26. e. g. Frequently in interrogative forms. § 56) have no there is present present (or general) time being implied when no tense suffix. further only negatively determined as regards form. The pronominal subject or be appended either to the verb or to a preceding Examples illustrative of hortatory 'iv'^'i. 8). eat this! nv^'a'nt'inl (inv. where reference is had to present time. The imperative by the absence is of tense elements.)-at-being (subjective)-me carry-for- hither! bring me (it) over there! enclitic Imperatives with a dual or j)lural subject do not seem to occur witii pronominal subject. (d) Generally substantive verbs suffix. may these remarks are: ivi'^^ drink-thou! drink! it-out of-thou! go out! hortatory-thou drink-momentaneous! go ahead. contrast qu'^qwiicarjani (b) (c) shot him In imperative forms (see § 52).)-us (exclus. 2. vrua-.)! pA^'qa'rjvarjA sari-'Hc aijA kill the dog! Una" ami qw'irLkitsLaq- punch-them (inv. § 32. by the frecpient absence of the second person singular in forms that have a pronominal or nominal Syntactically. but are characterized instead by an . impersonal -{ua. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE a'itcaijani qu'qwi then-preterit-him I (\'is. as the -ifi. § 52.

254 236 enclitic -ya-.-dual! ye 2 run! m\m'^iyani to'riA ye-plur.). tTqa'qai eat ye! not-plur. dual imperatives. and consonantal affection. l)-plur. properly speaking. In plural imperative forms the verb particularly . imper.- i. is shown by its use with inherently intransitive as well as transitive verbs.via'y\it)WA i{y)e'nuq{w)a(i)ya-qA it (vis. verb-stem)! ye 2 punch me! ye 2 punch him (inv.i)YA. imper. frequently -' . are: intransitive.)! toyj'qwLya'ami run (sing. On the other hand.A tive! do not run away (plur. -it (vis. 4. add dual pronominal enclitic Examples of plural and dual imperatives. verb-stem)-negative! do ye 2 not carry them 2! probably an emphatic imperative is sometimes formed by In all enclitic -aqa. Only the two latter vocalic modification.)-dual! ye 2 cover qatcii'yami yariwi"{y)ap-A not-plur. imper. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR appended either if to the verb is form or a preceding word. tTqa'qai. the former. Vocalic alternations are either quanti- tative or qualitative.mi. Verbal stem changes in Paiute that are of morphological significance may be classified under the heads of reduplication (see § 58.xamples of imperative -aqa. insofar as they are of morphological . . note idiomatic it! use of imperative) wTq(ini\yaA'qaamx cover-plur.-me punch (sing.)! this-at (§ 50.rYo'qwL{y)aqA tjyo'qwLyaq-A go ahead and run! ye 2 run! I-at-plur. (1) Vocalic alternations. verb-stem). the verb or a preceding word. 3-6).are: qa'aq-A sing! t. niv'^'ayaq-A cv'paro''^ -ya-: -y'am'i-. verb-stem)-imper. -it (vis. run (plur.)! here it is! (speaking to more than two. -them (vis.) assemble! do ye come together at my place! § 53. Internal stem changes. E. with and without pronominal objects. plural in form.) carry ( (vis. it has the position of a pronominal enclitic. is not to be merely construed as a pronominal object. probability this -aqa. are discussed at this point.nega- qatcu'i minto' n\a' p. imper. it does not seem to occur where the verb is What appending has a true pronominal merely an idiomatic use of enclitic pronominal That it -aq a. subject-plur.

-paqi-n'na- tear one. a- to aa). Vocalic lengthening.) qavi-tcai- several stop. C. six types of vocalic alternation (a) may be recognized. u''wa"axi ma-'''ni'canipA entered. sang to no eflFect (< qa.: : Southern Paiute. barely escaped (b) ya'uqwipiya by going over it it (inv. tooth) foi)/-^ra/- several to come pluck loose. feather. shall go to by following -n-uqwL-)-Tun-go-iutuTe-him stand around looking for him do ( < 7(wi-)-subordinating-them (inv.) in vain ( < unitj'uqwA did it) These examples indicate that it is regularly the first vowel of the word which is lengthened. -pay{a)i-tca. a long one over-lengthened TO NO be spherical tsL-'tsLrjwayaip'iyaint' it seemed that (arrows) were stuck in in several places (lengthened from normal reduplicated tsdsL. g. In certain i''-^u'umL tstsi'-) Perhaps ma-'ni-campa.) fiv"'i-tcai- several emerge several tear (intr. e. to pay(a)i-tcai- are worn out.way-only.> tear several .QnuqwLxw' aiva' aywA look-stand about (-J^i^tno- < -ywin-'i- to stand. in the intransitive plural and in the transitive. -fopi- coines loose nna-tovi-tca- out one.). to pluck out several qap a-qi. . or u in the intransitive singular. Another group of cases of vocalic lengthening seems to be associated with the idea of continuation. while they 2 were so doing po'to'qwa.)-over barely Vocalic alternation is to indicate nuinher (and voice). In all. emerges paqa-qi. qa-'ap-'iya' (e. the final vowel a. g. qavi-tca- to stop several paya-q tear (intr. being relatively sing) said without effect ( < ai.). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE significance. only in that way. A short vowel may be lengthened. Examples are not very numerous: pint' rjw'ifi. one comes out. assimilated ( say) a'mpaxai' talks to no purpose (< ampa'xaV talks) 'a'aip-'iya' 'o'n'nirj'uqwA did it (inv. a stop t'ip-a-q I- (intr. a Shoshonean Language 255 237 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.).that. to indicate the idea of in vain. Plxamples are: topa-qi- (tree.barely is similarly lengthened from mani'-campa. be spherical: po'to'rj'i'kai.

parallel to sing. the a. to be bent several intr. qjpo-q {iv)i. also winoin'mito jerk up one's buttocks (continuously) to start (secondarily transitiviized (c) by -}jqi-.plural stem found only in compounds. g.) cjya- to bend (intr. causing him wiyuinmi. The former form The of the and /.)tsi}i' die) patcaq be wet patca'i-l^ come together. i Examples to are: -p otsin'i-k ai- to be ready start off (for a race) Stan off nnintn)i'ni- to lie co\ered up in qji'ni- to hang together two parts to be round n3q3m'))ii-(kai-) to be hent.: .(Ute).to lie down and cover up qoi'na.yqoDi'nia. a smaller number between yastem is used for the active intransitive (or transitional) the latter for the niedio-passive. § 29.) vatja-ntupi- are angry natja-ntupa. dangle in two parts -ni'jinuq ivato become round n. 1) to give a bend (intr. -ya'ai.of the stem when used semelfactively.passive or static (-/-). forms seem to be durative.) inuntnna. 256 238 icarjwiq X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a- one disappears Icarjw'ikiqjvi-tcai- several die off qjvo-q{w) oneself coi-kai- bend (slowly.continuative intransitive (§ 30. a- and be fastened patcaq ira- to get wet on to patca'a- to be left fastened .) several qopi-nnaqovi-tca- break (intr.forms tend to be niomentaneous. In a few cases a final vowel of the stem when used iteratively (or continuatively) contrasts with an -/.several get angry {-tupi. A very considerable number of verb stems alternate in their final vowel between voice. noq 3- -m'unuqwinri. to break several to iv{yum')ini-q{iv)i-7}qi- to lash (horse) on buttocks. 3) (d) Vocalic alternation indicate active (-a-) and medio. e.) break one. or i- resultative voice. 10) -a- ]'ocaUr alternation to indicate aspect. to vpuq{w)i-qi- bounce (once) (§ ov'^'oq{w)a-y(e)i- to bounce up and down semelfactive intransitive -ya. break (intr.

g. iinpinna. In these discover the difference in meaning between forms (cf.tuywa - Paiute examples are: fire goes out to enter. to be frightened. g. g.forms. tomi to open up (intr. ap- parently the exact opposite of the preceding. to approach tciiywa- dit. cut. This type. with -a-. stick out one's buttocks. d above). dit. -a - -i-.: (§ . pluck out 7iu'i-k ai- feathers several stand also: iv'inai- nu'a- to throw down several Here may belong win'ito stand to throw down (a per. (tr. to have one's eyes utcumma pona- - to close one's eyes to stoop and stick out poni-kai- to have one's but- one's buttocks tocks stuck out In some cases that have been recorded.and -a. e.son) -(v-ijqi- Transitives of these verbs with animate object end in 29.: pono'a(f) to be full ponj'i- to become full Altrrnation of intransitive it Ls verbs the -i- difficult to and cf.) to turn. and numerous others.and transitive -a-. -a .): cotojia TO WOUND.) e. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE utcvm'miclosed pojii.: Southern be raised is impinnacover ovato to raise so as to un- resting on (something) ovi- hair out. The feature. In some cases only -i. surprised cirVya-i- (e) Alternation of transitional and static is -a-.) q wa- to stretch ( comes pull out evidently an old Uto-Aztekan such Nahuatl doublets as cotoni to break (intr. roll (intr. 10). sparsely represented.): toma to open (tr. a Shoshoncan Language 257 239 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. though tcuywidr'i'i- this may be due to inadefjuate translation.) to turn (meat) with in'in Lc L- tsL-)innLe a- a spit Linp'in'i-. ova. deliver. there seems to be little appreciable difference in meaning between the i- and a.alternates alternation of -/.). sun tnywa- to put out a fire to ynuqiei-. e. yavq sets to ica - -yauqwa-to push in qwi- to stretch (intr.

To indicate distribution. (a) Glottalization of verb stems. -n'na- momentaneous transitive with singular object: -n a. This process operates: e. less often gemination alone (see b). Glottalization alone as a grammatical process is relatively rare. g. accompanies distributive or iterative reduplication (see § 58. e. lengthened vowel before (2) groups of cases are to be of stem consonants. 3) and -n'na.) up from (him) maru' xuqwaT]qiar)A It is to stretch him (vis. the contrast between momentaneous and durative. Other Generally it examples of momentaneous gemination are: . tska' pin'NA to cut (momentaneously) recognized. 3 and 4).transitives with -rjqi-. 1. fVA'tcu'ywiyuni wayivi- four wa'a'yWAtcuywLyunC eight four here and there) wa'a'tjwitiiip'iya' (lit. e. in verb stems. To indicate momentaneous activity. 4). g. glottalization Consonantal affection. Gemination primarily denotes (b) Gemination momentaneous activity. e. as might be expected. 2.(§ 30.or as built on -a.durative transitive with singular object (§ 30.. Gemination is very commonly employed with the momentaneous suffixes -q i. c).A (< tca-imp'ina-) lifted it (vis. tends to become one of singularity and plurality. These seem to be equivalent processes.(§ 31. several stand caused (them) in sev- each to stand yun ato put several down one place) 2. Two and gemination tskavisA to cut (duratively).to -i-) 3. Not infrequently they occur together in the same form. (in ymva'{a)ieral places to put down To indicate iteration. g.) vised from intransitives in -a not clear whether these forms are to be considered as transiti. g.: : : 258 240 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR tea' mpinariqip'iyai{y)aq. iyona- to carry in one's to fear arms iyonna- to carry several times to be afraid several ya-vayai- y'i'i-paqai- times (note irregular change of -a.

a. g. 2. also over into that of plurality of the subject or ol)ject (see § 58. § 58. b). accompanying Combined gemination and is reduplica- tion. a-d. customarily) (momentaneously) tsi-qutu-na. 1. qaqafi- to run away to fear qaq at'i- to run away several times ya-vayai- y'i'i-paq ai- to be afraid several times Even these examples are really but special forms of gemination rediiplication. -9 ?'- momentaneous Far frequently gemination indicates iterative activity. sometimes associated with change of number (see § 53. plurality of the subject of the suffix -qa. c). the stem 1. a Shoshonean Language 259 241 SOUTHERN take out of a hole tsL-quru- to be poking in a hole with the point of a stick to nibble at to be with a stick q'i-nipuywito qi-nivuywituv"'un'ni- waking up no'orua- to be pregnant tupun'nino'otuay'i'iki- to to gnaw wake up (at once) appear pregnant (right off) y'liyi-ka. Besides these formal methods of expressing number. 3). 3) e. there are certain verb stems that are inherently limited in their reference to number. 1) less one swallows suffix(§30. the singular form includes the dual. Singular and plural stems. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE U-yai- to happen to (iq arj'wi- to take place (at one moment nayavanayafi-Tjqi- of time) to get to to seem to dodge several enter nayap a -rju- nayat'i-rjqi- seem dodge quickly yauywi-tcaita-niyi- yauqivi- one enters to stick one's foot in to stick one's foot in ta-niki- (duratively. All verbs are subject. common (see § 58. f). The idea of distribution expressed by reduplication often passes is a and b. h. less determined as regards singularity or plurality of the often of the oi)ject also. d. to indicate distribution or iteration.: Southern Paiute.(§ 31. § 54. Vocalic alternation of the final vowel of § 31. the singular-dual object being expressed by of tiie intransitive sul)ject or transitive a stem which is etymologically distinct .several swallow -yadurati\'e suffix (§ 30. see § 31. is reference to The most common method by the use of indicating 1. 4. for other suffixes indicating or implying plurality of subject or object. 3. (bow) snaps (not limited in maya-{r]u-) qavi-fcai- several snap (plurality -fcai-.several .one stands and kills several. yoiini- several run mintonni. Singularity or plurality of the object is not disturbed by composition. The whole verb may be characterized as singular or plural in this e. stands and kills runs away enters one falls ivi''i-{qn-) ap'ii- aq o'i- several sleep toyjq wi- yoni-. paq a-rpvaywi. but ivi-rjw'in'i. way.) yunaqo'i-.several stand and kill one.several stand and kill several. lie dwell several stand waywi-.several enter yuniayac'i- several fall 7ionisi- to fly several fly off several appear isilc number) un'na. dwells one lies one stands w'in'ipa{i)y'ione returns pitcione arrives pay{a)i. indicated by not by stem) (ob- carry one (object) qic'i'i- yii'a- to carry several (objects) to to take one (object) tu'uiu ajects) take several watci- to paqawin ai- to kill put one (object) one (anim. walks qafiavi- yuywiqwavi- several several sit.abo\"e) (reduplicated) off niVna-iq off i-) nii)iiiyi- several related break (irregularly to singular form) in Several of these verb stems are also used as the second element compound verbs.may thus become unnecessary. paqn-rj w'in'i. g. 'im^'ii- ?iu'i-(Jcai-) panaynporo- several return several arrive several travel mia. go one sleeps one runs qaq ar'i. a pluralizing -q appears f.^yj'i- (objects) (reduplicated) to several to to {tsi)-niyi- throw down one to stick in one one (object) breaks nua(cf.several drink standing.several drixk. throw down several to stick in several {isi)-rjw(iy{a){- wayi. kill to put several q. qo'i-yw'iu'i. goes. g.260 242 X Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPIR for the phiral of the intransitive subject or transitive object from that Certain of these stem contrasts are: one sits. note qj'i-ywaijivi.several run away wayi. ivi- ONE drinks: .OXE DRINKS standing: ivir)wai)\ci. e. ivi-ka.

A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 243 qwii. -Icwa'{a)i- one goes to (see § 28. Verb syntax. This receives some support from the fact that a few of the ordinary However. to be hungry pounds. to get to be themselves) plurality.(see c below). a Shoshonean Language 261 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. tiy'ii-tcupi. A small number of singular and plural verb stems are used onlv as second elements in verb compounds. is {or gets) wet tuywi. become (perhaps reciprocal na-^ To arrive: to arrive with one another. tuumaqa. (independent Uyii-yaai. specialized In all probability the objective is in these cases to be interpreted genitively. that are used with logical subjects put them in the objective form.several take one. you were away is rendered when me came.several take several. tu'vm a. you were away. qwiiqa. e. the subordinating element as a postposition. is employed also with nouns (see § 50. Sul)or(linate clauses.several are hungry.(see e). you were away. -tup. Those of these clau. e. a sentence like when i came. of the verb-subordinating elements only -yu. Under this head may be conveniently grouped a number of phenomena that affect the verb in relation to other words in the sentence. (1) Subordinating elements. die of die (only in com- hunger. one gets tired out patcaqwi. possibly The also goes out qatcvnavitcL. .several get tired out patcaq winamtcL. + pitci- among used either corresponds to singular -t'iqay'wi- (also independently) to become or is used as a verbal quasi-suffix of qatcut'iqay'u'i- to not-become. e. or attendant circumstance. 4. g. condition. e.ONE TAKES one. postpositions may be suffixed to verb forms (see 2 below). concession. denoting cause. g.several get wet tuywinavitcLfires go out § be used up). at my coming.: : Southern Paiute. e. time. perhaps identical with tupi. are extremely frequent in Paiute.several get angry u^qu'mpu-tcdcai-xw'ai(things) go U'^qu' mpu-tcaqai- one (thing) several goes off in dust up in dust The plural -navita.several go (less frequently practically suffix) used as independent stem) -tupi-. g.a- -ya\a)i- stem).one TAKES SEVERAL. 1. 49). g.

They indicate antecedent circumstance or activity and clause. is as. he vainly sliot being about to kill me. 1.).) connector). though they may have an Their logical subject is always the same as that of the main object. attached to \erb forms is whose subject the same as that of the main verb. as maa'itsiijw imi'rjwa'aiijWA pa{i)yi'kiva'' with-him will (inv. While -tsi- . f) such a sentence HAVING so DONE.mhi'i's'its urjwa'fuLJcarjup'i'ya (plur. because they ha\e no expressed subject. 4) and -qaithe first (§ 32.) return-hither-will. I dream that I turned into a bear Future genmds in -vatsL-. WHEN. gerund. Examples are: cally related to the . appears as spirantized -^ai. (he) come home after having so done having returned. are most appropriately translated in English by participial phrases: HAVING ED. he tried to kill me but shot in vain (b) -kai-rjqai-. HE RETURNED woidd then originally have meant THE ONE WHO DID SO RETURNED. three of which Five subintroduce ordinating suffixes are found. clauses referring to the subject of the main clause. clauses with a different subject.) say you are to do with him? coyote-like fire-obj.or nasalized This a true subordinating suffix. WHILE. ipii'ijufsthen he (inv. 3) may precede the subordinating suffix. then (frequently used as sentence i{ni'ts-. Coyote acts as though intending to take our fire n'i'niantca r)A pA'^qq'uinpa tstjii iya't'i qoqwi me-preterit-he (vis. -nipntsi.are here termed gerunds (a) -isL.) thouhaving found him witli you. ^ini'yjut'sLyiVA qicuja'tcdnqarj'wdsI dream-present bear-becomein' nono'cL linik arjum'its.262 244 tense elements -pa- X Southern Paiiitc ami Ute SAPiR (§ 32. Examples are: ax(i'n^-}i(i'va(sirixcar)io — a'l^kaV how-do-plural-future-gerund-him (inv.) take-future-gerund do-present. find-gerund-him (inv.c'ina Tjwavini quna'iaratjWA quni'vats 'ani'k-A our ( etymologi- — animate noun suffix -isL. it seems Coyote does so being about to take our fire.)- ye say-plurai-present? being about to do what with him say ye? what do you (plur.) kill-future-gerund-me vainly shoot.(§ 24. the other two Subordinates in -tsL.gerund. It is at least possible that the gerund -t si. but not the other tense elements. (they) caused (it) to rain having so done.being about to are also very common and frequently found in idiomatic turns.

-kai-c ainpa- . a'i'^aic-u cina'Tjwa^)! qvna'manfi wTqa'niMilcaiplya coyote fire-at-being (obj. used (e. It always replaces -kai. e.and -kii-cii-. analogous to those -ai-. g. -yu-caiupa. Examples are: t'ir]wi'\va if (§ (iO. while so doing.. e. but ai-yu-campa-). in e.(see b above). WHILE.(with enclitic -cu-\ see § 19. -kai-c-u. he will fall down qa'{ai)Y'i tTqaya' sings while eating yaya'yaitcay ivi'rju cry-as-preterit-he (vis.(e. g.w^hile saying). while he cried. resultative subordinate -qai-yu-ai.: : : Southern Paiutc. After verb stems in -kai- is ai-yai.) covered. g. though fearing him (he went to meet him) (c) -yu- WHEN.) in -yu-c u-. g. g. 2. -kai.(hence ai-yai-cu-. k) often implies sequence: as soon as. -cu.). (vis. but not. if (inv. WHEN SAYLNG. uot *-q-ai-yai-).replace forms g. 2. This subordinating suffix seems to be identical in meaning with -kai. he drank qa'{a)i pay{a)'irjka sings while walking qA'qa'tTp'iya^ cua'rjumiykadikwA sat (iteratively) while eating it sv'v'^'ayWA qafi' m' nuaxa fall-will. (he) e. unless followed by enclitic -campa-.clauses are: nlTjw'i'xaiyu' n'm person-be-as-thou do! act like a person! it naijqa'qai'yuqwA when (he) heard Clauses in (inv. j) to -kai-. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE forms denote antecedent activity. Examples of -yu.) up each time immediate sa\'-as-just so. AS. d)-he (inv. It is suffixed only to stems or verb suffixes ending in -ai-.forms denote contemporaneity of action.after verb suffixes ending in -ai.) drink-momentaneous. as soon as Coyote said covered some of (the) fire Concessive clauses of the same subject as the main clause are formed by appending -campazt/a't. are found after verbal suffixes in ipii'lcaiyuc u wV'i'kup'iya do-resultative-as-just fall-niomcntaneousfell past. g.) sit-move-as he rides. (he) down in Concessive clauses after all verbs in>a 7//1 (§ 19. -kai-cv. a Shoshonean Language 263 245 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 2. e.

I-them (vis.xaniples are: ton a' q if am = t. iini'. at dawn tspi'tjumitjqiiijM'A mauin" uisiA woman (obj. wlien (it) door n'i'ann p'^nL'k ai{i/)a»n pj'YA^qnxoaiiii. however. This subordinating suffix characterizes anteis cedent temporal and conditional clauses whose subject different from that of the main clause.WHILE. he will cry n'l nai/a'i'aik a t)A ijaija' x Aqai-x. = hisV I other. sv'v"'a tjA E.subordinates generally indicate contemporaneity of action. = genitive) appear- momentaneous-usitative-when-her went out (inv.. 4.u I anger-die-if-him (vis.WHEN. or geminated -qu-. as he reached for (it) down (e) -ku. fell = his) fall-momentaneous-past. p'inaxi ijC = his) earth-into entered.. I went away while he V}jwn'{ii)xu qdii rains. (he kept on singing) (d) (§ 50.. This subordinating element also is iised in clauses whose subject is different from that of the main clause. (it) went into (the) reach-for-when-iiim (it).)'qwLvd' if-him (vis.-i I hit him..) hit-if-me (= my) thy) kill- run-will. art wont to burn even when wet? qa'tcu qu'qici'Tj'waiYUcmnp. -ku. though not shooting. as.i not shoot-negative-as-only.)y. appears as spirantized -yu-. would have HfiiijiqivaijA (vis. (he) will run viarjacu yaxn'va ni if pA^qa'tjuti'iqaaiiii ( thee ( = passive-if-thee thy) he (vis..) see-them (vis. whenever the woman . a'qap'iyd do-momentaneous-him when he did so.). if = his) I cry (momentaneous)-perfective-irrealis. earth MA^ca'iatjq'iq arjA wi'i'kup'iya'' (vis.) cry -will.264 246 imi'nicu' aru"'^ X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR pano'xqwaiyucampA lui' a'ivdtc'i thoii-interrogative tlioii art be-wet-when-only burn-usitative-participle. cried tiv'^L he had got angry. IF. = their). in the evening ya'n'i-^uicaijani qima' tjwitwywayu die-when-preterit-him (vis. i't hjwai' (he) shuts the died fA'c'i'ayqu dawn-when. nasalized -r]qu-. Unlike -qaclauses (see c). I see them running Ia'cl' pa{ii)x u evening-when.) run-plural-while-them (vis. Examples are: rain-when housc-close-present. 14)-momentaneous. you get killed.

k) may follow -ku. resultative -qai- per-ai- and negative -ijwa'ai. -qu- perhaps dissimilated from -rjqu-. I'tcuqu in the morning In such a form as tuxwa'r'uitjuqu is when (it) became e.) wife-have-when. rise-when. These to sub- by suffi.(§ 57. a Shoshonean Language 265 247 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 38. al.) cries iinirjumajqucampaqavii (vis. in a (see 1 manner analogous ordinate forms already discussed postpositions. for order of impersonal -t'ua..) had gone out hunting tT qa' q. 38). e. -kai- a and b). Examples are: . 37). It 1. g. Examples are: fective -q not so freely used. a). (§ 60.(§ 32. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -qu. when (the) sun was up identical with subordinating -qu-.(§ 50. may be used to make Doubtless several other postposisubordinate clauses of local reference. do-momentaneous-usitative-when-only-it = their). the becomes -o()'-. 4. 2. not necessarily of the same tense. TO BE. g. 3). (2) clauses. TO HAVE (§ 2().referring to time (see § 50.) said so. 14) -qu. j) is used in concessive yaya'xucampayivA even if he (inv. A less im- portant group of verb subordinates are formed of local significance. 4. Postpositional -qu.(§ 32.uoccampA though others are not eating (for -campani'ni a'tpatsiyaquni was a boy. and in compounded forms: and -patituywa-. -pa- (participialized -panfi-. 4.see § 29. (it happened) yaa'irjqiv'aikaq-oarjA when he (vis.seems to be used also with a few verb stems. 2. -va.i piywa'xaq u find-past-him (vis.(§ 19. of the first three of these elements becomes -a-. apparently -yu-nia- (§ 50. e. 49).)-them (vis. a'ixucuarjA as he (vis.arjwa qid. 9). though they were wont to do it Verb forms subordinated by is postpositions.xing to the verb. 4. when I happened) maa'ip'i'yai{y)ar).38. The -a'ai. § 50. tava'iA marj'w'i'cLk-u sun-obj. in Now verb form present -y'i. § 50. Enclitic -cu. tions (3) -payu-. b).(§ 19. (it see below.of the last me ( = my)" boy-be-when-me ( = my). 37 and 41) may be cf. 1) occurs as a sort of loosely and then a employed subordinate to a preceding verb.: : : Southern Paiiite. 4. well as -kai-. certain nominal of verbal local subordinates Examples have been found § 50. 2. in above). 4. Present forms as loose subordinates. found him having (her) for wife Uni'k aquaij 'oai' while he was doing so. night. is regularly employed after verbalizing (§ 30. (something happened) -campa.

'ywanfi fighting > fighter. . e. (those) wont to say. to often be translated as relative clauses or as adjectives. g. elements of noun compounds (see § 18. "'«'// tjyo'qwdc'i good-being running. They may also be employed. attributively or denominatively (e. l)-present-it his heart (that) is present there. aro"a>m ayaii ani'ntci this (inan. mia" pits(5) properly verbal in form.irt-obj. good runner). will not sing loud evidence in Paiute. (b) Denoininatively. Participles are extremely in They are employed in a variety of syntactic Attributively. Such participles may be considered as special cases of They predicative usages (d).g. tiimp^'L'a'i) i. it-at-being- OBJ. like any verb. 1. particularly with verbalized postpositional forms. e. particularly after independent personal pronouns. secondit. arily H. g. in their bare stem-form. there.) find-past it this-at (§ 50.). e. p'uu'ka rock-obj. particularly substantive verbs. will not sing (4) (it) is loud. I am a fighter /'//// cii'xaxwaiimmLni'ini thou squaw-bush-get-go-causative-usitative-participle-me..\t (vis). rarely second. lu-. 'avanti. LOOK.) is-usitative it how doing? how does (neg.).he . the substantive verb being omitted. g. it (e) work? qatcu ariLk. they may be predicatively employed. A few adjectives are properly nominal in form. Practically all adjectives are As such. In lieu of finite verbs. ways: (a) when they may e. d and e). as the first. (they) always say n'i' tu'ywanfi I fighting.iirjiva'yw'ait'i not does raining does not rain. (d) Predicatively after verbs. g.266 248 piyiarjA ma'ip'iya X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR L{y)anuyiaqA (vis. HE looks there the rock rather than he sees the rock "'he th. IS uv"'n'nt am there-being the thing THAT (c) e.wasupai Indian. in participial form. you always cause me to go to get squaw-bush twigs Syntactic use of adjectives. Syntactic use of participles. refer to general time as a rule.\t is there. or. a'imintivi'i Examples are: say-usitative-participle-plural. found his heart right there qatcu qa'vaywa' paa'nV not sing-will-negative high-present.i Adverbially.-his t'oiind (vis. 4.

pronouns. mia"p'itsLA wana' Rupiya" little-obj.or uof the verb proper.: Southern Paiute. 3). uraro'a- The present tense of substantive verbs -y'i- designated either by the normal (§ 32. and independent pronouns.) aro'a- ur uru'a- These may be conveniently written as single words. the usitative suffixes (§ 30.they. uru'a. uvv'i.) is be-usitative not fire- negative.).) urj uru'auru'a- um'^ aro'a2ir they are it is (vis. These simple forms are also used as the nucleus of a set of substantive verbs of specific pronominal reference.for the invisible. The substantive verb may also take on other tense suffixes.(§ 33. uru'a. and the nominal abstract -na(2) (a) 25.).for the visible. 2). IT IS (vis. g. and is an adverb. composed of the pronouns urjwa. 10 and 11).by means of a verbalizing -ro'a-: aro'a.) they are (inv. may a attributively to refer to an incorporated noun. 1) or. the (§ participial -fi-. e. It is remarkable that the u. the modal -v'i. These forms may be used with all be (inv.) (vis.) um he is ( be (vis. Substantive verbs are (1) Formation of substantive verbs. is g. forms. a Shoshonean Language 267 249 be used SOUTHERN PAIUTE. this (that we have been burning) not it-is not it is fire qatc aro"" t'iv^'a'tst'apA wolf-negative. L'tump'i old. Examples are: cina'ywav aru"° ^'itc coyote it-is aro"ami' qa'tcu quna"apA this (inan. should be used in visible substantive verbs as it is (inv. Use of substantive verbs. more frequently. visibility and invisibility being expressed by the a. In these cases the final vowel of the word preceding the substantive verb is elided. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE small.and u. animate or inanimate. net-make-past. which are properly invisible. made little net Substantive verbs. to which are respectively appended (not phonetically suffixed) aro'a. The pronominal substantive verbs thus are: urjw aro'a- he is (vis. however. formed from the demonstrative stems a. may precede and the predicate noun follow the \erb. § 56.). and uru. by the absence of a tense suffix. not Wolf .he. In perhaps the majority of cases the substantive verb follows phonetically disconnected from its predicate noun or subject. An independent adjective e.

= his) it-is being ( = prop(inv. it-is present. iici'arua-.) IS beside ''itc arit'a-. his \i'{i)ijvxvp.268 250 imi'aru arii X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR aru"an.i it thee ( = thy)-interrogative it-is being ( = property). e. which is preserved. he must have hidden it pua'xfini mvaru"" medicine-man t'iv'"L'is ainpa-7) is ut)uru"ax very-only-he he-is (inv. 2. itci' \irua.) (vis.may be considered as verbs with incorporated nominal (or pronominal) subject (§ 18.or u.. (they) were always friends to each other oxor oru"avL imi'n'nintc'i what-at be (inv. they are my persons iiniiiru"" jiA'qa'ijUfup'iyaufiitt kill-passive-past-participle-plural they-are (inv. this this is irja" 'aro"" n'('ui' lici" me ( = my (wife) is 'aru'om l' (inan. a glottal stop separating the a.)-would do-continuativeparticiple? where woidd (he) be doing? I wonder where (he) is! axov oru"nvi uru"aR'i what-at be-woidd being? I wonder where it is! aro"avi i'mi p'im'k aik wonder whom you (I 'xawantc'iqantiaq vyivaru"" having-hidden-it he-is (vis. does aro"ap'Lya' arjai I l)elong to thee? (it) was ant'i whom be-would thou having-seen? saw? nafi'yiv'^'i-yanUm^' aru'an'impiya reciprocal-friend-being-plural he (inv.) he-is. really (your dead relatives' brains) . Examples are: sari'fci dro'" nn'a'intsisi' dog am'" it-is little-girl it-is iit'i (absolute: naa' inisds) imi" 'am' ")n"'a'uiqaiv(i thou art thus-resultative-future-partiin that ciple. Forms of this type are obligatory for independent pronouns of the first and second persons. they are ha\ing been killed. (b) it would be good second method of employing substantive verbs is to attach noun or subject (noun or independent pronoim). truly he 7i'i'nL 'vm^'aru n'ujw'i' ntsujwiui me (— my) they-are person-plural-my.of the substantive A them to the preceding predicate verb from the preceding final vowel. you'll be continuing she-here this is way my). g. they must have been killed vijica'iAc uraru it is am'' an a him (inv.).)-usitative-past.) is-usitative.)-present.THIS (iN'AN. g. f. e.)- erty). e). Perhaps such forms as itci' 'arit'a. cinaywavt' nrjwaro' a-.iirurii'\ti' good-irrealis-past passixe partic.

as though the e. instead of uvi-^-. thus confirming above hypothesis of composition. however.from -vV. the (fire that is) ours (literally." cina'rjwavL < -vui)"' urjw- < -v'iijw'i'- uyw-. by enclitic -ii-. we we 2 are friends with first personal pronominal substantive verbs define number and animate versus inanimate. this i is mine. it is imi' 'uraru" {aru"anA) thee it-is yours By in the subjective. = our) it (subjective). § -rjwl- by "number 42. they are friends {-vuy liwdissimilation. -a- (§ 19. he is mine (being). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE m^'a'rl are dru'°- that (inan.) l)eusitative not fire-negative-objective us (inclus. i who no substantive verb expressed. apparently. it would seem. suggesting that are they (vis. though logically in apposition with objective quna"ap aiA. substantive verb were to be translated directly as to own. dci'an aro"ai . is regularly preceded.: : Southern Paiute. a Shoshonean Language 269 251 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. with predicate pronoun. -aq a-. as above in several examples. they 2)- assimilated to u. There are commonly used constructions in Paiute that are analogous to such P^nglish locutions as it is except that there service for it.. apparently. note also use of 2 (inchis.-I be. after animate plural cf. e. the thing a curious idiom.). but not person) nana' fixivuif nwaru' "vi'^'a'nn plural reciprocal-friends he ( = they)third personal pronominal substantive verb pronoun. vis. we own not (real) fire.present. am of this) tqywa" 'aro"amL qa'tcu quna"apaiA Uu)w(i I aiii we (inclus. note that tajjwa' i alii. wa'nanxivti' iiwaru' tavii two-reciprocal-friend he {-vii' e. a). I own this (literally. It 3.). There is always a . U7/W-. the logical owner is sometimes put owned in the objective. is it being of me? my property? ni'ni 'iiwaru"" me he-is. the it doing The pronominal form for it employed in Paiute is is — the inanimate visible enclitic. 5) uywaro'" it was Coyote powerful he-is (absolute: nan'ywLnap'i) nari''YWLnApu' urjumru" (c) belonging to is normally expressed. g. this (inan. g. is subjective in form) (3) Use of inanimate pronouns in lieu of substantive verbs. we are of unreal fire. by preceding the substantive verb with an objective form of genitive significance. The idea of being of.) is (how I move about) (i.)-obj. illustrated ni'niani' aro is it aru"anA me-interrogative is being.

ent pronouns. is not a prefix. that one it is.) I see-perfective-verbal noun. 3) ^m^aTjaq-A. Somewhat All such negative elements contain a glottal (vis.which clearly goes back to spirantized -tu- ( evidently compounded of qa and an element (vis. § 25. 37). negative forms are found unpreceded by a negative adverb. it is })\nLkaikamA it is that (vis. itci'a q-A ni'ni p'iv^a he whom saw.-. less often qa. past in and even gerunds . as shown by the unaffected phonetic treatment of the negatived word. for "tn'^'ar/a'qA thou-like-it. I was absent mamn'cu qa yura' (pA^qay'tcai't-'imi they are unconquerable (vis. including nominal derivatives of verbs passive participles in -pi-. The latter. Mono is gadu.'oai' 1-a. . c. g. that's the qafi'nani is this (inan. maybe it is you {-ninq. Examples are: rii'aq.) < ucu see § 60. . e. Negative forms are generally preceded by the negative adverb qatcu-. cf.\11 nouns and independ(e.)-'a- it is (vis. this is .) -a.< and postpositions in -pa-tc proven by comparative evidence.: : 270 252 X Southern Poiute and Ute SAPiR is strong emphasis on the independent pronoun to which the -aqaattached.. or verb that negatived provided with a negative suffix or negative modification of a verbalizing suffix. m^'ay'a'qA n'i'ni. < -va-fi-.). n'l qa qah'rjioa'^ I not stay-negative. is the explanatory use of equivalent to that is why — . § 50.probably he (vis. infrequently. is The noun.) which-at-being-from-my do-past passive partic. g. that from my having been done.) white-breasted-he that is the (why) now he termed) "white-breasted" (note that vr serves as article pronoun to' a'iv'^ Lay a to'ca' pa{i)yatsLar]A) § 57.). that is where I am from where- m^a'fivi"'ar Somewhat similar THAT (inan.) me = my) man I saw me ( = my) ( where I stay ^'u'ri'aqA p'iv^'a'nfim'^anayjqwnn ani p'ini which-at staying-my. it UR iD'ca'pa{i)yaisLnrjA (vis. usitative participle -vatci. .) -a. (1) Negatived nouns and pronouns. . -pa-t . 4. 3) ivn'ni{y)aq.) (is (inv. this that (inv. e. Negation.itcu -nia-a-aqa-.). 'a''iv"'Lar) to these constructions vis. that now-he (vis. agentives in -vi-". independent pronoun. though closely attached to the following word. g. garu not.-my. 6. it is I (for 'aai' see § 60.

xes -yiva'ai. g.: : : Southern Paiute. -dpa-).) he (vis. wiE' gatcu'arjA let ga'tuirjwa''^ I not-him (vis.) here arrive-negativenot wont to arrive here gate imi"ap-A not thou-negative. 6. Examples he (vis. ga e. not a good dream 'a't'inonocipi'apA gate "'a't'inorioct. e.) not bite kill- negative. he (2) (a) is Negatived verbs.) sing. 4). it is not you gatcu"iiyw i'i'vcC pi'tcidapate'i is usitative participle. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE -tsL-).-cause-negative.. Examples are: it-is gate aro"'^ iav'^a'tsia'ap-A not wolf-negative. I do not him sing suffi. for negative Negative forms of ordinary active participles in see 2. not a (real) house qatc ina'mp'itSLdpaV not badger-negative-obj.) not good-dream-past passive particnegative. imi'ntcaatjA pA'qa'rjudpA kill thou-preterit-him (vis.) gatcu' A'^ga tjA pinikaivarj' wwini gatcu'aj) "^'a'tinonoc tvaniywa'aiti l^ will gatcu'at) '^'a'thionocLvantijwa''^ he (vis. g. hence -vaywa'ainia-. 5) The -vania- inserts the negative suffix between -va. 253 take as negative suffix ( The on future negative -va- (§ 32. usitative participles 25. do not me future (§ 32.) not dream well not dream well (stated as prediction) . not having dreamt well not-he (inv. b below.and -nia-.without specific tense element functions as a negative present. The form in -rjwaai. you did not gatcu'ni qi"i''-{y)apani him not-me bite-negative-me. Absolute negatives in -'apa-. what has not been well dreamt. The absolute (tenseless) verb negatived precisely like a noun.) will not see it (vis.VL'apA gate '^'a'tlnonoeitsCapA not a good dreamer not good-dream-gerund-negative. Several negative elements are used. tell qatcun Uni' ava^rjwa' aim not-me tell-future-negative-me. (-a'apa-. This suffix precedes objective -ya-. do not me! (b) Non-absolute Jiegatives in -rjwa'ai-."apA gate house-negative. a Shoshonean Language 271 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A somewhat are: will puzzling form in -vaniijwa'ai{nia)- also occurs. § -apaend -i'i-. it is not Wolf qarn. g. c) in -apatci-. e. not a badger (obj.

This -ai. e) is The negative form of subordinating -ku- -rjwaqu-.) many) in -tjiva'ap a-vicf. e. not-preterit-they (vis. It is not evident how they Examples differ. e. g.) countable is (?)-negative-again. a suffix apparently combining -rjwa'a{i).). tTqa'qarjwa'qucampararjWA dus. while eat-plural-negative-while-only-we (In- we are not eating There are absolute verb forms in -yuHiapa-. (§ 55. are qatcu' rarjw a pan' iyorjioa aicu we (indus. The and verbalizing suffixes b) -kai- TO BE and -kai- to have (see § 26.i without saying anything. 1. Examples atc'i'ya' has a bow had arms Ijcing about to qa'tc atn'a'" has not a bow "'a'rjav'i'yaip'iya' "'a'tjavidipVa' had no arms not going fatjica'tjqaivant'i qa'tcu tar)wa"aivanti to have teeth n'iTjw'i'aya' (it) have teeth ( has a person. a become -ai- in the negative. g. 1. ii'i' qatc cniipa'xAt'uiTjwa'apaxf)! not talk-cause-negative-agentive. g. if at all. many in number {paiyj- only used as negative verb. are: qatcu'tca mi paa'iyorjwa'apacu they were cf. The negative qa nono'ctywai't'i qatc'^ 'a'{i)yuijwai'tivH not dreaming not one who is good (among) several 1. I do not allow to talk Xcgative forms of verbalizing -kai-.) to me fi'iru'x w.(§ 55.takes the place of any specifically negative are: suffix.: : : : 272 254 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR active participle ends in -rjwaait'i-. 1 -rjwa'apa. a nirjwl'a''^ < -a-a'°) no person is person is there there . I (am) one who causes not to (c) talk. The negative correspondent -rjwa'ai-i/u.(see a).(but negatived agentives I above). b) is na-'nuu/waiYUcampayA him (vis. e.(§ 55. (give) In certain forms -rjwaai- is replaced by two-moraed -rjwaa-.and -apa. g. 1. from ordinary negative absolutes in -ap a-. c). Forms in seem to be agentives of negative absolutes in -vi'apa-. of subordinating -kai. e.

— — of participial -p'iyanfi. 6).) qa'tcu quna'inikaWiMi not owned-plural subject-not haveparticiple-plural. -yai-p'iyai- doubly negatived to -'ai-p'i' have. narrative past -p-' negative few verbs.) saw it qa'tcu phiL'kaip'i'a'aik did not see it NTci'm-'^'iap'iyant'i let having ever qa'tcu NTci'm-'^'iap'iait'i let having go of any one never go of any one The negative verbalizing -ai. chiefly verbs of sight. Its negative correspondent is is therefore -p'i'ai-.: : Southern Paint c.and is followed by narrative -p'iyai-. in -7i Negatives a'ai-. -a'q uto positive -kaiyu-.) not see-negative.(b above). A suffix instead of the pitn'tuina''^ I see-cause-negative. having ears narjqa'va'ait'i earless fire- quna'qax(inUviiha. narjqa'vayant'i to positive -kant'i.\''\ng^ve (piur. a Shoshonean Language 273 255 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.and -yai. Unlike -rjiva'ai-.before subordi- nating -qn-. Examples are: sit iv. I do not let (him) see maija'cuaq-A qa p'^ni'iia'" he-it (vis. use normal -rjwa'ai. 1.appears as -a-. a and b) is -ait'i-. -naait'i-. not having fire (plur. 6.i qafi'p'iya sat ^a'/ci/ ^aR'/^^ta'" did not p\nL'k aip-'iya'aikwA (inv. though others were not coyote-like (d) -naai. he does not see it (but: matja' cuaq. compounded of past passive participle -pi.being.a qa p^ni'kairjwa''^ he does not look at it) nit' while not seeing qatcv""qiVA plni'n-a'aij)-'iya not-it p'ini'na'aiYU (inv.precedes future -va. participialized. A SHOSHONEAX LANGUAGE pa'yaivdtc'j wont to be water qatcu'ru'a q- i'i'va pa'a'aivdtci not-interrogative-it (vis. e.(§ 25.) As we have already seen (§ 32. not. -na'ai.) here water-be ciple.) (he) saw . -a'. when is not thus corresponds e. e) is -p'i'ait'i-. is not-usitative-parti- there not wont to be water here? The negative participle corresponding HAVING (§ 26. had was The negative correspondent . c when has g. however. ci'na7)wavL{y)a'qufuacampA coyote (distributively)-not be-whenimpersonal-only.

Examples are: qA'qa'RA quail tu'tu'yuacf)! supernatural helper 77iama"utstanta'rjwavi- woman. Numerous reduplicated forms have already been quoted in the course of this paper.)-dual peep-negativefuture-it (inv. according Verbs and nouns with reflexive prefix na. examples of reduplication are classified tA'ta'-"). reduplicated nouns.: 274 256 X Southern Paiute and Vte SA. A small number of (1) Constantly nouns occurs only in reduplicated form. as to function. Reduplication. not the stem. to the first consonant of the stem. 'v'-).PIR qatcu'^qwa^mi sotsLu'iiaivaaqwami not-it (inv. verbs with instrumental prefixes reduplicate the prefix.)-dual. reduplicating cvto type. that has a nasal consonant following initial stopped or affricative consonant (cv-"') . rarely cv'-). g. practically frequently accompanied by glottalization or consonantal gemination or both. e. The reduplication is always final (^'v'-. § 58. g. not the stem (e. 11). (you) 2 shall not peep at it -fictiai-na'ai. initial. neces- sary. »ia)iia"°cayw(o)its- old woman man's brother-in-law toad pimp'i'n'jioav'iyaip-'i. (I guess) he didn't dream (but also: qatcun 'a'tm-jnoc Lywa" not-I well-dream) 7n*"a'ijaqA maa'ininadit'i that one (e) it (is) who has not been touched This form l'-" Negative participle in -nu{w)a'ait'i-. An initial vowel (v) reduplicates to v'v'- If the word begins with a consonant + vowel (cv).) good-dream-negative. The consonant following a may be either spirantized or geminated. verbs in ta-^ with the foot reduplicate to In the following. secondarily as to phonetic type. only a few cases of morphologically non-significant reduplication occur. pay no attention to (see § 50. and CV-" both occur. especially. The It is process is freely used both in nouns and. is perhaps the negative participle corresponding to usitative -n qa'tcu na'a'inu{w)a'ait'i (§ 30. however. never having burned. The reduplication seems Reduplicating types cv-^ to have no morphological significance. . 29) qatcu'ay 'a't'inonocina''^ not-he well (vis.reduplicate the iia-. + vowel (cvc") includes the nasal is in the reduplication if the nasal of the reduplicating syllable assimilated. A stem. in verbs. the reduplication includes both (cv-'.

youngest of all (reduplication probably has distributive function) pamp'i'ni bucket (reduplicating vowel different from that of stem) An example ternal nasal (2) is of reduplicating cv-" in the case of a stem without in- pompo'tsats lizard (var. have geminating reduplication. Distributive forms though sometimes. trja" pitsaijav'i- of nouns are quite frequent.) yuyi/'uxwaip^yd^ each had a leg our (inclus. practically A distributively conceived noun is practically equivalent to such.) wives pirjwa(c) Type cv-^} pA^pa'tcaraywA pair to each) pA'tca'raywA our (inclus. a Shoshonean Language 275 257 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. y.). c. always logically plural at the same time. headless people wiyiyv'unarjwa- vulva leg tracks father w'iw'i'xiA vulvas (obj. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE ovi'-77ipimpin-araAjHtsL-r)WL last.) nana'ywarayiVA tracks nioa- momQ'a{i)ya{u)<{)'L (their) own fathers (obj.) older sister pa' pa'tsLanii sister older tdtsi" ait'i headless to'to'tsi'ttitimi each having no head. but need not be. Such examples will be arbitrarily considered as coming under geminating reduplication. particularly in the case of animate nouns. They baby i"i()'7)'apitsLr)w'i babies arm Type trail a'a'yamxci'ip'^ya each had an arm (b) cv-': po' pia- povo'o trails mother wife pivl'armjWA our (inclus. (a) Type v'v-: are not true plurals. Stems beginning with s.) shoe(s) patsi- our shoes (one their (vis. Distributive reduplication in nouns.) mothers pivi'ijwanu their (vis.) (d) Type cv-": v). generally also m.Southern Paiute. and n there is no possibility of and geminating reduplication. ' In the case of stems beginning with distinguishing spirantizing .

several look at. qa'ivayani'i jpa' spring mountainous country pa'payant'i spring (distributively)-having. Distributive activity nearly always involves plurality of subject in transitive or intransitive Hence the distributive form verbs or of object in transitive verbs. (a) 1. not *j)'Lni'kaika-.) pumpu'yquyw'irayiVA (one or ally our horses horses (owned collectively) more owned individuof us) by each one houses qu'ni (3) house qarjqa'ni Distributive reduplication in verbs.'/- all several arrive 'iivimiip'iya arrived each bv himself (b) Tj/pr cv-': quni- to take one object qunyieii. c).276 258 piirjqu'rjw'irarjWA X Southern Paiiile and Vte SAPIR our (inclus.several take one object tcatca' i' p'iyaiam'i. tca'a'ip'i'ya took hold of they (vis.) each took hold of (c) Type cv-^ (most frequent type dry is of distributive verb): all tava'cup'i participle) (past passive iA'ta'4)Acup'i dry MU^qu'ntai' pA'qa'rju sa'rjqni' straight mumu'quntaV straight several are to kill one person unripe pA'pa'qarju ripe several kill one (it) is SA'. is frequently enough the practical equivalent of a plural Certain verbs. of the verb verb.) t?/?"'!. places with springs . indeed. e. pimp'i'n'i-kai- Type v'v-: to uyivai- hang u'u'ywai'y'iq WA hangs them (they) (in- an.(§ 31.m'yqai' several things are un- to'qwa"(ti' patches one fire na a' ip'iya was burning io^to'qwa\u patches several nan-a"aip'iya there were fires burning (d) Type cv-^ having a mountain qa'qaivayant'i having mountains. g. consistently use the distributive form instead of one with pluralizing -qa.

e.TO take one object several eases the iterative : to be considered as a form distinct go home.. Iterative verbs.. sips a'a'^tipA'qai" talks repeatedly ampa'yai' uywi'^ smells whistles u'u'qwV sniflFs smells several times.(^) . qioiyw'i'i.. In some and the distributive are phonetically identical. g. may appear instead of ivi.. though the iterative is from the distributive.(. i. ...: w'iwi'nnaip lyai {y)aijA (they) winaipa{i)yl(f) throw down threw him to return p.. e.. each group by itself panaya- several go (4) Iterative reduplication in verbs. in others there is some difference of form. home pampa' ri' A'^qai (they) go home in parties.: phnp'i'n'i-ka' tonto'v' A'^qai p'inikai- to look at several look at several stab tona'V (h) stabs Type CV-" . stem gemination and glottalization tend to be more frequent in iteratives than in distributives. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE (e) Type to c\'-^ . are reduplicated in a manner very similar to distributive verbs.) down returned p'iya all Type CV-": to puyquywai- have a horse pumpu'quywa' horses (dissimilated from pumpu'rjqu-) (g) each has Type CV-" . contrast.Southern Paiute.several take one OBJECT ( < qivii-) with qwTqw'i'"i. . pampa'rinaq Aqwa'ai.): v'v .'. verbs indicating the repetition of an action.'. around whistles several u'cu'qwi oro 7)wi "'u'cuqwi" times roars to nurse oWro'ywi' roars several times 'a' fix I A'ti'xi to nurse several times . On the drink talks li' pi' drinks repeatedly..'.'...'C pa' {i)yi (vis. (a) Type .. a Shosbonean Language 277 259 SOUTHERN PAIUTE...

ran time after time whittles to hit starts ssi'vai" whittles A-ff'/'A-ii'/'. e) Type cv-^: tA^pu'qun qu'qwi'^ jumps shoots tA'ta'puqwi skips keeps jumping...'..'-' many times several kwi'p-A to hit several times yu'mu'qwi' startled) (d) (on being yuyu'm'MU'^qwi times starts Type cv-^ yell several times pivi'Han'm vomits several times fjrj'^O^m' runs several times toyo'qwi (c) ous reduplication runs see 5.At'iyq'i to dodge one time after another (e) Type cv-^ sings .. . . (momentaneous) nana' q.... pam'r/wai. . tara'vm'naai' (his) breast keeps putting out paywai- to yell pi'pi'ta'ni' vomits (momentane.'. .278 260 (b) X Southern Pciiute and Ute SAPIR Type to cv-*: tavinnato strut put out one's breast.: t'iv'^'i'na'Yai' leads tTW p'inaqai times leads away several jiaya'rhjq'i to naya't'ijjq'i dodge (durative).(types d and e combined): .^ . .: qA''qa"ai' qa'r sings repeatedly maywa'vai' jiaya'm V tva'i' is creeps sick main ma' yjwava'C creeps in starts nana'xa'nn is sick several times tu'tu"ai' gives birth gives birth several times tcA'qo'itcai' takes off clothes tcA^tca'qoitcaV takes clothes off several times qivii'i' takes one object qwTqin"'iV eral times takes one object sev- (f) Type cv- ./. qu'qo'qwi' wiwi'ii" shoots several times iTqa'V w'i'l'i eats trti'qai' eats several times dances ran sifqwip-'ifa siva'i' nonii'qwip'i'ya^ dances repeatedly kept running..

There is a certain amount of overlapping of forms (e. a Shoshonean Language 279 261 SOUTHERN sit several times.i'^ stoops several one's buttocks times sticking out tocks (his) but- (5) MoMENTANEOUS REDUPLICATION of verbs IN VERBS. cv-^: Type qa- to sing kieyq'i- to laugh to 9070'.TO drink forms no momentaneous (or inceptive) *i'i'vi-. . a'a'vi. settle dowim ( < qar'iTO sit): qA'qa't' cry several (or inceptive) § sing several times. A Considerable form (see by reduplication. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE yaya'i cries (it) ya{i)'ya'qai cries several times (it) 7utitci'yai* shakes nin''i'ntciq{i)i shakes several times (g) p'in-i- Type CV-" to see. Thus. reduplicated momentaneous forms are sharply distinguished from corresponding reduplicated distril)utives and lie): a'a'pi. ivitju. g. e. (a) Type to lie v'v-': avi- down a'a'c/)/ to begin lying down This type does not seem to be freely used. TO start TO eat). Momentaneous reduplication differs radically from distributive and iterative reduplication in that there is no accompanying stem gemination or glottalization.TO sing): qA'qa" start off singing (< -qa. on the whole. begin lying down ( < sing (momentaneously). 5). qaya.Southern the appropriate form (b) (§ 30. qaya'tca rjA he (vis. to start in singing. number form their momentaneous 3-8) : times. yaya'yaTO burst OUT CRYING ( < cry) ya'ya' lie several times. look to stab to tell plmpi'n'ni' looks repeatedly tonto'n'nai" stabs several times tojiafini'a- tmti'n'iai' tells several times pona- to stoop and stick out pornpo'n'na. t'i'fi' eat several TIMES. g. qA'qa'fi.) finished singing Iciyi'erjq'ito start in laughing pava'y{a)ipava'ito start to pay(a)ipat(c) walk walk to call to call (monientaneously) Type cv-''.

be standing yuyu'ywiw'iw'i'n'i- several sit to stand down up (d) fin.280 262 fiq a- X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR to eat to arrive ti'fi'q a- to eat up. 30. in part onomatopoetic.(§ 10. pi'tci. Numeral stems - a small -/- number Such of verbs. 50. pA'-sj'roroi-tr'i Sometimes an follows. cv'yutjyomA^riojwi- . in Paiute.MA'c'm]ici- nava'ikavaiwan'rjWA'cutjici- uuva'iMA'ciiywi- 100. toyo'mA'cuyivi- 20. to start to eat pitci'- pi'pi'tcl-. tlnt'i'niarjq'l- to (ti) tell to (monientaneously) is Final reduplication. burst into tears to copulate with to copulate with (mo- nientaneously) several are seated to stand. settle yayayjyoyuyiviw'in'i- yaya'yayoyo'yj- to begin crying. 3) to arrive (monientaneously) itiufciydqar'i- to shake n'Ln'i'ntciya- to start in shaking to sit to cry q/Cqa'fi- to sit Type cv-": to tell t'int'i'nia- to tell on. cu'ruruqi'nr'i- to sound like a make a noise as of an object whirling down hard object played over a toothed or notched surface qwinu'nnu- to turn ta-ya'niinn-})ql- to around have one's feet dangling § 59. 60. It is This type of reduplication very imcommon confined. (1) Numerals. pa iviA curjwi- inauL'yinava'i- IVi'tcu'TjwiMA'cUTJwiv\aniyi. 40. of Paiute are: ciirjwi- cv cu{w)a' royomA wa'inA^cuTjwi- wapaiiVA'tcii'tjwi- 10. The numerals 9. are: waterfall (participle of verb with incorporated pa- WATER iump^'i'-s ivavai-fc'i tutnp"'i- precipice (participle of verb with incorporated rock) to cu'ruru-.

A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 263 The stem enclitic cv-. co'yu other. k). 12) and 10. based on 2. 10 is properly ma'cv'ijwi. g. 15) meaning just.). arj. cv'ituywanum'^'ac u for one niglit cv'yunC one Without e. nanal eight < nalcyi four). cinut). 30. consists of another (cvyu-) and JUST-TEN. Numerals enter into . and so on up to 100. Hopi nalcyi four < kiyi two. perhaps -t ciirjwi.: (in counting) enclitic -cm-. 1) and paiTHREE. 8 {waa'ywAtcuTjWi) is somewhat irregularly from 4 {waHcu'tjwi). -ma'cu'ijivialways appears as such. 20. wa- 6. a Shoshonean Language 281 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.HAND. cv 'ruclnaywav another one.objective suffix -no-). e. 2. and 3 seem to be primary numeral stems. 6 is compounded of reciprocal na. Shikaviyam ccwi.syntactic relations in one of three wavs: . 3. -q n- the other coyote co'qunA other one (apparently co . and ten. Mono ciwi. clearly based on reduplicated (2) Employment of numerals. g. the other. cu'v'^'anfimi the others (anim. 7 is Only 1 .-\. co'qvn arjA the other one co'qu again. another (thing).one. rather curiously. are respectively compounds of 2. with -ma'ciiyivi-. cv- is often used to mean other. cv'y it.(§ 20. in its meaning of one. cv'yuc u one (cardinal attributive). Cardinal and adverbial suffixes to numeral stems are discussed in §36. macihjwi. 5 and 10 evidently contain ma.) 2. as would be expected.i other-coyote he (vis. cv '{i)y am other atj. instead of alternating. 100. toyo'. once more co'v'^'ant'i + verbal noun the other. and so on. hence means properly duality of threes (cf. quite.may thus have meant one pair of hands. navai six < pahio three.). Nahuatl nahui FOUR < duality of twos.: Sunt hern Paiute. is generally provided with an -cm- (§ 19. but is probably another form for one ( < Shoshonean *siwi or *simi] cf.of 4) is obscure. 4 is probably being reduced to wa-.i other he (vis.(cf. objective cv'qucu cv'tacu once cv'yurjuc u to become one cv'ituywanumA. 9 is compounded of cu(u')a--^ nearly (§ 20.(§ 22. -c iiywi.

for two days in number pa'i{y)ttu'ywan-umA three-nigh t-on.boy) two young men {a'i<f>Ap'Lts- young man) Before nouns indicating time (such as day.(§ 26. e. for three nights mani yiyutavamanC nava' . g. in -yu-.) daughters-have-past.) arrow-little-have-usitative- wont to have one arrow wa'quicani qava'xA two-obj. e. as (they) are one among (them)selves.-preterit-I participle.are: Subjective forms end in -yu. 2 as wai-.(see § 36.itavamanC (c) for five days in for six days in number number As verbs. 6 as navai-. Ex1).) patcu'yw'Cxaipiya' five mariL^Lku five (obj. 3 as pai{y)£-. 4 as w aHcu' rjwiyu. a). attributively or denominatively. wa'n'aipatsnjw'i wa'n'ai<i>Ap'itsLT)w'i two boys {a'ipats. amples of numerals in -qu. I received two horses paa'ik-^u three (obj. had daughters (b) As first elements of noun compounds. Examples are: 1 cv'itavamA one-day-on.i'tavamaru one-winter-on.appears as xvan'. appears as cvi-.(?). horse-get. g.: cv'yurjucu to become one. 5 as mani.: 282 264 (a) X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPiR As independent nominal forms. night. month. one by one . cv'quc- u'qwL'yutsiyaivdtc'f one (obj. cv'Yuqwarjucu several become one nana' cvyurjqwaiyuciJ reciprocal (distributively)-one-be-subordinating-just. objectives in -qu-. with or without verbalizing -Tjqai. for one year two-day-on-like. winter). Examples of compounded numerals are: wa'q'imantsnjw'i waa'nL(y)avL'ijw two strangers ami the two chiefs wa' ma'^' cay'^oitsLrjw'i two old women Before vowels compounded iva. These forms do not suffer vocalic unvoicing of their third mora. they geminate following stopped and affricative consonants.'yiyu-.(perhaps < wa- -|- reciprocal na-). based on forms 1. for one day (= cv'yucu tava'niA) cv'itDmumA wa.

d). both pu'imani with both my eyes (vis.). inanii.different.(apparently with would seem.) numeral forms see § 36. all (of you) lie under it. g.)(vis.separ.\tely (as adverbial independent adverb nani'cu-. 2. before certain postExamples are: both (obj. manu'nia. in (2) different directions compounds e. it numeral objective -qu-).(for enclitic -nia. 1). both (animate): consists properly of reflexivenaywa'ai(c) reciprocal stem 7ia. = they)-them my eyes. first element of compounds. g. both (inanimate). prefix. (vis. These are: As subjective form is used mano'nia-. nania'naq u. be either compounded (e. narjwa'qu- (d) qima-' qii)ia'ya)tini other. This stem may my other house) or used independently. na}u"naq{w)oyaya'maqA ends nani'rinaqovarjA at both its both (obj. In the latter . knowing it all ya'manunC quite all.)-it (vis. they 2 killed both of them nar)wa"qup u\ni both (obj. g..: Southern Paiute.(§ 46) and postposition -rjwa'al. § 20.see § 37. they (have) become two for me A number of elements that are not true (3) QuASi-NUMERALS. (b) nanin'na. a Shoshonean Language 283 265 2 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE waa'{i)i/ur)qi'r)'um'^'ini two-for-become-dual-me.). as pendent objective and as fiaywa"". nani'n'narjwituziVA In to. Examples are: all-plural(§ mano'ni{y)a{i)yaqaxa' aru'qwA qv'n'i'ka 52)-im- perative (§ 52)-then! it-under lie. (a) mano-. § 60. numerals are related in meaning and form.) knowing.together with nar)wa"qu. every one For man-o'qupa(n)tci. then! mano'qoaq-A piftcu'icurywaRi all (obj. positions. 4. 11): WITH each other. as objective.all. 2. naTjwa" q-uarja m pA''qa'r}up'Lyai{y)a7)a'vn they)-them kill (vis. manoqu-.AT.. e.-dual)-past-he = he (vis. Examples are: naywa"aicu both (people) both (obj.)-end-on-its (vis.)-at-his on both sides of him This quasi-numeral is based on nani.). this appears as also.) (sing. -va.functions as inde(§ 50. 5.

g. of demonstrative origin. They are employed either as true adverbs (e. in some cases.(§ 19. qi'aijwi ya"" YESTERD. suffixes (e. a) are: (inv. commenced to go down). 1. demonstratives. with nominal Certain enclitic suffixes. -toyo-n ia. in part. g. e. g. § The former type is more numerous. d). ti'ijw'i-nia. enough. are appended to some adverbial stems.hurriedly.)-my. 2. Free adverbs. often serving as bases for postpositional suffixes (e. provided. Some adverbs contain postpositional suffixes. then I have one left over 'a'iaiit'i one ti'tpr\nL(y)a'aun I'i'qa'i' thcn-tliey (vis. adverbs of c).(cu-) for the object. fiv'^a'iyni. qa not). see how fast they 2 eat . 2.separately.very).far AWAY.see 2. local adverbs.: 284 266 case ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (see § 89.near (cf. ma' thus.) (juickly-duai oat- present.(§ 19. a'i-v"'i. 4. ai.then. a qima'qucuni qaxa'''va"c u other (obj. and modal temporal into adverbs. There are two main classes of independent adverbs in Paiute. g. g. and those whicli lean on (though not enclitically attached to) a preceding word. 4. the other way < qioau.) a'i(caqwA cv'yueu piya"jjiv uru'anani then-preterit-it be-left being (inv. g. those whose position is entirely free (these generally precede verbs or come first in their clause). comes first in clause as peg for enclitics.k up'Cya' down-moving-inceptive-past. The adverbs of free position may be classified adverbs.)-just-I sing (momentaneously)- will-again. even when there is generally followed by enclitic -teano reference to past time. I will sing also another one § 60. fiv''i-tsL. e. t'i-na' yqwaUP hither (cf. adverbs (2) in -fiya-nia-. nava-cu. see § 43. na'a . forms for the subjective it has pronominal numeral form in vain. e. Adverbs. or. NOW (of rather indefinite temporal significance. 18) icayi'-pa. 2. t'iv"'i-campa. mio-n ia. particularly -c u. 37). Examples (§ 19. For local (1) .off). qwa'at-uywa. g. e. § 50. k) and -n ia. g. as verbs (this is particularly true of local adverbs. Derivation of adverbs. (a) Temporal adverbs: ai- THEN. b below. 2). 5 It is and § 44. A number of adverbs are really Many others are special e. adverbial stems (e.\Y die(d) ).

§ 50. May WAY. § 50.see § 19.ON one's belly ''o'i'min.( < i -.coming down. i'(j)i for i'4>A. § 50. § 24. 30). 4. § 50. north (probably waterwards. 18) q'i'aijwi- yesterday u'v'^aiyavqu. perhaps misheard under a) mi{y)o-. qwarjwa. and postnafi'v'^ia- — positional -narjqwa-. b) H-cu.{Tti'c anipA.(perhaps -a.oi'tacp'i no longer i pina'yqwa. 4. tiv"'a" way down west. (generally followed by postpositional -rjqioa-. mio'-t'iyania.BACKWARD pit. cf. 4. § 50. § 50. (see § 50. and postpositional -mitii'ywa-. § 21.long ago (perhaps f-" OLD and participial related to i-° old) i'iu-c u. at a distance. often heard ti'c amp. qwa'utuywa.above) Local adverbs: (e. soon {pi.i) always (for enclitic -campa.the other way (postpositional : + -tuywa-. 3. j) always. cf.) Southern' a' mi- ( < pi- hear. cf. Ute wi'tcuqu. mi{y)d" Hsiva.relating to time. § 50. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE a''iv"'i- NOW (probably ai-' new and nominal suffix -vi-. 4.far off. 37) locally: early. 18).> *qwawa-) qwaijwa' ntcuyica< 4. 4.after a while. way off {-vdtcia- may be objective participle of postposition -va. § 50. 37) it'i'-campa. mio-n-ia. also far away. paWATER. vatcuqu-. 2. a Shoshonean Language 285 267 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. two preceding adverbs and postpostional -tcuqu. customarily (perhaps contains reflexive 7ia-) oi'ta-v' k little DISTANCE (diminutive -tsi-. FAR a good distance ''o'i'mt. § 35. thereupon (cf. reduced from pa-. 3.ANY longer {qatcun. 37). ivd'tciacf. 4. 4. § 21. perhaps cf. postpositional -va-. May be verbalized A LITTLE further BEYOND (postpositional -ntctiywa-.long ago (b) ivL- i'tu-cn. 13) downward opposite IG) qwaia- beyond.avi" I lie on my l)elly pan-a'yqwa.(early) in the morning. 1. 30) qwau-o off. iva'tcia- be verbalized pimi'tuywa. 1.FORMERLY. § 50. 4. 41. postpositional -narjqwa-. frequently used as sentence-connector in narrative) un-'tu-cu. away. USED TO (perhaps assimilated from i't'i-cu-t'i-) < i'tcuqu. 4.

Examples are: below). 'iv"i-ya.) say-will. § 50. enclitic -nia-.4. § 19. 4. viava'Ttoyont' at a certain distance.: mava'i'tiyan-L. May Adverbs of degree: a'xv^i-cn- enough (probably a'tv""!- now. § 24.probably diminutive. 1. -". § 39): adverbially used independent personal imi' 'aik. let him say to no purpose (probably objective participial form iti'a-nia. j) (d) Modal adverbs: (?) arja-cu- only. 30) fina'yqwa.probably nominal suffix. May be verbalized tovi"i-tsi. 2. objective i'itjqu-nia. 4. see a above. § 50. (postpositional -ntuywa-. in -i'ia-) (vis. § 19. way off mio't'iyani at a good distance close towards it u'u'rain(i*ani fiv^'ai-'' DOWN. you say. 2. any old way. also tuyu-mpasky): tuyu'ntuywatcayi'pa- upward (postpositional -ntuywa-. see above.really. west. t'i'yivi-tiia- somehow. § 35. unfortunately: TR'an-L aik-. 1) tuyu-^ UP (evidently related to ft'-". and enclitic -CU-. ti'ntuywa. 30) near ( < tcayi-°. cf. t'iv'^i'tsL-niagreatly.on-o'cuapiicL-^a' subordinating (nearly-arrive = wake thou say he early-breathe-arriveup).upward. tiv'^i'tssampa. May be verbalized.far west. not occurring independently. 4. f).ajjac.coming . § 19. d). and postbe verbalized positional -pa. JUST pronoun he.FOR A short DISTANCE {-tsL.AT. 'lv"''l- — Iv^'i'-campa-nia! (cf.: 286 268 <z X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR up. 37) waq-{a)i'-"' (c) hither. § 50. tanti'v'^ai. § 50.hortatory witii dual or plural subject. 2. 18). g. e. I'm sorry you say hortatory.too bad. t'i(-)i-" NORTHWARD up {ti- reduced from t'i -\ postpositional -narjqiva-.i too bad you say. but just waking up 'ar'i'k'i- almost.further up. Iv'^i'-nia- hurry and . nearly hortatory imp'^a'i- ivip^a'iar) iija't'ia- aha' let-he in vain. see also twyu-'^ -fiya-nia(-toyo-nia-) local advcrbializing element appended to certain adverbs or postpositional phrases (perhaps related to verb tiyai- TO become. of course (enclitic -c ampa-. k) fiv'"i'-tsL- VERY {-tsL.

Southern Paiute. separately nani'-cu.provided that. a marjaia-cu. if (perhaps cv.on the other hand (adverbially used independent objective personal pronoun him. b) qa. in vain na'a'-cu.imi'xainC on the other hand 3'ou too nava-cu.) talks perhaps (probably cua. 37): cu{w)a'-r'ua- sv'v^'ayw avipa'xaxu^V^A if he (in v. tiT/wi'ma'" ! sure enough (for t'iv'^i.only for fun tiv'^i'-cu-. These are almost all of demonThey are much more difficult to define than the (lengthened form of demonstrative stem like Sanskrit itl. ttv"'i'-campa- (3) strative origin. tiv"'i'-tsL very. ump'^i' ca-c-ampa.barely (probably lengthened and postpositional -vaAT. 2. ho! Examples are: . § 19. 5. qatcu. 'iv"'i'ni{y)a''' us two go in order to drink tell! tiniA hortatory-like-thou § 43): ma'^ THUS. 12. § 39): maya'iac. IN tive THAT WAY (as described) (lengthened hurry up and tell! form of demonstra- stem ma-. 1. § 59. .) drink- go-momentaneous-future-dual. 3. 2. no matter: vmqm'in-L'^ no matter how thou (wilt test) me ''mpa'i(y)arjwhu I don't care how ye (will do to) me ^mpa'iAcanipa-ijA ya'a'iva^ however-only he (vis. § 20.separately (cf. adverbial prefix fi'rjw'i. § 50.itci" yarjWLva^ nirjwi' mix hortatorythou him (inv.) eat-usitative.nearly.i don't care'am'i 'iv'^'i'ni hortatory-I let we (exclus. they 2 always eat in a hurry .not. umpa'ia-campa. § 19. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE Iv'^'i" urjwa' vatcuxw Aqwa' aic.).)-to-go-again this (inan. obj. see § 53. 'a' § 43) follows quoted word. Adverbs bound in position.) die-will. j). ma' A' ga'p-'iya' thus (he) sang mani-camya. go ahead! go again and bring her this liver ni'rrV" ivi' :j^w' aiijum. and interroga- tive enclitic -r'ua-. d above) umpa'i(a)-. rt'.cf. do thus and enclitic -cam-pa-. § 20. IN A HURRY (cf. I don't care if he dies "'u'mp^ica-. a Shoshonean Language 287 269 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. see § 57 sv'v^a. for fun. f) ti'ijwi-Jiia- QUICKLY.merely.n-ia-): quickly-thou hurry! ti'r)wmi{y)a-7n'L tTqa'mC quickly-they (vis.) carry-shall liver (obj. without purpose.differently. preceding set of adverbs. 4.

(§ 19. 13).iyiR becomes t. particularly such as indicate unfulfilled desire (would th. Examples are: . in irrealis forms (§ 33.) thus name-having (obj.(§ 32.nia'xaivant'f vulva thus nanie-have-future-participle. (he) was . after futures in -pa. being called (obj.a" my aunt. 1). This common adverb tends to amalgamate (it) will qam'i'v'"'uitsL ' loosely with preceding personal pronouns. It seems to have emphasizing force. 4). independent or enclitic. 9 and § 43.\t !).i indeed say.) (inv. after gerund -tsL. tu^qwL'y'aiijq'iy'iay'am 'oqi' shame-die-to-present-he (vis. kill-passive-preterit-interrogative-he he is ashamed of 7) you ^'qi p.).?a'/' (objective inanimate invisible demonstrative in origin. the woman g'ir indeed that (inan. Present forms tend to take on preterital significance with iyiR. -is.) "rabbit-eyed" paa'n.already (§ 30.and -ytva. but imi'iy'iR (in general.-he a'iar) 'a'ik-^.i^qa'ijuRtcaro' a (vis.) indeed. . and after substantive verbal -aqaIT IS (§ 56. TRULY. you indeed have IyiR iiQiio'ci I til always been am. It is particularly common after iyiR (see above) with preterital -tea. I did indeed dream imi' L^ir urjwaro"'^ thou indeed anim. -ay iy'iR often coalesces to -at) giR (stopped g is sometimes heard for 7 in others of these cases also). .). In many cases it seems to turn absolute or present verb forms to past tense forms (probably only by implication). not i'm lytR. 5) frequently used adverb (generally postverbal) of quite elusive significance.i old-woman indeed she (vis.iyiR appears as. imi.). sometimes used also in Paiute) 'ja'i\ '. 3). iy'iR be called "vulva" a 7ua'''janfV rabbit-eye-noun suffix (obj. ho! INDEED. see § 42. . n'i' Examples are: indeed dream-present. sing.288 270 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR wi-y'imp a.)-ol)j.) indeed drink-momentaneous. after -m'i. Thus. 1. he was indeed sleeping i'rj iy'ir 'oaV yes. a). 1). that indeed he says a'ian ig'ir 'a'ik fA iy'ir that indeed ivi'rju I (always) say -it iiiii'ntcua-q- thou-interrogative (vis. you did drink it irjqi" indeed (Ute form of 'iy'iR.)-thee. -i.a" "cay w J its old i^'ir uijw.(§ 55. did he get killed? 'iy'ir .C p'l iy'iai) 'oai sleep-present-he (vis. m' i-yiR is generally heard as ni'iym.y'iR).

) thou is eating already n'i'jii ^oai" pA^qa'ijvdiani me kill-impersonal-me.(probably invisible demonstrative stem u.)-like-it (vis. g.) -I otherwise. go away. OTHERWISE (objective inanimate invisible demonstrative liand third personal pronoun. cf. then! uv"'aV THEN. rii'aq- Examples v^qwa'i it are: is i'm u^qwai direction o'".) himt-go-present.only. THEN. i/y"'rt- above) after common emphasizing and -campa. maa'iriLijun touch-momentaneous-me-again touch me then again mava'^c o'" so at that same place to -co''^ Note that uru'a-c -c u- and o'" amalgamate and permit of vocalic unvoicing before -c-. see § is 39 and frequently used § 42.+ enclitic -cu-) emphasizing this particle. + postpositional -va-. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE pA'^qa'-ijutsiiyw "qi' having killed him ^oqi' (inv.) truly. I don't care if you kill me imi'dq'oai' it is tTqa'm'iy'iarj ^oai he (vis. 9) third personal pronoun in sometimes occurs instead of 'aai'. except connective particle. demonstrative 'arja'v o'" he-at so. 'iv"''i" o4>"'A go ahead.: : : : Southern Paiutc. e. NOW (perhaps < invisible demonstrative stem e. AND. a Shoshonean Language 289 271 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 4. g. see § 39). or I will drink it uc n. thou.) uTjwa'yuqv q waxa' ' would that it (inv. < nv'^ayu-. g. maybe it is U(()"'A one here THEN. this-away-thou drink-moini't uyiva' ivi'rjumpaA'^qan unt'ncu men taneous-will-it (vis. 2. § 43). e. frequent P^xamples are: . so at his place ( I pina'yq 'o'" < 'c pina'tjqWA o'" 'o'") soon so so. e. j). REALLY (probably adverbialized use of "'w'-.) might rain! "^mpaiAcampam 'oai pA^qq'umpa ni no matter-only-me-thou kill-shail-me. in songs as practically meaningless padder: I uqwaya. 'i'r)anL{y)aq- u'cu this (anim. somebody indeed killed me iyq'i imi' 7)' waiar) 'oqi yaa'irjqw'oi' thou-with-he (vis. ug. AS TO (apparently (§ 19. 37) weakly emphatic particle. with you indeed he went hunting U'qwa'i It (objective inanimate invisible origin. § 50. *o'" iywituxWA thou indeed (shouldst turn) in the other invisible so.

disgust 'e'ikivi 'aa'ik wi. (cf. "i'rjA yes! fear irja"" well? ira'. or desire and two types: simple vocables expressing emotion without definite grammatical form. au'ik-^ aa'ikwi.)? vv"'aiYU and this (inan.a' my aunt. and words of definite grammatical form.: 290 272 X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPiR imi' ut^aV irja"" as to thee. oh! awawa" meaningless cry 'a. a' ho! 'q. shall (is I do with him (vis. ira'V m" \r)' prohibitive: don't! (nasalized breath + voiced guttural nasal) disappointment. Interjections. generally adverbs or terms of demonInterjections are of strative origin. yuu'v'^mC hail! hurrah! (2) Secondary interjections: u enough! (cf. that are secondarily (1) employed as interjections. 2.) now? where. paa'n. d). 'iv'"'i t'iyVv"''ini my friend! . e. § a'lv'^ic ii)"'t- 60. g. alas. 'i'. well? a'itcaram are we? u'v"'ai' where-preterit-we 2 (inclus.) § 61.V yes! all right! iljn^u'ya {u' and ija are equally high-pitched) great fear o'v"'a'^ o'v"'a. yes! (qa'tcu no! is merely lengthened form of negative adverb qa'tcu not) u'o 'xJ ' iva'xJ^ imitates frog's croaking ijo'o'v'^LnC. 3) 'a' surprise. 2. § 60. now. then. Simple interjections: (e. c) alas! § 60. vexation c + don't! shut up! used also in driving away dogs y'ma.) how it got to be) viaya'c amp uv"'ai' except that one (anim. oh! ho!. "qc. axa'nivarjan 'i'tc u'v'^ai'' what. in myth hand-game e'i cry on guessing in i'ha + great joy r' yes! iTtja. cf. g.

'q wa abbreviated forms of u^qwa'V) Iv^'i'yaya'pi alas-cry-past passive partie. iiwa'cu evidently third singular animate invisible pronoun. 'iv'^l' 'qwa O poor poor me! 'iv'^'i' 'u'^qwa nj. few remarks on verbs of doing and saying are all we need offer As numerous examples scattered through this paper have here. 2. § 44. A correspondingly loose reference to activities and states of the latter sort is made by verbs of saying {ai. 'u^'qwa. 3.. a).: Southern Paiute. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE iv^'i (followed by objective.(§ 26.m^'t" O poor us (exclus. it is ni'camp ani'k-^A I-only only I . to any activity or state but those of speech. ing again implyused in expressions in -n-a-cu-{v'^'i-) (one's own) ing continuous and exclusive do and ai. e. c) ""ni^a'campa'a' (rhetorically lengthened form of "m^'a'carnpA that only) enough! be quiet! o'nicampA (rhetorically lengthened form of 'u'nicampA that do-only) enough! be quiet! ya'nu ( < iya' say are equivalently viai-. A — tTqa'n-Acuv iini'k-A he keeps on eating (lit. '{u')qwa — ! ni'niA O §39) tiv'^L'tssampA surely! of course! (cf. already shown.probably demonstrative. § 43. Verbs of doing. Further examples of the generalized use of demonstrative verbs of doing are: qa'ivavdcitnni mu'kaip'iya mountain-lie-diminutive-participle-like (lit. do-resultative-past. § 43. (inv.. a Shoshonean Language 291 273 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. i. goes thus from place do. like a little plateau mountain-lying) (it) was ani'vuruy'i (song form) to place do-move about present.)- Idiomatic usages. § 60. 6). 2. 5. own singing again) Verbs of doing. does his own eating again) A'pi'inacu{a)n iini'k-A qa'uA'cuv"' a'ip'iya" said his (1) do nothing but sleep he kept on singing. e. verbs in -ni. sound. g.)!.and Thus. too bad! ma'iki..tiwa'cu greeting: hello! (mai. often refer. uni. b.. g. maik. did nothing but sing I (lit. § 43. and mental operation. 4. in a loose manner. e. 2.1 ) here i am! present! (vis. § 50. verbs of doing and saying are frequently used in Paiute in a wider sense than is customary in English.)§ 62.

\y.i qani'va i{ni'iinC I thee ( = thy) liouse-at do-continuative- present. began to copulate (euphemistic reference clear from context) "m"'a'nikaim laxwariiano' thus-do-resultative-usitative-modal (§ 19. how. c)-interrogativp-indefinite. began do that sort of movement. less its The corresponding ready analogy in generalized usage of generalized verb of sound and mental operation.j-obi. did YOr EAT IT? of interrogative application. see Examples of ai.) says. e. are expressed (2) \'ekbs of saying. happening.) say-usitative. g. a'ivnni'i it-at-being that (inv.: 292 274 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR I mikup'iya thus (as described)-do-nioving-inceptive-past. frequently literally means to mean. 'a'inn' is that-interrogative-he to say? he does not (vis. . being.) while moving? what is it that moves? rii'axain. e. what happened to him that he says so? — what has happened to him to make him cry? ava'ui o'paciiui.)-in manner-samelike say-future-participle. while on (his) way Corresponding generalized verbs of doing. 2. has to be rephrased tive \erb of doing. 2. one § 19. a). has been this always referring to For ai. I'll go too (meaning determined by context) Uni'avLxa while lying and doing so. d.u in- to think. when by ayani.. (what is) there will be saying in just 'iy'ir 'a'iiiri I indeed iJ)utSL7)w a'ik-^. verbs of saying finds ai-. is one wont to be doing thus? that is not how one should be imp tim'k-A nu'i/u'-raxn' what does (inv. I stay at your house iltn'iu'miaxdic u do-move-subordinating -just. First of all. English HOW and WHY are regularly to be expressed in Paiute via an interrogawhy did y'ou eat it?.to do what? TO ACT HOW? TO HAVE WHAT HAPPEN TO ONE? (see § 44.iini'va n C I too shall do so. the precise nature of the reference being clear from the context. while lying as described to man in imi'. to ACTIN(. g. 2.i . is thai what he i'i'tjai wont mean that n'ivii^ka this (anim. are: ?(7 aya'n am wont to say = always have that dream what-do-momentaneous-gerund-he (inv. say-usitative-perfective. . particularly in usitative form. TO REFER TO rather than a'infcu'a tj to s.

g. ampa'{i)yaniani. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE the same manner = (everything that is) there (at the house) will be making the same sounds as ordinarily (so that people will not know it has been al)andoned) A number of verbs of sound or mental operation consist of ai. even if inside it there is noise going on an L Acurjw'in a'ikamC what (obj. THERE IS NOISE GOING ON.AGAIN SAY? TO TEASE. e.Southern Paiiite.).to SAY preceded by some more specific word.WHAT (oBj.NOISE-LIKE SAY. Examples are: 'ava'ywifi nmpa'{i)yani a'ik-A noise is going on ampa\i)yanL a'iYUcampA it-in-being (obj.)-again-ye-me say-plural-usitative? ye always tease me ' .at.) noise-like saywhile-only. a Shoshunecm Language 293 275 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 'aniU-CU.

?//"'a'm'''' .

) them pa'payantV^'^ spring-having (pi.). n'i"^ inano'qwoqwA^^ all qa m'tifiaV^* Then "I (obj. Two chiefs they (vis.) qa'm'vu.) know them (inv. obj. people (obj.^^ I make (pi.) knoll-having (pi.) me iiriLijuts- then na'upmi''^ like self mama'ni''^ n'i'yum''^ mQi'mpa-rjuyri .) they (vis. obj. o'v^aiyauqw^^ a'ip'iya.) ova'narjqaTjw^^ am\^^ waa' nuia virjw^* ain geese they (vis.).) kwi'kwi'tcuvatcdci^^ pa-va'n' noantsLyAnW^^ mano'qu^all (obj.) qa-'qaivantsLjAntt^^ mountain-having (pi.) camp-places (obj. .^* journeying in order to eat people.'* me a'ip'iya' me. cina'ywav^'' ay' phu'kaip-'Lya'aim\^^ Coyote he (vis.) saw them (inv.aya'^^ tuyumpapaiya'''ruqiVA'^'' nontsikaimaya^^ mam-u'c-^^ flying along singing along beneath sky-vault those (vis.) n'i''"' Go ahead (pi. obj.) w\nimLap'iya' }^ stood while journeying.^ 'iv^'can^^ xpii'ijuts' their (inv. obj.) nLTjw'i'ai'yaqw^'' pu'tcu'tcuywai'yLqw.) (inv.) I you then shall lead you. said.Southern Paiute.) in \m'^LantsLyAn(x^* divide-having (pi.) nariL'naqwDyaya maxqavv'^ at both ends of it (vis." a'ik-Ap'iya"*^ said (pi. a Shoshonean Language 295 277 SOUTHERN PAIUTE.). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE anika"^ are doing kwi'mv^ranhkamLaya.) valley-having (pi. obj.

296 278 viarja c^ X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR .

).) doing. not us i'iv'^'i'tsi.) took his (vis.shall shout.) o'v"'aiyavq' nia'v chief at) a'ip'iya\ said. a Shoshoneim Language 1^1 279 a'ip'iya SOUTHERN PAIUTE. Then that one he qatcu nQntn'n'Lvarjxoa'^'^^ shall be flying npn'^i'oaxtux w^^^ qatcu wa'a'rjLvajjwa'^" "Not qafc around us. Southern Paiute. arrived. I beyond nia'vLyicani'.) towards it. Then c^^^ said ma'vnj'wain their (vis.) other side.. wTn'aia "His (vis. a'ip'iya dmi r)wa<i>i not loud.) be found out tcatca'i'p'iyaiaiii'^'^^ iuyu')iipapaiya'°vantuxu'^*^ at sky-vaiilt.) ijaraij^*° ova'qarjumpa out (pi.^^'' (nu'aii 'ailc^.) to that (obj. viaTjac- at them (obj. inv. around qu 'va ywa'^-^ shall sing (exclus. their chief. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE qwaia'ijqwop'^^^ jjQtitsi'p'iya.''*^ o'v'^aiyauqDar)'^^* cause us clus. i'i'v'^a^^^ ma'nun{}^^ All Ha'cujup'iya^'^^ started to fly sky (obj.) . WestM'ard il7uts-^^* ya'c p'iya'^^'" pu'u'raiv^^^ hult)^^'' uu'ra'}^ dna'rjwav then flew (pi.) am a' ax tux w^^^ around them nontsi'vurup flew hither 'i'v^'aiyauqw a'ip'iya' and thither.). "What i{. flew." Then him (vis." "Yes.^^^ (inv." twyu'inpaP'^ said \iura' }^^ Coyote. ivTsi'mya tf^'' they (\is.) whither their do towards it Coyote ay he own 'iya . t'iv"'a . not .) we yarayw (in- uru'ac^*'^ a?(?'>:a'.) chief.-^axarj'u-n'it irarjWAP^ being about to obey (neg.waru"'^ say?" m'"a'yA said vm'^a'ruvanf^^ dna'rjwav "About to be he is that Coyote doing thus arf qatcn'royWA^^^ he." cina'ywa^i Coyote 'a-mu'<f>A^^ qg'nipiycO^^ avLtcitci little came back pLtcijii'ya}'^^ ridge manayqwpai'yiqw^^^ from its (inv.) will (obj.) shall again pull he (vis.) pua'ni'}-'^ y'ntai.) us.) liold of feathers (obj. maa'ii iijk'- feathers (inclus. (vis.

" o'v^aiyauq' said ti'qa'viaxi' patsiqw^^^ ci'^pi'xirufelt like Soon then having finished eating it (inv. "Yes.).).) tracks.) among singing while people moving avi" lies along." v'mai.^^* tea qaip'iyaint. i?)'^'m'™ Tried to vomit. pinaijq o'v^aiyaiiq' nayqa'p'Lya'aimi^''* Soon then heard them (inv. narjwa'xpampa'am'i}''^ shall follow their (inv.) downward made %ini7)uts- noise of whizzing pina'yqiVA^^ tw"'i'pvv'"anti^^^ kwi'pa'plya^^^ tA'pa'cp'iy^^- being on ground (obj.298 280 ova'qarjup'iya' . urf imi'^''^ 7nama"utc^''^ ui]w^^° 'a'cLniuina''^mi}^^ woman she (inv. Coyote he (vis. u'v^'a?)'"^ nupv'i'r'iraxwopa"^ right "there she (vis. Mush ani^^ it (obj. -I was in- eating?" deed doing cina'7]wa<^i.). 'aa'ikw.'on^^^ (obj.) me mush. a'ip'iya\ said. came to. said "Coyote." (pl-).). cina'ywact)! "Let me Traveled west Coyote.^'^ X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR cina'rjwav arj' pi'tcu" ami^*^ cu'r'urup'Cyami'^^° took off (pi. 'avLTjupiya'™ passed night after night on journey. lay senseless. a'ip'iya cina'ijwa(f>i.) saw.inter." Was angry fiv^'a'im'miap'iya'^'^'^ Coyote.'^^^ maa'inip'iy^^^ liui'yuts- cold thrill going touched then being at his own through head. pi'pi'ta'nLtiyaxp'iya'}^^ iiaya'i'aip'iya'^^^ said. of you she your liking. a'ip'ixf^' "Oh!" iiy'i' vutsLrjwunL sd'a'viainaxqaini^^'^ ti\a'xaikwA}^^ while eating it (inv. pinaijqw^^* have given (pi. ^m'ka^^'^ ti'qa'xa'^^'' "Oh!" said Coyote.) t3'ts'i'vanUa(f>L. "my friends." . "brains-obj. head tco'pi. then soon cuwa'piicLp'iya^ }^^ saa'pi^^^ pinLJcaip-'iya}^'' a'ikw.) cinaywav.) fell.'ki.) qa'mia'naniy^^ their (inv. a'ik'p'iya. a'ip'iya'.

Then when at consid- erable distance . fell 'i'v^aiyauq' vi'^'Lo'tiyanC'^^^ while he (inv.nix'ur)w'^^^ i))a"pitc ay' w'i"i'kup'iya'. tva'a'p'i^°^ pA'pa-'rayqai^^^ pirVrip-'iya'^^^ After doing so of cedar limb (obj. (inv. looked for her (vis.). There that (inan. iTja" pitc^^^ arf.) avLtjupaxp'iyaicu'^^^ saxWL'a(f)A''qai)q'iplya'^°* Again passed night after night on journey.Southern Paiute.nt'xcu'urjw^^^ began to stand stamping.) stomach (obj.) on it Inmg on. axa'n-ivaya'n}^'^ uxi^aV." %nL''r)umits'^^^ said Coyote.). 'i'v^aiyauq-' qumu'ntuaR'ip'Lya\^°'' woman.) do saxwr'ai'aijw^^^ UTjwa'^vantuywa'rjup'iya^^^^ Got on top of her (inv. wa'n-^"^ unLvaniP^^ "In that being about way to do mama"nis-.) toz'i'kuplyd'^^'' fell uv^a"an^^* on it (inv. came back towards it his own country (obj. so doing her (vis. (inv.) y.) out that one baby he (vis. So doing to her (inv. 'ava^^^ 'ar'i'ac-^^^ qani'p'i^^^ said Coyote. a'ip'iya said clna'7/wa<i>i. Then him (inv.). her (inv.) maija'c- w'iw'i'n' i^'qup'iya^ }^^ y.^'^^ swallowed him (inv. (vis.^^^ a'ip'iya' found.). I'v^aiyau^uywA^^^ "In what way shall I then?" Coyote. Then heated stones on o'mA^^^ fire.) yi"i'kip'iya'aiijWA-°° paiyi'k'p'iya^°^ 'u'ra^^ fiv^i'p-uaimicp'i.) down.) did so baby he (vis.) clna'7)wa(t>i. maa'ip'Cya\^^^ axa'ntva-'yan^^° u'v^'ar.) former there camping place (obj. "How her shall I then?" said Coyote.). a Shoshonean Language 299 281 'ava SOUTHERN PAIUTE. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE a'ip'iya' cina'ywacfn. a'ip'iya' clna'rju'a(f)i. obj.) do to him (vis.) pL'tcLXw'aip'iya"^^^ pu'ca'xaip'^yaiaT)'^^ inama"utsi^^'' %ni-^aicuar)^^^ went and arrived. had stomach-ache.) woman (obj.

^^^ mama 'uts"In this then scratched himself in hair. being warm 7(. do mntu'arjqirjuts-. with it (inv. qumu'ntiaR'i'qainav'^^^ na' a'itLp'iya' aikwA^^^ Arrived.) nantsri'xquTf' "piya" .) iini'ijuts- 2Vi p-Lja drank. . caused avL ptya it (inv.'^'^^ a'ip'iya^ having given birth to child. being about to woman way dna' 7jwa4>i Coyote." said .m^^ (inv.) pai^ water (obj. 300 282 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR piftcipiya^ qu qwa i onayw airjuyi-ya /' went to get armful of wood.) (obj. tst'q-uy'wanvmpuRpLya^^'^ Then made hair-scratcher.. yu'tuitci'^^^ his own having heated stones on fire on top of it lay.) to burn.

8 -ruyw-. Imperative in form (§52). 1. 1). 2) form of u4.(§ 3. 1 cinaijivavi- coyote. from -ni- -xa. a) and elided (§ 7. 3. (§ -vi2. 4. § 13. only used in myths. a). 4). -p iya' as in note . 1). 1. 1) contracted from demonstrative (§ 50. -v'^a - < b) temporal suffi"x of future time (§ 7. for (§ 29. -ma-''. 'o '- (§ 10. -neUded from -ni. a) of -vi-. -up a()-" postposition 35). c'li- Form objective because logically dependent on objectively thought of preceding verb squaw-bush twigs being therefrom > get some of the 1. 3. 7. 1) SQUAW-BUSH TWIG.verbalizing suffix to have (§ 26. -ntV < -ntia.wife. -va(§ 14. (§ 3. 1) and -u-. final form (§8. c). a) objective form (note 9). -nt'i- invisible demonstrative stem (§ 43.pronominal enclitic I (§ 40). 1). 1. 1" 'a^c L-' < 'a'ic i-' (§ 3. 4. a secondarily nasalized qani-' say. b). to have a house > to dwell. 2).to say. 2. noun suffix (§ 24. 2. -arja. 12 ?l- secondarily nasalized (§ 6.demonstrative stem -va. 1. 1. 28. b). get '3 of participial (§ 25. -ja' spirantized (§ 16. ^ See note 1) to 2. a). 1. -(/>/ final form (§8. house. * cii-' -vq'i- indirective 7.elided (§ 7. 1) postposition (§ 50. 1). m). (§ 26. subject of following verb. gathering-basket. -n elided (§ pronominal a) enclitic me (§ 40. -xw'ai- to acquire to go in order to 26. 4. 3. from < 'o'O. c.(§ 8. 1. final form of -kai. 2 Post-nominal pronoun (§ 42. 38). -yna-" (§ 49. m^a'. '1 ai. -Is elided to do (§ 43. 7). 'o'. tense suffix of myth (§ (§ narrative (§ 32. e). '^ ** See note 1. 1. (§ 30. -tu. SQUAW-BUSH twigs. -ruyiva-. 40. -p'iyai-. 1) 4). -rjqw'ai- to go 1).(§ 8.(§ 13. to which gerund is morphologically subordinate. ' vi'^a'-. 1) i < i 7.possessive enclitic pronoun piTjwa-arja(§ 40. -ruxw-. 3).Southern Paiute.preterital enclitic (§ 19. 1.postposition ^ (§ 43. a). 2). b) < 8.. postposition (§ 50. palatalized (§ 13. ^ piTjwa. final vowel elided (§7. (§ 6. e) (§8. a). d) of (§ 50. 4). from -ywa.verbalizing suffix 11). -tcu- < -ru-. -rju- -tsi'* gerund 'o'x- (§ 55. 6. a Shoshonean Language 301 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 1) to jnijway. 30). stem (§ 28. 6). -tn- < -isi. 1). b). 3) to make (§ 32. 1. is 1. contracted (§ 4. 1) and palatalized (§ 13. 3). -k. elided (§7. 5). -if a- quotative enclitic 19.(§ 43. ai. in final form (§ 8. 4) from -q a. d). 3). momentaneous suffix having so done = then. 39. a) gerund (§ 55. --yw elided (§ 1.tense suffix (§ 32. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 283 FOOTNOTES. See tim§ 61. -va'. 3). ^ 07/a- third person animate singular pronoun (§ 39.

assimilated (§ 3. 1). -ura' final form (§8.(§ 43. Temporal adverb (§ 60. power = medicine-man. a) of -yai. nasalization secondary (§ hear. 2. 3). note 22) and rare suffix -fca (§ 26. -nisubjective pronominal enclitic (§ 40. 1) and -v"'aiyauq 2i. ^ pua-' as in note dream. 3. c). f).postvocalic (§ 13. no - inorganically lengthened (§ 4. a) composed of demonstrative u. -n'ni- continuative 12).postposition (§ 50. nonoci. c) Final form of nynoci-y'i-. secondarily nasalized (§ 6. a) form of modal enclitic -yainia. 50. 1. 3). 1. 3). 2. . -p'iya' as in note 8. " Adverb of degree (§ be (§ 43. 1). 1). a). -yu. supernatural. in final form (§ 8.- elided (§7. " lini- TO DO (§ 43. a) of subjective pronominal enclitic -ni. e). subject despite its composition with third personal element. 4). 1. d) generally -ni final 2. b) nominal suffix for plants (§ 24.postposition (§ 50.present temporal suffix (§ 32.interrogative enclitic (§ 19. 2.and o. " Independent personal pronoun (§ 39. listen consists of narjqa. (§ 30. 1). 1) from -n-ia- enclitic like (§ 19. 4.labialized (§ 14. 1) from 'aikvn. 5. 4). --pi' objective (§ 49. a). 3. 2" 2. final form (§ have (§ 26. -anoun being direct object of preceding verb. -ijw'ini. narjqafca. 2). a).meaning present temporal suffix (§ 19. a). 4) final (§ 8. 5. 2. j). 1). 2. -m-p'i- nominalizing suffix used with possessive -a-x- (§ 24. 1). (§ 8. b) from -vaiyauq u. 1. -V glide (§5. 1). WAS DOING ALONG used ^ naijqa. stand. . following verb. -ya.) used objectively (§ 40. present having supernatural participle (§ 25. 1) to refer to movement. -v'^'i-'^ < of -t^i"-" (§ 14. -ru' mean apparently. -rno- = -ru'a. b). d) appended to several adverbs. in idiomatic sense (§ 62. form (§ 8.(§3. " qa. Form is obof jective because in apposition with following postpositional phrase (§§ 49.pia-. 1) form reflexive possessive (§ 40. -ru'a. 6. 1. 2. -y'i. a).with glide -w (§ 14. 36). subject of nearly? = perhaps. 4. -^ain i' palatalized (§ 13.due to careless articulation of unemphatic word. used as verb prefix (§ 20. e) -urai.(§ 19. -n i elided (§ 7.(§ 40. f) (§ 32. -i. ^ Temporal adverb (§ 60. pronominal enclitic it (inv. " Compound verb (§ 18. -p-i. -xant elided (§ 7.(§ 61. a) of.objective suffix (§ 49. 12). 1) from -xant'i. 3.q wa(§ 57) broken because of following element.demonstrative stem (§ 43. 41). . 2* pua-« supernatural power.local adverbial stem (§ 60.302 284 1^ c'i'i-' X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPiR as in note 9. 1. 1).NOT . 1). 2). a). -p iya' as in note 8. 3. 2).past passive parti- literally what has been sung. f) from -y'i- cipial suffix (§ 25. 2) form of u'l'm. -a- posses- sive suffix (§ 24. 20 mid.TO sing. ^2 Properly u'v"'aiyauq v. " Elided (§ 7. 2). f). 1. 1) and aru' hear (cf.glide (§ 5. 2. d). b). 2). -' ^* qatcu.glide (§ -I'i. c) interrogative enclitic going with following enclitic -yainia.verbalizing suffix to BECOME (§ 26. '"Substantive verb of animate singular subject (§ 56. 1. 1). 18 = u'u'ra'. ^ cuwa. 2. 2. 1. a). qapi. a) modal adverb nearly (§ 60. 2. compounded of Note following first personal ujjiv he (§ 39. 1. u. pronunciations with it. 1.

verb compound (§ 18. -m'mia. a) of encHtic -c u. 2. 2. a). -A^am'i unvoiced (§ 8. yaya . 1) to -'k-. b).several journey. b. 6). -pa{i)ya"-ruq iva compound postposition (§ 50. 5* Compound of quasi-numeral and noun nanCna(§ 59. . -q'.temporal suffix (§ 32. 2. -' . a) of -q a. in note 23. hear. hear (§ 10.= do (§ 43.nasalized to in note 45 (but voiced form). w'ini- to stand. k). 1) from -yw'i. 4) and unvoiced (§ 8. ^ As in note 33. c). -tjw elided (§ 7. 4. a) to -n<'Nu'qwi.< -c'i. 4) ' from ** -q a. a). 2.suffix indicating payai. b). -c(§ 8. . except that -r)iv\. waa-. 3).qw as in note 34.) (§ 40. 2. SOUTHERN in note 52. " qa. 7. . 1) with preserved final vowel followed by because coming before ani. 4) and unvoiced (§ 8.(§ 25. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE ^5 So frequently heard for paya'in''Nu''qwL- compound verb to walk. 7. 1).palatalized (§ 13. 1). 2. -max^am = -maA^am'i (§ 8. -kiva-> -kwo.kwaenclitic pronominal object it (inv. -na^rjq".unvoiced to c/-. a). in note 41. nuqwi.with inorganic -a(§ 3. 2. a) . 6). -p' stop. 4).Southern Paiute. d). a). -p'iyai. c) from elided -'kw (§ 7. 3). 1. -ka. 3. -p'iya' as in note 8. 4. 3) dissimilated (§ labiahzed to -77?^.q w as in note 37.(§3. -rjw. 2. -pi' = -pia.animate plural (§ 48. 3. ni{y)a -vi.well irregular participial form in -I'i. ovanaijqa. a) to go in order to (§ 28. -mapostposition (§ 50. *' Song form for anik-^A.two. 1). . ^ Independent subjective personal pronoun (§ 39. d).to stream. *^ Compound verb (§ 18. (§16. ani.aand -7a" as in ai- " note 44. . -m m.again (§ 19.< na^yqA-: naijqa'. " nayqa. a Shoshcmean Language 303 285 (§ 18. -p'iya' as in note 8. a). -cu final form (§ 8.enclitic suffix AGAIN (§ 19. a) form of -a^ ami. 7). kivimv "ra-" of unknown significance. 2. 1. § 59.plural verb of movement (§ 18. Independent subjective pronoun (§ 39. -cu. -cuand -' . 2). 2. 1.palataHzed (§ 13. ^ Virac move while -ing (§ 28. b). ^' tuyumpa-o sky. 3).combined pronominal enclitic (§ 41. 1.goose.chief with nominal suffix -vi. z > t (§ 3. -k a.temporal suffix (§ 32. 6).subordinating form. '* Compound of numeral stem and noun (§ in note 41. -' . b). For analysis see note 15.palatahzed (§ 13. b).TO sing. 1. -k-^A. 3) Myth form of t'iqa- suffix (§ 55. wa. -q{w)o. -ya as in note 44. e) referring to subject and possessive of noun '^ 52 with postposition (§ 41. 1. 1. 2.(§ 3. b). 45). 2. different (with inanimate nouns). a) of verb stem 'a'yu. a) used also in composition. k). " Post-nominal pronoun (§ 42. -ya' final form (§8. . do (§ 7. c). TO walk-stream = TO START OFF.(§ 24. *^ qa . -nUk a. 3. *" nontSL. -niia.objective suffix (§ 59. e) of -yai. and -p'iya' as in note 8.end. ^ Adjective.(§ 13.temporal suffix f§ 32. 'a't'i. run. -p'iyai. -c t.unvoiced form (§ 8. 6. plural subject (agent) of verb (§ 31. a) from -qa. -nn. 2.TO fly. " Simphfied from uniTjUls.TO be good.

3. 1 Subjective in form because object of imperative construction 39. 2). 2. .all (§ 59. -I. -yantV = form yu' I ir'iai' of -yai- TO HAVE - (§ 26. a) from pavan'nja. 3). .glide (§ 5. -ntsi. -up a. d). -t ir'ia.(§ plural imperative enclitic (§ 52).house. . (§ m'im'^ia.reflexive pronominal stem (§ 46). to which man 3-q ivo.hollow. 3). '' na. -w glide (§ 14. I KNOW THE people OF ALL THE CAMP-PLACES.q w possessive enclitic pronoun 40. 3. -i. iv'H- hortatory adverb (§ 60.reduplicated plural m'ia'yant'i-. a) to -p iya'ai. a) form of -7ii.palatalized (§ 13. c). (§ 40. -ntsi-' diminutive (§ 35. . a) from qani. -ya.elided {§ 7. -ntsL- 58.them (inv. Final -u. 1). 2. 6. 4.and -yant'i' as in note 63. a) assibilated from -r'i-.reduplicated plural of -t ia. 1). d) of pa-' -yanl'iA objective form (§ 49.m' final form (§8. 9). TO SEE. a) participial water. (§ 25. a.knoll. . 3) pleonastically referring to following objective noun. 4). 3. 35). spring.) referring to ma n:/- qwoqw ** . 2. -k ai. 304 286 X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPiR Cf. 2. 3). 1.-' . -i' final form (§8.objective (§ 49. 3.temporal suffix (§ its normal sense of to see. 1) of -yanVi- having 3.secondarily lengthened (§ 4. 8. . " qa ** q aiva reduplicated d) of qaiva. c) of m'ia-" in divide generally in kwitcuva-' appearing (§ 13. 6).mountain. valley generally in form pa n'njayanl'i-..redupli(§ 58. . '"ma n-3. 2). 4) of -yantV as in note 62. . Objective in form because modifying qa plural (§ 58. -' . 2. 4) from -q ai. TO KNOW probably contains instrumental prefix pu-" (§ 21.secondarily lengthened (§ 4. Syntax as note 62. a) from man o. regularly suffixed to p'ini. 1).. 1. -p'iyai. b) of pa n'noa.glide (§5. 1). 2). b) due to following pronominal element. " ** -vi- elided (§ 7. c) and glottalized ^ -' . . 3. attributive. 1. 4. § 59. ^^ cated plural *' nirjw'ia- people of (a place) consisting probably of niijw'i- person and -' .--xan('i' palatalized form (§ 13. a) with glide -w. e) form ** and -yantV as note 63.) (§ 40. l). b). 3. §52).resultative (§ 30. a). . pa van'nja. (§ 13. -tcV = -tciA objective form -Vi- 49. look. note pirn1. -n elided (§ of (§ 25.secondarily lengthened (§ 4. 2. q w objective enclitic 69 pronoun (§ 40. (§ 3). . " As in note 32. (§ 3). a) of objective pronominal enclitic -' . c) of objective Object used genitively with niyw'i' ai' yaq w below (note 67): -yO'. 1) of in participial (§ 25. 1) to -v.-yi- < -yi- present tense (§ 32. (§ -ya.reduplicated distributive generally in participial form kwitcu'va-r'i.(§ 49. 4). nominal enclitic (§ 40. 2. pu'tcu'tcuyiva- pa va 'n'noantsiyantV Object of following verb. their (inan. = ivH'yan 13. 6. (§ 58.)\-qwoobjective -qo. 6) broken (§ 15. 1.q wa objective pro(§ 15. 1. .postposition (§50 -n for -ni voiceless (§8. .(§ 14. *' qa m. 1). *2 pa pa- reduplicated plural (§ 58. 1) '" from me (§ 40. c) of -tci- kwi'kwi' following pronominal element. assimilated (§ from -tsL-' diminutive -tc'i- (§ 35. \ secondarily nasalized (§ 6. possessive -a- (§ 24. a).

-y'wa-am L-. (§ 1.plural suffix (§ 31. 4. (§ 39. 6.objective independent inanimate pronoun (§ 39. -ywai'. '* Independent animate singular pronoun ma'viy'wa m. a). 2) from tnoi-" to lead. 2. ^* 30. f) from -urai. -T)um elided (§ 7.(§ 24. -mpa. see § 55. 3). -y'wa. -xa' = tw'^iyu44.. 1. 1) apparently dissimilated from. -raywa. . a) from in mam a . -t i. 1. 1. 1) anticipating following ^^niavi. -r elided (§ 7. m). 2. see § 40. c).. -ni as note 71 Observe that ME 1) is expressed four times in this sentence. 1. -y. 3). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE '2 mam an'i- secondarily lengthened (§ 4.participial form (§8.negative suffix (§ 57. 'arna. 2) from ni. noun «^ (§ 40.inanimate demonstrative (§ 43. 3. -a. 5). -ai) as in cina'ywav ay' ** *9 ai.objective (§ 49. used attributively with following noun. 4). 3.glide (§ 14. -oj^a. from -tjumi. a) of -mi. 6. -ya. imp'^ai- modal adverb (§ 60. d).possessive suffix (§ 24. 1). 1.nasalized (§ 6. 5). d). 1) of t'iv'^'ip'C. 82 = tw"'i'p'iA objective (§ 49./ (§ 39. 4.postposition (§ 50.participFor indicative use of participle. 1) from -aw i. d) Animate singular demonstrative of -va (§ - future suffix 1) 39.objective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. know as in note 68. a). ? = -U-^a.subjective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. a) from ' in note 73. Southern Paiute.animate plural suffix (§48.possessive enclitic pronote 80.(§ 7. 36). -yaq" contracted (§ 4. 1). if not misheard for.relative pronoun (§ 45). -aq a objective enclitic pronoun "9 (§ 40. 1). a Shoshonecm Language 305 287 reduplicated SOUTHERN PAIUTE. c) from -q a. 3). 3. § 8.(§ labialized (§ 14. c) of ma . -ay elided (§ 7. 2. -va final form (§ 8. -r'iv'^iiju- spirantized 16. 2. -m' final to be good. pi. 2). -nA suffix of verbal noun (§ 25. a) of -rjumi. 1). a.TO say. 4). d). 1) from -r'i. -y'wam contracted (§ 4.quotative enclitic (§ 19. For combination of independent and enclitic pronoun.ay. anticipates following (§ 32.probably for -y'a. e. Object of pu'tcu'tcuywar.TO DO (§ 43. *^ Assimilated pi-'urai-. a) from -ya-aq a. 4). except for voiceless form prefix (§ (-A. 1) and contracted (§4. a) . 6. b) and elided (§ 7. 1) from -ayasubjective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. a) of suffix. ^* uni.future of intention (§ 32. (§ 3. c) < -naywa. takes up -aq a of note 78. ^5 Elided (§7. '*• " 2). 1. 1. 4). 1. 3) used as equivalent pu'tcu'tcuywa-' TO ial suffix (§ 25. -yum' = -rjumi final form (§ 8.chief. - distributive (§ 58. "o 'a(i)yu- suffix (§ 25. 1. of relative clause (§ 45).possessive enclitic pronoun (§ 40. 1. -nay < -nayw (§ containing nominal suffix -pi. from -qwa- -ya' as in note manoqo- as in note 60. 8° ai. 81 = uru'a-c u.objective WHAT? with verb of saying (§ 44. 1) na-' reciprocal 22. 1). b). 7. -a tj contracted (§4. to ask probably containing momentaneous -yu. 2).to make into. mgi. a) from -a-arj. 2. '* '' As in note 11. secondarily nasalized (§ 6.

1) to -max-. § 4.passive suffix (§ 29. i). 1. b).subordinating Compound verb wa'arji- — suffix (§ 55. " '* Nu'^qwi- TO run. -ayA enclitic pronominal object (§ (§ 28. temporal use of -qwa' give. note 98. -va elided = maa'i( njk'lt- -qw'ai. 2. 1) from (§ 18. -y. -Tjq'i. ^°.postposition (§ 50. 47). in note 99. -p'iyai- temporal suffix (§ 32. b). a. -ca'" modal enclitic (§ 19. -p'iya' tense suffix (§ 32. 2. 2. 3) of iterative (§ 58. (§ 32. 11). 1) from mafia. 3).-arj = -arjA as in i»« 107 Cf. -pax . 2) local '01 Secondarily lengthened arja- ywa-. see note 101).to dodge. 2. •* Contracted (§4. 1. -rjk'-t i- contracted (§ find out. 1) from -ruqwayi.TO DO (§ 43. " tj-'"'i- modal adverb (§ 60. 1"* Abreviated form (§ 10. a. (§ 29. 1.yu{iv)aki. a). -'vantuywa- comas pound postposition (§ 50. momentaneous form b) of nayari. i°9 Inanimate demonstrative elided (§7. d). -v^ava- < -va-aya1. a) of -arjaraTjwa- enclitic 9* pronouns of subject and object (§ 41. note 96. 2. 1). § 41. -p'iya' as in note 93. 2. nana'q-Al'i(§ 53. 2. 1 a and 2.reduplicated distributive (§ 58. 4). WALK. .unvoiced (§ 8.306 288 91 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR maai. to 9* am. 6).to WHILE JOURNEYING. of in -mamaxa. enclitic 1 modal adverb (§ 60.reciprocal pronoun (§ 46). 2). wa'a'yi. -ya -as adverb (§ 60. indicating plurality of maya. "" w'i'ci'amamax. y).unvoiced (§ 8. 4). 2. 2. f. i"* nontsi. -up a-ntuywa. -varj' contracted (§ 4. 4).apparently semi(§ 7. c) from -( ui- causative suffix b. -aijA as in note 98.future suffix (§ 32. 1. and unvoiced (§8. and 4) in agreement with following noun. = -j)kt- voiceless form (§ 10. 7). -va - future -ajjarajjwA final form (§8. '9 H-'i' fly. a). 2. "" (§ 8. 1 and (§ 4. 1. TO shout. -nmu. -'. (§ 29.feather incorporated as noun object (§ 18. 11).indirective (§ 29. except that functions of subject and object are reversed. § 10. 6). 12).compound postposition (§ 50.= -Ruqwaxi unvoiced (§8. -qu. (§ 8. -p'iya' = ana'?.second person singular subjective pronoun (§ 40. na. -p'iya as in note 93. 2). -ar)arai)WA as in note 91. 2. 3).= -pax i. d. -Vi- = heard for w'/'aa .ai. d). 9« 1.palatalized (§ 13. 2. -m'mia- suffix of movement (§ 28. subject. 4) from -yai. § 10. c). 4). 'M Viv^ai(§ 7. -aTjarayivA as in note 91.momentaneous suffix (§ 30. 1) from -va.glide (§ 14. 3. a) a) from arja'vantu- 3). -yWj. 4. a and b) as in note 91.TO fly down (plural subject) unvoiced in note 93. 4. a). 31).is unvoiced (§ 8. 1) because referring to postpositional reduplicated phrase (§ 49.objective (§ 39. animate singular personal pronoun (§ 39. note 98. except that -maya. 4. a) from -va-ar)A.u>ayi/i objective form (§49. § 10. -Rqwax. d) of nayat'i- nana'qAt'iTjq'i'p'iya'. a. 2. a).animate plural personal pronoun (§39. 2. 2). 13). -x. 3. . a) from na-up antuywa-aijA. 2. a) from -pay{a)i. 1) of -r)ki- indirective suffix (§ 14.

1) from mamaiuma. 4. 4.postposition (§ 50. manar)qwapa{i)-yu- compound enclitic postposition (§ 50. 36). (§ 4. 1. -tsl. 6. 6. -rayn^A objective pronoun negative in 40. demonstrative stem (§ 13. (§ qatcu- negative adverb 57). 3). a).participial suffix (§ 25. 1" wa'arji. b). b) participial suffix (§ 25. -ta. a) of -va'2< postposition (§ (§ 50. 4.(§ 3. ^^^ 1) from -nil. 1. 1) elided (§ 7.future suffix (§ 32. 2. -mpa' form (§ 8. "* "mu'a'm-TO DO THUS (§ 43. Secondarily lengthened and nasalized See note 110. Secondarily lengthened = jnam ayu and elided (§ 7.future (§ 57. 16) la- -tsi.TO lie.postposition (§ 50. 8. 2. -rjwa' final ^'^^ continuative suffix 1. d) of -mpa- future suffix "^ See note 108. 5). secondarily nasalized 2) and unvoiced (§ 8. TO sing. i-20 tiv^itsLxa-t I- TO obey. Note durative force (§ 30) of verb because unprovided with -qu. 2. 1). c) to -rjqwopa-. .assimilated (§ 13. 6). (§ 4. 7 and 49) apparently here used as independent word following objective form of noun (§ 50.reduplicated momentaneous 12). -va.compound 2. Abbreviated form (§ 58. b). "' pa{i)yi-. 2. -va '2* rjxoa' as in note 125. -nt elided (§ 7. 1) to 1" Probably for mana' yqw A-pa{iy yu-q wa (§ 3. ''" Secondarily lengthened (§ 4. 5. 3). a).-' diminutive suffix (§ 35. Form "' a^^2 is objective because construed periphrastically with following post(§ 43. For syntax. 3). suffix (§ 32. form to arrive. (§ 6.Southern Paiute. 3) of pi'pi'tc'i. § 10.aia-" local adverb (§ 60. 1.all (§ 59. 4. 3. 26). a) suffix (§ 30. -oaxituxwA voiceless form (§ 8. 6. "' Cf. 2. 2). -tsi-. 1). -p'iya' temporal qa - suffix (§ 32. "* a secondarily lengthened from avi- "^ 9u. 1).suffix. form (§8.postposition (§ 50. shout. a) and rounded (§ 3. a) postposition (§ be high. (§ 6.(§ 3. 2. 1" yac I SEVERAL fly. 2. 4. 4). 37).TO come back. a).demonstrative stem (§ 43. 4. a). e) from -tst. see § 55. 4).participial suffix (§ 25. a and 2. 40. -va ijwa' as in note 125.- '" n^ntsi. . 4) referring to avi'tcdcV.(§ 49. c) of pitci- 10. -y'lpresent temporal suffix (§ 32. 7). a) of -oayituywa. bialized (§ 3.independent personal pronoun (§ 39. 2. (§ For syntax see enclitic § 55. loud. 2. 1. positional phrase (§ 50. pronoun (§ 40. 4).momentaneous suffix (§ 30. '" Secondarily lengthened (§ 4. 3). objective -a. -n'l. note 114.independent animate plural third personal pronoun (§ 39.t- to fly. (§ 4. ^21 For pleonastic use of pronoun see q^ni-. a Shoshonecm Language 307 289 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. 6). 4). 1. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE "° avi. a) from mantir-ma. 5).as in note 117. -4>a final form (§ 8. -m -" future suffix (§ 32. -oral. § -raywA as note 119. 1). pa'ani. b). 1). 4. = -ti. -y'wai- (§ 57. qoni. a).q wa possessive . 3. 2) from nontsiz. 1). -Wi. -yu. -tju-" final momentaneous (§ 32. 5.< -yqwap a. 1^ Final form (§ 8. e) of -ywa'ai- negative suffix nitnH. -' . c). 3. pa{i)yi-TO return. d. a. b). -va. -ma-yu. (§ 30. c) of pa'a'ni-y'i-. d) from 'ami.

> pronoun '" uni"* TO do. 6). 1). feathers).(§ 3. d) from tiV^ip'i. -p'iy over-elided kH'i'pa'- (§ 7. 1. -nfi = nfiA objective (§ 49. 1" ya c. 36). b) postposition (§ 50. b). -v^'a. b). contracted (§4. 2. -?/«. 4. 1). 1) from -rju. -mpa- future suffix (§ 32. PLACE TO place 140 (§ 18.reduplicated distributive I''* (§ 58. 5). see § 45. 1. 2.objective suffix (§ 49.TO DO HAVING SO DONE (§ 43. a) from 39. 1. -^a' 144 < -yai. 1.demonstrative stem (§43. d). 1) from -v'i. c. 2.a. < = nontsi. -'ura' postposition (§ 50.elided (§ 7. § 13. tA'pa'ci. e) then.modal encUtic like (§ 19. 4). a). 2. -cu from form (§8.momentaneous For absolute verbal form in relative clause.unvoiced form (§ 40. a). i« Local adverb (§ 60. 4.TO do. 4).rounded (§ 3. (§ -oayit uywa- 26). -pitci- to arrive. 1" oni. 2. suffix (§ 30.temporal suffix (§ 32. fall on. to pull out (hair.308 290 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR "^ tuyumpa. b) to fly. 5.enclitic 19. as in note 145. assimilated (§ 3. 6. -7) elided (§ 7. 45 and 147 = wi'ci'a -ya-ai)a-. (§ 50. analyzable into tuyu-" up (§ 60. c). 6) -arjaraywaenclitic w/'aa . 3. 4.TO LIE senseless. . cua-q a-. -J7U-" final ^*^ pronouns (§ 41. 1. see § 55. '" cu{w)a-o TO breathe (dur.reflexive possessive THEN. mom. ivY'd'a-ya-ava-raywa- -ya. -vuru. -ts final form (§8. a. k). 1.suffix of plural subject (§ 31. d). -pa{i)ya-vantuywa. = u'v'"aiyauqu- (§ 3. and unvoiced (§ 8. 1) -CM. 1) form of participial ^'^ cur'^iru- suffix (§ 25.< -va. TO breathe arrive = TO COME in note 141. 2. 1" = a'u'ra'. 6).(§ 24. -arjA objective enclitic pronoun 3). 2. e). again (§ urua. (§ 40. (§ 40.animate plural independent personal pronoun postposition "' 4. '^^ 1" For syntax. 3. 3.several fly. 2.(§ 13.subjective enclitic pronoun tuyumpa. "< nm. a). 39. note 140.objective suffix (§ 49. b). § 8. 1) referring to preceding noun. (§ 8. 1" Temporal adverb f§ 60. b) of tca'ai-TO take hold of. 2. a) of yaci. 4) from -p'iyai- temporal suffix (§ 32. 38). -i elided (§ 7. 1. Cf.objective inanimate pronoun (§ a) of -c u. cua-rj'xvi-). ijayil uywa-. 5). 4. combined subjective and possessive '" jvac). 6.compounded verb stem to go from (§ 13. -ami. am'i. suffix (§ 30. 4. 4. -p'iyai-/it' final form (§ "8 Cf.compounded postposition 38). b) and nominal suffix -mpa. -p'iyai. 2. "6 pu'urai. 1 a). 3). f). 1" tiV'ipu. 1) from -ia-. a) of -n m. 3. -q a.(§ 14. -v elided (§ 7. 1. a). onomatopoetic stem with final reduplication (§ in note 83. Read a m a 'ax itiix h-a secondarily lengthened (§ 4. am 1). e) subordinating suffix (§ 55. note 141. d and 2. TO strike. 2). § 4. 1). a) of -Isl- gerund (§ 55. momentaneous 1. (§ 50. -c. 1" tcatcai'. TO REVIVE.

tracks. -p'iy as in note 153.unvoiced (§ 8. '" to'tsi'. 160. For syntax. 4.interrogative enclitic -n elided (§7.< totsi'. 1. 1). 2. 2. 1.not occurring independently. 2) from -7?u'i. 28. rounded (§ 3. b. a Shoshonean Language 309 291 SOUTHERN PAH 1*^ IE. 1" See note 58. b) gerund (§ 55. 6) to die.objective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. **^ ci'p'i'-' (§ 18. -tiyax < -t'iya. . subject of following verb. 2. b). . c. 2. -pi' (§ 25. c) (§ 55. a). e) of -yai- subordinating suffix (§ 58. e) form of -q ai- perfective suffix with inferential implication (§ 32.subjective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. 2. 3).. b). -n enclitic (§ 19.hortatory adverb (§ 60. -qait' resultative suffix (§ 30.mi-. § 10. ^*^ tint- from -ru'a. 3. to try. -upai)-" postposition (§ 50.mi. 3). 1'* Viy'iv^'i.temporal suffix (§ 32. finish second stem in compound verb -' .possessive enclitic pronoun For use of postpositional phrase as verb of motion. b). 3. 1. 1. a) subjective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. 5. d) to Viy'ivu-. 2.reduplicated distributive (§ 58. b). 1) and stem -aini. 2. (§ 49. 2. -' ^" ti'qa'. -m'mia. c) of maya. 4).anger incorporated instrumental noun. 6). 2. d). A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE sa'a- TO MAKE mush. 3). -nt'i- participial suffix (§ 25. f) prefix tco-' (§ 21. naya. 1. 1) from -ni. 3).MUSH incorporated object (§ 18. -' . -qirutca- incorporated noun cold with probably instrumental function to have a thrill go through one's head.+ -' . 9). narjwa. "' sa'a. . b) head. = -piA objective form passive participial -piverb.(§ 13. . to practise. a).local adverb verbified (§ 60. -tiLa. -a. verb -xa' final form (§ 8.objective suffix (§ 49. a). . 1.perfective suffix (§ 32. 2. § 3. 2). 5. -i'ai. . f.objective suffix (§ 49. '^^ Compound 1) (§ 18.modal enclitic (§ 19. 3. -a. to do. 2). '^ ti'qa'-' TO EAT > ti'qa'-' (§ 3.TO eat. -ni possessive enclitic pronoun (§ 40. 4). -va-" postposition (§ 50. -fnpa'am'i broken (§ 15. 1.< y(a)'ai. 8). a). 4. -mpa. (§ 40. f). -r'j(§ 19. '" tw"'ai. I'l = nar}wa'-upa -" (§ 8. d)./cti'a. 2. 1. . 1). § 8. -v'i- -(f>'i unvoiced form § (§ 8. ^" ti'qa'-' TO eat. b. 3. pi'pi't a'ni-« reduplicated form - of momentaneous "' nayai'ai- significance to vomit. 1.qwa. see 55. 2. 2. . '«^ tco'pi'k I- brain contains instrumental contracted (§ 4. -n for -ni (§ 8. -m amax . -xai. a). a) from. -ni objective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. . modal 1*' maaini. 4) and final (§ 8. a) from -mamaya. -p'iyai. 2. 4). a). -tsi. 2.(§ 3. f. 1. a) and unvoiced (§ 8. a) of reflexive possessive (§ 40.noun suffix (§ 24. -m au'p a. 3. b). 4). 35). 2.subordinating suffix (§ 55. in note (§ 18. .Southern Paiute. 4).suffix of movement (§ § 10. see § 50. 1) of past Object of following -i)Wi{- FRIEND rounded (§ 3. ^~° 'iv"''i. touch consisting of instrumental prefix ma(§ 21. -ka' palatalized (§ 13. f). to be angry < to die of anger.7npa . 38).future suffix f§ 32. 7). d) and secondarily nasalized (§ 6. d).(§ 3. 2.< -tsi. a).to give. a.(§ 8. mush-made > mush. 4. -qai. 1.animate plural suffix (§ 48.

u.(§ 3.suffix of ^<^^ pu'ca'xai.TO arrive. § 44. a) from 'avnju-'. 1. 1). 4. 2. k.postposition (§ 50. 1) suffix (§ 25. 1) used geni(§ 4. "s Contracted (§ 4. 1. S) + -' . 'aviyu. 1) and dulled (§ 3. -xw'ai. 1*1 'a'cintui. 2). 4). 3. 3).reduplicated tively (§ 39.310 292 i"3 X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPiR Secondarily lengthened (§ 4. Verbal noun here . a) a'u. 3).suffix of verbal .objecthat former camping place is objective because in ap28. 1) from mama"utsistem (§ 58. -va ijan contracted (§ 4. .subordinating suffix 19. -a- objective suffix (§49. 5. -tsi. . »'* narjqa. 5). i*« 1). a) from uv'^a-arja-. (§ 55. -t/u- .postposition i'« Secondarily lengthened woman. momentaneous suffix (§ 30.(§ 32.(§ 29. as plural verb of movement. 4). 1" Independent third personal qualifier of following noun. 2. 2) from -va. 1*2 "a.possessive enclitic pronoun (§ 40.demonstrative stem (§ 43. 38). -a?)' objective enchtic pronoun (§ 40. 3). object of following verb.palatahzed -cu. b) from -tsia-. qani. 1). mam 1"' and elided (§ 7.verbal noun suffix (§ 25. b) postposition (§ 50. in apposition with preceding woman.(§ 40. 3. 1*' maai. 1) from -pa. people. 2.past-passive participial used as temporal noun suffix past (§ 24. here tive suffix (§ 49. -m la. a) and unvoiced (§ 8. subjective enclitic pro- (§ 40. -arj' -tsi prefix (§ 2. 190 axani. § 55. 3). c) < nirjw'i. . 1). 1). a) -' . 1" niiywi(§ 3.future suffix (§ 32. b). -pi. . 2. from -piyai.of 'ava it-at (§ 49. 12). 4. -r'iraxwo-K -r'iraxua-o nominal base of compound postposition (§ 50. TO do. a). 2. in (§ 18. a). 28). -xat. -pa elided (§ 7.demonstrative stem (§ 43. compounds noun (§ 25. 4). used as practical equivalent of subjective relative clause see § 45).to movement (§ look for contains pu-o instrumental (§ lie down MOMENTANEOUSLY > TO CAMP OVER NIGHT. !«> Post-nominal pronoun (§ 42. 3). 6) + -' I"' qa . l)from -va-arja-ni-. a) 'avi- TO lie.mi. b) person. 2. 2) anticipating following nominal subject woman. 3). 2. -p'iya'aim'i broken (§ 15. a) and elided (§ 7.noun suffix (§ 24. 6). f). 1. (§ 50. Objective form of independent personal pronoun (§ 39. -aijani. 4.temporal suffix i«' objective enclitic pronoun See note 178. 1) used as demonstrative Elided (§ hear.TO sing. 1. 4. a). 1" piici-. -ot/zI -Va. pdc'i. a) and unvoiced (§ 8. 1. 4). 1. 4): the one whom you like. 1. 38). -piyai. 1" Connective adverb (§ 60. 1'* pronoun (§ 39. 38). b. -va. act how? (§ 26. ^nl- elided (§ 7. -a. a) from -na.combined subject and object enclitic pronouns (§ 41.several journey verb stem generally appearing . a) and unvoiced (§ 8. find. -na'''mi broken (§ 15. like probably containing causative -rdui. 4).modal enclitic (§ (§ 13. position with 'a.< noun -va- (§ 14. -na. 2.m" possessive enclitic pronoun (§ 40. a). from qanJ p'ia-. 4) from -yai. (§ 40. b). -va elided (§ 7. 2.

BELLY. . 2.hither (§ 28. . 11). -pi.7/it. (§ 15. ' .STOMACH. 4. 1" wiw'i'n'i. 5).reduplicated momentaneous form palatalized 1. -i elided (§7.< -pay{a)i. a) of -7)u. 4).j)wa. 1) from qunm'ntuar'i. elided (§ 7.limb. 1) from -ya.TO swallow. . 2. 207 Participle used in lieu of finite verb (§ 55. . -' . a) future suffix (§ 32.cedar tree. tlv'^ip-u-. jective because referring to following postpositional phrase. -nti participial suffix (§ 25.Tjwa. c) of w'ini- to stand.inceptive suffix (§ 30. 1'^ u. 1). 3. 2. branch reduplicated noun (§ 58.modal encHtic (§ 19.= paxi. 2). of -yu. from place to form (§ 8.subordinating suffix (§ 55. 1).noun suffix for plants (§ 24. § 10. Object used genitively (§ 49. -pax. 4). after (§ objective form -tni- 30. 4. 47) verbified (§ do in that demonstrative adverb. a) . a Shoshonean Language 311 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. d) to 1. -yriA postposition to hang on of durative form (§ 30). 3). pa{i)yi- ^2 to return. 3. -ia. 2. 5). k) + -' pronoun (§ 40. 7). a. 3). 209 = xca'a'p'iA (§ 49. w'l'i. 2.Southern Paiute. 1) from mani. e).objective suffix (§ 49. 1) to walk. -va-'' < -m -" (§ 3. 4). 7). 2o« way 1. 1.(§ 7. ica'a-' cedar. 47). a-yq'i- f. (§ 50. (§ 58. 4. a) of 203 Cf. note 173. 7). a) (§ 15. a) from paq indirective suffix (§ 29. . "8 2^nt- TO do. 2. 2. -vantuywa.(§ 1). form and un- -qu. 4) and voiceless (§ 8. 1. e). 5.postposition (§ 50. -ki. from -p'iyait'iv^Lp 'i- (§ 32. 1). 'iria'. -u. -piya'aiytvA broken a) 201 and unvoiced (§ 8.possessive enclitic pronoun (§ 40. § 10. 2. S). a. -rju. 3) uriL- TO do (§ 43. (§ 43. country rounded (§ 3. 2. 2) with following noun. as compounded verb stem (§ 18.7)wa. 1) from -' Ob. a) while journeying. Unvoiced (§ 8.r)w "' saxwto .momentaneous suffix (§ 30.momentaneous suffix with transitional significance (§ 30. b and f). 1). . 2. 210 pA'pa 'ratjqa. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 293 1^^ mjwaanimate singular independent personal pronoun (§ 39. 13).as in note 199. .objective suffix f§ 49. 20^ spirantized -vq'i205 saxwM-' stomach incorporated as local noun (§ (§ 16. 2. 2" 02'2 p'Cri'n- demonstrative stem (§ 43.TO fall.glide (§ 5. 6) + -' . . 6.voiceless form (§ 8. -ia. a). e). possessive suffix (§ 24. 1) and unvoiced (§ 8. earth. a). -cu'utjw broken voiced 1'^ 19* 199 enclitic from -cu. See note 15.objective suffix (§ 49.demonstrative stem (§ 43. . b) post- position (§50. -0t voiceless -v'i.a- objective = u'v'^aiyauqu- then (§ 60. heat stones on fire (§ 21. -X- = -xu- (§ 13. containing instrumental prefix qu-" 20^* 12). a) . (§ 40. 1). 1) noun suffixes (§ (§ 8. -ku. 1) of wa'ap'i. 3).objective enclitic pro- noun 1.reflexive possessive pronoun (§ 40. a) ^ y'i'iki. . a) H — 24. -(pA^'qayqi- to have a pain. -a- pa{i)yi-. -v'^a'auA < -va'auA (§ 14. -pi-tc < -pi-tsi. 2. 2). here used as Elided (§7. PLACE. 1). 18.

palatalized -' . 2.objective enclitic pronoun (§ 40. 2. 3).to give birth denominative verb from iua. -na- suffix of verbal noun ^'* (§ 25. iyona- {^ 13. human being incorporated object (§ 18.demon- stem (§ 43. 2).k c) from -t ui. from .objective suffix *** ivi. . 5). absolute form qv'qwa'- p I . -yu^1* momentaneous suffix (§ 30. f. 6) to carry in one's arm. na'ai. b.ijwa- subjective enclitic pronoun *'' (§ 40. note 207. 7. 11).postposition (§ 22. 1) from ''i'ni. 2. 2. and unvoiced (§ 8. 3) (§ 49. 3.i- *" Cf. b). b). a. . 226 ^j. 1) from uma-. 1) see note 222.subordinating -' .contracted 12). . b. -qai. -ru- verbalizing suffix to make ^" Secondarily nasalized strative ^^'' (§ 6. a) from ts'i-'i'q UTj'wa n'imp'i-ru-. suffix (§ 55. . to indicate 9). . 3). a). -ya. 2.nasalized form (§ 16. 2. ^'' 1) local adverbial suffix (§ 60. 1) from paia-. 3).adverbial § 8. f. -yufinal momentaneous suffix (§ 30. qu'qwa- wood incorporated as object y). < drink. 2. a) (§ -i. (§ 18.312 294 *'' X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR ^nl- TO do. u.(§ 3. 4. suffix of movement (§28. -ts form (§ 8. 1.demonstrative stem (§ 43. 4). -ts'i'x quTj'"- probably < -tsi'-'iq uij'wa- (§ 3. prefix tsi- to scratch the (§ head with a stick. -IcV 3. d). 2" Contracted (§ 4. = -tc'iA. paya-. 3). -v'^aax < -va'ayi. 6. 46). -t ly an i' < -t'iyan la.(§ 3. 1. 1. 1) from reflexive possessive pronoun (§ 40. u. 1) postposition (§ 50. § 10.causative suffix and unvoiced (§8. 2" yutui-' to be warm (in reference to water). 5). cipial suffix assibilated (§ 13. -r'i (§ 25. 3) of tua. 1. -tci- parti- from -i'i-. 2" Elided (§ 7. -yqi. nan.child (of some one) (§ 47).to do in this way (§ 43.n person.ijw elided (§ 7. stem far away (§ 60.(?) verb stem used with (§ 26. b. 2). d). -nimp'L. 3). noun of instrument 25.indirective suffix (§ 29. 1.(§ 32.perfective suffix 32. (§ 15. (§ 13. a). a) from wa. -yw'ai(§ 4. 1). 1). b) instrumental prefix (§ 21. WA broken -' . § 7. 1) 4) from burn. 9). -iq UTj'wa. ^* Elided (§ f§ 49. 1.suffix of 1. -wa. 7). -p'Lyai. -niua.(§ 14. 1). -a objective suffix 1) Objective in form to agree with following noun. f). § 8.reflexive prefix 1). here used as demonstrative adverb. 2. 2. -piya'aik (§ 29. (§ 50. 4. 2) and elided (§ 7. -xu. e). assimilated ts'i- (§ 3. 6) and . -v elided (§7. -^i. 3. m"'i3. pa - water. a) of -tsi- gerund (§ 55.

and from it then you will return. asking one another. and off he flew. was living there. those geese. "in doing so he might cause us to be found out. found out." said they. Then stood and listened." said Coyote. and I shall lead you. little ridge." said their chief. then he said. arrived the "You shall not keep flying around us. this time he already heard well the singing of many: "Thus we do." said their chief." He will cause us said. He was direction yonder journeyed very far away (when) he heard singing. Down All set off flying . "Oh. "Of all the camping places those with springs. stopped again. Coyote. who am going make a gathering- "All right. valleys "What did Coyote yourselves. "He says that he knows all That chief of theirs then those lands towards which we are going.Southern Paiute. "That Coyote will always be doing did I say?" said their chief. The two chiefs stood at Coyote saw them. Already I am a medicine-man. basket. you shall not yell. "Let us pull out his feathers. Coyote flew back and forth around them. those with Do you then make me into one of all their people I know. Let each one of us give him feathers." "All right. Each one gave him feathers. and either end of the line as they travelled along. they said to Coyote. to "Go and get squaw-bush twigs for me." And then he And then he started off. I say. westward." where they were. it is said. he heard it again. flew beyond the little ridge. Coyote kept dodging. did not hear it." off in " — — say?" said they. they flew off whither they were bound." "What said Coyote. perhaps I am going to dream. Now again he stood and listened to it. and then he towards his squaw-bush. towards the sky. By doing that (which he is doing) he will cause us to be found out. those with mountains. those with knolls. then. traveling in order to eat people." that little ridge. Coyote returned from the other side of thus." said Coyote. shouted as he went along. Then that chief said. "Let that Coyote talk. Then their chief said. singing along under the sky." Coyote ran along under them. those with divides." And then they took hold of him under the sky and pulled out his feathers. His wife said to him. out of them. a Shoshonean Language 313 SOUTHERN PAIUTE. he will not obey us. you shall not to be sing out loud. he is not a good one." said Coyote. "Go ahead! fly off towards "All right. "Oh!" said Coyote. "it looks as though I am going to be a medicine-man. as they flew along. A SHOSHONEAN LANGUAGE 295 [Translation]. And then down on to Coyote they flew.

the people lies the woman whom you like. He got on top of her. he came to. Coyote journeyed westward. Then. then. Just as he did so. after a while. Then. "Oh!" said he. "Coyote. Coyote got angry (and said). built a fire siderable distance for an armful of wood. "Oh!" said Coyote." they said." said Coyote.314 296 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR noise. stood stamping on her stomach. he felt as though a cold thrill went through his head. And then he swallowed him. of it." said Coyote. it seems. after a while. he had a stomach-ache. the baby dropped down. "In And then he that way will it always be with a woman. He lay on top of the bed made of rocks that he had heated. He arrived. has given birth to a child. He looked for the woman and. he hung on to a cedar limb. . Then he went off to a conas he did so. Again he camped several nights on his way. making a whizzing lay senseless. He saw mush. that baby fell out. and then he touched his head. in so doing. he fell upon the earth and Then. There at that old camping place he arrived. when he had finished eating it. he camped will follow in their tracks. heated stones on the fire. after a while. "Now I said he. After doing so. as he ate it. "What. shall I do with him?" said Coyote. he heard them as they moved along singing. he drank warm water. "What." said Coyote. and he turned back towards his own country." several nights on his way. "my friends. shall I do to her?" said Coyote." he said. "is it my own brains that I have been eating?" He tried to vomit. have given me mush. now. "there in the midst of came Coyote. found her. Then he made a head-scratcher and scratched "In this way shall it be with a woman when she his head with it." "All right.

Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes .


299 302 308 308 338 How the "Cry" Originated: Text and Interlinear Translation 3. Iron-Clothes 394 9. Free Translation How the Bear Dance Originated: 345 347 348 351 351 Text and Interlinear Translation Free Translation 4. Owl's Widow's Experiences with Skunk. Rattlesnake as Story-teller 446 16.mute Xon-mythical Texts 472 1. How the Kail)ah Paiutes learned the Bear Dance 472 2. . Badger. Coyote and Porcui)ine 456 18. The Badger People Wage War against Wolf and Coyote. . Coyote and his Daughters 462 19. Rat Invites the Deer and Mountain Sheep to a Round Dance 426 13. . Wolf and his Brother: Text and Interlinear Translation Free Translation 2. Chipmunk Deceives the Giant 408 10. Text and Interlinear Translation . The Theft of Fire: II. 432 14.CONTENTS. The Origin of People: Text and Interlinear Translation Free Translation 5. Gray Hawk and Toad Gamble 414 12. Introduction Key to the Phonetic System Employed Paiute Myths I. 377 390 8. The Two Horse-tail Hair Brothers. and Hawk 448 17. 1. Eagle as Suitor 444 15. Mamputs' Style of Beginning a Speech 476 Free Translation . The Bird that Carried People away 464 P. Coyote unsuccessfully Imitates Carrion Beetle 410 11. a Ute War Story 472 3. Coyote Sets the Parturition Customs: Text and Interlinear Translation Free Translation 7. 358 for a Sparrow Hawk and Gray Hawk Contend Text and Interlinear Translation Free Translation Woman: 360 367 369 375 6.

Myth Recitatives Eagle's Myth Recitative 2. 4. 6. Sparrow Hawk's Myth Recitative Rattlesnake's Iron-Clothes' Myth Myth Recitative Recitative Coyote's Lament Red Ant's Myth Recitative IV. 3. 7. 4. 5. 7. 4. Notes to Paiute Texts Notes to Ute Texts Notes to Translations of Paiute Texts Notes to Translations of Ute Texts 478 478 478 480 480 480 482 482 484 484 488 494 494 504 506 513 515 515 527 529 534 . Porcupine Tricks Coyote Coyote Deprives himself of his Eyes Wildcat and Coyote Disfigure each other Owl's Widow Goes in Quest of Chicken-Hawk The Releasing The Woman of the Corraled Buffalo of her 6. A Ghost Woman Robs Mourning Dove that Son Ran off with a Herd of Wild Horses Notes 1. 318 298 III. 3. A Myth Song Ute Myths 1 2.. X Southern Paiute and Ute CONTENTS Paiute 1. 2. 5. 3.

who was in 1910 just about to complete his text material presented in this paper belongs to distinct. His unfailing good humor and patience also helped materially to lighten a task that demanded unusual concentration.) Besides the Kaibab Paiute texts here presented. Though young and absent from his native home for about five years. in southwestern Utah the balance. Tony pro\ed an excellent informant. in all my linguistic experience. 299-363). B.TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES. Introduction. G. Through the kindness of Dr. secured in 1909 (August and September) from Charlie Mack. and of the superintendent of the Indian School. Dr. a young Kaibab Paiute from Kanab. ]Mason also obtained a series of interesting pictographs in the course of a reconnaissance of Nine Mile Canyon. More substantial for linguistics than the Ute work were the results obtained from Tony. to mythological texts and one tale recorded in English. so that he might be rendered available as a source of information for further Shoshonean researches. arrangements were made to have Tony housed in Philadelphia and employed at the Museum. J. Hence he was better informed on the subject of tribal lore than could normally ha\e been expected. . some distance south of Uintah Reservation. the director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum. Utah. dialects of the Ute-Chemehuevi branch of Plateau Shoshonean. he was of a naturally conservative temperament and possessed of a remarkable memory. Mason. A further series of thirty Ute tales was obtained in English by my colleague. (Gordon. two rather though closely related. The course at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. 1910 (pp. The Ute texts were obtained at White Rocks in the course of a brief trip among the Utes of Uncompahgre and Uintah reserves. This material is still unpublished. A. that Dr. these were published under the title of "Myths of the Uintah Utes" in The Journal of American Folk-ljore I should not fail to add for severely taxed as in recording Shoshonean dialects of the Ute-Chemehuevi group. I doubt if phonetic perception has ever been . a Uintah Ute from White Rocks. The bulk of the paper is devoted to mythological and other texts obtained in 1910 (February to May) from Tony Tillohash. (Indeed. there were .

Clair. Mason. The songs and the ethnological data will form the subjects of future papers. No attempt has been made to normalize the texts. Last. 66.320 300 secured from lexical X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR Tony supplementary material for the grammatical and study of his language. are referred to the Paiute lexical assistance is grammar which precedes. and Comanche tales already published by Kroeber. 1916. they are not so much closely related languages as mutually applies to intelligible dialects of the all same language. a series of over two hundred songs. from Plains tribes to the east. which may This probably be defined as a dialectically differentiated Shoshonean language stretching from Uncompahgre Ute in central Colorado to Chemehuevi in southeastern California. of Southern Paiute (to be carefully disis tinguished from Northern Paiute or "Paviotso") to Uintah Ute Indeed. Tony. which are given The phonetic system used is that described in the report of the Phonetic Committee of the American Anthropological Association. and a considerable body of ethnological information. Shoshone. but not least. he was a delightful companion at all times and is remembered with the friendliest feelings by all who came in contact with him in Philadelphia. Lowie. no. and from California and Washington-Oregon tribes to the west are ' See Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. The lexical material follows in the third part. affiliations the tales In their mythological recorded here e\ idently correspond closely to the Ute. further. the necessary- given by the Paiute dictionary which follows. recorded in text and on the phonograph. which forms the first part of this volume. Fiwther parallels from other Plateau tribes. parallel tales References to have been confined to Plateau Shoshonean. 6. chiefly ceremonial. vol. co\er only restricted territories in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona and in northeastern Utah respectively. The texts embodied in the present volume are therefore illustrative of one of the most widespread languages of aboriginal America. The linguistic relation close. and St. . here precisely as heard. though the specific dialects of the texts. the dialects of Ute-Chemehuevi. The grammatical data have been worked up into a sketch of the Paiute language. Kaibab Paiute and Uintah Ute.' the symbols are defined in the key prefixed to Those wishing to make an analytical study of the language the texts. pro\ed \aluable as a first-hand source for a seminar in American Indian linguistics that I was then giving at the University of Pennsylvania.

Texts of the Kaibah Paintes and Uintah Utes 321 301 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES given in the papers mentioned. to that of the late Dr. . the rehition of Southern is Northern Shoshone perhaps e\en closer than might have been expected. Chicago. Sapir. June 5. mythology very close. July 16. Edward Ottawa. Paiiite On the whole. In conclusion. 1918. I should like to express my indebtedness to the Gordon's kind help which was given me throughout the prosecution of my Shoshonean studies. 1930.

approximately like aw of English law. and are modified it is related as u to w or to y. without modifying tongue position of u. ii. where it corres- ponds to Paiute o. of a that midway between ete. hat. close as in Erench Occurs only rarely. high-back-unrounded-narrow (Sweet's terminology). as in German schon or Gotz (i. long and open as in English poor. but without r-quality. but its formation is quite unlike that of French or German ii. apt to sound like a i 6 rapid diphthongal i". open as in English pull. Probably high-mi.xed-rounded-wide.KEY TO THE PHONETIC SYSTEM EMPLOYED. it. a a e as in as in French patte. a and a. t open as in o to u ui i au of French chapeau. related to approximately as to or c to e. to which t. not a true ii as in French or German. but less clearly rounded. £ i open as in English met. but without r-glide. Vowels. as nuance of or of a-a-£. . open as in German voll. but very common in Ute. close or open in quality). EngHsh is u of EngUsh but. approximately like i of English (American) first. 1 . high (or high to mid)-back-unrounded-wide. It is apt to sound like close as in i t ii i i ii a "muddied" 6 or a dull a. Rare in Paiute. but more nearly approaching a. high-mixed-rounded-wide. close as in French English fini. On first acquaintance this vowel impresses one as a "muddied" nuance of ii. but duller in timbre. A nuance of i characteristic of Ute. Monophthongs. e. always close when long (u ). sporadically close as in English rule. may be produced by completely unroimding close u. Its semi vocalic form is y (see below). a a as in like German Mann. forms of i.

oi. ai. occurs u'. They from fully articulated vowels. in which case the first vowel is sometimes heard doubled. indicated au diphthongal combination of a and i. and other vowels with subscript hook: nasalized vowels. vowels. '. These diphthongs are either inorganic. vow^els interrupted ' by a series of is weak glottal stops. ' some- times referred to as " glottal sporadically as w. unvoiced forms of q. e. i. or organic. 5. they denote "pseudo-diphthongal" Before and after glottal stops (') they in Paiute. e. is rare. a. In certain cases the two vowels are pronounced with a drag. but not completely unvoiced. A and other small-cap vowels: completely breath. of a. a. ooi. development of a is secondarily U. . g. after glottal stops they are generally long. e. (cf. oi. pronounced as with full They may be defined \'oiceless breath % modified by various vocalic timbres.i. diphthongal combination of a and u gout). may be defined as voiceless timbre respectively. ou of English aau. are frequently glides. ji. sometimes they are reduced After their own vowel. ' w. This nasalized breath with u and t type of articulation 2. nasalized nasal consonant. ai. si. unvoiced vowels. o. Hi. glottalized w. arising as glide before following y. a. "( developed from a' or 'a. i indicated as as ai a'. o. and a" are also found. following sporadically in Ute as development of 14. is either weakening of q due to presence of preceding or w. but not completely unvoiced. ui pronounced as diphthongal combinations and u respectively with following i. 'J. aai. nasalization (see below) or secondary.u. the i is rather faint. g. a^. ' : a and other vowels with superscript glottalized vowels. This type of articulation r. similarly for other vowels. nasalized vowels. £. rearticulation. in others. Diphthongs.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 323 303 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES ' and other superior vowels: weakly articulated. are murmured whispered in Ute. occurs weakly articulated.

b t sonant labial stop. between preceding back vowel and following Types of articula- g tion parallel to those for p (see above). as lightly stopped development of rather frequently in Ute. tends to be semisonant after m. p intermediate or unaspirated surd stop of labial position. Found in Ute partly as sporadic development of k after r\. Found in Ute as sporadic development of k after r).position o (velar character most pro- nounced before g and i). gw labialized forms of k. Types d k of t of articulation parallel to those for p (see above). When k and q are aspirated surds. articulation parallel to those for p (see above). intermediate position. g respectively. 5 sonant front-palatal stop. (k) after i. Found in Ute as sporadic Also occurs y. less often initially. q intermediate or unaspirated surd stop of back-palatal or. intermediate or unaspirated surd stop of dental position. qw. Consonants. frequently. Aspirated (p") before voiceless vowels or as substitute for p-j. gw. sonant dental stop. w appears as voiceless w. velar . surd as stop of of P'ound variant i. less often initially.: 324 304 ai X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR (and similarly for other diphthongs) as above but with second element of diphtiiong \oiceless. less often initially. (q). Types of articulation parallel to those for p (see above). partly intervocalically as lightly stopped development of y. seldom in Paiute. less often initially. sonant back-palatal or velar stop. Found in Ute as sporadic development of p after m. sonant mid-palatal stop. after n. de\elopment of q intervocalically after r).voiceless vowel. kw. or unaspirated chiefly. Found Types of regularly as development of q. k intermediate or unaspirated surd stop of front-palatal position. q. approximately like ky of English cue. . intermediate character most marked initially and in second portion of geminated (lengthened) p. Found in Ute as sporadic development mid-palatal q. g.

N n> 1] palatalized n. Pound Ute as sporadic development of tc after n. articulation parallel to those for p (see above). intermediate tc Types of place of articulation between ts and tc. V bilabial as in Spanish. In Ute s is s intermediate in place of articulation between Paiute it is generally pure in quality. intermediate or unaspirated surd affricative of c-position. appears as m*. to be carefully inner rounding. N r)w I)* Always treated as simple consonant.VTAH UTES s voiceless sibilant. de\eloped from less vowels. voiceless m. unvoiced bilabial f. position to k and q. bilabial v with approximate acoustic effect of w due to A labialized nuance of v. unvoiced w. n modified by y-contact of the tongue. mid-palatal. w before \oicei) followed by voiceless w. as in English so. voiceless n.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 325 305 regularly TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UI. corresponding in position to k. qw. <listinguished from w. n like -on of English button. in as in English chat. rarely occurring voiceless form of labialized i). less often initially. corresponding in Like ng of English sing. c ts and c. Types of articulation parallel to those for p (see above). but never tending to become v. e. n dental nasal. like v. n gn of French gagner.position. syllabic forms of n and r). as in English judge. front-palatal nasal. back-palatal. Approxi- J3 mately n. analogously to kw. m M m'' as in English me. (J) stopped b. like ts of English hats. intermediate or unaspirated surd aflPricative of s. . dj sonant affricative in of c-position. i. lightly w V" as in English. as in English she. In Paiute. like wh of English white. as in Italian. in voiceless sibilant. or velar nasal. i). in Ute. with voiceless w-glide. m pronounced with lip rounding of w and followed genBefore ^oiceless vowels it erally by rapid w-glide.

corres- ponding sagen. . intermediate in type of articulation between A nuance of y that is found in Paiute. acoustically close be carefully distinguished from. yw. stopped consonant (or affricative) or developed from '. x. Found more frequently in Ute than p. in being pronounced with as in English. q. Y voiced mid-palatal. to k. kw. as some R American languages. breathing occurring voiceless nasalized finally. or velar spirant. voiced front-palatal spirant. xw. and ^ respectively. Its exact timbre changes with that voiceless vowels that follows it. ^w labialized forms of y. lightly trilled r tongue-tip alveolar r. ts. k. like y Y h ' y of English yes. Before voiceless \owels w of xw and xw appears unvoiced to w. unvoiced form of y. kw. and tc respectively.326 306 X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR (J)* unvoiced v". qw. t'c glottalized forms of p. y. but to Related to y as k is 5 . or initially before vowels. from stopped consonant (or affricative) ' + + . X in position to k and q. x. Never so happens lightly in trilled as to be heard as sonant d. of the Before i'. with a thickish c-like quality. t. like ch of German ich. it is perhaps cerebral. y. Unvoiced r. glottal stop. k. in Paiute. to. % intermediate in type of articulation between y and x. A nuance of y that is found in Paiute. like North German g of X I unvoiced form of y like ch of German Bach. q. J breath. unvoiced form of y. yw. yw. k. k. q. y. y and x. The. is. xw. {. Occurs in Paiute as sporadic modification medially after voiceless vowels. of consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure and siibsequent simultaneous release of oral point of articulation and of glottis. They have a snappy effect altogether different from the cracked effect of the glottalized stops and They are affricatives of many West Coast languages. back-palatal. qw. differs from x less energy.

ts. as glides. and are generally sharpened forms of after voiceless Aowels." enclose words in English translation not found Indian original. x. of ^." "from which is derived. Accents and other Diacritical Marks.Texts of the Kaihah Paiiites and Uintah Utes 327 307 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PARTES AND UINTAH UTES *". enclose meaningless elements in Indian song texts. y. "derived from. or. denotes excessive length of preceding sound. '. ^. c. denotes that preceding vowel or consonant is long. these ''. -^ weakly or very rapidly articulated forms of y. "^j ^^. in the [ ] . consonants ' They arise either by reduction more frequently. % ''. x. ' + < > ( ) denotes that preceding vowel is stressed. in. s. ^. w. ^'. ' ^^.

) ijijw "Go ahead. .said What vou ctna'qwa(}) when was ia\' early morning. but wi 't uc cuwa p itci nu t A'ciaijq'.' qari p lya (2) dwelt. tnipu anik a' punt avtxa while lying .) not house aunt qari'p ta'» uv*a there qant'a<{)t.) own (obj. go to ask for grass seeds. ai)' . morning paa iranr of us 2 aunt (obj." looking?" 1 nil cuwa p a'o(J)l m ca I ^ coyote. u nw' (ja nt Coyote 'u'ra' paya n-^-qwtp ofi" pa a his started own aunt (obj.) pa a lav his uv"a there pt tctyw'aiptYa' went and arrived pa 4 ar)W His (inv.) aunt qant vaarjW at her (inv. qa to (inv. a'itlcaqw ptya 13 qm there they 2 sat her (inv.). PAllTE MYTHS.) she (inv.) mother .). Wolf and tiv"a tscnava a ti]\v his Brother. sat (neg. ywa vatci To her (inv.) house (obj. "Where is she (inv. aip lya . while going to ask for grass seeds.) her own house (obj. 'vou are waking ^ up now. 1 Ti'v*a'tstna va'vti)W. now uijwa'vatc to her (in\'.! I.) tuwa'tsiqwacuqw Only her (inv. are doing down itci "All right.) she (inv.) i\ a tci Wolf and his brother (|a Early ••" 'a Q na't A'ciaqq'^ wlien was early p tya sang t'lv^a'tc wolf he. she (in^•.) oai it u i]W.) towards it wara X ani ''jw'aixa'.) your (pi. m*a va am there they (inv. \) mat.) wara'x ani ''xwa'*. cma'i}wa(i)i long ago am waking up '.) house (obj.) sons uv'^a qari'pt7a'im'^ qanc'arjW.

Kaibab Paiute Indian.Tony Tillohash. in his Carlisle School Unifokm .


their own (obj. qwt ayanti' grizzly bear (obj.).) aunt." you (obj. (inv." ctna'r)Wa(})i. said. said yoyo p tya aii)W Copulated with her (inv.) aunt. "My aunt.)?" a'ip tya'aiin" coyote. uv^a there qanc ar)W her (inv. ma'ip tya'aim'.) ctna'r)wa({)i etna ijwacpi.). ti7a"xw=*'aiya'ai]'. 5 nicamp "Enough.) back (obj.) pi tctvan t'. soon his (inv. aip lya'aiqw. "soon she (inv. qqwA pa-q ar)W ma ip tya .). thus they 2 said.)' . ma va'tcan' my masturbator tsii)w bring to. qqWA ar)\^^ ffqa va^nt' will eat^* ma ip ya tya "Soon mush (obj. a ip tya said pa a "ai)W. "Yonder me ar)W'." tsir)W. aunt pina His (inv.) a-vi mother mother sina'i)wa4)i Pf'ni'k p tya lay p% wc ^arux WA. bator (obj. Children qwa'ru^'wap tya'aik gave it to her w mava'tcai'ya'ar)W her (inv.) tuwa pina qqw' ai)W they 2 said sons.)." a'ip txa" "with this (inv.\'ote. " qwoam ima'^'qwoam mia i}qii)umpa 'a'niputs-." thus said 'riqik ' paa uv*a'*ntin' his (inv.) aunt.' my auntie. co." ctna'qwacj)! Covote ma ntcu"aia vtp lYa waited for lying down pa a ai)W pi'tciptya'. qwtya'ts Grizzly bear coyote.) I it shall do for. a ip-t7a said cina'r)wa<])i.) qwi'i'p tya'aikw took it.) house pina (obj.) mastur- piy£'iya<j)t. ijntu'q u^wa'ai)W citcu"mantk'ptya put claws into his (inv.' on (her) back.) Coyote ijni saw her pa pa'a'n'. piya"ar)W Their (inv.) pa aunt a'ia<j)t coyote his own (obj." . qa'tc'. his (inv.) aunt s *'a'p t'. will arrive.) arrived. a ip tya said "No. aipiya. said thus. she (inv." a ip tya said paa tuwa his (inv. "She went to gather seeds.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 329 309 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES u r)\v.

). qwi'tt'k ipiYa'" "No.- 330 310 u'"a'x arux X Southern Paint e and Ute SAPIR w a'wiic ". paiyiq w'a'ip eya 'a vt'p iya 'oa 'va'ana({)t Coyote went back home. qwiri'k ipiya'.) (obj. grizzlv-bear look at it. o'vaiyaq A'pt'i't'ucptya'air)W. through a'iptya' said it. on his own back.) yntu'qua'arjW back (obj.) there it (inv. pijnt'k ait' lay ta'. was (neg.) flesh '"a'i' it qa'tc' said wolf.) again as na ya'p a n'^ptya'.) I sav?" a'ip'iya' tiv'a'ts .) urj ijnt'ts stna'rjwavt yntu'q ij'ntcu"nt' Then coyote (obj. tiYi'ai''' qatcu'qwa'ar)W not it (inv. "Enough.) his (inv.) '^i' caused to be seen back tiv'^a'ts- wolf stna'r)wa<|)i pu'tcu'tcuywap knew. back flesh (obj.) fastened on. l)ack flesh was . a'ip iya' ctna'r)wa(})i. (inv. ijnt'r)uts ijntu'q ua'aqw back ya 'q ipcya'. qa'tc.x w.) pA^qa'p tya killed.. Grizzly bear pjnt'k aiyaq '." qwt'yats .) uc'p allowed to see. mmt'c qa'aijw yntu'q ua'aqw'his (inv." qnt'r)''uts- ctna'r)wa(|)i grizzly bear. arose. When iiv"a"aq there it he (inv." said woman. said coyote.) him (inv. not his own (obj.) elder brother deer (obj. 'a uijwa'vatcanwitu. became. pa vi"ir)W His (inv. ni'an 'aik Covote towards him. then tOYo'q 'ptYa". Then caused him to sleep.) rolled over ijntu'q uvt back not ma'a'nqijwa'aq w ma va't'cainptya. Coyote got up suddenly.) ctna'r)wa(j)i tu'(iwt"aip tya' qa'tc oa'iya({)V pynt'f utna 'aip tya' Coyote was ashamed. mjnt'c piya rolled over cya. then his (inv.) cina'i)wa(})i a'ip tya' qvvcya'maunia'uts-. qwtya'ts- ctna'qwavt ran off. "What (obj.) brought. "Coyote (obj. flesh (obj.) his (inv..) towa'tsi child (obj.

) ate it Then they (2) (inv.). there thev (inv.) being Then pA^qa r)Utst'ti)W having killed her (inv. Then ui)" wolf itci" again sang.) whereon house nunipi (obj.) uncle (obj. in i^e nu.) w nc 'va shall carry ma '^via'arjW pA^qa'iiutst'iqw all (obj. (inv.) your (pi.) ti'qa va n'ai)"' it uK. Then went and arrived tuwa'tsti)wa'ar)W u\"a am ' qa ri her (inv.) a ip lya her (obj. .) had been wont to look nia^no'q oq (inv. qwa'i'^^ it "Go ya on! Gt'vatcuxwqwa "aic u r)u'tva' to her set off again this (obj.).) (obj.) house (obj.) sons (obj.) it her (inv.) slept.) she (inv.). ijnt ts uv"a there pi'pi'tct^w^'aip cya' towards it own aunt (obj.). mother nti)wunip "liver a r it a'iyai)umwi ti'qa'vaa naijumi your (pi.) piya'iyavt'tmt tlieir qani\a'.) ma'ik ain'aijw.) stayed qa ni ar)W her (inv. is." 'ijnt'r)uts ymai .).Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 331 311 TEXTS OF u v^aiyauq THP: KAIBAB paiutes and UINTAH UTES tiv^a'ts- qa p tyaaic u. ma ip tya etna r)wa<j)i said wolf." thus said covote.) pi'nt"nu't'- things (obj.) her (inv. ctna'ijwacj)! Then coyote ly' NU^qwtp lya pa "ya 'n^ walked along qa ni aqw (obj.) house.) ts shall carry ntqwu mpi' liver (obj. A^pu'ip tya'aim' Two boys they (2) (inv." a ip tya' said ctna'r)wa<{)i own (obj.) pcVa '*nti'ar)W (obj. "Here covote.) (2) p tya aim they (inv. qnt her (inv.) ma '"vi qa ni'aqw her (inv. (inv.) house u u ra pa his aiya'({)'i:'.) about to eat mano'qu all (obj.) having killed her on back tiv"a'ts- (inv.) being about to eat (2) ijnt'i)uts his (inv. "Yes." waa na'ip atsti)W ti'qa'ptya'aik wamt. saying so.) things (obj.

" u'vaiyauqu Thereupon a'ip lYa na n ''c o'o'qw by himself it (inv. said." iys'nu. Soon uv*a their (inv.) arrived home.) ate it (inv.) u^qwa'i' it (obj. (obj." said ntr)wu'mp "liver a'ip tYa ctna'i)Wa({)i. "They (2) are sleeping. said coyote.) Then na'avaip'[7a gathered.) ijnt'quts- sijma'i'qa'aip tYa"aik ma n o'q oq ' Then remembered no it. etna r)wav bring to.. Thereupon all (obj. got up. said.) hung up ma.) things butchered her (obj. Then them A^po' t" <uip i yaaim' (inv. o'vaiyauq coyote.).). mano'qu all 7a 'n^p t7a' ai i) w (inv.) things (obj. ijnt'ts- qwt yaYant'i grizzly bear A'pt'i'pt'Ya ntqwu'mpt liver (obj. "Here is." Thereupon coyote a ip 't'Y^j A^P' lyi ami. ijni ts a iptya. a ip lYa. WA.) to her. . 332 312 etna r)wa<J)i X Southern Paiiitc and Ute SAPIR na i)wa aq uum pA^qa qupcYa aim killed i}ni'i)uts CO vote both (obj.) to sleep.) of them (inv. ma slept. her (inv.VtniA. Then ru arup tya qwirt'k iptYa stnaqwavt coyote (obj). t'l^qa'p tYa'aik Thereupon wa.) ctna'r)wa<})i. pma r)qw piya am pi'tc'pt'Ya.) of them (inan. gave it (inv. ma'"via'ar)W her (in. said. jumped and reached for.).) ma '*vta r)W '^p t'Ya qa'ivavttcit nnt like a nt'k aip tya did her (inv. on brush.) pu'^qwi agw ijqwa 1 ptya her (inv. ctna'r)wa({)i na"7a't tr)qipt7a.^'' qnt'rjuts- pA''qa'i)Upt7a"air)W killed ti coyote dodged quickly. ijwa'ruYwap tya'aik w. Then u'vaiyauq ' mother ma va'tcan" "Yonder me my masturbator '"ntini ya 'ijqi'k '^.).) carried away plateau on his back.) caused them (inv. u'v"aiyauq u bladder (obj. aRi it.

t'vaiyauq ''u etna r)wav Thereupon covote (inv. inv. Then tu'p*i'k uptya. "1 .ya cin^wa({)i.) xini i)uts w u'qwt'yu'141)' his (inv. coyote. u'r it wi'i'k uptya dropped tiVt'p uv*a ntux w. paYJi iny'fqw'tp tya qnt'r|uts- cum^'i'qai'pt'Yaaikw went off for short Then remembered about (inv. His own that bow (obj. Then (inv.) things they (inan. nti)wt'xaiYU "like person ij'ni. said. pu qwi (obj. to vt"its-.). na 'nqa'p tya pu^qwt vt ainpa yauxu ctna'i)wa<l)i.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 333 313 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES ma '*^a^l]w u'r.) down yt a ip cya.) back own (obj. ma n ii'n i all were used up. a ip '.) cim}'''ptya'aik w paiyt rj^uptya let it (inv. Then bladder same way. inv. his yni'rjuts- went for it. tya. MA'tca'i'ariq'ip tya'aik-w qnt'ts- o p ac pu''qut v through that (inv. ijnt'yuts- no'3'q"uptYaaik started to carry (inv.) arrows. on to ground. Heard bladder talking coyote. obj. u xwa "Why *yt q ni. arrows qu'qwt'p tya'aik shot it (inv. don't you get a ip tya said ctna'r|wa(})i.) w her (inv.). do in said covote.) then reached for it (inv. Then them on his back. "Walk!" a leg?" a'ip tya. started back towards it. 'atc'i'a^'i said.) go. 'ynt'r|uts- Then 'a Hct'm'aq u<j) with his own bow it kwi'pa'p struck.) ijnt r)iits- it distance.).) ijni r)uts hanging.) way ^'u'raii)''ptya ^"'wa'vaiyuij^p'tyai'tkw ""qwc'yu «<})'[. brought them (inan. pa ya'i''. n.) vt u ru it qwa'i'kainacj^V his payt rj^ptya bladder own Then started back (inv.

i]nt r)uts- again cu'^ut a vamac- ijwa'i^kaip tya. "Go ahead. tiv^a'ts- it was morning qa 'p tya a ip tya said tiv*a'ts . ijnt ts- wa'a'p tm' cedf nji ij waip tya himself." "'u'^pa *p tya. Then ctna'i)wa(})i wolf 'Go ahead! a'ip tya said. Then pt tc'piya qa nt'va at his (})i.ixwa a ic u. cu 'q ucutcm ini"amantiYa of her things coyote. yi)wa." said ctna'ij\vac{)i." uv"'a c said qnt i)uts coyote. Then qa at his pa lyiq w" oipiya went returning qa his nt av own u ra toward it. Then on one day again was hanging. u'^ pa "p tyaic- "Yes." Covote "Yes. a'ip tya coyote! ctna'r)wa(|)i go and hang yourself again.. .). 'v'mjii'. was hanging just one on dav. i]nt'r)uts iva tct Qno't A'ciaqq' arrived own Then early when early house. 'ij'mai. went through vonder wav.' "Yes. tv^'t c^ * wolf cina'i)wa<j)i sang. again went off then there nahung through yonder way u r)waip tya.) I did ctna'i)wa(J)i. a ip tya go to help call for my children (obj. 334 314 MU''qwt'5^a"Hv'aiva ni I shall X Southern Paiutc and Ute SAPIR nji'nt tuwa'tsti)wa'. house pt tctywa'aip tya ni'va(})V vatyauq'^ a'ip tya went and arrived ctna'ijwac})!." a ip tya said ynt ts- tiv^a'ts a ip tya. himself. ijwa'i'kaip tya su- Then yuc hung ta^va'niA. own house. forget. ta ijwa'i'^kaiyuwa'*. said. "Just one (obj.'* go and hang bv your feet. ntj wolf. qnt'quts- payt'k iptya started to return. Thereupon 1]' said NA'ci'm'^f.. ijm'ijiits- covote. covote.

"Go ahead ywa'i^ka.).) them tv*-t"ca'* ma "va'tcaq^piYa." coyote.^* uv*a '^ti from on top A'si'aiyaq ta'^'riiq'^pcYaiA'^- their (vis. turned into. ctna'i)wa(l)i go and hang!" "Yes. ma-*ru'"m'tr)''uptyai'tkw pulled it off A'st"aiyaq ''w their (inan. obtained arrow sticks.! Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 335 315 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES ync'quts- tA'cc'pauxu paiyi'k iptya pi'tcipi7a qant'vac}). tiv^a'ts- tirjwi'niA tirjwrniA Then wolf hurriedly tu'u'm'ptYai'ikw picked them (inan.) (obj. '' cina'i)wavtyar)W coyote (obj.) he (inv. inv.) nan o'^'v lini'flk'piYa for him. inan. threw down in pile. house (obj. v^aiyauq " tiv^a'ts-. pulled it qnt quts their (inan. etna qwacpi. arrived own arrow sticks (obj.ixwa'".) (inv. qni ncmptya kept doing thus tia'vi o'vaiyauqu Then paiyt'kipi'Ya ym^'a'nti coyote service- from it uru'v^ixaptYa.) mantsa'gwtnapt'Ya. Then *w u'qwa'i* it for himself made for uru'qwa^xti from below uruc These (inan. u'xpa "p "tYa went off in yonder way.) A'st'aiyaq ma^ru""mijQuptYai'tkw. .) up u qwa 1 them (obj. Then ti'camp Always ctna'ijwac])! when it was started to return. .) qaai)'.) ta '*'"ruptYa made shirt bark (obj. Thereupon U m^i a iptY^' said wolf. coyote. arrived at his own evening house.) uru'v^'i arrow sticks (obj. fastened on. inv.) made shirt (of) it bark qnt'ts- (obj.) off.).) 'lint'quts- house. qnt'ts- u^'qwt'qnt' like ''wi ci avt u mw on arrows Then a iptYa said feathers (obj. berry bush Started to return qani'av his u'ra pt'tc'pt'Ya qant'va at his cj) uru'v^i own toward. then bark naiya pa^q'^piYa.

qni ts- pa own yuu went and arrived.).. said. imi'ntcu'" tiimpa'Ya'. coyote. uru'v^iYaxwo'ai'' 'Go and get arrow sticks.' saying?" His (inv. did aimj' pa vt'n you (inter. qWA'ct"r)w a iptya. mi 'Go and hang by your feet. iim% icampa * only that (obj. "You wont to come behind me. ym ts a ip tya said ctn%'wa({)i." you! a iptya said C{na'r)wa<})i.urjwaiYwa'ai'' indeed always say. tiv*t'i)''uptYa mano q*u all (obj. pray.iiwa'i*kai"xwa' ai^a'." he he v'm^i' "Yes. made shirts very many .) a " ni"q w pu'tcu'tcuYwai'yiq w I it (inv. am axa aiqqwa What.) know it (inv. very many VI tr)w no p tYa carried on his back. qani va(pi at his pi tciYwa'aip lYa.) a uni always says.) 'You tail pu'tcu'tcuYwa'yiq w understand it (inv.).). Then his elder house u'^qwt brother ta'*'urup tYa tiv*t'ts uru q uptYa 'ava"an' made arrows arrows (obj. then was left a RI. it. u v^'aiyauq- Then uru v^i^apiYa obtained arrow sticks cjna'i)wa<j)i tiv''t'tstava"an' coyote.) qWA'ct'yar) his tail own body (obj. 'Go and hang yourself !' you a'intcua 1) that (inter. 336 316 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR uv"a there qa ri p tYa ct'na'i)wa<j)i.) have mouth? always say my elder brother 1 uqWA he tq. aiy that (obj.) tgir a'imtA.) stayed <})t coyote.' a la r) that gir a imt indeed always says. Asked ptya'i'piya mr)W':"aiya his ynt ts- man cthat (inan.). na. inii niiv*i'nai]qDavatc Then coyote.

Then said coyote. house n|" aqqa'q wi'cari' lightning (obj. na ri'v^'t "always puayanti medicine- nji". time was hanging. said wolf. ynt'ts rushed along. o'vaiyauqthis uru'v^^iyap tya tiv^'i'ts Not 'a va"an'. morning.) talking. . a'ip tya ctna'i)wa<j)i. "Coyote. again go and hang yourself. way off in west land (obj.^' being about to fight.) aro "avi aya'n said coyote.) at edge.) ptini'k aip'tya many. ctna'i]wac{)i a'ip'tya at his own went and arrived. ctna'rjwac})!. it tv*c"ca'*. man o'v^'aiyauqu ctna'i)wa(})i paiyt'qwo'aip'tya Nu''qwt'm''yap tya Then qant'vacj) coyote pi'tct/wa'aip tya." said coyote. i'v^aiyauq Then wolf own i qa 'p-iya sang 'tcuq u. st'na'qwac})! Coyote qa'tc pu'teu'tcuywa'aptYa' understood ywa'i'kaip ta'* ampa'yana'arjWA. "I see. a'ip'tya ctna'i)wa<j)i. his (inv. a'ipiya said said coyote. when was "Go ahead!" wolf. a'iptya said fiv'^'a'ts-. "Why! Am I obtaining super- natural power?" ctna'i)wa(})i. I. na u'rjwai^wo'aic u. obtained arrow sticks very o'vaiyauq- aqqa'q wicari' lightning (obj. um^a'r "that (inan. coyote. "Oh!" a ni'ntc'* a'ip'tya c{na'r)wa4)i." said coyote." a'ip tya tiv^'a'ts-. went returning.) pt'ni'k a'. might be how doing?" a'ip iya cjna'gwatj)!.' Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 337 317 tiv^a'ts* TEXTS or THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES pima'u(j)V wherewith their na 'uq wiqqa'^ u'ava^nA. ive'tci' tiv^'a" Then fiv^t'pi' saw 'aa'ikwi qigwa '*va^nti'. 'a puwa'ru'"'a'iyuru'ani.

go ahead! brother a ip tya. again go to obtain his elder said.).) oa lA. I a'ip-tya ctna'riwacj)! go and get ar- "Yes." u X pap lY^- 4ni ts u v"'a*nti there went off in Then uru v^iYap 't'Ya obtained arrow sticks.) WA elder brother aqqa'q wi'cari lightning (obj. y m^i les. etna qwav iv*^t ca" Then uru v^iYaxwo aic u. v^aiyauq jumped cina'i)wa<{)i to big distance.338 318 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR fiv^t'ts 'a't pavt tqw His (inv.) saw one o Coyote pa yi'q wo'aiptYa went returning tA'pu'qwipiYa ma "va 'tiYan}"." ctna'rjwav u'v^a*nti being there (obj.). coyote.)." said coyote." t'v'^aiyauqu pa*vi tr)W a ip't'Ya. piiini'ka'aikwA. pt'tciYwa'aiptYa Then ccna rjwacpi. see it (inv.) Went ar)qa off in coyote. .) very impu'tcu'tcuywa'ap lYa'aik well understood it (inv. v^aiyauq ''w a ipcya said pa *vi ir)W that (obj. cina'i)wa<f)i coyote yonder way q wi cari pdni'kaipcYa' CO qu. 'aa'ik w at his own went and arrived tea *Y' P' "Oh! aqqa q wicari house pa *vt'ni a'"(J)i my elder near now I lightning (obj. "Coyote. v'ni^i'- ivVca'' "Go ahead uru'v^Ixaxwa'*.) elder brother. (obj. qa-nt'va (J)V rushed along. uru'v^iyap-tYa gathered arrow sticks. st'na'r)wa({)i lightning (obj. Then 'Ya-- NU''qwt'm''ya'P qni ts- ciiri"''piYa coyote. was afraid. arrow sticks. oVaiyauqthereupon yonder way. row o'xpa*p-tYa sticks. said. a ip tya said cina'r)wa(J)i coyote. Then his (inv.) brother.

) D'v^aiyauq-^u qA qa RptYa they (2 inv. "Yes. own went and arrived. out of tspt'i)UptYa." Then coyote tiirjqa nt he qu'tca'qariA light gray (obj.) into uv'^^'uqwitUYwa'mt it they (inv. tuwa'tstrjwV. a p ruqqa ni cave (obj." " rain (obj.) are lying down you um^'a'n'kaimi'aYwar'onoA." ai)' While being attacked D'v^aiyauq- urjwa'c he (inv.) nianan .^^ ijni'vttcit doing and looking? tiv^'a'tc i'ya One should not be doing thus.) ci tiVa'tsta'ap' wolf (neg.)." a'ipTYa said ctAna'r)wa(})i. a ipcYa. na i)wav coyote "Not it is .^ imi 'a um^a'nikaivanti in that depending? You are way being my UIJ about to be doing na Yiiq^^'UV^iiaux u.) tiv^a'ts-. children.) escaped. ts tiVa wolf u'". Then aunt.) wolf he pyqqa'a vt'p tya.) ma *'a'qaip had on. ct'na'i)wa(j)i near qant'vacj) at his Coyote 'a'ikw rjwini' payi'ij^'uptya pc'tciywa'aip iya. "You ru" (inter. pt'ni'avt^a' coyote. imi'ntcu'^a 'q nj'ni pfijwa'ntuYwaq-ai- coyote. said. v^aiyauqu scAna ijwav when fighting.) ijwa'ri emerged. "Oh! qa'tc' wolf.) my on whom my ni ni it (vis. iml you 'y'nuit'.Texts of the Kciihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 339 319 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES aqqa'qwi'caRi lightning ti tiVt'ts"very tcaY''p' qnt'ijupcYa. "Oh!" house impi" ant'k a' a iptys^ said cina'i)wa(})i. 'aa'ik tYa uv^'i mitux it w cave (obj. w aro 'a'ik'pcYa said (pi." 'Go ahead! ai)'. kept lying down. a iptya said tiv^a'tc wolf ' he. did. "What (obj. hurriedly started to return. iv^t ca Then na^Yu'qwiriqi't fight.

) uv'^a a X I o\er it tA'pu'qwipcya jumped. ts pt'ijuptya. own eyes keep covered." said (pi. 340 320 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a'ik 'ptya am"". cc'na'qwav is. wi'tu'v'^'uaq aiva'. returned coyote through that same way.. tuxw ijnt'ts rain (obj.) my doing.) vv was mowed down.) had on. 'a'ik Then cave (obj). "Go said ahead! you tiv^a'ts naYu'qwtqqi'f fight.) elder brother fiv^'t'ts very ma * aq aip tya sa ywa /a blue r uru"ap tya it good (obj." said (pi. uv^t'mituxw from ij w um^a'qa q it is a'ik 'ptya it came tuwa tstijw. qu'qwtp tya'aic Then u'pac again in ina'rjqwA'patci' yaya '''mantiya q its u on other side from this at end again shot.) from among them. 1 D v'^aiyauqu ctna'i)wa(f)i Then coyote . '. it uma'gwant'i. then (inv. (obj. "Yes. so'i'tscnt'2^ i'v^'aiyauqu tiqqa'nt like soldier looked. that way ant i]Uptya did na p tya. was. Wolf uru c it at this yaya'^mantia q at its w end. "Oh! that one. qo was mowed down. Coyote uwi'^wayanti canyon (obj. i'm Y'v''aiyauq a iptya said ctna'gwac})!." V'mjvi'.) children. lay down.) ijnt'ts- etna gwav Then ""a'tr coyote avt ptya." "Yes. tv^t"ca" Then a'"(})i coyote." n( wolf i]ni'nani he. pa^vt tr)W His (inv. u'". paiyi ijuptya etna qwav o pac-. will q mai a ip tya said etna r)wa(pi. out. pu'^'t'yac])'!. na ya'<{)A''qaip-tya. a iptya now ai]'. mi "you 1 qa'tc' m pjnt'k aivaqwa' not me will look at (neg." coyote.) ini wari tWa ijnt ts ts- qu'qwt p tya shot qoD'i'nap tya.

Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 341 TEXTS OF THE KAIBA6 PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES ptint'kaip iya 321 .

) pa etna r)wav r) yuu'ru'a'ptya along trail coyote he. said.342 322 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 13'. na *na aip tyaaic. aip cya.) went into it they (inv. clothes (obj. am through their tWi'ts very cma qwav coyote a'l)'. *. was lean he. fat again doing so on °- his way o pa through that na i)wa (obj.) shall brother (obj. inaa"a tA'ci'aqqu kiya'p ta'am' o'a xavatcuYwap't'Y^' (2) his clothes. two old women o v^aiyauq own a mothers u ct na qwav coyote r) tv"t ni. Then coyote oo'i'aipt'Ya pa^YS^'n^qwiptya started to go na^gwa *upa tracks. bow and arrows. ni m Then pa-*vc'tsten' he.' my a iptya said ma 'Via'a'i)' yu ""a xwD aiva go to my little elder his (inv. Became ai] lie. etna ijwav a iptya. aiptya said ctna'r)wa(})i. camp 'a'ik w.). . said.) through Then coyote .) bring. traveled track (obj. o'v^'aiyauq u pa-^ya'n^'fqwtp tya started off "Oh!" coyote.) them (inan." t i]nt'p iya 'a^tci' A'^qa'i' yuna aiptya put down in several places ijnt'm"'ya'x3'ic" Then po did so.) wa 'ma *'cDY''oitsir)W pivi'av their am' they. o'v^aiyaiiqu 'iva'*n' atci'p cyava'. bows a (obj. Then v^'aiyauqu iniya naijwavt o pa it. tracks cuwa'qwA'tci'p tya'aim' Nearly caught up with them u'r it (inv." cina'r)wa<j)i i'v^aiyauqu coyote. still was burning in several places. Then v^aiyauq "Here I put awa}' coyote.) cina'r)wa(})i.) qa ni'p tv"a*nt qu n fire u'r it at deserted (inv. sliall a'iptya said ctna'qwa<l)i. When was morning it round dance (obj.) vi ct na i)wav coyote . "Let me.

Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 343 323 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES itc aro"avi' aYa'ni 'a ni'ntc'. a'ip 'iya .

) a ipiya^ said qWA ct yai) aR. o'v^aiyauqu . uv^'a-'^campaijAV tiiqqa niav his uv^'q.) you!" pu'tcu'tcuYwa'yiqw.) therein ya'a'iq wo'aiva'. i'v^'aiyaiiqu women um'^a'c Then qWA'ci'ni said ampa'a a'ipt'Ya. 'There only he (inv." '.'qwi always saying (phir. (obj. they. coyote. always doing. "my tail. shall die off.) his tail "Old women a'iminftni'. ni'qwA I it (inv.' a ip lya aim said (2) ma *mu'c those a'ip tya wa." said coyote.)." two old women (obj.) ma "no'q u all "Enough of that said.). know it (inv. a'ip tYa ctna'i)wa({)i. ma *'caYWDitsir)* u'm" they (inv.' a 1 nanii your saying wa 'ni a*'coYWDitsti)wa' am mmA. YWDitstqw amt. it."ma * ca- two old ctna'qwa^i.) own cave (obj.344 324 X Southern Paiute unci Ute SAPIR '*nti' uva thereat.

two old women. a ip tya aim . c. pa 'urara" it is "this (inan.) ui]wa'iAcuam' coyote (obj." coyote.) doing etna r)wavty ar)W *vi tst pA^qa vanayaya returning (pl. wa 'ma'caywoitsir)W. k-aip iYa'aini Then qni'-^'uni' coyote ct'nA'i)wa({)i a Y^ip '51^1 in hiding tiVi'ts- watched their (2) Coyote very them na (2) doing so. o'v^aiyauqu how doing?" coyote.) from killing they .Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 345 325 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES wa ma-*'caYwoitstr)W. Then po'" trail (pi.) he (inv. "this (inan. Then ani'ntc' wa ma '''caywoitstriw. *i}'a'i'aip-tYa pjini'kaix'umc. "I you m*fm*i" you (pl. are doing. a ip tya said itci' ctna'r)wa(l)i.) ^''a'it! a iptya said ctna'i)wa(l)i. obj. "Oh. nai]wa vtn tya " "like coyote you ctna'r)wa(})i. v'^aiyauqu etna r)wav two old women. two old women. obj. them (2). obj." cina'i)wa(})i pa "ya n^^qwtp cya started off q'ima'r)Wi'tuxw coyote otherwards (obj.) elder him (inv. a ip tya Coyote looked for tracks. seeing ni qwum (pi.) was angry iivari'um'.) uyu'm aqwit ux w away from it. of ctna'r)wa(j)i them namp'i'n'in iptya." said 'ani'n'nj'. 'a'ikw.) brother (obj.^' in front far away.) away um^y 'uwa'mJYU.) aya n ani ntc'. o'v^aiyauqu will cause you coyote. "Oh. tstijwa' oij'yo far uv'^a'^wtuywarjupiya turned into it wa'ma-^'caywoitwo old women (obj.) to die." i'tc 'a'ikw a ip tya said aro" is said they (2).

) Then . inv.) how did you (pi. wa 'ma*'caywDitstr)w o pacin that um (inv. then coyote own gumijni'ts penis (obj. a "(disgust). ijnt ts Then set off to return coyote.) m'j'mwi you (pi.) at that same a are leaving.) bones wi'to'n' '-"ptya'aik (obj." o'v^aiyauqu pa y.) o 'p a'^ ci'ni'k'ptya ma''ma old '^''caywoitst A'st"ai'. Then ctna'i)wa<j)i two old women pA^qa i)uptya aun killed same way they .) have ijni'tsin' r\\' n( ni pt's 'oatsui)wa ni ctm^^j X qai left cm nnpaiyt q shall my children WD aivii (obj. "wa'nuntca *m"^m' he.) ma^no all q- covote them (inv. .) them (inv." they (2) said. .).) there. a'ip cya qwav be looking (pi.346 326 cjna qwavty aijw X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR iiv"a 'ntiywac- ci'ct'm taq i'. coyote (obj.). '"ntstyanti u- Then v"a .) he (inv.) he (inv. Then coyote "Over there I them (inv.) pA^qa ijuptya aiyooi) would have killed him (inv.) ai) coyote (obj.). him (inv. a'ya'ma'ct'k aip cya'aim' hid from them (inv.) WA ijnt ts-'r)waviy ai]W.) iiini ('r)wa^i sa^na'i]w'aiya(})t his shook them (inan.) a^nt'pcya (2) did.) v*'aiyauq u mcya divide (obj. go and coyote.^* a'ip tya' (obj. 2) Their (obj. place D v"aiyauq u cma r)wav ip lya. ijuptya cma'ijwac})!. DO ai yam (inv. said.) ccna pt'mptn' "ka' c. return.)?" said coyote on v*aiyauq u etna r)wav a iptya. then I I a ipiya said cina'i)wa<})i.) out. through that stuck through woman (obj. nii"ir)WA I Then coyote said. aya'n^'ka ''va*tsix''a "ow'arjw Being about to act (pi.

) eling (pi.) a'ik ami'.) him (inv." a'ikami' always say niya'q axainQmwi (pi. much they (inv. obj. t v^aiyauqu pi'tc'ptYa'aim' always say.) a'ikw "Oh! a lam behold cj naqwavmi coyote pte'iaraqwA tca'narD'onfoqwai' skin is like our mother (obj.). at pi tctxwa'aip iY^. (2) ate.) put on self.) merely always do t'i miyo-'raqwA long distance mi yaxu tcYi' ya t^ja aim' when trav- when 2 are very we (incl.q- TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES op a acunt as in that naya pa-^quptYa. coyote (obj.) u c. Unt'ts- Then etna one (obj. na i)wa"aicBoth mi'yavD^ traveled trail (obj. (2) they (2) went through that camp went and arrived.'ci' gwav ai] . qam'vami.) same way una'^YttuYwap tYa went inside her o'pa'ap t'Y^'^'irn' na * qwavc niya'^va'." ant Acyqwuni "That just you (pi.) tiring us (excl. at name.). got to appear. they (inv.) obj.) ''i'nimiAcampaniimwi In this way we (excl. them ta'*mpiniyar)W nim^'j ti'qwQntya"am' quickly they (inv.) eating. (2) are "You liwa lac (pi. Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 347 327 CO..) a'ikw "Oh! ci'nagwavini' like pivi'aiaraqw tea 'naro'Dnfoq ''ai' coyote our mother (obj.) skin is put on self. hungry qwtniya amwi quickly 2 . ava '^na'am' ti'^qa'p lY^. while calling us (excl. himself coyote he.) ti'qa'i'." Then they (2) arrived me wa-'ma'caYWoitsiqw two old women.

348 X 328 ii Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR r)'ap ttstr)wa" am ts- ma *n3 q uij of (inv. "Let skin be on them!" ly ijm ts a mu c- waa am thev aiya-i) towa tstijwaai) coyote. Then t covote ti tA'pu q wipiYa.).) "'a't i tiv't'ts tOYo'qw^'oitctm*ti)w very jiood iya.) came naro"ai]Uto have same they 2 ptya.) clothing tiv"a tsi wolf (obj. tiv'i ts Then nuy.) her skin (obj.) them cma'ijwacl)!.)^no't A'ciaqqu Then when was early morning it a *mu they c- wa'ma*'caYwoitstr)W two old women ktya'p ta'amt ii'^'n'-xavatcuywap lya'aim".) they went (2) into it. Then all (obj. xerx stood while covote. Then wa- thev two pVi her children ari'ACu'um' ma "'caYWOitsiqw^® two old women that (inan. her children (obj. tA'pu'q wiptya ctna'r)wav two old women Jumped coyote tea 'Yayai'.^* upon them a ip-iya said waa q w am two (obj. moving .) they t'v'''aiyauq . v^aiyauq-u jumped.).) waim them qw^'o'ipcYa killed. ijnc ts- wa a lYU round dance (obj. t v^aiyauq u cma ijwacpi ma "va'i'tran far off t' on self. Then his (inv.) 'a^mu'v^'antux on to them w kwi'pa'p tya hit a mt ac- them a ^mu'v^'anti' wa 'ma *'caYWDitstr)w-a'. babies (obj. two runners um*u'nantux w opposite them ma'v ur)w wum p v*aiyauqiJ man cthat (inan.).) aR it (2) stood.T n ^far t ntoY>iq"wpcYa ran hard cma rjwacpi coyote. obj. (obj. towa'tstr)waar)'. wtmi m yap tya cma ijwacpi. Then two they (inv.

said (pi.)- coyote ccna'r)wa({)i he is." a ip lya said. pursued him (inv. said. uv^a'^nti' pu'ca'yaik'ptya being there (obj.). having kicked it (inv. uv*a '*ntii' Being there (obj.) dog-excrement (obj.) pu'ca'yaik'ptya hunted for (pi. uv'^a Coyote qa *tcu't tyai'ptya began to give out.). of them irianiya. In same way did (pi. coyote. Then .) yauqwiptya ran tiVt'ts ym'^u '"wa'mi.).). said. Then not ma'up ap'ia'* was visible (neg.) ma'ma'i'pta'". qatcu"ur)W not him (inv. neg. t'v'^aiyauq- qm^u one riwanti a'iptya. turned into.). found (pi. a *vi'tcitc[ axi it little ridge over (obj. avi tcttci uv^'a a x i Little o\er it way ina'^ni 'campA ridge (obj. him (inv. ant an "That I a'ik'ptya.) ma"ma'i'pta'*. qatcu"ur)W not him (inv. wa'a'i)tr)up lya ctna'r)wa(})i ma^va'i'tiyanu' far off Yelled out coyote tA'pu'q wtts- ti'ntoyDq wiptya ctna'ijwac})! ma "ma'nnap Yya'aiqw all having ran hard coyote. jumped qni c- In same a*nt r)uptya did etna qwacpi. na ya'parjuptya.).) ya u({ wiptya St na ijwacpi mtyi qqa ntvtnt like gopher-pile barely ran over ynt'c coyote a^ni'k 'ptyu.. t't iimpt sa Vi ''ywttcap T old (obj.) ta rjwa't stq w.).). in front of o'v^aiyauqu qatc' verv them. TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES unt ts Then C[na'r)wavt a 'mil cthey 'urjwaro'*.. t'v'^aiyauqu found (pi.q- "This one it (is) u c perhaps. neg.).) hunted for (pi." All pursued ina^ma'nnap tYa'aiqw. Then . Texts of the Kaihcih Pahttes and Uintah Utes 349 329 'a'ik' said. a'ik'pt'Ya.

" a ip lYa. therein qani ^aiptYa. V'm^i'. some qa'ts rat of your said.) own tinder (obj. a'ipiYa said tiYi'v*''tn' "Oh!" coyote. (inv. v^aiyauqu Then D pu'ca'yaik 'ptya'airiw sought (pi. went out to see how deep snow was. etna i)wav Coyote then cave (obj. "uqwatui^a^va (pi." Then o'v^'aiyauqu very ttqqa'nintst little niv*a'*r)wap lYa. qa'tsrat. had house.)." a ip tya said.) qna *Y'tuYwaptYa. "All right. 'a'ikw.). X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 1 qantaq"This one one of them u c. o'v^aiyauqu ti'Vit- "Let us cause snow to fall. mtyi qqanivi gopher-pile (obj.). give. naqqw soon qa'tc Then a^na x- not uv^t'mitux wpia'*.) him (inv. said (pi.) *rar|W.) . he.^ snowed. (pi. Coyote yaaic u maAma nnaqupYyaic again all ui)W. perhaps. having kicked it (inv. ctna'r)wa4>i ma^va'i'tiYant' far off tA'pu'qwiptagain jumped. neg. now way nia'rinti'qa'i)'wi'ptYa. pi coyote niV^a'ta ma'Y^p tYa.).) niv'^a maAma found i'pta''^. qats Rat a x) he ctna'ijwacj)!.)." a'ipt'Ya said tinder me ai)' um^'a'ntiTfa'aqw eg nc"aiya(})t his ma^ya p gave.) him (inv.350 330 i4m'^t'r)wanti.). v^aiyauqw Then a'ik 'piya. got out (neg. some of it (obj. qatco"oi)W not him (inv. went into it. t turned into wind. cYa.) it (is) ta *i)wa'l! siq w. ctna'i)wa(l)i tiv'^i'ts ava an niVa 'r)wap tYa Very much qni'ts- snowed. began to pursue him Cfna qni cIn same a-*nt rjuptya qwav a I) a"(i)i did coyote he. "my friend c?nt'mant i'i]mm' ma'x-.

made then him (inv. killed. "i'v^'aiyauq Then u nti)wt'aai'yar)W his (inv.) D blow niVa'vt v^aiyauqu then pi tcipt'Ya' arrived.) on it placed. uv^t'mituxw out of it sat. ava ax thereover I ya r)wt xwa aip iyS' went carrying along.) tcA^'qii'ipiYa. (obj. . Then body own elder (obj.) pA^qa'quplYa. nt'yu'x "pta'. causing to causer (obj. dawn (obj. u'v'^'a There stopped moving.). qa'te' not moved. ptqqa'vaaip Ya'aik 't • w Kept calling it (inv.) tA'ct'anti uru'qWA under it tA'ct'axanivc ant-hill (obj. c'v^aiyauqu ctna'i)wa(|)i ptnt'ljaiptYa' ttr)qa'ntvtatsia({)t Then uv^a r)W therein ts pi'r)Up'tYa' coyote saw I'v^aiyauqu his own little cave (obj. qa ri'p tYa'.) went 1 into it. a'iYUcampai)W although he (inv. to his Then went and returned own house.) closed lips.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 351 331 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES t v^aiyauq-u etna qwacpi na'a'if ijpcYa qni'r)umttsafter Then qq quptya noise by sucking in between py "1 coyote caused to burn. t v'^aiyauqu tPqa'p tY^'aiqw.) brother (obj. iya'tu^wa *r)' Here through him • snow (obj. o'v^'aiyauq u pa'iytqw=>'aiptYa' qani'vantuYwau<l)t.).) said. cara'Ya'na'mpu'tst little shell uv'^'a'qwtuxwptYa. nii^a'£uintti)wa'ntsta4)V his pa °va ptYa to nia't!u'tnt Then a r it own little wind- commenced call. ate Then miya'putsi' Little (obj.). having done so lini't'scrjW qa'tsi rat (obj.) pa his *\'t'a(i)t emerged.) qnt'ts- him (inv.) u'v^'a^n' wa "tct'ptYa'.

)". "Here (I) am. a'i^a'. a ipiya said.) ct"na'r)wa({)i there having Coyote yelled been put. A'ta'q wots! u'niA there- uru'q wanti' feathered crow (obj.) u pa quptya untied. 'a'imt' "Oh!" p jni'k said ai va *!) cma'r)wa<})i. his (inv.).) having heard it (inv.) a um always say pa "vc n uqw.) very ''i'tclyaq became dark. 'Not it shall look at. (inv. obj.) roaring wa'a'r)ip"tYa' "ai watci'k ai'narjW. ." iiv^'a v*aiyauq ''u narjqa p lya air)W TO qwi^u uqw Then heard him (inv.' saying?" coyote." qu'qwc'pt'Ya shot.) coyote (obj. .) qu'qwi'p t'Ya'.) looked over.) all (obj.) tiv'^i'ts- (obj. ijn} medicine When 'a'ikw'. nai)qa'fsiqw.).) did a'ip'tya' (inv. "This he t (obj. qatcu'aq- wa' coyote.) his (inv. clothes (obj.) brotlier pjm'Ij^ aiva *i3wa'" a ip tya said cma'r)wa4)i these (inan. i)uqwa ahe (inv. he (inv.) shall look at (neg.). ' qatcu'aq- my elder 'Not them (inan.) with arrow (obj. ya'n.) always say.) pu'cu't uqwt'yai) his (inv. » mava ac it an (obj.) feathers (obj. a ip lY^ said. saying. t'v''aiyaiiq 'ai u ma *vta ar)\v ma *no q u pj'ni'n'niptYa Then yni'^a'aikw while doing it his (inv.352 332 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR am ar) "What he itci" (inv.' aixa." a ip cYa said.) q wa'ai)W it tuYwa'r'iT}Upi:Ya'. "in that same D ttr)qa'nivtatsta{[)V. A^aiyauq u ctna'i)wa(l)i own little cave Then wx'ct 'yai'arjw his (inv.

) VI ya^i) his elder aq he ntqwi *.) maa ip lya — coyote he own elder then foimd. mari c amp i only that piya'iiptYa'.). "Oh!" said. not then lay (neg. I (inv.) .Texts of the Kaihah Paint es and Uintah Utes 353 333 TEXTS OF THK KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES t v^'aiyauq u nia "nt n all c WA cf yav aR they (inan.) having done. x pa.) ar) WA ci- yaar) he his feathers v^aiyauq oq w ctna'r)wa(j)i were left. Then 'uv^a '*ntux wp'tv whereat his having put went towards it." a ip tya na mpt n mr'^. d v^aiyauq- ctna'r)wa(j)i Then maa'ip tYa'.) coyote qu'qwi'p tYa'aikw shot it (inv. body. that it.) tu'p^'i'kuptYa' Then feathers gave out.) i|nt'r)uts- qatc ynt ts u'v*a there 'avt'p'ta'* To pa that former (obj. own him (inv. coyote brother (obj. m *an aq-. Then ijn. d v'^aiyauq u said while looking arountl Then tuywa r'tqupcYa became dark.) u maa tYfi- na nti'nAp'tYa' again doing found.) na mpu'c ayaip tYu' qatcii"nq w looked for tracks.a for tracks. brother (obj. . it (inv. appearance.) o- found. ai)qa q wa "naij'wantst red-shafted flieker^^ (obj. quqwa aq wa aqw he it When cuwa piya was glad.) did became clear-like in (inv. 'aa'ik w. a'ip tYa'. it turns out. (inter.) he (inv. upward.) yni'ts- tracked O C(na'i)wav ai)' pavi'av his qani" house (obj. Through yonder him ( pina'ijqWAsampaq w But soon it (inv. st'na'qwacj)! coyote i'v^'aiyauq u piv^a ar)wa(pt watci'k ainA " u raip tYa.). .) tcaA''pt'nikir)up'iYaint' tUYu'ntuxWA. ynt 5jaic not ip it (inv. waa'iyumt^ aitcuaqw "two traveling.

said qni'ts coyote. qo'nA "fire. wood.) tya'.) asked. Dyontava'c up dried-up fir.) ma- "vc 'imi ntcu qu'pa'raxavatc' plants (obj.) being wont to pop a'ik'piya' said (pi. pi'yai'ptya'. Then aro"" are all (obj. qa'tcu.354 334 qm'ts- X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR qo oip lya all ar) .) uru'c- carried in Um'fslqw Having done it na'a'it! u'cp'iya fire. "On to your blankets!" a ip tya said. "That said." pa *vi yai) aq' his elder he to^mpt'n'a p iya' doubled up legs ti'qwini quickly he. muru 'tva ^ntu'ywami." etna qwac])! one tiVc'riuptya'aikw. Then to get when was early dawn iY^- u'^qwa lyana^w aip Uni'ts- ma *no'qo he went tiVi'ijuptya. brother. . ni' "ani'avate'.). a ip tya said cma qwacpi. qni'rjuts- (inv. coyote he (obj. it (inv. "You accustomed to do what?" a ipcya said coyote.) thereof (obj. "I qu'pa'rayavatc'." t'v''aiyauq u etna rjwav a I] ma^no all q- um^'a'nti Then iyo'nAptya'." coyote. wife (obj. qu'pa'raxap then popped pa in burning. c'v"aiyauq-u my elder covote.). Coyote a'ipiYa' said asked cina'r)wa({)l. made that (inan.) mauma"utsi' pa *vi av ai) Coyote found her woman (obj.) pr'i)wa 1 .) arms. "You (inter. brother cma'r)wa{{)i maa ip tya aii)W (inv. *vi ni. c. qnt'ts D 'no'tA'ctaijqu cma'coyote then ijwav went to sleep. then i'm was left. "No. Then ai)a c.). (am) wont to pop in burning. in burning?" cu 'yuc a'ip I'va' ctna'i)wa(})i. . ant an 'a'ik' I a iptya said etna i}wa(j)i.) his own he elder brother (obj.

a- ya m'^t'ci a. pa^vi'tcuan' u'r)A qima q uc u another (obj.) said pa'^vi mi your elder coyote. "Go ahead! a ip''r)wa({)i.) kept copulating with her (inv. started back house (obj. u'l)WA. nicampan "Enough me XI Qni." said 1)0W brother a I] ." uv''^a'*ntiyw'ar)W To there he (inv. maija'cu that inaiuna"uts 'v 'mai a ip tya said etna rjwacpi. down ijnt't'sui)W y." 'atci'a''^ c. brother tiina'^x^'2''*- coyote. v*aiyauqu Then etna i)wav atci'auc])! coyote his own u ra bow nia xo p nap tya broke. ni'niantci aRi it not 'a Hci'ni has (neg. "Yes. having done to her (inv.) .j -/D m'mtap tya'airiw.) qo'poq w. he brother tina'^y. "Not he a'ip tya' lias (neg.) (ja tc atci'i'a'^." said ijni'r)uts o X pa *p iya througii coyote.) toward. do!" .).) he (inv.) Then "My elder he (inv. ca" Then cina'r)wa4)i his elder he said. l)reak. woman she. Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 355 335 Vv^t TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES t" v'^aiyauq u pa-*vi ar) a I) a ip iya. ijnt ts- paiyii quptya' qa ni Then a ip tya said. c'v^'aiyauq w ." v^'aiyaiiq- "Yes. [ (obj.) brother (inter. pina'qqwA soon pa-^vt yar] his elder a I) lay in hiding. a ip tya said a'ip tya' .).) bow?" "mine (perf.) tiVt'p tv*a *ntux WA on to ground. t went to hunt. Then yipi-^a there then yonder went. qa tcu'ai)' mv bow qima q uc u another (obj. ctna'i)wa(j)i i go to hunt. coyote.wa'aip tya'..) w{'na I ptya an) threw her (inv.

'u'raip iya She o'v*aiyauq u then maunia uts oiya vt woman she quaking asp (obj. ai) i^ni'ts ijna then cta'vi '^yituywap tya went into it. said.) ai)a c u tiv^a'ts ai] ''i't a mpA'^qap tyain ['. was fastened. quaking asp (obj. v^aiyauqu Then ftv^ats- pa^no '^yw'ait! uip cya'aiijw.356 336 a ip ty^' X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR nia said ai)ac uma uts woman ai]'.) ct na r)wavt. saying o'v^'aiyauqii ts Then qa'p I'nap cya'aik cut it (inv. a ip lya said ctna'i)wa(])i. "Yes.) to go to carry water.) off w wi a lyaijW his (inv.) be fastened. V''"i^''> a iptya said wolf caused him (inv. ." ccna ijwaq)!." covote. yni'quts* Then . pa^vi'ni w'a'p I'top its- Then coyote "My elder short-penised brother. t shall be satisfied. moved towards. coyote.^a I ". qa iva^c ampanc. she. coyote.) pina thereon pA'tca'a p tya'." ai) a ip iya' said ctna'r|wa(})i.) o'v'^aiyauqu etna i]wav a ip tya said.)." pina'qqWA Soon a'i^'uqWA his (inv. coyote (obj. qqw tiv^a'ts ai] pi' pi tciptya. pa-*vi't n-' Then he iya'nuntcani I he "My dear ehler have been here brother. qni ts ar)a cu Soon cina'qwav covote wolf a'q' he a'ip cya'. arrived. went to carry water. then. merely. "No. penis (obj. ct avi a na^xtherein pA'tca"a'. ijnt'quts- cma qwav coyote then he u'niA quaking asp (obj. a iptya said. he wolf he grew tired of. qa tc. °oOft" pa" yonder pa^na 'yw aip tya.

own (obj. then "^^-''a.) yni'ijuts- on back. tiv'^'a'ts a'iptya. o'tca'n'o ntnni 'va' "I shall be doing in this way. then o'tca'i'yaqw water jar (obj. merely a ip tya said cma'r)wa4>i always about to carry water jar. ym^a together na^yu'tc'uap tya' burned up coyote he. with it .Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes ami Uintah Utes 357 337 o'tca iA TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES paiyi'k iptYa' pi tciptya arri^•ecl qani va . then.)." ynt'ts- said coyote." t'v'^aiyauqu coyote. etna ijwav ill) .) wood 'o'aiya his I) uyu'mar)wttuywap-ta'*.) carried (inv. it na Vi'iyava between u^qwa'p no '='p wood (obj. (obj.) thereon back i'i'n in pA'tca'i'kei'ptya'." Then wolf "Go ahead! a'ip tya' cina'i]wa({)i. ijni'quts- came back. Then caused it (inv. at house. Then water jar (obj. Wt'nt^a'* "Let me. D v^'aiyauqu na'a'ifuip tya'aikw ijnt ts coyote. °'o 'xpa' u'^qwa'n o^'yw'aip tya "Yes. then.). a'iptya' said wood on have name.) pa *m'va "ts being about to take oflF qatcu 'q w not it (inv. Off yonder went t to carry wood. tv^t'" u^qwa n o^ywa go to carry wood. i'va'campani'^a'* remained stuck. aR it then that (inan. tya'.) to burn.) u'qwa'no carrying 'ntsttc' my athus shall ^/aiva ." back ctna'i]wa<})i. ma-^i'cu'^qwa'p- qant va At house qa'tcu pi'tciptya arrived.) qwi i p ta " aiyav his u mA took (neg. not back came off of it (neg. said.

When it was early in the mornGo to our aunt and ask for grass ing. "No. them to appear to be sleeping. ever since it was early morning." said the two sons of Grizzly Bear. Grizzly Bear arose Grizzly Bear. Then he caused him to sleep. and said." said Wolf. Coyote waited." The two boys is your uncle's liver which he says you are to eat. "Where is your mother?" said Coyote." said her claws into his back flesh. on his way to ask for grass seeds. its place (Wolf) fastened on the back flesh (that he had obtained). said his aunt. house." thus said his arrived. there was no back flesh of his there. all things of her this liver for her to eat. "Go ahead. Now he arrived there where were her sons there the two of them were staying in their mother's house. Thereupon Coyote's back flesh again became as it had been. et cum amita sua copulavit. Coyote got up quickly and ran off. having killed her. " Here." said Coyote. lying down there in her house. "Soon you will eat mush. and soon his aunt His aunt said. — . only her two sons were sitting there in her house. and Coyote rolled over towards him. "Did I not say so?" said Wolf. "She has gone to gather seeds. let me do it for you by means of this." thus they said.* " my auntie. His aunt was not there in her house. house whereon she has been accustomed to look. lying down and looking?" said Coyote. and then caused ate it and fell asleep." Coyote returned home and lay down on his back. "you are waking up now. all her things shall you carry off on your back. and the children gave their mother instrumentum Their mother took it and lay on her hack." said Coyote. "Look at Coyote's back. home his back flesh." aunt. "No. Coyote saw her and said. having killed her. "Go on! proceed again to her and carry Then." And then Coyote walked along towards his aunt's said Coyote. "she will come back soon. "Affer instrumentum meum masturbationis' quod ibi jacet.' Wolf and his brother dwelt there. ejus masturbationis." To her there he went aunt's house. Wolf sang.358 338 X Southern Paiiite ami Ute SAPiR Translation." Coyote killed both of them. but I have been awake long Coyote started off towards his ago. Coyote was ashamed and did not allow his back to be seen." seeds. but Wolf knew. did not allow His elder brother killed a young deer and brought (Wolf) to see it. " My aunt.^ What are you doing. and Grizzly Bear put "Enough!" said Coyote. Then Wolf again sang. and arrived at his aunt's house. When (Coyote) rolled over. in Enough 1" said his aunt. now! "All right." said Coyote. " Yes.

He towards his house. and arrived at his house. remained hanging for one day. butchered her.\fter that off for home when was evening. from the outer bark he made a shirt for him. arrived at his house. pulled it off." He arrived at his house.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 359 339 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES After a while their mother arrived home.\nd those (sticks) then turned . one thing did I forget of her belongings. when he remembered that bladder which he had hung up. "I will go to call my children " All right. and then instrumentuiii masturbationis meum quod jacet!" lie killed her. she Grizzly Bear ate the liver and fell asleep. \nd then Wolf picked the arrow sticks up in a hurry." said Coyote. Then she ibi said. "Go ahead! go and hang yourself with your feet downward. Thereupon all her things he carried away on his back. and threw the arrow sticks down in a pile. And then the bladder fell down to the ground. All her things lie gathered together. it And thus. "Just his house. So he went back along the same road. "Here." said he. whereupon Coyote said. Then he struck at it with his bow. Coyote dodged quickly." said Coyote. . bow and brought it back (with) his arrows. Coyote! Go and hang " .\ll right. and arrived at his house. "They are sleeping. "Why don't you get a leg?" "Walk!" he said. and those things of hers were (piled up) like a plateau.\nd then for himself he nuide one from their inner bark. and then started back towards to help. and made a shirt for Coyote. "act like a person!" said Coyote." same direction. then he started . said Coyote. Then Wolf said. "said Coyote. and reached for it. jumped and reached for Coyote. "All right. "(jo ahead." and went ofi' in yonder direction. And then he remembered (what Wolf had told him)." (When) she got up. Wolf . and went off in that yourself again. Then in that same place he lumg himself. and himg up her bladder on a bush. pulled off their l)ark." Coyote Then he hung said. morning Wolf sang. and of his own accord And then gave it to her. . whereupon Coyote said. And then he started off with them on his back and walked along for a short distance. Coyote obtained started to return Always Coyote kept on doing sticks for arrows from a service-berry bush. Then he let it go and started off back towards (his things).\nd then early in the started off for home. . And his for He went then he shot his arrows at it (till) they were all used up. "is this liver. Coyote heard the bladder talking. " AfTer Thereupon Coyote said. Then he himself on a cedar branch." said Coyote. and again for one day remained hanging.said.

that Wolf kept lying down. until only tliat was left his tail." said Coyote. And then into a cave the two of them escaped. he was frightened. and arrived at liis house. and arrived at his house. Now then Wolf sang in the morning." "All right." said Coyote. x\nd then Coyote returned home." " All right! stop talking! I know about it. his elder brother his elder brother said. "I have always been a medicine-man. "Go ahead!" said Wolf. 'Go and hang yourself. go ahead! go once more "All right. Coyote went off in that direction. ran along.' that is not what he really means. that indeed you always say. you! go and fight!" said Wolf. "Go ahead. "You who are always coming after me. Coyote jumped a big distance. "what are you That is not how you should act. Coyote understood whereof he spoke. And then Wolf said. but imderstood that lightning very well. X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR and then he fastened feathers on to them. Then Coyote said. In a hurry Coyote started home. but gathered very many arrow sticks." And then his elder brother said. there he gathered arrow sticks. Then Coyote said. man!"* said Coyote. lying down and looking? Although he was about to be attacked (by enemies). brother prepared arrows and made very many shirts with which they were to fight in battle.' that indeed he always says. have you a mouth? What did my elder brother mean when he said." he said." said Coyote. and went to get arrow sticks. "Oh!" lightning way off to the west from the edge of the land. Thereupon "All right." Coyote. Once again did Coyote see lightning. "Coyote. off in yonder direction." said aliead! go and hang yourself." said said Wolf." said Wolf. and came home to his house. He asked all parts of his body. "Go — Coyote. go and hang yourself again. Coyote arrived at his house. and then Coyote returned home. Then at that place he gathered arrow sticks. Tliereupon Coyote obtained arrow sticks. this time he did not Now then he saw hang. there Coyote stayed. " I have seen lightning. "O Coyote. 'Go and hang yoiirself?" His tail said. Now then lightning got to be very near. ran along. "Oh!" said Coyote. very many of tiiem he Then his elder carried on his back. 'Go and get sticks for arrows. "Oh. and went off in that direction. Now brother! near at ." said Coyote. "I wonder what that means that it appears thus!" "Why! I wonder if I am getting to be a medicinesaid Coyote.360 340 into arrows. my elder hand now have I seen lightning. Thereupon "Go on! go and get arrow sticks. said Coyote. "You know about it." doing.

the cave. that one it is.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 361 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAU PAIUTKS AND UINTAH UTES "All right. the fires were burning yet in several places. And then. and then that (end) was mowed down. And then Coyote said. "Go ahead! do you now go and fight!" "All right. "Oh!" said Coyote. "Right there in his cave let Coyote die!" said they. and then they left Coyote in the cave. "my elder brother has been killed." said Wolf. He nearly caught up with them at the camps that they had just occupied. Coyote's enough himself. said. And then they all returned home." "All right. "You shall not look at what I do. He asked his Thereupon his ear. "those (clothes) it is looking at his elder brother." said Coyote. it is Coyote. of out the came and (shirt) gray light put on a Wolf." Coyote jumped over the canyon. and said some among them. You Thereupon Coyote will be acting like that when I go out to fight. it is cave. dancing took place. And then Coyote said." said the children of Rain." said he.\s they were journeying along. and he looked like a soldier. "It is not Wolf. "Let me go and bring my elder brother's clothes!" said Coyote. " It is 341 not you on whom I depend. "Right here I shall put exceedingly lean was Coyote. "Oh. So then Coyote proceeded in their tracks. you shall keep your eyes covered. and in the same way it Now Coyote was fared with them they were mowed down. "Oh!" said Coyote. While on his way. "Oh!" he said. And then Coyote lay down." said Coyote. "right here at this divide!" . Wolf's clothes. their mothers. "What is it that makes this so?" said Coyote. not but did fluttered. returned through the same way. Coyote became fat. The other people took off all his clothes.said he. away bow and arrow. and then proceeded on his way. the bows in several places along the trail Coyote put down. "1 wonder what iittle it is that makes this so." "Oh. . while his elder brother put on a very good (shirt)— And then he came out from blue it was. Would that he that my elder brother has l)een hiding from me. body Coyote set to asking. of his body parts other asked (He talk. ear Now then all parts of his . all the clothes they threw on them— on two old women the When it was morning clothes they always threw. following in the traxelcd track. Wolf shot at this end of the line. Then they returned home. Then he shot also at the other end of the line." said Coyote. Now then Coyote went into the dance. Sure to Coyote would get shot!" thought elder brother — was killed." said Coyote. the two old women. Thereupon he did so." said the children of Rain. following in the track.

" tail! And then Coyote said. whereupon she appeared And then into one woman Coyote went himself. following along trail. Thus they were saying. What did you two let Coyote go for?" said Coyote. off in another direction away from the trail. calling us by that Coyote's name.\nd then. 'Yonder in his cave let him say those two old women. Coyote acted as though looking for tracks. "Ha. just as before. See how fast they eat. he was very angry as he saw them. And then the two old women again did as they had done. "You are always teasing me. Coyote." said he. you that always come behind me?" said he. And then Coyote started shall cause you two to die. and much they (said Coyote). was evening. that indeed you his tail said. "what is it that this means?" said he. "Over there let Coyote die with his crying. the traveled Then he saw how two old women at yonder divide were hitting the ground several times with their canes. "you are acting like Coyote. 'This little divide there. Coyote." And then the two old women arrived. deinde Canis suum penem gummis infixit per cutem unius feminae." said the two old women. ." said Coyote.' when it a long distance. my knew it all. and now I am about to return. And then Coyote said. "This. And then Coyote started for home and hid from them at the divide. ate. Both of them went along on the traveled trail and arriAcd at the camp. "Oh! it looks like Coyote with our mother's skin put on himself. Now Coyote watched them from his hiding place "I as they were doing thus. but him. " said he. " Have you a mouth. Thereupon Coyote said. always say." (said the children of Rain). the round dancing took ." And then Coyote's tail said. "0\er there I have left my children. they have left at that same place yonder. and Coyote killed them. "That's in enough. whereof you say. "The die!' old women I are always saying. And then "You are one that knows about it. "Oh! it looks like Coyote with our mother's skin put on himself. he came back to it far in front of the two old women." And then Coyote said. when very place." " We are tired of what you keep saying about us. All of their bones he shook out. way when we are journeying we are wont to eat quickly. Thereupon the two old women said. I would have killed him.' is the work of two old women. "Oh!" said the two "Oh!" said old women. "This means that they have just killed Coyote's older brother. when far away.362 342 until) X Southern Paint e and Ute SAPiR only thcat tail of his was left. And then Coyote proceeded on his way." said they. Indeed we always act in this hungry." said his tail.

when it was early morning the two old women went into the round dance. and they gave chase to him. give me some of your tinder. . the two old women." so then it snowed very much. "Let my skin be on them!" And then those two children got to have on themselves that same skin of the two old women. while engaged with tiiem he untied (Wolf's) . And then Coyote saw his own little cave. he began to imitate Rat's squeaking. Thereupon Coyote ran as hard as he could. built Coyote then And tinder. He kept calling upon (his wind). Very much snow had fallen.\nd then he looked over all of (Wolf's) clothes. Coyote jumped on to her two children^ and said. And then Coyote went into a little cave. a fire. and gave chase to him. Yonder (his shell) stopped. "Let us cause snow to fall. And then he killed Rat and ate him up." said they. of his gave him some and said Rat. He went into a little shell and started to call his own wind. "when he says. carrying him over the snow. " All right. 'Do not look at these things'?" said Coyote. They hunted for him there but could not find him. therein it was sitting. And they said."^ said he. Coyote started to give out." and kicked the gopher pile. they hunted for him at that place. but did not find him. very far on his way was he. "What does my elder brother mean. and Coyote went out to see how deep it was. And then he went back to his house. it is Coyote." as he kicked some Coyote yelled out. Then they said. Having jumped way off. after he had done so. and. as Coyote to he turned into a gopher pile. This time he turned into wind. Now those clothes of Wolf fell on them." said he. yet despite his words (his shell) did not move. he ran as fast as he a little ridge he ran and barely escaped. when one of them said. Over before. "Perhaps it is this one. unable to get out. over a little mountain Then he was no longer visible ridge he ran close ahead of them. Then." " my friend Rat. It happened could. and then all of them they killed. old dog excrement. Thereupon one of them said. The wind then arrived. It happened to them as before. in this direction it went. there. "Oh!" said Coyote. And then he came out Thereupon before daybreak he put his elder brother's body on of it.^ Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 363 343 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES Those two old women were sitting nursing babies. "Perhaps it is this one. and then they hunted for him but could not find him. an ant-hill. After a while he was Rat was living therein. Again Coyote jumped far off and again they gave chase to him. Again Coyote did as before. "That is what I said. And then two very good runners stood opposite them.

" Then Coyote shot. dark and they all went to sleep. So then he went off in yonder direction. "Go ahead! Coyote. doing thus to me!" said the woman. "Oh!" said he. and Coyote was glad." " All right. until only one was left." said Coyote. there. Coyote went to get wood. as he looked around for tracks. my elder brother!" said Coyote. Then he built a fire of it. And then Coyote took along all that he could carry of it in his arms." Coyote asked it. it got to be very dark. "Has not my elder brother another bow? My bow broke. having done so. "No. Then Coyote shot As soon as he had done so. (In this way) Coyote found the woman. And then his elder brother said. it got to be very dark. Thereupon his elder brother quickly doubled up his legs (that he had had stretched out). "Oh!" medicine. And then it got at that!" said he." said Coyote." said a dried-up fir." said Coyote. " this is what he means when he says. whereupon that popped." said he. 'Do not look at And then he heard (Wolf) howling there where he had put them. He came there but. "Are you one that pops always when you burn?" said Coyote. he found them. So then that woman moved towards a quaking asp. And all kinds of wood he asked.364 344 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR As soon as he had done so. " Your elder brother has not another bow. "No. and then he lay there in hiding. except that the flicker's feathers were left over. and right there on Deinde cum ea copulavit." said Coyote. it cleared up the (arrow) up in the air. "I am one that is accustomed Coyote.\11 right. and then he found Look a house. But after a while. Soon his after his brother went out hunting. "On to your blankets! Fire. and then she went into Then Coyote was left fastened to the quaking asp. "it looks as though there are two. him. go hunting. And then he went towards where he had put (Wolf). And then he said. "Here I am. when it was early morning. " . "That is what I said. that little cave of mine. As soon as he had done so. Now all the feathers gave out. Then. he did not find his elder brother's body So then Coyote hunted for tracks but did not find them. continuing his search. said accustomed to do?" to pop when burning." said Coyote. Coyote tracked his elder brother. said Coyote. . "Stop the ground he threw her down." said the woman. " What are you said they. it. Going in yonder direction. Thereupon Coyote broke bow and started home toward the house.' " Coyote shouted when he heard it. his brother's wife. he shot an arrow feathered with a crow's feathers. "in that same place.

me habeam ita brevem penem et on the ground)." said Coyote. And when he was about to take off the water-jar (and put it it Not tum penem Canis abscidit. and off in yonder a water-jar on his back." said Coyote. .) cry ahead for them 'u'm*{' tcar)wu'k 'qwa'ttci'm^f. coyote ar)'^^ aq he ntr)w'i a ip tya said." said then he set fire to it. shall "Let us quite assemble together Then ya Ya'oq'Q^ifea va am' shall (pi. tanti'v^'aipa' in distant (pa Long ago all far off tWa"^^ down am' they west man o'q ""opantc'pa'a'vtgw sorts of animals 1 nara'q wiintcump'ptYa'. assembled together. " am I fastened in the quaking asp. Po'pa'qw yaYapi OF Cry ti'^qa ij'wtpc. And "Let me. Coyote. And then Wolf said. a^a n i^aiam am mi always ar)warai)WA "How doing they I they our people do tc^wu'k'qwa." said Coyote.^^ dying off?" pa- manu'n all a ip tya said ctna'r)wa(})i. back and arrived at the house. Wolf got tired of Deinde Canis dixit. "mi frater. "Let me. "Go ahead! go and carry wood on your back. here long after he spoke. maqa cu That one tar)wa'iy of us There had a council. and Coyote burned up together 2." inquit. just carrying a water-jar always on my back. and off yonder he went for wood to carry on his back. then." "All right. them dying off (pi. and then Coyote said. And then he carried wood between (his back and) water-jar. have 'Wood-carrier' as name. And then he turned direction he went to carry water on his back. How wr tuc1 IT HAVING ARISEN. cjna i)wav uv'^a wa ixpiya . ijnt'r)\its- tv*t'rar)W m amn all I nara'qwttcumpava'." said he." . be wont always to do this manner merely. then. now that wood would not come off his back.). obj. He arrived at the house. satis habere. And then Wolf told him to go and carry water in "All right. he could not take it off in was fastened to his back.txa'. it 345 My dear elder brother. with it. coyote.— Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 365 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES After a while Wolf arrived home.

) uv^c amantiacpV of his Coyote he one own qa -/a p'tya began to sing.) ma n all tn I pampa n na q qwo go off * tiv" t'p laiyar) • um i and return (pi. together maqaeThat one "tv'^c'ni t v^aiyauq u then qaxa'^va'.). o'" X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR really nara'q-wctcumpAptYa' assembled together 'o^i' mant'va ntipa'atstviqw all about to be animals uv^'i'tu'^qwapliYa' na ra'qwtntcumpaqumiitc After having assembled (past) sang (pi." t v'^aiyauq ucu qima'qucanother (obj. said.) songs. cina'i)wa<{)i. cma r)wav ir)A na va cu for fun citca'qwaip tya'aim' fooled his own song (obj. 'm^i'.) So then again qa xa "ptYa' began to sing tiVi't's ati very good (obj. coyote he .) uv*a '*ntux thereto w puv*a lyaqumwi whence you ijnt'k ip'tyarjumi." "Yes. qima queun "another (obj.)." said (pi. sing.) still I qaxa *va^c shall again coyote.'- "No." . uv^'aiyauqw ip tya cina'i]wa(j)i. you did hither. . Coyote this them name ^a/a n av his own first beginning to sing u mA. ma'ik 'ptYa'aigw. iv"! ya q- Then said coyote. songs "m^a cam pa a "Only that you. begin to sing. therewith. "Go ahead (pl. a'ipcYa' said a'iptY^. said (pi. qa'tc." etna i)wav ai) 0° so cu- que(obj.366 346 um^E'vacJust there am'.) agam uv^^i aiau(pt. .) your lands y (obj." . they. V m^i a'ik'piya'. etna qwav ai) a ip tYa said.) to him. "Let me I shall begin to "Yes." .

ynt'ts having danced (pl. right. That (is) my what I heard. trails. "For what reason is it that our people are all dying off?" said "Let us." "All So Coyote began the singing of one of his songs. There they had a council. of you go back home. having arisen." "All right. Translation. There indeed were assembled together for those who are dying off. to said they all." said they.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 367 347 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES a'ikai)uptYa' said (pi. t' nantca'p uruipiYa' scattered apart "'u'ra'. That Coyote said.^" After they had assembled together. mari'c u that ptVa'iyuam whereat their their own lands (obj. each you has come. they commenced singing songs. aR it kia'q 'qain' tiimp^i't I'^qaq'wi'pt'Ya'. That place where they had danced turned into stone. "Let me begin the singing. and then from it trails arose in all directions.) turned to stone." said Coyote." said he." to your own land. assemble together.) towards them. and scattered off towards their own lands. and then let us cry he. This Coyote had been fooling them just for fun with the song that he had first sung. And then Coyote said.) tiv''t'piaqaya(j)V mantn all. "No. a very good song of his. Then again he began the singing of another one. every one of us. It is in this way that the Cry has come to That is what I have heard." every kind of animal that was to be. "Go ahead! all there whence each of . Thereupon that Coyote said. way how it yaYa'pt of cry naqqa'qaip tni. "I shall begin the singing of still another one.^ (How THE "Cry" originated) Long ago way down in the far western country all sorts of animals were assembled together. Then lim^a'nfimanariqwA povo''aYaip"iYa ''i'tcuwaiYU in this a'in' po 'pa'q w from that became ti'qarj'wtp'. "Enough for you!" they said to him. be.

mA qa ri p tYaaim (2) sat. uru an uniptya always were. w''a'p umanti wi'^qa'vinava' shall cut oflF early spring being from yni'qutsiqw having done it iim'*'a'ntr being cedar (obj.) wi ya r)qrn ava shall cut notches. there they ttYi'v'cqw his friend thereon ni' they lyiR Then qwtya'tcttct- ng no st "I indeed dream iv^'^in having turned qai)'wtts . X Southern Paiute and Lite SAPIR Mauma'q Din'i'pc' Of bear-dance tiv^'t'tc po pa HOW 'ati * ti'qa i] wtp i. I then being about to begin to arrive. ni' ijnt'quts 'd ra'va' tiv''['p't ijna'*Yit ii' then o'v^aiyauq thereupon shall dig ' ground (obj.) 'ana'*Y't shall u^wampa' ynt'quts' go into.) tiv*i'r)uqwatu'a'c ampan ask not me me qatcun not me even if they (indef.) (one).) no't a m ar'uirjqu it (past) Then when turns to on me.) on me. "Let me imin 4 ntqutsthen bear." "Yes." a ip tyS' tiY'i v^'iqw. a'ip lYa' into grizzly said his friend..) into it. HAVING ARISEN. said. naTi'Yiv''iYantimw being friends to wa'n'ai(})pitsii)W Two youths very good each other. 0^1 about qni'ts me tini'ava^gwa'aini. you me then bear (obj. II v^aiyauq u yaa ujqw oip-iYa aim they (2) went out to hunt na i)wa * Then u with each other u'v^aiyauq-." qwtya'tst grizzly ar) he qa nt house (obj.) a'iptya'. u v^a m qwttcu'v*ari knoll (obj. 368 348 3. ni' o pa ant va n shall I mil of said his friend. "uni'ts pi'pi'tcuv'^a nti 'v'mai.) qatcu** nini tini'ava *i)wa'aini shall tell (neg. "I in that do manner you . therefrom (obj. shall tell (neg.

he? qatcu"uij iya'nul)wa'^ is Not he ti)W here (neg.). house (obj. t v^'aiyauq- his friend.c into it.) him.) him tiyi'v''ia'm p. go off and do!" a'ip'tya' pt'tcipiya' ni'v%'. his friend he ('Rai'ti]W see cu him I) your friend (obj. ij waia with you ii)qi indeed him he . pa w" oip cya went and returned.^* commenced (pi.) to miss youth (obj.).) of own took off. clothes (obj.) u'qwA." tiyi'v'^'iqw a ij man o'qoq all it ' ma a'vta({)i his tcA'^qo'itcap tYa'. i)' him His friend (obj. your a ip lya said tiYi'v''"ti]W.) iv^t'n' ptini'k ain' ma n I a'ytt UYwai)quni qwtya tsi "Go ahead me! look at me as I go into that grizzly- bear's qa ni . "You (inter.) this (obj.). u^'qwai' nj ni tiyi'v'^iiani "Go ahead! that (obj.) of me my qa friend (obj. said.) tiY'i'Vtar) m^cu That one lytq ma qa ri ya pina ijqw after a his friend he just there sitting while . imi'ntcu'a asked (pi.) o'\"aiyauq u then tiv"i'r)Uqwap tyaa'iyaij'. ij waroa Perhaps axam t i mi pA^qa ijuqwa kill uni (inter. arrived at house. t'v^aiyauq- ai yaicu payji m^'qwtp iva house (obj. Then he saying. Then ai) went va. toward.) you him off." Then after saying went off qwtya'tstr)qanc grizzly-bear iinc'ijuts ijna '"Y't uywaijuptya'.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 369 349 ai) ac- TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES a 1 nami. way pinagqw After a while ti'v"Tai]'3« o'v^aiyauqu then cuwa'nytk ^fptya'aiqw a'i4)pttst ija'i'.) o'p a' in that 'ant'qwo'aiqu.

Wlien tTirned to tree (obj. run away (neg. said (pi.) tYa' wi ya ijqi n A^ptya cut notches. qa nc'ayanti. said. a'ip tya'. "that one does o'v'^aiyauq- of me J). formerly-youth friend.) running away. running (pi. um'^a']] antk nj ni a'i<j)A'- said youth this. .) being there- early spring from (obj. ov'^a'. .). what I heard." Then minto'n'nintcim* am' they ii) mjni'c kip tya'. ii)' mivac ijni i)uts (iwiya'tsiinauma'"ts grizzly-bear That one u'v^aiyauq- then woman this wi i m lap tya danced back .).370 350 'oiv'i' X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ya'a'iqqw'oi'. of bear-dance singing how tl'qa'q'wtp ma'i njni" of having arisen. a'ik 'Apiya' niinto'n'nits-.i' maqac That one u'v^'aiyauq u then qwtya'tstai(j)Aputs grizzly-bear youth this there niauma'q n'auv^'i't u'ptya'." ti'Yi'v'^tav a iptYa said. That my me nai)qa q aip tni." qatcu'i' minto'n'ia p '. i' po pa how q it w mauma'q o 'miuv"t'a\ po pa way I. being provided comes to attack with houses. (past) goes to hunt.) i|ni'vitci'rai]W. mauma Then 'i'tcuv^ai' in this there q o ''mipbear-dance aR it ttya'i'ptya took place. qatcu"ur)W ni' I pjni i)wa see (neg. us. my mu'cu they ptyariyiv"m'. as he 'o friend nu't a ni a'r'uii)qu it maa vt ijma'ntr had said. sang bear-dance songs." i imper. "Not (pi. and uv*a 'i forth.) a'ip ty a'icjiputs tr)A.) turned hither. v^'aiyauqw a'ikaqup Then a'ikw "Oh! qwi'ayantiirai)w grizzly-bear us said (pi. ." "Not him u Vaiyauq u o'pin an tptya did uqwa'i of Then that of his own him way a ip tya'aijw.

" said he. "I Two of them went out shall do thus as you say. "Now look at me as I and arrived at the house. grizzly-bear. he went out hunting. you shall not betray me. man. That friend of his. and thereupon I shall be arriving.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 371 texts of the kaibab paiutes and uintah utes 351 Translation." said he. he cut notches into the branch of a tree.-)its old ai)' Thereupon a'ipt'ya'. mauma""caYW." "I did not see him. you shall cut notches into it. Thereupon that friend of go into that Grizzly-bear den. mauma"*caY"oitsold I'^a tiv^a" off pa tct'i)w'ai^ Far down west woman with her daughter ijntts ([a nt'-j. and this is how bear-dance songs arose. with see your friend? he is not here. Now there took place the bear-dance. he went off towards And then he went right into it." said his friend. And then both And to hunt. t'v''aiyau(| iiiaqac- they two had house. "I truly dreamt that I turned into a "Now I will go into a grizzly-bear's den. " Did you to miss this young man. you. Perhaps you have killed him. having spoken thus. people of the camp said. then one said to his friend. Thereupon he." said he." "All right!" said his friend. went off home after a while. When it got to be Now the early spring. even if they ask about me. while that grizzly bear woman danced back and forth. That is what I have heard.) youths were very good friends to each other. And then after a while they commenced And then they asked his friend. there the two of them sat on a knoll." (How THE Bear Dance Originated." "Do not run away. the grizzly-bear den." said this young said they as they ran away. And then you shall dig into the ground. The Origin of People. "Oh! a grizzly bear is coming to attack us. truly. And then he did just as his friend had said. they 4. who were running away turned back." and. "To think of my friend going and doing thus!" said his took off all of his clothes. And then that grizzlybear youth there sang bear-dance songs. .aip iya'aini'. after sitting in that same place. you shall cut off a branch from a cedar. And then. "Go ahead! go to look for person. and. having done so. " that one is my former young friend. then iv"i"c4'* that one nii)wu'({)UcaYai'i- woman siie said. And you shall not betray me. when it has got to be early spring.

fiv'i'pt ai it ma no q oaqall (obj. p'." said UI)' woman.) found (neg.) ur)WA he qa nt house . pa lyi %vf2iSL\ qw go to call him cjna'qwav coyote him 'a ip Yya' patcc 'i) u i]WA.) tA'ci'p aqqwai'tx he pfni'kaip cyaiyai)' saw him. mother n ir) wt'ntsi v". "Not (inter. with you he come home.) patci'ar)'.372 352 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR i^m r)Utsttr)W Xwa' then him maa'ifstqw having found him. imi'qwa'aiijWA paiyt'k shall tva'." that one iv''t"ca'ar)waxa'* her daughter." said her daughter t'*p tya' Unt'quts- Vxpa m cjna'rjwaviy Then through that direction journeyed coyote (obj. him. ui)'. a ip tya^ mauma"uts-." "Yes.) person?" she asked her.) la of it ntqwu maip person. t went and arrived maijacthat one towards evening. qant'va'ar)W at her house v'^'aiyauqu her own Then qatcu'ru'" piya "i) her mother's. she. (obj.) only i^nt'ijut^^ o wai c[na qwavty ar)' coyote (obj. pu'ca'yaip "lYaiyaq' she looked over it. then. aq' tiv^i'qupt'Yaiyar)'. mar)ac* he see him. "'u'waiya'campa'an''' "him only I a ipty^^ said cjna'qwaviy coyote ('k ai'tr)W.) you qatcu'ani. Then u paiyt'k woipYya' pi'pt'tcixw'aip'i'Ya' when it went off went and returned pi'yaiyaucj)!:. u "Go 'mai ahead. maqa'iAcamp that one (obj. "Not I." pa tct'ar) ai)' " t'v^aiyauq • yntts- maqac that one Thereupon then her she o X pa " through that daughter direction pu ca yaixw Diptya went to look for.) Land qatc' not (obj.n \x] wa'* see (neg.

a ip tya said coyote. line coyote. Then cfna'qwav coyote qu^qwt'va q WA si'i'p t^a said. t Then piya'ni pa'iy'im'.. t "Not." said cina'i3wa({)i. a house." said lYa- woman. qa'tc. a ip tya said cina'i3wa(|)i. NU^'qwi'rjqw'aipt'Ya u'v^a nti" coyote.' V mai." coyote. shall shoot it 'm your urine (obj. . cina'r|wa(j)i. oai ts namt'xa'nintcuxwa'* first go and make a house. uv^a There p I'tctxw'aip-iYa went and arrived v'^aiyauqw a ip ly said uqwa of lac u qant v^ at house him cjna'gwavt' of coyote. to it. pjni'^aip tY^'a^DW saw her ." "Yes. P5nt'r)w(nip tYa'aiqw stood watching for her.) 3%i it. ni ni "Of me uiiWA she a'ip't'Ya'. cina'i)wa4)i. I'v^'aiyauq u make finished doing Then pa na qqwaxo oqw. then being there (obj. In that direction ran along. then." said.) I then with you shall proceed your mother u r)WA she uv^a- ntuxwA. "Let me. as she came down.)." a'ip'i'Ya. wife. shall do. uts- ma "Me you an pcqwa ruv"antan will i^ni a ip t'Ya mauma qa'tc make me va qwa . v^aiyauq- a'ik a ip I said. to him. 'iV^i"xdJ uv^'a'nu "Go ahead yonder then. Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 373 353 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES 'u'ra\ toward it. calls 4 warux WA. a iptYa said tamp 'o'x pa' it my vulva. n'i "I shall va i)wa do (neg. "Not." . said iv^t'ntja'* coyote. a'ip lYa' my mother you." qni'ijuts C(na'i)wa(})i. t v^aiyauqoqwa then it you qur uv^'a q will w 40 cmt mptani. it.) qant'ntcuqup tYa started to qni mauquptYai iqw. t v^aiyauqun 4nt'r|uts imi r)w aimpa piyai of yam Then qant house (obj.

caught up with iv*t her. uv^fi'ijijwiti*'- ma n m yap tya .) he at vantuxwA side A'pu'i-^uar)'. lya'. (where) he Far having caused him to wake up. "Oh!" WA^qi'ki. your urine. t. being therein (obj. t" away v^aiyauqi' then aa become ctna'rjwaA' mar)ac a I) That one 'aa'ikw'. "Where she aya xopta ij' in what direction she? i\a'n'ia i]'axaint Siirely she here was si'i'^ai'nai)WA t'v^aiyauqu ptnt'^aip-tya'aikw come here. him same place mi'YO tl'qa'ij'wtts- cuwa p ttcut' "tp tyaiarjA. then t:)'tsi'a I)' ma nia"uts woman cjna'rjwavty coyote's aqa'v'auA she ai)' on him qa nt ^a- pi'pt'tcipcya"." 1 lier.'** his therein own house he had made.)na then cauglit liohl of SI p t-a am. tca'a'ip tya'aii) unt'ijuts-. ijnt'r)uts Then he ai) coyote he aqac she slept. CO vote it'cai)w lias he cuwa'p ttcup awoke. was sleeping. His head (obj. down ar)ac- ma m a"uts ai] u'tu'curiwi'tp cYaiai] Then ar)a lac she woman aij .374 354 t'v''aiyauq X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR u Then ynt ts a vt't tya nt'p tYa practiced lying uv''a'ut)Wi kant'ntcuqwaina(j)V. she caused him to asleep fall cma ijwavty t v'^aiyauq- ar)ac etna r)wav ai) him A pu 1 coyote (obj.) did thus to while movin< i'v"aiyau(j- unt'rjumixtsafter doing so i]Mt'i}uts- ma ri 'uA'^ptya'aiiiw Then WA'tcu'i)Uptya'aii)w piu'siied lier.) p'tya he." Then saw t it what she had urinated. then. a'ip lya. said. SI 1 p'tya cim^t'^ptyaiaij left ava ntuywac u at the urinated. a ip tya said q wani va 'q\v "Let me it shall stab it . arrived.

house (obj. qwau' off 'u-'mai. Then in that same way qant'ntcui}umrits-. ctna'i)wa4)i.) again made a camp. ar) mar)ac 'i v^aiyauqu thereupon tv"'t" i'tc' mamaold caywoi^c a ip lya said. ijnt'ts o- p ac- am qupiYa did.Texts of the Kaibab Poiutes and Uintah Utes 375 355 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES cma r)wa<pi.) same way same way anr ^a doing piya lyav her own u r)WA she nc uv^'a' pi'pt'tcixw'oip tYa'. being there (obj. ° o xpa Through NU^qwi rjqwoip lYaaicu again ran along." ' V mai . then ." coyote." "go to make a camp.) came back home.a aiijw. qa'tc'.) pt'tctxw'oiptya'." "Yes." ahead a ip tya said (direction) cina'r)wa({)i 'o'xpa'* cina'r)wa(J)i tin a-'xw'aip tya'. qatc "not a't(}) A pt iva r)wa ^hall sleep. . go (in) this go to hunt. a iptya said mama 'utswoman. "Coyote. a ip tya said ynt'ijuts now "Yes. mother etna i)wav ai) (obj. u-'v^a ntux-WA tiyi'ai' pA^qa'p-tya' killed. That one ctna'i}wav woman she ttn a-'xwa'*. coyote. went and arrived. after pt iqwoipiya went in order to A maqac- mama uts sleep having finished the camp. through yonder way coyote went to hunt. qani'ntcuxwaai'. "No. coyote." a ip ty.) there went and arrived. paiyt'k ip'ty ijnt'ijuts- At yonder place deer (obj. then yonder way u- v^'anti qa nt ntcupiyaaic u. "i'tct Then qa this (obj.) aqa vtnaqqwacagain behind her ava there Coyote he qant house (obj. said to him. iinc'ijuts That one woman aupacin that o p acin tiiat a nt ijuptyaiar) did to him.

ti'^qa'p tYaaiyaqam' it tu'qo'avt they they two ate meat (obj. qmriuqwa- r) aricu of that tar)wa'qits stuck. naru qWA yijua'pYya''- ^nt'ts- under herself put. magac- t That one mama"ufc woman na ru q wa under herself ai) she na xa ly mountainsheep's ai) qu ra lya q 00. it e'v''aiyauq II mar)ae- mam a"ufc woman aq' tiyi'ai oo 'ai' Thereupon that one she deer's bones (obj.) taqwa it '- she that had toothed Yaxqoaq mari'ac- that (obj. ijnt'quts u'v^'a nti" it (obj. Then ani'k* tuxwa'r'uiququ when it became mant'mikup-tYa'. it. When she teeth did so aRi cint mpta 1} manu ntA all mimi'^'oiptYa' ynt'rjuts- they of her vulva broke off. aijA atumpu'tcu'tcuYwaptYa' well very knew mama"utsc woman (obj. to he of his neck bone (obj.) 'ai'. lini'qutsiar)' he Then he v^aiyauqu then buck (obj.) Then being there (obj. Then u qaa'iYuptya'aikw ground them up mari'cthat cini'mpiai) aR.) no'°qwoip lYaiar)' went and carried him on back qa nt'vantuxwA.376 356 X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPIR u'q it mamu'c those w na vi'arjw mother and daughter otm'.) na-Ya x umaiy mountain-sheep ai) pA^qa r)uptYa killed. t'v^aiyauq cina'rjwac})! tina 'xw'aip tYaaic u her vulva tiv^i'tc Then coyote again went to hunt.) 'ai'.) ctm'mptai) her vulva (obj.).) tsi'ni'k iptYa. started to do thus. ''i n iva tsian "Going to do in do dark this way I .

your land (obj.) qi^na vt no- m lyava . Then coyote t it quna vi sack (obj.) shall carry on Not lyan it (obj. I have teeth. being about to have as name. "Yes. Through yonder way went and returned." v'^aiyauq w a ip tya said maqa cu that one o'u'ra' ma ma old 'caywoitc ai) . a- Then n ia '-/aiva nti coyote.) back while going." yu^u'tstmantta'arjw. 'ani'aq'o aik-' said. from her ''i'tc' fat. paiyi'kwoipiya. "'u- v^ai a ip tya. Then cv^t"ca'* woman she. then qwitca xarip sat 'aa'ikw. Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 111 357 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES fi'qwum antniints kain wont to do thus hurriedly.. "What she 'Not it a ipiya said ctna'r)wa(J)i. said.) u'pa'quptya'aikw. untied it. qatcu'aq- u'po'vaqwa' shall untie." on °'o'xpa' V mai a ip tya said cina'i)wa(j)i. u po V a ijwaiyaqshall untie it. qatcu'a q u'qwai it sack (obj. this (obj. 'ava'qwiti ampa c being therein (obj.' At that place a'i^a'.. u'ra' tt'qwtntya 'q w ma ntcu'n'ptya- toward it came running.) noise going a lYUcampA. qu 'navt" sack (obj.).) towards go and return. even if says. ma a ip tya said va'i'toyon ynt'rjuts- At yonder distance cina'i)wa(})i." coyote. and defecated. wiyamp vulva qa'tcu "This thus being about to not tar)wa"aivanti. wa qCome it (inv. quickly it shut . tya.) "Oh!" po'yaqqip tya' coyote.) v'^^aiyauq- a iptya said cina'r)wa({)i. \ t' ti'nti^qap iy ywa'rjwanti' while being Ate finely being from her (obj. itci' t'iv'^'i'p-tai'yam paiyc'k wa'* it "Go ahead! u'^qwai it (obj. t v'^aiyauq u etna r)wavt q w saying?" coyote.

" said Coyote. "Go ahead." said Coyote. she arrived at her mother's house. ahead! go look for a person and then. then. After he did so ni ma up at i qaqqa op at being there I being being round about houses here through tliere him (obj. "Go ahead did she see. and then there he began to make a wickiup. having found him. Translation." And mother I shall calls for so."*'* "All right. then! first go and make a camp over there. na n i'nai)\v itux WA povD ayaip tya trails In different directions arose po ]) a ni whereby they ma no'q all upatctntr)wt'ntstr)wa' ininu ai)oq wainA. through all the lands she sought. will take "No. then she travelled yonder towards Coyote's house. " And then that daughter of hers went off to seek in yonder direction." said Coyote. "only that Coyote did I see. \v.) i]ni'!3uni"tx qai)' kwi'tn'a va' at ntriwn'RUptya'aik sack (obj." said he. traveling here piya'n'wintci" kinds of persons (obj." said the girl.) and there (obj. and then vulvam meam fodes.378 358 'aik X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR w. let him come home with you. Only that Coyote Way down to the west dwelt an Now then that old woman said. house. "I sa'd And then Coyote said. There she arrived. urinam tuam immittere.) Being left and quna'vi' there. "Go Then. and saw her coming down. he finished making it.) through nana"aip fires iya' burned. And then that mother of hers asked her. when it commenced to be evening. in his." said her daughter. "I shall not do me not do so. " Let me. "You you. Coyote's." said the girl." said she." said her daughter. In yonder direction he ran along. but she found no person. Thereupon she said to him. "All right. she went off home.) bottom ur)\va'uaax made people tuywantr thereof." said Coyote. Then he tried lying down in the camp he in to wife. "My then! go after Coyote.^* and then I shall go with you there to your mother's house. "Did you not see a person?" "I did not. .^^ old woman and her daughter. over (obj. And then he stood watching for her.

And then. "Hoc 'vulva' appellabitur neque dentes habebit. said she to him. and then that Coyote slept. and then the mother and daughter ate the meat. Then." Deinde urinam ejus conspexit. "Oh!" said he." habere dentatam. tuam. Now that woman made Coyote sleep. He came back home. at that place Coyote killed a deer." said Coyote. He came running towards the sack and quickly shut it. That girl did to him just as before. he had made the camp. Having got to be far away. . she caused him to wake up." (said Coyote). Then the woman came up to him." said the "Go and make "Feriam urinam a camp." Then that old woman said. "Go ahead! go and return to your land. "where has she gone to? Surely she was coming here. when it got to be night. through which all kinds of persons Of what was left over at the bottom travelled in different directions. place. do not untie it."'*said Coyote.'^ And then. illi dentes ejus vulvae relaxati omnes facti sunt. among houses scattered round about him. Tiien that Coyote awoke. ." Yonder again he ran along. fires were burning. And then that girl stuck the mountain-sheep's neck bone under herself. and left him sleeping at that same place. Take this sack along. he said. after he had done so. And then Coyote again went off to hunt." yonder direction.After he had done so. Deinde ilia virgo ossa cervi sub se posuit et ilia vulva ejus ea moluit. "Coyote. Very well he knew virginem vulvam And in this direction. go ahead! go off to hunt "All right. "Oh!" the sack. When she had done so.^^ And then Coyote said. and proceeded to return in inside of it." " All right. he pursued her and caught up with her. In different directions trails arose. house. said Coyote. "do not sleep this time." said Coyote. he started to do so in motion. Now by acting (several times) in this same way she arrived at her mother's Coyote arrived at the house right after her still. 'Do not untie it"?" said Coyote. even if sounds are heard "All right. all around that of the sack he made people. always doing so hurriedly. and off yonder Coyote went to hunt." said Coyote. When at that place.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 379 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES 359 had made. and then in that place he made a wickiup Then it happened to him just as before. He ate well of her fat.'^ "In this way I always want to do. he went to sleep after again. girl. Then he caught hold of her. Then at that place he killed a mountain-sheep buck and brought him on his back to the house. "No. Apud Canis caput urinam ea fecit. and some distance from it consedit et defaecavit. " What did she mean And then Coyote untied saying. in it he did thus in motion. then that old woman said.

.) then vonder her qa ivai mountain (obj. with her.) ar] she.) she mother u v^'aiyauqu then ai)a i]wa ^.) he on him.) aiA it t:)yo't ira^woava ntuxwaq maa ip tyaiai) just at its middle found her " mama"utst ar) . people had jack-rabbit camj). paiyt'k woip'tya' mar)a i)wa woman to his (obj. ai) for a Woman.) thereon own (obj. ami'r)want being from cu- he yuc one ptijwa'iac}) his own wife among them t'v'^aiyauqijntts ai)a u mama"ut's ai) toyo'q 'piya' Thereupon then she woman maqacgray she ar) ran off iruq WAtux wa. u \'"aiyauq u Then pA^'qa'p tYa'. cuwa'nytk iptya'aiijw mama woman 'utsi ijm'rjut '*' commenced mar)a lac that one (obj. Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Sparrow Vi\vr (X va There Hawk and Gray Hawk contend qa mt xant^aipiYai'tuai'. called (pi. mamu cTiiose u v^'aiyauqthen qa m't'xa ni'-^anttm^^ (pi. maqacThat one 'u'xpa'^pt'ya' went in yonder direction cay wot xcav gray hawk ai)' mar)a lac- ijnt r)uts u'v'^'antuywa r)' he. (obj.) caywa'xucav m'^a va there That one hawk he qam yaiptya had house niv^a'xanti a'niA piya'iyav his ar) snow-having (obj. own liouse. Turned back home with that one qant'vantuywau(})t.380 X 360 5.) she. that one (obj.) to miss her th(i)'p (obj. beat. Tiien aiya'mpatsi''* MU''kwi'x qap tyaiyai]'.) white-breasted one (obj.) am they having jack- rabbit camp ai} . qa ivay mountain to under it.

"Not her I niv^a'xant aR. white-breasted one. aya'n^'^kava tstr)wa- home r)w same way a'iptya'.a'n^'kava 'ijwai) ijni'r)uts-. woman • (obj." a ip tya said is left snow-having i'tcuqu thw'p aiyampats-.) she maa'ip iyaiyari' found her paiyt rjupty say wa'xucaviya-i) gray hawk (obj. said.). it. pi. (pi. having (obj. sax^'o'xucavtya u'qWA he qa tcu not to hini say (pi.) uqw. "In what way being about to do (pi. mari c amp "only that piya . "Let us him bird hawk he . it. qa'ivaxarir aR.) her OCT) pir)wa xaqu. ai) snow-having (obj. she. pu'ca'yaixw'aip tya'aik w When was morning it went to look for it niv'^a'xant'i' mama'ntuywai)' thereon her mama"uts'. Returned o p acin the qami'xantvantux WA.)?" "Gray hawk she (obj. mari camp only that then was left over tA'ct'pariqwai'iju pi'tctxw'aip lya' mountain peak When it went off went and arrived towards evening qa mi'xani'ayantim^i*. a ipiy said How will you do to him ar)'. .) you piya'xaqqirj'wa'it to be inij iiqwa'cjia qa ri 1 overcome by at him stays ur)wa she c mam a 'uts woman a riac- others (obj.) ktr)wa'*vantimanar)qwa q' starting from its edge uv^ai piya'i'ptya' pu'ca Yaip iyaiyaqlooked around it. ay. he that had as wife.) jackrabbit camp.) then?" he thw'p aiyampatc white-breasted one tv'^t"tr)warar)W witsi'iiwaratsi ur)W he.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 381 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES marjact 361 v^aiyauqu then fiv'^i'p-t That one earth (obj.1 qatcii'ur)wani pjnt r)wa see.) 13 a'ikai'. to jack-rabbit camp." aip'tya said.

ijni'vaiytqumixtsii" 'qwa' 'oai' he go and lead away.)." jack-rabbit camp y ant mi am'.) he piya'xaijqi'i)'wait tinf tiywi- nan iiwai .) To him 'tv"t"'i3W "Go ahead her mama"nts woman iir)wt}.) from calling on him. mi'mi'ntcu'a I] to be o^ercome by having great him? You (pi. 'a'ik'ptYa' sliali call (pi. after returning from (past). . (inter.ML^qwi'xqava i)W. ai)W." aii)W niarja'iac \vttsii'ui)waratsi on him aik'ptya.) others (obj. MU'^qwi'^^avai'kap tYa'returned (pi. You. a'ik 'pnya' mtimii'cthose qami xant - von her have as said (pi.) ur)W saywo xucaviy :ray qa tcu not him vou to say (pi. he.) u'i)wai' power ava r)W. they. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 'v 'inai. ijwa'ruyw that one (obj. doing so to her mil ti]WA ptijwa xaiva will .) him hawk (obj.) having (pi. said (pi. ma ri c cu 'ani'kari' ntijwt ar) aR it That merely does so sittinjr his body ." said (pi.382 362 .) him va pA^'pa'q a'ik arip t'ya' mava there yi^i him will kill iiim?" said sittinij at doorway qari xa sitting.) UI)W tiv'c'naxaxwa'*.'iii)\vantux\v^ away from him saywo'xucavty gray hawk (obj.) "Yes. he va qa p'tya qa'uAcuv"' still at sat his own doorway i)wai]w a'i'kai singing ui}wa'iac- axa'n^^kava tst"In what way being about to do (pi.) wife. said. mar)ac- t v"aiyaiiq- witsi"ur)warats bird ar) m '*ava there That one y\'''i then ri hawk aipiya'.) bird hawk ur)W she (obj.).

mine wife who has been given to tv'^t'aqan qnt'ts- me Go ahead! her me then na.) that. Mine who has been say. though saying (neg. 'aik^ say. a'ip tya' quickly her her go. niama"utsi tsa'a'ivttctxw'aip'iya 'ijnttc woman (obj. pirjwa rvrjwaiptni. to me her (give).) and that his soul qa ivaxwttcuvari' mountain peak (obj. axa'nt^aiarian ijwaru"' she is pii)wa'ruui)waip tni "Mine. you otherwise.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 383 363 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES qa. Then he a'ip't'Ya. pavi'aij^* his at) ar)a'(j)a pc'tcixw'aiptya'.ntai] waiYUcampar)' without saying anything niru X w. aro 'This one is n'i'ni pirjwa mmaxqai pm (by many)." ma'ian that I hawk he.q ari^a sitting mari c u muxu ai] aR it mari A that (obj." said . quickly her her go! nji'ni ijwaru"* she is piqwa'mamax wife qai'pin' ma'ian that I 'aik-^. " of then said. ijm'ts ai) brother he ai] to liim went and arrived. "m'^^a'iariwaiyu'c ampA ttijwt'niya r)' ma'up let ar)'. for my part." given to n'i'niyaxain t me (by many). qnt'tsx\\' having been picked up as wife by me.) to 'ijwaru"' "Not her I you her mine she is (give).) that. qatcu "Not." nj ni qatcu'aqan' nr I imi'ntcuxwa'varj'waintar)' shall (neg. . a iptya said saywo xucav gray ai] having been picked up as wife by me. (give)?" tirjwi'ntya I]' ma'upa-i]' let pA'^qii'ump^'iim^' I shall kill uru'ac . how doing her I imi'ntcuywa'vantai)'.*^ shall her to qa'tc "m*a'itr)waiyucamp'*' then I you "Not though saying (neg.) singing.) she went and took hold on arrivmg.

) arm ar)a vumaqqoar) tca'a'ika. aik-^. held. "Yes.iyoai] gray hawk ar) holding her aqa vumariqoaij by her arm.) ij That one bird hawk he other (obj.384 364 \vits'i'ui)\varats-. qatcu ai) not her 'oai' Unt 5ja " so doing nia'up avaqwaintya shall let her "mpa'i'campant' I go (neg." ma ip ty aijac caxwa xucatpi. by her arm Vma. t v^aiyauq • ym ts a iptya said caxwa xucav gray ai) piya lav his Thereupon then hawk he own mother . care not if pA^q^'umpa ni. lini'qut' mountainous yuyu'ar'urjqu'.) case. \\\ earth paYi'naxqarixu' would become foggy.i:^w'air)iu)qu' those that are would go off in dust. said.) it case a'i^ai' naqa'i'ai^ ami a xa'n'Ni tiiv"^ip V ti^qa'g'wtxo' when you angry.) when ov^'ai am angry. na rja'i'ai^ I when am am qa.i. "Yes." a ip tya said saywa xucacj)!. angry. "I (obj. are how earth would become saying you mai3ac say?" a'ip tya'." you me a ip tya said niarja'c- saYwo'xucat})! tca'a'ik a.ip tYa'. imi aq- uv^ai in that gray hawk. imi' niaqit you (obj. T)'. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR bird hawk. "You (obj.) in that well?" "I (obj.).qaivax<^nti u'^qu'mputsttsa. i witsi'ijwarats s tijqwa'nuij 'qwat aqa vta her (obj. would become level. will kill me. then all that said he gray hawk. That one n\ t'v^aiyauqu then witsii'ur)warats ar)' bird rja'i'aik I hawk he tiv'^i'pt ma q it na am i!]a "*.

They 2 after having done it maqaethat one ai) witsi'urjwarats aq' pA'qa'rjuptyaiyar)' killed bird hawk uaqit he i^nt'quts- him r)' saxwa'xucavty gray hawk (obj. All (obj. it nj'" pA^qa'x'oiva shall 'r)\v "I go and kill (obj.) tavt'ptya'. All (obj.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 385 365 sa a TEXTS OF aqa ruxwA.) woman ai) ntqwi'aaxaik as aina-r)' co 'par'uiqumt ts li'nicum'ar)'^*' she that she had had after having gathered as had been body together before her naya'p a-ri^^uip'tya'.) D no't A'ctaqqu boiled him. maqac- yni'ts- piya his iint'ts- I) That one sa'a'p tyaiyai)' then mother aq she saywa xucavi gray hawk (obj.) he. to her. lit.) they 2 divided it." v"aiyauqu Then su 'quo- mai)a'c- one that one pira'iyar)' to'to'p inap tya'.). qa p tya Sang mava"an on that 'ai".) then her body (obj. ntijwt t all (obj.) tiVi'pi land (obj.) ai]' I)' nava'i'piyai'qa'am'. ijnt'r)umixtsiA''qa'am' she her body (obj. caused to appear. ijni'r)uts- then pampt'ni* bucket (obj. ma no her arm ntijwi'aiya pulled out.) my body (obj.) flapping wings.).) man o'q ncqwi'aiya ma m-a"utsi (obj. n\ THP: KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES pA^qa (past) r)Ut:uani kill m van! "Me they me. him .) q uaq am it they 2 ma ma 'utsi' woman (obj.) m anaqqw vault coming from qo x Apcyam was noise as of I mava"anti being on that (obj.) (obj.) wixa'*va nti' being at edge (obj. shall boil me ma n q u ntr)W[ aiyani. Then paiya when it dawned early t'j xu'mpai' sky (obj.

) ma ma 'utsi woman (obj. attack.) tca'a'ipiYaiyai)'. That one gray hawk wife ma no aruptyaiyai) i'yat in i ma no arup jumped at ly^^ • ijnt'i)umt'ts- jumped order to him in hold down.) qnt'vitci'. they 2 tried to jerk her away from each other. mother she say you ma'ikani that I imt'ximai)wantii' pA^qa'xw'oitctxa kill?" nj ni ^X'*^ • qa'tcu *'No. running off.) aij That one qnna i)aiac uru "Stranger (obj. inai)ac- t v^'aiyauqiJ bird hawk 1} (ohj. me off. "Almost.) (inter." "Oh! gray ijni quts- Then qa nu xant jack-rabbit "'u rairn'piiYa. . Both they 2 her i nari'tsai)'wap tYaiyaij'ani'. 'a'ik \v saYWo'xucavttcai) went towards it. a'ik ^Aptya' to said (pi. being strange to claiming to go and say. at vain him in After doing so order to hold down. hawk us camp comes (obj.386 366 witsi'ijwaratsi X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR UI)WA.) (obj." a ip lY^ said." marja'c camp na va c u without concern qa. ai]' mar) a lac u that one (obj. he.) qa mt'xani'xantim' those having jackrabbit mtnto'n'ntts-.) crazed.) then aik- piya his a ip lya said.) ijwa'c utcani he (past) me pA^qa q kill me ai it w a ir)uni. she took hold of her. 'arc'ki his head (obj.'. a I] Then 'ar)a'v'aYtt'r mar)a cv saywa xucav gray qA'sa'vuma with his ijac])!: that one hawk a he own being over wing he kwi'pa'p lY^' struck. ijnt'i)uts- nai)wa *cuai]a am. you (obj. to'tsi i)A him (obj.*vtp tya ampA witsi urjwarats ai) Only that one piqwa'iav his ar) bird hawk at) a he lay and sang r)wa ' mai)ac caywa'xucacj)! own she with her.) wPpt't 'kiiji'ptYa'.

on their own sons while holding on. He started back home over his former way towards the camp "What do you all say that you will for the hunting of jack-rabbits. (pi. will you all do to .) hear it? Translation. starting from the edge of the land. and then that young woman ran off towards the mountain. it do to him?" said he. (he returned and) arrived where were those having a camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits. There Gray Hawk was dwelling on a snow-covered peak. and they called upon the white-breasted one^" (to Then that one. led nani'n 'arjwituywa m' in different directions m'^jmt'ntcu' they away.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 387 367 piya 'in- TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES pavi't n cua'(l)A'^qai3untsam''. only that mountain peak there was left. then. And then that Gray Hawk went off in yonder direction and there. "With Gray Hawk.) (inter. He reright in the middle of the mountain. he found the woman. approached." said the white-breasted one. What. Then those who had a camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits began to miss the woman. him who is not easily to be overcome.) it make rumbling noise nana'^q'^Aqaitcua qai)w(. 30U have nearly killed me. dwells that w'oman.^^ At that place they had a camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits." tVaiyauq r Then their mother tivVnaxar)UptYa'.i'. When evening all over it." he said. a'ip iya'aim' wa 'm a 'caywD'Hsinw strangers to each they 2 said two old women other you?" tuwa'tsiijwa'a'mauc}) tca'a'ik a. qwaia'qqwA'patciatca'x qarjumi to'my 'uijun i' On you the other side (past) you (pi. my am' elder brother. and with him was his mother. In the morning he went off to look over the snow-covered peak and on he found the woman whom Gray Hawk was having as his wife.) na yi'm ar)iH)uc u. "I have not seen her. "You (pi. looked find her). Now turned with her to his house. "only that snow-covered peak is left. a certain one among them gave his wife a beating.) them antk^ do so (inter.

That Sparrow Hawk was holding her by her other arm. that is what I say. Do you. Then that mother of Gray Hawk boiled him." said he. from the sky was heard a noise as of flapping wings. Then there in the doorway Sparrow Hawk was sitting and kept singing. he caused her to appear as she had been before. then. And as for you?" "W^hen I am angered. After they had done so. Only that body of his is doing so. having been taken up by me for a wife. sitting and singing. without saying anything. say you?" And then that Sparrow Hawk said. After you have done so to her." "But she is mine. all that had formed her body. " What say you all that you will do to that Gray Hawk. and on the rim of the bucket (wherein he had been boiled) he lit. him slay not easily to be overcome. having been taken by me for a wife. upon arriving." said Gray Hawk. and after he had gathered together all parts of the woman's body. you shall have her as your wife. but quickly let her go! She is mine. that Sparrow (each pulling her to himself). you shall boil all of my body. say I. the land would become filled with fog." said they who had a camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits. " Do not say that. quickly let go! Otherwise I shall slay you. Then." said they. as he held her by her arm.388 368 him'::'" X Southern Paint e ami Ute SAPiR call said that wliite-breasted one. "Go ahead! lead the woman away from Gray Hawk. And then that mother of his said. Then. Why. having been given to me for a wife. of one to up ." said Gray Hawk. And then Gray Hawk said to his mother. (Then someone said. as he sat there in the doorway. who has great power? Will you he." And then he wrenched off one of (the young woman's) arms. Hawk killed Gray Hawk. To him they said. then. "If you are angered. me!" "I shall not give her to you. when it dawned upon the earth." said Gray Hawk. "W^hen I am angered." said that Gray Hawk. in what way would the land appear. having who is him?" said been given to give her me for a wife. And between them both they divided her body. thereon he sang. he took hold of the woman and said. "I shall go and slay Sparrow Hawk. " Should I be killed. the mountains would all go up in dust. " She here is mine. shall I give her up to you?" "Without saying that. then all would be a level space. by no means shall I let her go. " Do you speak of a stranger. and called upon that Sparrow Hawk. I do not care if you kill me. "All right. she is mine.) "Let us upon Sparrow Hawk!" "All right. but his soul went off and arrived at that mountain peak where his elder brother was. "All right." said Sparrow Hawk.

that is say." said those having a camp for the hunting of jackrabbits. already pua xant medicine-man ijijwan ni 'I am I. (but) that one killed me. tiv*t'tc' it.- 1) ar) Coyote. cii'xariqixw'ain' 'a''c ttcuv'^'atnn to "Go mai. was doing along heard singing (obj." cii v'^'^tmpt o'xparjqw'aip't'Ya* aiyauv u ra . "Oh!" a ip tya said ctna'r)wa(})i. And then their mothers led them away in different directions. V a ip lya said qnt quts say being there- "Yes. pua ru a lyuruDnt^jamt "Seems I am getting supernatural power. coyote. aqa ru/w to him a ip tya said. "Nearly.being about make I bush twigs for aik*^ me cma gathering-basket r)wa4)i. cu waru am almost (inter." Then towards the camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits he proceeded. "Oh! Gray Hawk comes to attack (us). ar)A etna qwaviyayw it is m'^a va there qant ^a dwell. " Do you act as though you were strangers to each other?" said the two old women. Then from (obj." . and sang. did you kill me. he his wife she said (past). he caught hold of that woman. That Gray Hawk swooped down upon him to hold him down. both of them tried to And then that Gray Hawk struck tear her away from each other. as though nothing were happening. to get squaw. above him with his wing. 'a'ik w. After doing so. went off in his own squaw-bush nariqa'p tya' towards Very vonder direction mio ni far distant lini'n'nip tya' qa 'p i'. but that Sparrow Hawk lay with his wife. lima'nti'.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 389 369 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES no kin of yours. Did any of you hear something make a noise on the other side?^' is who what I 6. as they ran away. but merely grazed his head.) I nono c 1 nan v^'i dream." (said Sparrow Hawk). Coyote sets the Parturition Customs. since you talk of going to kill?" "No. my elder brother.). as they held on to their sons." coyote.). swooped down in vain. piqwq.

) yaq w pu'tcu'tcuywai'ytq-w. iv^^t an ijnt'r)uts- their people (obj.) kwi'kwi'tcuva'tcttci' pa va 'n'noantsiyanti' valley-having (pl. Coyote he saw them. obj. Then t'v''aiyanq' stood and listened. Then o'v^'aiyauq again stood and listened to 'a't inaijq^ptYaikit qa q pi . af. stopped. Then then t'. nj ijiim I niQJ mpa r)um'.ra'ckwop 'ya'ic u.) qant't iri'ai' camp-places (obj.) obj.) •U know them. . naqqa'ptYai'cuqw again heard it.) qa'm'nuaya singing along tuYunipapaiya'*ruq' beneath sky-vault nontsi'kanuaya' flying along ma mu c- those - Dva n arjqaijw geese am . nj » ma no q woq them Then "I all (obj. waa n cya v[i]\v chiefs am they ai}' nam naqwoyaya at both ends of it they.nt m taptya ecna qwav pjnt'k aip'tya'aim'. . qa 'qaiva ntstyanti' mountain-having (pl. make (pl.^^ journeying in order to eat people. are doing kwi 'mu "ranttkamt'aYa'.) m{m"t'antsc yanti' divide-having (pl. stood while journeying." said (pi. you then shall lead you.'ain ijnc i)ut- narjqa't'saqqntp iyaic u"qw it. v^'aiyauq w a iptya said.) knoll-having ntrjwi ai (pi. obj. Go ahead (pl. heard. paya'iny'qwi'p iya started off. Two maxqam they w.) pa 'p a yanti" spring-having (pi. obj." me me.390 370 t X Southern Pahite and Ute SAPIR naqqa'tsaqwjfnt'p tYa' v"'aiyauqu qatcu"uq not qni'ijutit ' naqqa'p tya".) me ijni i)uts then na up an like self mam a. njni^i heard well then singing of "We a'ik Apiya' many ant'k a ''^- (obj.).) man qu all (obj.

Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 391 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES a'ip lYa' 371 .

flew ridge (obj. cina'r)wa4)i he. v'^aiyauq w a ipiya said nta. ya'cpiya* flew (pi.) "'u'ra'. doing. a'ip iya' X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPIR ctna'qwaxj)! V n? ntsi quptya off.) qwaia qqwop beyond ngnts'i'ptya'. Westward etna then whither their do towards it. Then n? ntsi'n' va I chief he tux said. qatcu not qa- vaqwa pa'a'n loud. q?- being about to obey (neg.vir) wa m . shall sing a iptya said ccna qwacpi. t ma'n un All ti'v^'a ya.). flew. own nontsi'vurup qwav ai) amo'axtuxw'" around them tya'. "Yes.) us.) pu'u'raiv ijmi) aura towards it.) came back pi'tcipiya'.c trjupiya started to fly ijntts- tuyu mpai sky (obj. mu'4>A at ai] them v'^aiyauq- maqacthat one • nta- V a'ip iya'." . cause us to be found out that (obj. arrived. inii''a'ntvant cina'i)wav "About to be he is that coyote doing thus ai]' qatcu'ragwA not us niptya tiv^'i'tsixava q'wa'ittraqwA. wi Then ova q ai3 their chief." Coyote 'a a vi'tcttcT httle ridge (obj." wa a qwa shall shout. ct aia qararjWA "His feathers (obj. qatcu not v'mai. Coyote he flew hither and I thither. .A 392 372 'mai. am an "That I ijwaru 'aik*." ni"'a'i]A said ma'vcq'wam' their chief.. mana'qqwpai'yiq w from its other side. shall again pull he will out (pi. qatcu "Not shall r)tva r) wa' be flying around n'im'^i'oax w i' around us.) we """pa c maa'ittr)k'tiv*ar)arar)w uni ac- am ^a . coyote." said coyote. a'ip tya' say. avt'tcttci' little "Yes.

" while moN'ing along.) (inter.) whizzing.) they took hold of ova qar)up tya took off (pi. have given (pi. Traveled west nar)qa p coyote.) I i]nt'ka' ti'qa'xa'. (obj. came a'ip-iya'.^* cold thrill going maa'inipiy touched iini'quts to'tsii'vantiia(J)V. their singing etna r)wav. "Let me shall follow their cina'qwacj)! avt r)Upaxptya . ai) w Then him wi'st'aiyar) his feathers (obj. Was angry tiv''a'im'mtap-tya' coyote.).). Tried to vomit. a'ip ixa' said." said while eating pmaqqw Soon v^^'aiyauq- ti'qa'm au'p eating utsiqw felt like it then having finished tea q aip iyaint'. passed night after night on journey. cu'r'urup lyainc' tiv*i'puv'^'a nti tya' made noise of being on ground (obj.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 393 373 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES o'v'^aiyauq oar)' tcatca'i'p tYaiam' tuYu'mpapaiya'Ha ntux at sky-vault. ctna'r)wa(j)i. to. tco'^pt'ktar'on "Oh!" said coyote. "my it. sa a pi then p'jni'kaip't'Ya'. "Oh!" qaini. a'ip tya' pi'pt't a'ni'tiyax ptya'. iini'r)Uts- pina'qqwA soon a'ikw. a'ip'iya' head clna'qwacj)!. cuwa'p itctp"iya'. tv"tn nar)wa xpa mpa tracks.) tiy'i'vutsir)wi4nt'ani saw. cina r)wav pi'tcu"ami Coyote kwi'pa'p fell. he downward tA'pa'c pty lay senseless.) me mush. pmariq Soon v'^aiyauq 'iya auni (ja'mta'nam'." ami. was indeed doing nai)a'i'aip tya' eating?" said. sa'a'm amax ti'qa'xaik w. . it (obj. seems. then heard them "Coyote. Mush friends. "brains (obj. 'aa'ikw. then being at his own through head.

own coimtry (obj. yi'i'k iptya'aiijWA paiyt'k 'ptya 'u'ra Then him tiv"t'p uaiau<l>t. Again passed night after night on journey. axa n ivarian "In what way shall I do to him 't'v*aiyauq UI) WA uv^'ai . 394 374 a'ik 'ptya.). coyote. ym'xcu'uyw So doing to her. she. doing of cedar so . XHic uai] maa ip lya . your liking. looked for her axa'n tva 'ijan I woman u v'ai so doing her found.). came back sa/wt towards it a VI i)upax ptyaic u 'a cI)A''qa'ijq'ip'tya'. hja "pitc ai)'. being about to woman. his swallowed him. wi'i'k uptya' fell marja'c- out that one baby he.) qant p former t "ava there pi'tctxw'aip tYa' went and arrived campmg place (obj." covote.a' a VI lies mama ute said (pi. u'mai. a ip lya said ctna'ijwa(J)i." said you cina'ijwac})!. "Yes.Vfter wa'a'p t' Then heated stones on fire. cina'i)wa<{)i. \i'v"a X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR i)' ntrjwi'riraxwop. a ip lya said "How shall then?" coyote.) i^nt pu ca -/aip t yaiai) mam a"utsr (obj. mam"In that un tvant'i mam a 'uts- a ip tya said cina'i)wa(})i.. ava There an ac that (obj. way t do v*aiyauq qumu ntuaRiptya'. ijm ijumits' .).) on it began to stand stampmg. her stomach (obj. then?" coyote. her do ur)wa"vanttYwa'i)Upi:Ya' saxwt 'ai'aijw uv'^a"an' wcwt'n'i'^qup tya' Got on top of her. ui) "there she right among people woman a'ip tYa' imi of UI)WA she 'a'c tntuina'^mi. had stomach-ache.

get squaw-bush twigs for me. looks as though I am going to be a medicine-man. being warm 14m (obj. woman having given birth to child. caused it to burn. stopped again.raqqai (obj.) ijnt'quts- ivi'ptYa'. was living there. t i^ni 5 ur)W while he did so baby t' wi'i'kuptYa'. "it very far away (when) he heard singing. and then he said. Then stood and listened. those with divides.) o inA ptn riptYa limb ai) on it hung on. qumu'ntiaRiqwaina<J)V his own having heated stones on fire uv''a"ax on top of it ijni'rjuts- avt'p-t'Ya' yu'tuitci' lay. those with knolls. Then nantsii'xqur)'*ptYa'. singing along under The two chiefs stood at the sky. cina'rjwacj)!." coyote." "All right. wood. either end of the line as they travelled along. as they flew along. Coyote saw them." said Coyote. Now again he stood and listened to it." said they. those Coyote. I say. Translation. he heard it again. fell v'^aiyauq- m^to'tiYan he down.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 395 375 ir)a"pite TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES pA pa. those with mountains. tsi'quq'wanumpuRp'tYa made h air-sera tcher.) pa 1 water (obj. 22 His wife said to him. did not hear it. drank. He was "Oh!" said Coyote. "Go and going to make a gatheringbasket.^ Already I am a medicine-man. this time he already heard well the singing of many: "Thus we do. Then when at consider- able distance qu'qwa'ionaYw'a'iqup tya'." And then he And then he started ofF. and then he journeyed off in yonder direction towards his squaw-bush. traveling in order to eat people. those geese. with it i'in- lini'vanti then scratched himself in hair "In this being about to way a'iptYa' said do mama uts- nintu'ai)qir)uts-. it is said. perhaps I am going to dream. went to get armful of pt'tciptYa' na'a'ittp'iYa'aikw Arrived. out of them. "Of all the camping places those with springs. who am — .

found her." What did I Coyote. have given me mush. now. he came to. shall I do with him?" said Coyote. he camped will follow in their tracks. you shall not sing out loud. then. then. they said to Coyote. And then down on to Coyote they flew. "Go ahead! fly off towards that "All right. make me into one of yourselves. "You little ridge." Coyote ran along under them. he will not obey us. "in doing so he — "Oh. in so doing. Just as he did so. "Now I said he. "That Coyote will always be doing thus. "my friends. "Oh!" Then. "Coyote. "He says that he knows That chief of theirs all those lands towards which we are going. senseless. they flew off whither they were bound. "Let that Coyote talk. "Oh!" said Coyote. Coyote journeyed westward. he is not a good one. He will cause us to be found out.Ml right. he fell upon the earth and lay He saw mush. shall I do to her?" said Coyote." he said. "there in the midst of the people lies the woman whom you like. Coyote got angry (and said). shall not keep flying around us. after a while. he heard them as several nights on his way. "What did Coyote say?" said they. Coyote flew back and forth around them. westward. that baby fell out." said Coyote. said he. as he ate it. Coyote kept dodging. they moved along singing. flew beyond the little ridge. and oPl he flew. He got on top of her. and I shall lead you." then said. Then their chief said. By doing that (which he is doing) he will cause us to be found out. shouted as he went along." said Coyote. Then. say?" said their chief." Coyote returned from the other side of the Then that chief said. after a while. he felt as though a cold thrill went through his head. after a while. And then he ." said little ridge." they said. There at that old camping place he arrived. then. and then he touched his head. Down came Coyote. Let each one of us give him feathers. Each one gave him feathers." said Coyote. when he had finished eating it. making a whizzing noise. "is it my own brains that I have been eating?" He tried to vomit. asking one another. it seems." might cause us to be found out. All set off flying towards the sky. you shall not yell. said their chief. stood stamping on her stomach.396 376 X Southern Paiiite and Ute SAPiK with valleys all their people I know. "What. then." ". "What." Then. you will return." And then they took hold of him under the sky and pulled out his feathers. He looked for the woman and." said their chief. and from it." "All right. "Let us pull out his feathers. arrived where they were. Do you.

) ijni'ts- tar|wa of us ti'qa aR it na'a'ituik anararjWA. and he turned liack towards his own country. etna r)wav m "^'a'va' There aro"ap 'lya' qami'xant'ayaip CYai'tuai' people had jack-rabbit camp. he heated stones on the fire. umu'v'^'antuxw ijnt i)uts- maa'(})C tuyij'o'wtp tya. Then he went off to a He arrived. ta i)WA our causing sa- (pi. fell uv^'a' On to them then thing down as There from sky. "This ijmant being qu 'nani like fire tm anaqqWA far distant na'a'inti seems. Then he made a head-scratcher and scratched "In this way shall it be with a woman when she his head with it. fire of it.). gathered together. was Hunted (pi. The Theft of Fire. as he did so. we tiVi'ts- q anarai)WA (pi. sjna r)wav imp aro ". Again he camped several nights on his way.:)'t covote said. I nara'qwitcump'ptya. is?" t'l'tc' v^'aiyauq said (pi.) to burn. tfi r)wa We i are aroam wont t (ja tcu quna ap fire ai not to be (neg.ya. Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 397 377 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES swallowed him. the baby dropped down. their chief.) for jack-rabbits. 7. has given birth to a child. "What a ip '. "In And then that way will it always be with a woman. Then na^'ava'i' miy.. qamt'ya'ik-'ptya. he hung on to a cedar limb.). ti'qa Then q ami'. built a considerable distance for an armful of wood. obj." said Coyote. from burning (f^bj. covote an he ni'avirj'wami.) our eating when qqaxooq w it is raw always eat Very . he had a stomach-ache.) place from it aro is. ynt'ijuts- ma n u'n all c then a'ik 'piya. After doing so. (pi. He la}' on top of the bed made of rocks that he had heated he drank warm water." said Coyote.

m "a va There n-ara as qom qa.) gathered together stna i)wav ai) a'ip'tya." cina'r)wa<j)i. 'a'iyuxup- having done ur it Good would qWA'st't!uiRaqDcooked.) it su.398 378 'a'iyuxuwaq' it would be good lint'quqwainA X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 't'tctaragWA this (obj. were (pi. would very good. said.). it tu Yumpapaiy a 'm ai yu Pfnt'kai^w'a'irjU from sky-vault 'i'tcr go in order to see ptma'narjqwaqwherefrom it UR it this (obj. iv'^t'aq' wa'n-uyuaq' there being it coyote he "Go ahead.) uru axu would be when it is waq- ti'qa'q axuA'^qaraqw when we a ipiya said eat (pi.) ptVa-'ntimanaqqwaq* from being where it we ta Tjwa'i'yaqw of us it mama'aik-^ find (pi. uru"ai' is taqwa'i' of us ti'qa'qanararjWA our eating (pi.yuc-u still coyote.aiyuxupc.) qu-na'i' fire (obj.) .

Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 399 379 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES t v^aiyauq Then .

arrived." a'ip'tYa' C'. .400 380 ptyaiar)' X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR pina i)qw ynt'i)uts- pt'tcpiya.) it as fire. rar)WA i oai it said coyote. having (pi." qii)wa *va nti coyote. tv*'. "What qu na say: qwacpi.) (obj.) ya'mtava'aq shall w ijmu'rjwantux w ijmi'ac u go (pi. tell. to fetch I'itc ar3"ami' is This wont to be .) it away from them them quna'q axantimi'aqw. IV" 1 n lya " soon then "Go ahead quickly tin I . 'na'aintcini' (pi. "Let us fire (obj. a iptya said. pjni'^ aik ai'nami. na like .) "Far pjni t off being at edge burning uaq a'ipiya' said pa Yi ar) am an I 'aik looks fish he. a iptY^^ said cina'i)W'a4)i. iva'tc' tiv"t'p?« of land a." "what you saw.

" mo't:utcatc ai)' After lie had said so upward qa tc u t nia unWA he among them go and also chief's arrive . . Then maijac- w aiv" uru"^ is. then ur it 'a'iijumtx (ja'aijw tuyu'ntuxw burning maija'c u go and see.) while traveling. luaijac t'v^aiyauq' their so That one thereupon doing.) ma nu all n t ciarjqa ni coyote he "You each house (obj. said. ampA ptm'k aip pi'pt'tc'piya'.) qani'ayant provided with houses au it pu u raiyam whither they an t n anil. again stopped to camp (pi. saw (neg. 111'"'.).:)ntst'kuptya' oflF. a ip tya said." tuyu'ntux That one flew vaiyauqu then pa yi ai) w n.) "\ t o 'n auq WA [m"t'i-^w'ai\a" shall m I -^. u humming-bird na a int upward ptni'k ai^wa'*. then arrived. fish ijnt i)uts- he upward qnt i)uts pinaqqw soon tca-/t'paq "It near pi tc'piya. flew oft". maijac- nDntsc'kupiya'. Thereupon qwa^vt'i)Upax ptyaaic u.) arrived back. That one ca o'vaiyauq u etna ijwav aij a ip tya. now that one he. tv"t thereupon covote nontsi q uc u fly oft' he "Go ahead! niaijac- fmi vou payi fish again tuyu ntux WA upward. inl (pi. although having so done. .Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 401 381 qnt'ijuts- TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES mo't! utcats- tuyu'rituxwA nontsi'k fly oft". that one ijnt i]Utsic humming-bird he i'a'aik-w it. stna r)wav ai) a ip tya said. payi fish ai)'. t'v^aiyauqu poru q I'ptyaaic u again set out (pi. c u su'tcaxtp' 'i Verv near v'aiyauqthereupon uru 'p tya man was that (inan.

pa 'yiani ptma aq WA to a mA quna q wu va my head- which it having been tied there- shall take fire.) tiya'ixu qu na'ian uv'^a a XI Dawn (obj.).) a p-i shall qova lean back ani'va' shall do.) arrive.) having gone back home (pl. shall eat (pi. hair (obj." 402 382 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR pi'tctxwa'aiva".) to rain . 'v mai. ti'qa'q avai)wa'*. a'ik Aptya'. "Being thereof (obj.) . shall qnt'rjuts- qam'vaauqwi in m'^jmi mama'x piacj)!: house go and Then you (pi. Then we ni :"I cu-'itUYwanum^acu on one night qo'co'vurup tani ''I'tcr naiya'r)wtr)qitua'xava' shall have hand-game with them. will all be ready to "Yes. Then qa'ivavttci down.). m'^fm" t you (pi. shall ijnt tsttsarjWA put (pi. Next to it umA thereon pjnt mountain ridge qnt'k aqumt'ts- sat UYWcptya down (pi." a'ip ixa' said maijac- cma r)wav um*a nti' tai]a'na x'l'k wa4)i that one coyote he.) tA'ci'antr with 'oai' it (obj.) into own knees it mara'rj'kava.) tiv"a". neg.) wi'tca'q ain my this (obj.) * when appearing 'a'qwai'tnc like sig- my fire over it (obj.) caused (pi.). qatco not °qw it ma no all q of oqw it ar) . prepared roll to catch fire (obj. start ofT (for race). mjni's'its ur)wa'tik ar]up tYa uv''a"antux thereon WA After having so done (pi. uv'^a iya *ruq WA t'." said (pi.)." ynt r)uts- pom q uptyaaic u again started off (pi.) and watched ta va'i'kap (bushes) set fire to by several (obj.) v^aiyauq thereupon • and forth i nalling 'po tstni'qa'q aiva'.) what has been given to selves (obj.

) doing about. said.) from it fun ant'k ani'ja'. tuywi'navitc'piya'.) off camp toward it.) sa'a ijqiptyait'uaiyiai)' arrived. Coyote (obj.) being just one to one will arrive them qa nt ai)um your houses (obj.) a ip txa said etna qwav aq' nta'viampaxar)wtnixai. iv'^'t'amm ijnc quts- naia'qwiqqiqammi. Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 403 383 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES tava'i'kaq a'in a(I)V. iVt'am "Go ahead (pl. Then qant'ayant there poru'q uptYaaieu ma again started (pl.).vtij waiya ni qant va at house coyote etna ijwavt he ai)' their chief's wa'a nipi cedar berries (obj." (pl. maqac That one pt tc'ptya'.) doing qani'vaytk ani'^^a' visiting fiv't'p la'ianjmwi na va cu u'v^ai just for around in our country (obj.).) then us (excl.'lp'i^Si'.) he they made mush him. ana uqwA. play hand-game with us. among them.) another a ip tya said cfna'ijwa(l)i. their own having- ma no All n t iinttc an c u qu n fires aR they then those been set-on-fires. houses.) a ivaiyaijwan ami they then these my companions they qant aqum your houses aupa^ throughout nana c u- yuijqwaiyuc- u m oiva (pl. cma qwav Coyote a ip if'a.." coyote. yni r)uts- ma u'u'ra'. nim^'c 'ant'k* are went and arrived (pl. for . va yu/wt ^aaic u again sitting went out (pi. Go ahead maqac- (pl. etna r)wav ai) nta.) ijntijuts i mi ma no qo all (obj. "We (excl. that one coyote he standing and talking as chief. va There ijnt i)uts then \Tn^i'i%w'a.

404 384 cina'ijwac})! X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR ti'nti'qap lya. "we (excl. ntm"t'-^ain i' qu 'naq axantim' having fire (pi. Thereupon said (pi.). seems. t'v^aiyauq ' (pi. coyote he with iiis com- panions naia'i)wiijqit: uaq^ptya' tu xwa'Naivr. sina'ijwav aij Thereupon a'iMai)uijwai'ai(J)V hand-game naia'ijwiijqit' uaq ""A- took place. qa'tcu.) fim I ni '-^a' tiv^t'pc" ma va'a x ni'mwi qa'tcu not quna'i' fire (obj. nava'c u just for 'anc'Rani'i' are doing about mlya'qatravel- said coyote. t'v^aiyauqu mainu'cthose a'ik ^^ApiY'^'j ctna'ijwavin t' gambled with. has come to get nt'mi from us.).) in need We also you only of (neg.) ya'x ikaai' taijwa'i)wantux wa.) fire (neg. "Coyote. we wari'x'Hwait' tm'. coyote he with his companions were hand-game p'tya.)." "No. iiP'tmc'camp being (pi. ynt'rjuts- then naia'rjwip- qa'tcu not aR it qunai'ni'k possessing ait: cm'. li'v''aiyauq u naia'i)wtp- aR it coyote ti'Ya'i'ptya' ate well.) ing around earth (obj. it qu na'i'niaraijWA our possessed fire (obj." a'ip iya' cina'ijwac])!.) over that." Thereupon tiya'i'pcya' ctna'ijwav a'l) a'ivtai)uijwa'i'ai({)i hand-game took place.). Then when dawn came . qnt'ijuts tA'ci'aijqixU hand-game gambled with ctna'ijwav at night.

) they.Texts of the Kaihoh Paiutes and Uintah Utes 405 385 TEXTS OF THK KAIBAB PAIUTKS AM) UINTAH UTES qu na our laraijvvA qwii vats" 'an i'k» a it laij qu na fire i fire (obj. ." said (pi. 't'v'^aiyauq qD'cD'vta({)t did. ma m u'c u qahouse- over it bends back and forth. while going along carrying it.) . mai)a iacu were ready." from side to cina'qwac})! quna'i fire (ol)j.^^ front of ran very quickly wav 'f*^ people aa'ik qatcu I t lya iyini.) those ni ^antini^^ am ." clna'qwacj)!. ani'k'f n! iNo. "Oh! become not. Of that one cmarjwav Coyote to umucpA them " 'a'iqqi'qain having been said to qntcin that an I p tya . a ip tya' said moving liead side.) ai it coyote. jv"i aq- "Go ahead. qnt'r)Utsiq-w it it (inv. coyote.) stuck. yaijwt'm'nuaxayaq '. ma m lie- i v^aiyauqu thereupon etna qwavc ai) a ivaiarjwai) his Those coyote (obj. coyote.) he a'ik ^ptya' (obj. Having done it ma^va'i'tiyan far off ijni'ijumt'ts tA'pu'q wiptya' wa'a'tctyiriupcya. (obj. whooped. na va'c un "just for ptqqa man cm yaxa a'ipi'xa' do while doing so moving said fun I very fast.) being about to take does. a ip tya said cina'r)wa(|)i liaving (pi.) tinder wa'xava into i' 'q w tct'ni'k'fptYa'. it (obj. jumped. thereupon his own same way quna'i' fire (obj.) ava'a X- 'aa'p i-qui'. qa tc u. pti]qa "ma uxpa' through that nu)u "etux w^in muywm m 111]- After doing so q'ip tya.) he com- panions i'intk '^qa'i'ptya'.

) him companion Tore (pi. shall take become Being of you it now and carry along.) yaqwt m mtaqupiyaiyaq took and carried it along. ctna'ijwavtaci ai]' bluejay ijnc'quts he.406 386 flMl X Southern Poiute and Ute SAPIR tcoo'iqk' yaqvvt'mMi'quaq'.).) pine-nuts (obj. carried Then "m^a'vantuywai]' at that place him ar)A bluejay (obj. iim'ijuts puia r)qWA after a while conipanions (obj. n ax- Then tuywa knee "You being about to be bluejay. ijni'tc (obj. pa qapup tyaiyar) etna r)wavt coyote's a ive eya his (obj. (past). bluejay quna t i he fire (obj." a 'yaniMA'ci'k wlu'ch he In his I)' tiv*a'i' mama ipcya foimd (pi.i'qki yaic u. Coyote it he y ar) w t'm'M iqup tagain took and tco. 'ijni'T)uts "m a'ux paami cina'qwavc coyote (obj. nVjm^t'qwantiaqa'itj)! 'aa'ikw "Oh! qaAtcu I tyaiyini not. ijni'rjuts it along. tar)a aa'ik'ptya. bluejay.)." a iptya said tcoo'ii)k aijA.i'qk you ctna'r)wa(j)i.) ai) a ivtar)ur)wa - Then through there they he with his (| liar)' mama'rinap tyai't'uaiyiami. Then . 1 mi tcoo'ii)ki5^aiva nti.) they were pursued. up to towards different body threw (pi. ar]A Then that one .) about.) wqaina i)'w had hidden . take and carry o so ' a iptya said tco.) pieces.) he along. said (pi. yar)wi'm'Mi'qu va".) him ptyaiyai) na nt n'nar)Wituywaq' directions it ntrjwi'aiyai]' his tcA'pu'ruik^piya. 13A. tcA^pa'yaitcaq'- killed (pi." maqa c- Covote.oai .

) nant'n'naqwituxwA.) he.) he mama"ar)t£tp lost (pi. it. "Would qqwantiAcuyaxwon o' that upwards cina'rjwavt of coyote ptmpt'n'Ni'kaiir)ur)qo p u'cu'yaxwDU would that would look aij (pi.) when they were also used up." "Go ahead. tv't aq- 1 mi yi}.W't niMi quaq- ftc' this qu'nfire aRi. ijm'ijutstar)' him Then him nanti'navuRuqwop tyaiyai)' tracked (pi. a iptya said mar)a lac- ar)a'rux WA wi'tca'iy ar) . niamu those c u two different directions mama rmarim^t am chasing (pi.) under it. his nampa lacpc own feet (obj.) nani'n'narjWituxwA in tcA'tca'p ayaitc'ptya' tore apart. it you take and carry it along ijm'quts- wfi tc ai)' Then roadrunner he y^wt mMi qup'cyaiyaqtook and carried it along . he his companions mountain tina (obj.) ai] wi'tca'iy they him road-runner (obj.) a fire. mam u c Those u etna i}wavt of coyote in different directions while running about. in different directions.) to him loadrunner (obj. aij 'a'ivtai]uai]' qa'ivamanti' being on qu'tst'kikaj) tya'." na nt'n'naqwitux WA yu nt vuruxwa . that one (obj. Thereupon . built (pi.) him back and forth a'ik'piya' said (pi. 't'v*aiyauq u said (pi.) o'.). itci 'aru'q-wtux WA. "This (obj. own companions (obj." a'ik 'Aptya' a'ivtaijuar)'.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 407 387 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES etna qwav ai) a'iveyarjwacjjV his tu'pi'xucuam' coyote he.) txaiyai)'.) he his companions.

mari'cu that aR it Then fire cua'ruywcp lya'.). w. does. said (pi.) companions. qA'qa'Riptya. it a'iyaicu while just qu na'manfi being of (obj. a'ik 'Aptya' cina'qwavt of coyote uqwa'ijumpa nt"It's going to rain "Oh!" 'aq w^ said (pi.). said (pi.) toy^'m a va'anA right on that a'ivaiyaijw.) being tliereon? 'tv*t'raijw aa'ikw Oh. Sure enough rain. burning "Let us tiv^'t'camp ava"antux \VA upon it uqwa't! uik aqumpa'." That one ama'ntiaraqWA "being thereof (obj. those ijm'riuts- companions qu 'n- he patca'qwtnavitcip tya. shall cause (pi." 'o"" so a'ik tu "ui)wap ui'k anti being black-clouded (pi. a'yarjwaijwantc'qaiva' shall hide (pi. na'a'int! ur it ant'k^.) 'aiA.408 388 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR mt'i)\vant'i ma pini'kaiir)UpiYa' qa'ivai u'u'rainti'.).). settled.) to a'ik 'Apiya". got wet (pi. we ctna'r)wac{)i quna'i fire (obj.) then thereupon cina'r)wa<t)i. tai)wa"vantux WA.) fire coyote (obj. maijac i]m'i)uts t'v^aiyauq- upon a'ip'iya' us.) said coyote. ijnt'rjuts . t'jywa'"ptya' That burning a ni u'c ma a'ivtar)wa n his ai)' went out. ma n u'n all t ri'c u na'a'int aR it mana'n all i' covered over.) aa'ik \v ma riv'*' aro"* is i'mpV ua't aK it qa'ivai a nia'nt'i.) being toward it (obj." a'ik^Aptya. nearly went out. being of them looked mountain (obj. "Oh! at that what being thereat mountain (obj." saying wi'qa'm'Mi'kaip tya'.

®'' i]nt'r)uts- man c u tiv^c'ts hopped . hide!" being wont to sit. stopped. ofi". ni ai]WA.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 409 389 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES (jaVivatc' tv^t'aqI'tc" qu n fire ar it a 'yaijwantc ka'. ijni'ts- man c- ur)wa rain aR it shoot at him.) I say: said coyote. sat on his haunches. (inter. a'ip tya' cina'ijwacjji. go ahead it this maqac u That one qamjack- a n um'^ava there pan larava out in rain®* mava he an on that rabbit qutcii'i)'wa q arip tya. Then that \ery aqqa x piya . "m"a ntaqiin "In that way aAtci'ac})t I a intcuan it a'ik-. His own bow (and arrow) tu'u'matshaving taken r qu'qwi'vap tYainacted as though about to qA'pa'q iptya'. t'v'^'aiyauq- Then that ijnt ts- Thereupon then mar)a c u that one qa mjack- ai) he uyu marjwtt ux WA away from it rabbit qwaii' off savt'tcaxtp tyn.

They hunted for jack-rabbits.).) hear Translation. and then a thing fell down upon them as from the sky. And then Coyote said. i]nt r)Uts mano ni so all covote he. it." said Coyote. "This looks like fire. imi'ntcu' aru are ' coyote. they all Coyote was gathered together. "What is it?" they said. it . am sa pa no X qwaaiyucampA even when wet burn?" a ip cya said na'a'iviitc'. whence has come.) you a ip lya said cina'rjwav ar) . m I aro being wont to "Yes. t'j qwaia'i)q'patctatc[A''qa"*mi Somewheres on other did you it qaitcu'aqai)wii. (obj. being about to contain fire. it is from far away from something burning. Coyote said.) pa no X qwai when wet na"aivatc'." "All (obj.) plants (obj. covote caused to burn being from it sagebrush (obj. As they were still gathered together there.410 390 a ip tya said X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR etna r)wac{)i.) ma no q u maa vt nni n a X in I qima'i]waxaivanti. There. "Go ahead! go over there in order to see whence came this which has fallen down we eat we always this fire eat raw. That which we have been burning as fire is not real fire. and what It would be very good if we find out would be very good if what we eat were cooked." ctna'i)wa(|)l sagebrush v^aiyauq u Thereupon na'a'it! tp "tya 'a ma nti' sarjwa vc" . i being wont to burn. it would be extremely good if we ate it. then. qwav a R. their chief. i'i'oA "You (inter.) it?" side make 'mui)u'ni' like rumbling noise nana qq^Ayou (pi. (pi.) (inter. Tlien maa v aR thev l)lants quna qwaxaiqu p-tya came to contain fire.'^* At that place people had a camp for the hunting of jack-rabbits.

" they. ." Then they started Now that off again. Though having done so." said the Fish. then you shall all be ready to start off." had said it. And then Coyote said. and then go and see that which is burning. "Go ahead! you Fish. having done so. off over the earth he flew. fly up into the air. as follow him with your eye!" upward toward the sky he flew. they stopped to camp over night while on their way. when morning comes." And then that Fish flew up into the air. hither towards them. "Let us. Then that Coyote said. he arrived. "Have you feathers." said Coyote said." said Coyote to him. Chicken Hawk. At that place Coyote said." said Coyote. Then." And then all started out towards the setting sun. Then one night we shall have a hand-game with them. then they lost sight of him. There. then. after a while he came back. And then he flew up into the air. they were waiting for him. Then that Fish said. then. to be flying about. and he also arrived where they were." said that Coyote.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Vies 411 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES 391 from the sky." "Yes. "Go ahead! you Crow. "Way off at the edge of the land it looks as though fires were burning." To that one. then off he flew. from there he also turned round hither. so as to fly? Go ahead! try to fly. fly up After he into the air. "What did I say?" said Coyote. then. "Do you all the Fish. Coyote led them along. and returned without result. I shall be signalling by leaning back and forth over "All right. then which they very near towards was camp that Coyote said. then from a distance back hither to them he returned." said Crow. "You are accustomed "Yes. "Go ahead! you Humming-bird. then." said Coyote. "All of you will arrive (and be) distributed in each I for my part shall arrive and go into the chief's house. And then you shall not eat all of what has been given to you. then only that Fish was left. "Now it is near. Those watched his flight closely." said that fire. "Let us go to fetch that fire from those who are having it as fire. Coyote said. Then up into the air he flew. And were going. fly up again into the air. "Hurry up and tell what you saw. "(but) shall put some of it in your knees. that Humming-bird flew up into the air. he did not see the (fire). again they camped over night while on their way. over the earth he went and flew. house." said Coyote. then. after a while." said they all." said Chicken Hawk. "Yes. He went. I shall seize fire with my hair with which this cedar-bark tinder of mine is tied. go to fetch that fire. This of ours that we cause to burn is no real fire. All those provided with feathers were used up. "Yes. and it happened to him in like manner.

I am in front of the people. they gambled in having fire. Bluejay.Vnd then those (who possessed fire) said. Having done so. On the mountain ridge next to the (camp) they sat and watched bush-fires that had been made (by those that had fire). Coyote did just as he had said. then. when they had Now sat there. .\fter so doing. camps without particular purpose. We also possess fire. what that one had said to them. . as he was running and carrying the fire. "Go ahead! you Bluejay take it and carry it along." "No. seeing that he is bending back and forth over the fire. . (Coyote and those with him) set off towards the camp. when playing very fast. I am (these) caused all it returned home." said Coyote.412 392 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR Tlien they started oti' again downward. After they had done ." said Coyote. "It seems that Coyote has come to get our fire from us." knees they found pine-nuts which he had hid there. Then they said. a hand-game with us. In his . he very quickly ran through there "Oh. it looks as though Coyote is about to take our fire. when it daW'Ued. They prepared mush out of cedar-berries for Coyote. the fire. "we are engaged in traveling around without particular purpose over the land." said Coyote again took it and carried it along. So then that Bluejay took the fire and carried it along. One of you now will take it and carry it along. They tore him to pieces and threw his body-parts about in different giving out." with Coyote and his companions during the night. Go ahead! play. he jumped far away and whooped. giving out. then to rain those fires went out. "Go ahead! then these fellow-men of mine throughout your houses will enter one by" said Coyote. And then those companions of Coyote were ready. he bent back and forth over "Oh. in each of your houses. having on the bush-fires that they And then. Coyote's companion. That Coyote arrived at their chief's house. so that you are not alone Then the hand-game took place." said that Coyote as he stood and talked like a chief. Coyote said. had made. "I do so without purpose." said those camping there." said Coyote. Coyote ate heartily. they gambled with Coyote and his companions. Then.And then Coyote stuck his tinder into the fire." said Coyote. directions. just in that manner they acted. "We are visiting around in various there they arrived." said Coyote. "No. we are not in need of fire. having come from our land. moving his head from side to side. Then the hand-game took place. "Oh. "You shall be a bluejay. Then at that place (those who were pursuing) killed Bluejay.

To it Coyote said. he acted as though about to shoot him. Then they tracked him back and forth in different directions. go ahead! hide this fire. "Oh. having taken up his bow and arrows." As soon as Coyote had spoken. "it is going to rain upon us.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 413 393 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES And then through there they pursued Coyote and his companions. Sure enough. his companions. "Go ahead! you take and carry along this fire. Then only that sagebrush was left. "Are you accustomed to burn even when wet?" "I never burn when wet. So then all bushes got to contain fire. Then. Those companions of Coyote built a fire up on the mountain. And then Coyote built a fire out of the sagebrush. "Oh. All of that fire (which was uncovered) went out." said Coyote. it is something burning. Did any of you hear something make a noise on the other side? ." said they. then. "You Jack-rabbit. "There shall be fire in all of you bushes." said they. and then the Jack-rabbit hopped off away from the (fire)." said they. he covered some of the fire. got And then that fire (which was covered) nearly went out." That Jack-rabbit sat on his haunches over that (fire) out there in the rain. those who were in pursuit of them lost track of Road-runner.^* "(He is) under this." And that Coyote then said. who always sit out in the open. "Would that they would look up this way!" said Coyote's companions. he tore apart his feet (so that they left tracks) in different directions. all of them." said the sagebrush. as they ran hither and thither in different directions. after a while. Then that rain stopped. Now that (fire) was very red. when his companions had been used up too." said Coyote's companions. And then one of those looked towards the mountain. And then Coyote said. Then Coyote asked all bushes and said. what is that there on the mountain? Oh. wet. black clouds gathered right over that place. "Let us cause rain to fall on it. "Let us keep some of the fire hidden. I am accustomed to burn even when wet. "Are you accustomed to burn when wet?" "Yes. "Did I say (it should be done) in that way?" said Coyote." said all those bushes. Coyote said to that Road-runner." And then Road-runner took and carried it along.

^aic u moYwa'p T ma t'.paiyt'k w'aip tYaaic u. iim'i}uts- tiimp^t" ttna'i u'u'ra' ti" ctna'i)wav ar)' marl'nA'piYai'iijWA. pina'r)q lint'Yaic. ttci'tca'* pA'tcan- e'r paY'i'tcairjU wantst't inavuruxuni. qatcu Ni'ct'm ulint'- ap'tait a'i^aic. a'ip lYa' va'i' ctna'i)wa<})i uv'^a-'i uma'nti' ynt'rjuts- ti'qa'p'iYa'. a'i- qna'p ar)wi wtamptvt MA'tsa'iaqqiptYaiyaq' mari'acu wta'mpt'. a'ip tYa' piqwaiav iiwa'ruxwA. iini'rjutsiqw n' qnt'r)uqwa t' tiv*t'ptna - yt'a'qaptYa. Iron-Clothes.pirjwa ctna'T)wavt' pA'tca'ia to'qwa'pt'Ya. r)uts'u'ra'. a'ip tYa' cina'r)wa{})i. itci'n' pA'tca'n. yntc an t'ptYa' qima'qwitux wa yaa'iqqw'aip t'Ya. '4'. pA'tca'iar)' to'to'pA'^qa r)qiptYaiyaq ar)' pA'tca'iar) i'v^aiyauq- o'v^'aiyauqu u'u'ra'. t'p tYa' pA'tca'iau<})i tA'pt'rup tYaaikw. cina'qwav aq' toYo'muquntaqqw'aip tYa' wta'mpivt ctna'r)wac|)i tl'qa'p tYa um^^a'nti'. linc'tsttcami tyu'p a'* qwa'u' yo'n'ntr)U. pA'tcan- a'R to'to'qwaariqi. a'ip tYa" pirjwa'iav uqwarux wa. Ya' mava'iyuaq' ti'qa'p't'Yaicuaq'^^ marja'cu ctna'r)wa(})i. cina'r)wav ai)' pina'rjqWA timpt ttna'i u'u'rainti'i'an i' ti' yaa'ipt'Ya' tavu'ts tva'ivu litn^a'va ctna'qwav ai)' clna'i}wav qwtri'k ipt'Ya. ctna'r]wac{)i x-i t'^a'q iptYa. a'ip tYa' ctna'i}wa({)i piqwa'iav urjwa'rux wa. .o'ip tYa. a'iptYa' ctna'r)wa(j)i. ni'^ain r)wi"iinar)qip-tYa. tyu'pafca'mV wantst't inavuqwan' qwa'ii' yu'n'ntqu qatcu'ttYai'yiam qnt'ijuts-. ai)' qant'xaiqq'tu'ap tYa' qa mt'yaikantmpiYa'* na'a'c u yaa'iriqw'aimmpcYa' qmia'r)Wituxw tump^t'' tma 'i u'u'rainti i'ti'c ampA na'a 'c u yaa'iniipt'Ya'. qwp'iYa' wta'mptvi' mantca 'r)qip ctna'r)wav ar) "aru'qwanai]tYaiyaq' wta'mpta qwtvu 'amaq' a-r)' wta'mptv't' pA'tca'i'kanti'. tYa' waa'ivu quna'vt' ti'qa'cuarjUpt'Ya' paiyt'k w'aip ijntc- qant'av an t'p -tYa' 'r) pA'tca'iac{)(.a'R to'to'p A'^qaqq. 'aa'ik w. ijnt'c a'ip tYa qwa'nix WA pir)wa'iac{)t. impt'ani maa'ivan qip'tYa. p'l'Ya' MA'tca'iar)qiq wtt'kuptYa. lYa'. ar)' tA'pt'rt'p lYa'aik-w r)' ijnt'c ikw a nt'p tYa' mar)ac.D-'aYtt-uxwanti ora'p t'Ya' mari'acu wta'mpt'. ptvt' toYo'iq WAcIri' qni'-^ai'irjWA tiimp^t" ttna '*va ntuxWA wta'm- maa'ip tYa. a'ip tYa' ctna'r)wa({)i. ava pt'tcixw'aip tYa' wta'mpivt'. ini'ntcan nirjwu'runi.414 394 X Southern Pcmite and Ute SAPiR 8. uv^a pt'tctxwaaits- qni'ijni'- jucu'uqw cuwa'Ruptkupt'Ya. a'ip tYa' ctna'r)wa(})i. cu'yucu c'uqw an qwtvu'amaq' wta'mptvi' piya'i'pt'Ya'. r)'ar)' pir)wa"''qa'ai'. yntca nt'pt'Ya' ctna'i)wa({)i na'a'c u yaa'iqqw'oip lYa' cu 'MU'^qunta'mtap'ttiimp'^t' ttna'i u'u'ra'. (})t pina'qqwA ta ya'uqwiptmmtyaYoaqA tA'ta'p oro'p tYa'ttci'n" paiyt'qw'oip in "^a'vaiyiiaq' pi'pi'tcipt'Ya. iint'quts.tya'p UYo'piA mar)wi"qnar)lint'- a'a'ikvv. 'a'ik-w. '?. i. pA"tca'iaucj)t qani'va i'v^aiyauq.

he found a wiampberry^* bush that was just ripe. he reached for that wiamp-berry. Yonder he pounded his moccasins with a stone. and there he arrived at the wiampberry bush. he turned home. he pounded his moccasins again with a stone." So saying." said he to his wife. they are nearly tired out." said Coyote. When he had done so." said Coyote to his wife. Coyote ate of it. His wife patched his moccasins for him. While he was thus engaged with him up to the base of the cliff. went off to another place to hunt. went off to hunt by himself. and climbed down the wiamp-berry bush. "These moccasins of mine have become worn out while I was chasing around after antelopes. he tore out of the ground dried deer meat that had been cached. Having arrived there. he went right ahead towards the cliff-bottom. After some time Coyote hunted up close towards the cliffbottom. he dug around that wiamp-berry and. "Hq. have never let anyone go. then. they were hunting jackCoyote always went off to hunt by himself. He did the same thing. He did to his moccasins what he had done before. he tore some cedar bark out of the ground. it went into the the earth. . After a while.^^ Then Coyote went on straight ahead towards the wiamp-berry bush.^^ And then he came back to his house and said. Coyote climbed the wiampberry bush and reached for the wiamp-berry that was hanging on top of the bush. He said the same thing to his wife. he would always go off in another direction towards the base of a cliff to hunt by himself." said Coyote. and ate of it there. 395 Iron-Clothes. in doing so again. when the sun was just about to set. in doing so.. they were nearly all gone. "what shall I find?" After a while. for my part. Then he turned back home again.5 Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 41 texts of the kaibab paiutes and uintah utes 8. As he did this. That rabbits. As he reached for it. "Patch these moccasins for me. There that Coyote ate them again (until) one (berry) was left on top of the wiamp-berry bush. "Patch these moccasins of mine for me. he pounded them with a stone. "Oh!" said Coyote." said he to his wife. And then they ran off in this direction. it fell down. "I. And then he did the same thing. while still engaged (in digging). "H^. Coyote did the same thing. "who has regarded me as a person ?"^^ Then he ate up two sacks of meat and started off back towards his house. Right here a cotton-tail rabbit started up. "Oh!" said Coyote. "Oh!" said he. There Coyote was camping with people." said Coyote. "The antelopes that I have been chasing have run off in this direction. and there Coyote chased him up towards the base of the cliff.

ma va'aivu poro'q uptya vi'u'ra lya'p uyu "q waiya({)V. I'v^aiyauq ora'p tya uv"a 'a'ip tya aqac a'ip ate an^*"^ naru'x wa.)'ivtoran a({)t pina's tmaqa'c ijnt'ts yii"anaq aq' to'o'ivtya'xupa'a<})'i: pini'n'ntp tya'. 'a'ikAptya' tiv''t'i]Uqwaxaiyar)A maqa'iac u mam a"caywoitsi'. inonos lapi cina'ijwavian a'ik. nana'ptya. qni'-^uwaqaq' mint's iptya ti'qwtntya q tsiaq' ' . qnt'quma'na 'ytp tya. aic u navt'naqqwop a(i uv"a 'c r ya na'p tya' t)'. ttci'ca'* c'. qa 'tc u na'a'ints tsi' aru"*. tca'a'ik m'ava" mam toVivt a"cay\voits ar) wi'tst'tstr)wa'ai(*)t qari'ntmptyaaimV. ai) 'oai' ti'rjwtna vaip tyaint'aq w waa'vas. a'ipatcitcu' aro"*. mar)a'c a'ip ats aq' ijnt'ts a'imimmptya' to'o'ivt" ora'xaaik w.maqa'iac a'ip atstaq' piya'iya i) ar)' pa tct'i)ur)wa'ai(|)t. p tya. qam'ayanti w'a'xarux wa mu'q untA toyo'q wipiya'. mai]a'c u witst'tstan' 'i'tc ora'n tmptya' ai) maqa'c wi'tst'ar) to'D'ivt ar) a'ip atst'.' t tiia 'i u'u'raiijqw'jip tya uv*a pt'tccxw'oip tya' ctna'r)wa(})i. ora'naqA wa'q I a'xavatcunianaqqw to'o'ivt' ts pt'' nantsi'n'xA^qant'i. cina'qwac})! mava 'ntuywaq qam'ayanti' man o'q o mrjwt'aiya q qoyo"ip tayai'a"cayw^'r)\vavt ani'ana i)W to 'p a n oayant aRi. a'ip tya' mam a"cat ' ' mam ywoits-. maija'c u cina'ijwav ar)' ma va'aiYU ti'ntoYDqwipiya' qant'av 'u'ra' mam a'rinap tyaiai)' qam'ayanti u'u'ra'.tya'p qw A''qa'nai)qwop a inV ti'ti'/aaix u mari'c u ptm"a'x qa'am a'R tu'tu'- qatc uv"a wim'p iya. maqa'iacu wi'a'tsiar)" pi'tcu'a'mtaq' pina'riyayiai)' naya'(])A''qaip tya'. ijni'k a q unti' yuna'n'naq wo(j)t p'jnt'kaip "tya' pina'ciyaxupa 4)t. aya'nt^aaik w ijni'm i' tcaqw't'k i^a' to'o'ivtoran an or®*^. ijnt'ijuts pa ya'in'nip tya unt'yaic u nano'cu to'o'ivt ijnt'quts to'o'ivt ora'n'naijw qa'tc uv^'a 'nora'pu^tcutcoywop tya. "t'v"aiyauqu niaija'c u tuinp"t'n tcani 'a't ar. mama"caywoitc w'a'tstvai'tnnt a'intmptya' /wai^^^ora'xa'. 'am'an 'aik-.416 396 I X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPiH 'tcuq- ymc uu '/p iya' cinti'ij\va(*)l tump"'. maqacqwau vma '*ytt ux \v ya'uq wa p tya' to'o'ivt". aqa'c u tump''t'n aro'ijqwant aq' ptijwa'xw'tp'tyaiyar)'. n"" na'a'ints tnntA ai'ytqw niai)ac mam u'c u pa n a'x qw'oip iya' qant'av 'u'ra' tump'^t'n aro'ijqwant qnt'r)uts. a'ip lYsi' pa tci'i)wa v i]mu'rux\VA. a'ip tya aqac a'ip ats ai)'. a'iv'^'tn 'oa'i' pina's tgax i^pa ni pjni'k aiva uv"a 'nti' to'o'ivtora'n ani. ijnt'quts ijnt'qiits ora'p tyai'v"aiyau(i r wta'v iim"anti' ma vo'x toq WAptya. iv^t iim'rjuts uv"a 'nti'm' pjnt'^ ai^jwa'*.)'i){|\vant ai}A qa 'p tyji'i qatcu'- iYa'ai)W^^cuwa'q waai^u. tux wp'tya' tcarjwt'k intmptya' to'o'ivt'oran'naqw aR. a'ip tya' mai)ac-u tcuwizp tump^t'n aro'qqwant ai}".m "a'u'pa'^ wi'tst'tstac})t yaT}wt'm'mtat'uaiyiaq'.

this one is like Coyote's. came out from among the bulrushes. went back home towards their house. bulrushes that I have dug up always disappear?" said the boy. Then he dug again. then. asking that old said the old "No. From there they started off towards their dried meat that had been cached. a boy?" said they.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 417 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAU'TES AM) IINTAH UTKS wife of Coyote did the '. And . there all the people of the village they An a old woman was "Is it carrying her great-grandson along in that direction. a it is little girl. go and see!" said he to his daughters. yonder. and looked between his As he did so. again there behind himself he put down his bulrushes that he had dug up." said the boy to himself. who had carried away his roots that he had dug up. When they got near it. And then that (boy) made a ball out of mud. She. "What did I say?" said that Iron-Clothes. Iron-Clothes and his daughters." woman. That Coyote ran away from there as hard as he could towards his Coyote ran straight house. Then that one. so that he looked like They. Now^° then that Iron-Clothes^' sang. black and hollow. dreamGo ahead. but bulrushes. Now what bulrushes he dug up did not stay there (where he placed them). "Now this time I shall look between my legs at my roots which 1 have dug up.^^ deorsum inter ejus crures ea tenebat. would dig bulrushes. you two. that which they had used as a landmark". one who was jointed legs at the spot where he put them. Yonder the old woman and her great-grandson were living.was the chff -bottom. ing. Parvum penem illius (pueri) girl. as I did. he quickly in so doing. in two places gathered them up quickly. "Why is it that the the bulrushes that he dug up would disappear. he went towards There Coyote arrived.\S)~ same thing to them. he learned how to dig bulrushes by himself. Then he dug. In the morning Coyote did as he had done before. and that old woman would say while digging those bulrushes. and through his legs he kept on looking. and they pursued him towards the village. "I did not dream well. having done so. "Haec (junci radi. that Coyote is eating up my dried meat. she patclied his moccasins. then he walked around and." she would always say when digging then that boy grew up. and. not standing there.x) the peni mei pronepotis est similis magnitudine. village. And then that Iron-Clothes took that boy's mother as his wife. boy's great-grandmother. woman. then off into the bulrushes he entered. ahead through the killed.

ijnt'avtyaie a'ip tya. ti'i)wtn tyan 'a'ni wi'qa'm'mti)umpa'. qwtrt'k itsiaq. r) inava 'aiyuc u ai)'. iv'^'t'ni toyo'iqqwtyumpa rjquni tiya'n'ntmpt'mami kwi'pa'ni iint'r)umtx tstni 'a'ictyan 'a'mA a'ipate ai)'. 'ynt't'stmi tint'ariqiva'^nii. 1. u'^qwa'p t ponta'tst- Yantiai)' ynu'runtptYaiyaqai)'. 'a'ie tma i) wi'qa'm tquptya' tca'm- ptnar)qip tyaiyaqi)wi'ai)' aru'q waint waa'iyumunt wi'tst'tst- qari'p iya'ainiV. a'ip tya aija'e ttci'aru' 'antm t' axa'n t^a'i'nii pA^cia'xa. tYa' to'o'ivtoraxtp tya. wi'tst'tstqwtni waa'iyur)qtr)'iim'''ani.yu'u'RA''qop t'naqainai} ai]'. tco'pt'k tYai'ptamt ijnt'quts. a'ip tYa ma'vaaiyuai)' fint'arjqiip tYaiyai)' a'iptYa. 'm 'ynt'quts.a'ixueamniarja'e wi'tst'ai) ar)'.niuntu'nap tya'. yu'u'n. ywon oani. mar)a'e u mam a"haywDitc" 'i'v^aiyauq u mamu'e- a'ip-tya'aimt etna'i)wavt iv*"i"ea' cina'i)wa(i)i MU^qwt'^jaxwa'" i'i'va ai) ai)a'rux wa. qa'yo'iriyantsfxa'®' ijru'rjU- qwar) tcux ar)a'cu to'D'ivt. paiyii'rjuptya' pt'tet^wa'aits. pina'qqWA mar)a'e. a'ip tya' maqa'e. o'v^'aiyauqw a'ip tya' ar)ae. niar)a'c* a mpA^qap ai)'.imi''. orap-^^ yni'k' 'u'nivatcurii""''qaDra'p.UR.^° a'xavaa'ip tYa wA 'a'a'xava'' a'ip tya.nara'q wtn- . a'ip iya' ai)'. tV^'aiyauqu paiyt'q w'oi- p tya' qam'viintuxw «(})"[.piya"m u'r)' qwiYwi'x ptai uqwa'iae u tiimp'^t'naro'riqwati^^ niarja'c u yo'D'RA^qopt'naq aina i) oi]' pirjwa'xwiiipiqw." pa I)' pt'riqamuntun'i'kaip tya. qwara'vayai'p tYa' maqa'cu yu'o'RA'^qop t'na'q aina yu'un an" i'i't nantst'r)'ar)qix a'ip tYa a'xavaiyuc u a'ix ucuai) iv''''t'n to'o'ivt". uv^'a quo''ny'*ka aqa'cu.tint'arjqin'. a'ip tYa' niarja'e.aR nantst'n'arjqix ynt't'stmi t'v^aiy auq aqa'c. kwi'pa'xoopu'euyakwi'pa'p tyaiyai]'. 'ar)ae tiv^'t'c ar)' wtwt'tea'- a'ipate u'" at) a'ip txain wi'tst'ai) i'. a'ip tYa' maija'c. a'ip ate ynt'ts- qnt'quts.wi'tu'n'i'kaai'. qwara'vayaipaxpiYa tim'ar|qitstva'ami. fiv^'t'ts-^* natja'i'aip tya' a'r)'. muntu'n'ntavtmtp tya.a'iptYa a'ip ate ai)'.t'v^aiyauqw a'ipate ar)'. t'v^'aiyauq' marja'e u ptqqa'muntun'i'kaip tya I't'i'c amp' tst'ar) ar)'. toViv uR ttci* 'aru"omt ini'a qwtYa'i'pta'm u'l)' niaa '(j)ika 13' eina'qwavty aq' qoyo^'p iyai'. a'ip tya' niaijac wi'tst'ai) yirjqixaiyar)'. i 'tcuqw an t'c- ani'p I.418 398 ijni'tsiar)' X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPiR tavi'pcYaiyar)A wta'mavox toq WAqainav o'mA.i't I'qa'q-A. maqa'ei) ai)' lint'rjumt'tstai)'^^ ti'qwtntya qnt'quts-. • qwau' qwara'vayai'ptya'. tYain t a'i^uwai)".wi'tst'aij arj' pt'teiptya. axa'nii)qir)uqwaiyunt' ani'ka' munu'u'qwani'ami tint'aijqiqa'aimi.

"and I shall tell you something. sitting. his great-grandmother hit him. And then that (boy) kept on lying covered up. He always used to While still lying thus. Then your mother was taken away and has been taken by Iron Clothes as his wife. that one cried from pain as he went hopping along on one leg into the bulrushes. And then After a while that great-grandmother of his arrived. "Come and joint my leg for me. and after doing so to me. And then those two said to Coyote. As he did thus to them. and call people together." .Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 419 399 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES seized them. "There indeed lies what was dug way should it always be with what is dug up. my dear. came to dig up bulFrom that same place cried with pain he whose leg had rushes. these are really your dead relatives' brains. she quickly covered him up with her gathering basket and then Under that her two great-grandsons were lifted it up from him. When he had done so to him. That boy thought. "Come and joint my leg for me. "These are not really bulrushes." "Why have that done to you? to kill you?" said that said the boy. off tliere among them he was crying from pain. "and I shall tell you something. while going through the motion of hitting him. "What can have happened to you that you act thus. went to bed and covered himself up. been broken." said that one whose leg had been broken. "Go ahead! now tell me. and then they shall assemble together in this place." said he from among the bulrushes again." And then he went back to his house. Then that boy became very angry. then. In the morning he did as he had done before." said that one. that had one notch. "Go ahead." saying so he kept lying covered up. (the boy) made a leg out of a stick said. "There have come to be two great-grandsons for me. in that Then the boy said." said the old woman. Coyote. lying covered up? Perhaps some one has been telling you something. Despite her his great-grandmother said." said he. you shall quickly cover me with the gathering basket. up. he said. After having done so to him. Then from there he told him and said." said the boy. "Go ahead and hit lie covered up. he started home." said his great-grandmother. great-grandmother of his. and having arrived. who were killed through Coyote's fault." said that one whose leg had been broken. "Get up and eat this. me with your seed-beater right in the center of my head. "I wish she would hit me!" and sure enough. (the boy) turned and hit him with the mud-ball that he had made. That (boy) was getting tired of what he After he had spoken thus.

420 400 tcuinpavii'. a'ik 'p'tya. m '*a'u'pa''* ctna'ijwav c ar)' niot'p tyaiyaq ' ntnwi'aiya q'. ctna'- i)wac{)i ni^a'vanfi' niaa'viiruq WAti o'raptya' NA'. a'ip tya' tA'st'av ai)' ti'rauq wtvtav a tct'ni 'aq uqwacj)! yar)Wt'i)wtnt7. a'ip tya' ctna'ijwac})!. t mava pani. a'ictna'i)wa(})i qatc u naa'n tap ca''^. qa'q ai'ytqvv a'i'nai)\VA ctna'r)wacj) WA^'qi'eir qo 'nip'tya ai)a"ura'.a''' ijnt't'simi ni' no n'nt'va cina'i)\va{J)i. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR 'y 'niai. a'ip 'tya' ctna'ijwac})!. '"ini yuyu'wait i ini i'i'va' qari'cainpA. lya' p '(jt'. 'aa'ikw.o'y. ma n o"oi) ptya'aii)W.wa. a'ip tya' cina'i)\va([)i. t' ijnt't'sti3W ti'nia'p tya'aiijW. ctna'i)\vavt'ii)WA pA^qa'ijupiya'aiijw.ivatc'i. ma'n. pina'ijcjWA maija'iac i: tana'cj itst^^ ai}' qam'viintuYwaMU^qwi'-^ani'i^a'.uv''ai tya' 'i ''ijwara'*''- (jantm t 'i 'c u'wani cuwa'Mr^qwi^axwa'aivu. a- i'i'i). \'''ini 'aiYU paya'iniMi'qin''a i'nii. . a'ip tya' ctna'qwav tma'ivatccamp' ti'v^itstn a'iviitc' nava'c u ctna'ijwacj)! pays'in'NU^'qwip tya' nai]ai^a'. tya'^^ nia va' 'u'v^aiyauq u cj 'p ar'uap o'4) t' iv^t'ya q- mai)a'cui)umi ctna'i)wav ai)' niot'mpar)um'. a'ip tya' ctna'i)wa(})i. a'ip tya' ctna'i]wav antt'i]wta iri" qatcu'n' 'vumaiyuai)av a''xo'ma'ntp'tya. a'ip tya' tan a'qtts-.a' tuinp"c'n aro'i)- 'a'iptya' nana'x qantiiinpa'a'vtqwt qwa'nti iii) ui)wa"vantux wa. ijmu'rax WA. kiya'p iva'ai' ti-/a'iva a'intcuan a'ik-^.®* a'ip tya' ctna'i)vva(})i. a wawa"*^ nayn'cj wipaian un a 'ytt uyw ant'^ja a'wawa'.qi'i'va ijwa'ivucampa. t'v''aiyauq ctna'ijwav ai)' u pi'ka"ai' tayu'"t u'cu'i]'wtp tya'aim'. iv"t'yai)' na'p antuywa i)' niaija'ca'ivean ai) i.s ijnt'tc X'i ya 'vaiyti^up'tya'aik w a'iptya'. ijnt'ijutsiq- u'u'ra' N'U^'qwi'ijqw'aip tya' aii)\v i}nt'i)ut.''\\)V(<i cina'r)wac{)i. uin^a'x L'pa'p tYa' MU'^qwt'-^. a'ip mamu'- u nava'(})itsii)\v amV. nari'qatcu"um ant'k. qa'tc i: nari'v''in aro'" n'{"' co'q uc. u'mai. ni"a'va ntuywa'anii ciwau' no 'ini'quv^a'ami ijni'tst'' iv*"t"nit-^.'t'ntva'p i'mi ts qu'tnna'p tya'pi'ka"ayaxaivaniint'ijutstl'cia'cj "- tl'qa'vapi. a'ip tya' ctna'ijwac})!. a'ip tya' ctna'i)\vac{)i. a'ip tya' cina'i)wa<})i. cina'ijwac})!. q ' wa'a'p a ts n t'ayaivjitc'. a'ip tya' tana'q tts-. ai)a"q.a'. 't'v''aiyauqu qii'ii''ya- pi'ka'xunavutstar) 'an a'xtyar)' no 'miqup tya.''qwt'y'j m ama'xa i]. ynt'quts.ani '-^. um''a'uxpa' 'o"" ctna'ijwav ai]' mot'ptyaiyam'i: "m^a'vaiy a'ip tya' ctna'ijwac])!. a'ip cina'ijwav ai}' ctna'i)wa({)i. pcYaiyaij'. . i\. 'a'ip tya' tana'q tts no 'nt^a* ctna'i)wa({)i. qatcu'rui'iq-^2 ''ivii" t'i'va pa ur 'aaivatc'.miyo'tiyan qu'qwi'p tya. ni "a'u'paq' mot'p tyaiyaq' m"a'va' yu'a va' ta yu 'itcup I'p't'ya'.*^ a'ip tya' 'ini'ntciyt'vtn*" tu 'p pi'ka"ay ai)'. pt'tct^w'aip tya'aim'. ant'k ain ni'nt aq a'.

"what friend of mine has been through country. then from there you will start to walk along. Then." said Rattlesnake. but I shall not bite you. then. " right around here is the one that is called Cedar Spring. "All right. "Yes. "It is I who have done so. my wont to act thus." said Rattlesnake." said Coyote. "did I say that a round-dance was about to take place here? So I am to carry around on my hack you who have no legs! You just "Though Coyote is always saying that." said Rattlesnake. as he stood and held his unfeathered arrow together with his bow. "No! It is my wont to be provided with but one arrow. Coyote "Let me. Coyote went off in yonder direction. awawa!" said Land Turtle. going about to call people together Soon against Iron-Clothes. as (Rattle"It is snake) was darting out his tongue from Coyote's shoulder. started +o walk then they all ate him. them to be thirsty. he said. all of you. And is wont to say so merely in sport. At yonder place Coyote said. brought it back with him. carry you along off to turnr'd back again to him. I Long ago he really Coyote but when he heard what he had said. Coyote did not say anything. Then he shot to a killed him and then roasted him in the ashes. "Go There. Coyote. ahead now! That Coyote will be your leader. then. is it that is always ready? almost went to call people together. considerable distance and. "In that way shall it always be done to you. And so Coyote led them through that country.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 421 401 TEXTS OF 'JHE KAIHAH I'AH TKS AM) UINTAH UTES "Who. Coyote. "Do you. "Traveling around to call people together." said Coyote. and poked the Turtle out with its point. there on the plain they were thirsty. he spoke to different kinds of animals." Right there under a bush Coyote dug and coveretl himself said he. awawal^'* while engaged Coyote in proceeding into the combat." "H^!" said right." said Coyote. stay here!" said Coyote. the Hard-shell Turtle's (spirit) caused Now . And then he started to carry him along in (Rattlesnake's) little rawhide bag." said Coyote. having done so. give that companion of mine one arrow each. "Is there not a spring hereabouts?" said they." said Coyote. You shall always be eaten. then. off. then. "Look out! don't bite me. Coyote was leading the troop to that country." said the two brothers." said Coyote. who are destined to be a hard-shell turtle. "All "Ca-ry me. having done so. that place. he ran along towards the spot (his arrow had reached)." said Coyote." said Red Ant. here?" said he. the two of them arrived at the gathering place. he came to that Rattlesnake's house." said Coyote. Coyote led the people through that "Oh!" said Coyote.

quu 'p aqap tya'aikw. ar) a'ip tya. a'ip'tya' ctna'i]wa(|)i. a'ip tya'aim'.a'ip tya' piya'm- pf'm'R aim' yo'vttcuA'tstqw am' ma'i- qatcu'ya mV pa '^xavatcux w a'ip tya'. qa'tcu yu'a'r)q'qai'tuava*''qa r)an o' a'ian a'ik 'f. mava"amt kainani. a'ik *ptya. a'ip lya' itci'an 'oai' nj'ni ai)'.'a'ip 'iya' piya'nr am'. yii'a'i]q'qai'tnava''qa r)an o' ivi'^uai)'. i)wav ar)' cuwa'i'y'a'ipiya' ta yu'y'ai^ja'. qnt'tstam' m ^'a'u'pa'am' yua'm'miaptyaiyam' pa'iA'' qari'ri 'a'lira'. m'^'a'va ntimanaqqWA pa' aR i'i'tc'ia NU^'qwt'kup'tya' qana'uir)\vayanttmpar)WitnxWA. m 'o'var|wtt\iywai)' ' maqa'c Ti tiimp a'R tu 'm'umui aij' naq ttc ar)' qil'p tyaiyaq i^nt'ijuqwa wantst'vuqqo'ar) p'lnt'ijw'tntp tya.ctna'qwav a'ip'tya. uv''a"ai)WA cina'ijwav ui)' taya'pA^qai a'iveaT)\va v \ir) iim't'rjwa'". ta \va qu'qwt'p iint'quqwa q' paiyi'i'ij' tiimp a'R pu'ruqwip't'ya u^qwt'yuar) aR i)Uptya'. maijac. paya'in^'NU'^qwik'p'tya u q' wa'a'- pa tc ur a'ik ainani. a'ip tya' piya 'm. o'v'^aiyauq u a va'ijwi nava'q 'I'qaptya'. oa'q "t^iiva^^qa i} uru'ac mai)a'c u m-''a'ii tijumpaqai)' a'ian tana'qttc ai)'. ai)' mah^'tn n'o'nt ivi'k'Apiya' marja'ccampA tan a'qttc nji" piya'i'ptya. a'ip'tya' ctna'i)wa(j)i. a'ip'tya' tana'qtts-. axa'n u'v^ai' pA'pa'- . yanwt'i'yap t.422 402 lint'quts X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR i'v^'aiyauq aija'c- iyo'vitcuatc tvi'xw'airjiinipa'amt. m'jmt'nwant qatcu'A^qan uwani yu'a'i]q'qai'Uiava'r)wa'. a'ip'tya' cina'i]wa(i>i. ptya'aim' tya't uxwai)Uctna'- yuwa '"vt ava"a xi no 'a mt'v^'am' pt'tctxw'aip tya'. v 'I'^i. tump*t'n aro'ijqwant'i um*'a'va' yuwa'^va' tar) arai)w 'aa'ik w. um''^a'u'pa p oro'm'yap tyaaic u. p tyain t'. am' too'ayax qamptya'aim'. ma in u'c 'ur)\VA nava'tstijw am' pa '^yavatstywaijwctm' qwii'p tya' paru'qwam iya'rjuptya'. a'ip'tya' cinar|wa(})i. ai)' ma m u'ccamp tA'st'av piya'i'pt'ya'aim" t'yaiyaq- tana'qttst aqa'qwa'*. ivi'vii'. wtp tya' tiinipa'iya i)'ain- ma- axa'n ti)um o'v"ai a 'yawantciqaiva'. a'ip't/a' in a"uts. 'a'ikw. mamu'c u nava'tstr)w ai)'. ni. 'v*a. ptya'nr ai)'. Ty'ir 'a'ik-'. a'ip tya' ma inii'c- aij'a'vantiixwa'aru' pi'tcu'aim"mic tir/u'i)'inari'i)war)q''pr('a. a'ip tya' ctna'qwacj)!.in ta'ain'. ni"' nam {"ivtva' 'n'ntntctai)'.ai)'. ti'xa'p tyS''- piya'in- tyatuxwa'ain' yuwa'^x^'^t" uv'^a'^x 'init ai)' m^'a'vantr yua '*va nti' aa'ik w. ar tv'^t'raijWA (ju'qwt't tya'^qava itc'i" tolia't i'mipt^* 'ai'. q w qo'qwikap t'ya'aik w u^'qwt'yuamo'v^ai' ai)' uv^'a'ntuxw'aam't'r)wantuywac u tA'st'av pA'pa'iyt'p't'ya'. nii'r)W'tini yo'vitcuA'tstya'q Dijum'** tiya'n uniptan ava'r)wii)uini yu a'm'miava'. a'iptya' ctna'- r)wa<}>i. mavu'tsktrjq'ptyaiyaqa'am' mamu'c u Mu'qu'nt'am' pa'iy'am um^a'nti' tu'u'iiiA'^qwoi'p tya. a'ip'tya'. tv*t'ni ni'm" ava'rjwmi paiyu'aijqiqtv'am^i- tana'qctc qi'i'xi'kai'ptya.

who have been carrying him around. (daughters of Iron-Clothes." said Coyote. "This is the Cedar Spring that I spoke of. "I shall . Their mother was gathering seeds at that place on the plain. are we going to kill him?" Circling about him "Oh. Starting from that point the water flowed off through a canyon bordered with willows. but that Rattlesnake was left over. putting out their breasts and holding up their heads like doves. That Rattlesnake bit it. and when he did so. They went on again through that country. shall hold it for me.' that indeed is what I said. The two sisters took them right out into the water and dived into the water. thirst. yonder Coyote said. And then the}' started off on their way." said Coyote. then. "Let us all practice shooting at this white stone. There sisters." said their mother." said Rattlesnake. and when he did so. Do not take them into the water. "Look at the little doves that I have found. The (doves) slipped out of the girls' hands. Red Ant and Rattlesnake." said Coyote." They shot at it there and the arrows all came back to them. said the woman. They all drank. "how. "I shall carry mourning doves in my seed-beater. "You two shall bring water in this (bag)." Now through this plain. then they went straight and took some those two of the water. The tame antelope (that Iron-Clothes had as guard) was standing there on the plain. Coyote was nearly dead from be the first to drink. that's what I say." then she carried them through there towards the lake.^''* "Let us two go for me then that young Mourning Dove'^ said." said she. the rock burst to pieces and his arrow came back into his hand. "No! let some one hold it for him. the stone became like a round black mass. Down upon her did the two of them fall as though from the sky and closed her mouth with their hands. The two of them.) sat watching. In it they bathed themselves. That mother of the boys said.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 423 403 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES with moist earth . then. proceeding to find water to drink. "Some one " No one of you shall hold it for him while he drinks. "how. you in the "All right.**" "Oh!" said they." said Coyote. flew over it." said they. shall I hide you?" said the "Over there Coyote together with his companions are form of little thirsty." said Rattlesnake. " that Rattlesnake will spill the water." Rattlesnake let the water spill out of his mouth. And They started off through here over the plain and arrived where their companions were." said Coyote. They alone now were left over. Red Ant shot at it." said he. Coyote said." said Coyote. "Let me drink. "Oh!" mother. standing looking in different directions. " 'That is what he will do.

wants ai)' 1)'. u'cu a'ip tya' na ni i'yai) ai)'. ' quna'vta T)'. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a'ik ^piya". inaa'up ac r ya c rqwaii}up iya' ma m wt'i'atsti}w 7. ijnt'^aicuaq' mi)\vt'aiya ij' ijnt'i)i'tstaq maip tya' tana'c t:^aiya n' nari'yavantiiyw tyii'n uyiaq piyi'a I)' ijnt'k aip tya. pi'ka'xunavutsts uai) cina'ijwac{)i. a'ip "tya ai}a'c r. u'u'i^wantantca^i) uc u maa'it' uit i' tiv^t'camp ttc ur}'.\\\\ inaija'c r piya 'nr aij ai)' m "a'vaaiYU tr'cu'p tya'. n'ni'. ijni'k ijnt'ijuts- \va tct'ni'mtap tya' uijwa'i'kai'ptya. (1 mava' mar)a'c u tana'q ttc a'a'ikw a'ivaiyan. pu'ca'yaiptyaiyaq '. ma'up ar)' aij' a' aija'oax ij tux \va tai)wi'xarup lyaiyar)'. a'ip tya' ctna'i]\va(J)l. iim"a'i)aya 'axa''^ niru'q waA'tiac u pf'ni'm"a'i) ani'k a ia'vuruijuqwain am.'vuijqoai)' tiinip^'t'n aro'i)qwanti' 'aa'ik w. uac un ya 'c ar)up tya' pa'ai' qari'ri a'u'ra 'ava' imV^'ptya. 'ar)a'vaiar)qwAti'ac tya".. lna^•a 'iyuai)' tl'qa'q'p'tyaiai)' wants'. 424 404 (juva I]'. a'it'cai]W qa 'q "}^' wantsi'viii)(iijn (iatcu"ui)waiii)w i'i'vil' pi'tciaap ate'. 'ant'an 'aik tcA'tca'payaitc'ptyaiaq uv"a 'ntiiywa q ' . 'f maija'c r tiinip"i'n aTo'ijcpvant a'ip tya. 'u 'v"a' so tsi'k aip tya ijm'mi'qup tyaaicu tiv'^'t'pi aru'qwaxi t'v'''aiyauq u toy^t'aqaruq wa sotst'r)Uptya ii'v*a sotst'i)rp'tyaaic u. ijnt'ijuts- pu'a'iyon t' paiyu'i)uptya' qa'q ii)Upiya qnt'quts tana'q o'" 'a'ikw. a'ikw. V inaiia'c u tA'ct'av qani'a A^(ia'nai)qwDp mia '"yantiimpa' marjwa'vaxa' qari'p tya'. kwi'pa'p 'ijnt'ijuts ctna'rjwacjji u tA'ci'avt ar)' ya'pitcf/w'aip tyaiyaq' ai)a'iac tyaiarj' C|una'vta ava'ijwtai]' no m'mtap wantsi' ai) aija'vatcux WA. am a'ip tyamava 'aiYU ijnt'k ar)U- ctna'ijwav mi'ts- ai]" na t a ijqa'n'x. a'iptya'aim'.\''ptya'aik w to'tst'ac})!. fiv'^ipt A'ct'aRuqwa tys'nuc- y^^ ai)a'oi'a'i'pi. ' " ta "vu'v^'ux u. cina'i)wav m u'Rqwa ''ytt piini"nip tya. quna'vua'ami inava pt'tctyw'aip tya ya 'i)qix\v'aii}unipa'. a'ip tya'. ayji'n i-^ai ani'k tr'cu '- . qi'i'p tyaiyaq . cina'qwav ar)' tCA'lint'ijutsiaq.t'vTcampan t' to'to'q oap tyaiaq ti'v"tk icara aip tya. a'i^a ijwa'i'^kaina ijav u'u'raiijqw'aiptya'. uin"a'va' pi'ka'xuna\nitnnaxiv mai)ac ayuc r wi'i'k uptya' ti'rava ntux wa. ni' 'aa'ik w patst'ni qatcu'tca paa'iyoi)wa'ap ac r wt'i'atsiqw ai) 'a amV. piiv^'a ai)' o 'p ac u paiyii'ijuptya' mava'ntuxwptya' wantst' iint'i]uts- ar)' wtnt'k aip a ntux w. o'v"aiyauq u 'ntciiin ma ni u'c u nava'c})itsti)w aim'.ya' wantst' aij'. a'ip tya' cina'qwac})!. tv^t'yaraijWA naijwt'iaRqwarjumpa'. ' tca'payatcA^qainac})'!:. a'ip tya' patsi"u)W. ctna'ijwav m "a'va ntiix \va moru'navi' tu'tu'p i'na- ptya' wantsi' na'uwa'nie k*® an ana"ura'. t' a'ip tya' nam i'yai) ai)'. a'ip't'ya" maija'c ui)' tiinip^t'n aro'ijqwant ai)'. a'ip tya' aR niava ur)wa'i-kaip tya. a'ip tya' patst'ai) at)'.

jumped high up in the air and came back making a raucous noise. that Rattlesnake had his mouth filled with dirt. "Oh!" said the older sister. " let me go and get your bag for you. After they had done so."" keeps looking under me. Sure enough. it seemed. There. antelope had been standing. \\. creeping on his hands and knees towards the antelope." said he. He flew off towards the lake many have and there they arrived.Texts of (he Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 425 40. "that one.') TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES in that sitting on the Coyote pulled greasewood right there out of the ground." " It is that one whom Hack through that country flew off those said her younger sister. they rounded him up. after having torn it up. and Coyote patched it together somehow or other. they "Oh!" said that Iron-Clothes. he found his heart beating right in Then he bit it. them. indeed. "Oh my companion!" said Coyote.\. This time he peeped out right under him. and. Coyote arrived with Rattlesnake's bag and then he carried him along in it to the At that place they all ate the antelope. The mother of the two boys was grinding .^® "Oh!" said Coyote. the antelope under the surface of the earth. he put it in front of himself. Coyote painted his head fiercely. then. he came to where the to pieces. now. Iron-Clothes said. "Oh my sister! become in number. and then the antelope the open between his hoofs. Tliat Red Ant was divide in the direction of the antelope's house. "Let us all turn ourselves into sparrows. he was still far away from him. "That is what I said. noise. he looked around at all parts of his body.seeds at that place. Iron-Clothes' antelope." said they. yonder he peeped out again.\v wounded. as he went along. At that place he tore his bag up He returned to the same place. Before reaching that Red Ant. Then. he dropped down to the ground and proceeded towards Yonder he peeped out. So doing. only his rawhide bag was still hanging there." said one (of IronCoyote kept looking under clothes' daughters) to her older sister. "Why are you engaged in grinding seeds? Is it Coyote that causes you to grind seeds?^^ You said. way. he went to where he had hung him up. tame antelope. And then the brothers There said. sparrows. Again he started to move on under the earth. so doing." So saying." There he arrived at the bag. the antelope fell down dead. While he was doing so. "my tame antelope made a raucous has not come back here. "perhaps it was that Rattlesnake that was gotten sight of. that the sparrows I . That Rattlesnake was hanging there in his rawhide bag." said Coyote. indeed.

nt'c ipiYa'. a'ip tYa' Ywaint' wantst'vurjqun iiq' qa'q trjU^qwanti qatc ijmji'.i^tr)qu o'wiyam' ma'roarDmput!uit tump^t'yuai)' mam aij'. nani. t'v"aiyauq u maqa'cu .'aim'. ma n a'q o ma '*vta-i)' qi'tt'itcuquptYa' paY^'^'wiyam' iik'ptYii' ma-'roarompul: uit iik'piYa' q'i'fc'itcuq iiptYa' tiimp^i'yuar)' tump''t'm a Vtai)' man o'q o paYJi'- tiimp^i'ma*vtai)' maiio'qo qi'tt'itcuquptYa'. i'v"aiyauq u tA'ci'ant aR ti'qa'i)'AViptYa' ma ni u'cuaqynt'^uts' qant'a mV ta ijwt'xarup tYaiyaq '.iiinpa". maija'c u piya'nr ar)' pt'ijqa'RUcuptYa' ma ni u'c 'uq w nava'(|)itstr)w am" yu 'a'p tYai'(ia 'm" tu'cu'n a !)' piya'iyavt'm'. a'ipiYa'aim' ma in u'c am Da'xaq m a'r)aya-"xa'* na'ntcuin pui)'wi'i)qi oa 'va ar imp't'n'ini 'ntc'. a'ip lYa' tiinip^'i'n aro'r)(jwant'.ani'ntctm" i'mV pu'c'tsatstqw u nava'tsir)w t' am'. mamu'ci^nt'ts- i'v'^aiyauq u nava'(|)itstr)w am a'ip tYa'aim'. 'a'i lY'ir X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR cina'r)wavtfcua 'm 'aik » m^a'!)' inii" pA'^qa'qain aq axa'n intca "ija'* pA'^qa'iioar) inani'ntcar)an qm'qu maa 'vtar) u'a'xa(j)t ai)' . t'v^'aiyauqu mamu'- cu nava'(})itstr)w am 'aa'ik a'ip'tY3.")'iN'o''qwo'mttstYaip ai- yani qwttca'q ant'ar) u'u'ra' tsitst'ijwtcA.a'ip tY^' tan a'qitc tVt'ani toY.426 406 xwa'.o'" 'uni'c. a'ip iya' piqwa'^r) ar)'. mar)ac. I'v^aiyauqu tA'ci'anti' tiYa'. tVi'aqmarja'c u tump'i'naro'rjqwant'. fiv^'i'camp I. ya'c ui)up ijni'c tY^' pa'ai' qariVi u'u'ra'. a nt'p CYa' cina'r)wa(})i iim^u'RU^qwa^Y't iiactn pi'ni'n'- i'v'^'aiyaiiq o 'p ac u ya 'c ui)up tYa uv^a' iim''t"ixw'aip iY^' nip iY^.qa 'tc u 'o'orian am'kain' ma'i'an 'a'ik '. o'v^aiyauqu mamu'c u na va'tstijw am' piv'^a'yuv i}ni''kan'.a n i'k aijiip iy^ 'a'i^^uam'. iv''t'arai)WA na'a'*r)aRuqw{^. toYo'iavar|Witii qnt'tskwi'pa'p tYa' qwitca'q anta 13' mava'qwtai] iint'i)uts oa'xa q aip tYaiyar)'. tv^''i'ra- r)WA na'Ya 'tcttcuqwarjumpa'. tiVt'c. o'v^'aiyauqu mamu'cu uv^'a'yu'm a'ip tY^^ico'om' mamu'cu m^a'i} ani'k a ia'vurin)i'(pvaimanu'nt o 'pac u m. tv^i'yaraijWA qwqumpa'. nava'(})itstr)w am'. *^ tu'cu't uiy'im qam i'oap uts i'm a'i^ai' aik'. maija'co'" pir)wa'*r) ar) ijnt'c uar) ani'ijup'tYa' ti'Ya'n tmp ar uv'^'a'rjWi u^qwt'yim' wi'm'kuqwain uv'a'qwi wi'm'k uptYa'.ani'k. paiyc'q w'oip tYa'aim' qam'vantuxwa o'" *mt(J)t. tiv^'i'camp o'" qa 'tstqw am' qa'tcu pa'iyoijup'iaaicu tiimp^i'n aro'qqwanti' qam'va'. u'c'uq w ti'qa'q 'ptYa' tuxwa'vai' cina'r)wavty ai) a'ivaiyaqw. patsi'ai) ar) a'ip't'Ya'. ma mu'c'ui)'^ ^"" *'a'ura'ii)WA qwttca'q an tar)' tsttst'r)WicaptYa'.imtri'waiti nava'c u qa 'q ti)uts i'i'va' pi'tctR rii'^OL. pu't'tcatstrjW qa'tcu na vu"ttcaRUpaa'iYUpiaicu ariyaiyana'm'. am' tiYa'n tmpiman'. uv*a' }m*["r^w'aip lYat' aicu. iirjwa'cuqari'Yuai) itci' o"" qnt't i"qai)'\vi. n'tt'atj qani'ntcuqwa 'x 'a'aik \v w aYa'n.

" said Iron-Clothes." then. "That tame antelope He is not wont to make a of mine too has made a raucous sound. Are you waiting there for me. that Rattlesnake said. Coyote and his companions. ate it during the night."*" Then those two brothers said. he kept looking under them. Deinde ille Ferrovestitus " iit ut defaecaret et crebro pandiculatus est*' cum ambularet." Illi igitur ad domum (Ferrovestiti) defaecationis eum baculo jecerunt et ipsa in domo ejus defaecationis cecidit." And then they all turned back again. as it seemed. Coyote?" said Iron-Clothes." said his wife. That mother of the two boys kept on grinding seeds and they carried ofl" what their mother ground. "Oh! happen that there came to be these mice?" said the two "Oh! that one. Coyote said. And then it became dawn and they thereupon circled around the house of (Iron-Clothes and his daughters). Then they flew back again and arrived there whence they had been coming. He has something raised on his back. " Vos baculo prehendentes ipso in loco quo curvus sim jacite me ad domum ejus defaecationis. and they gnawed Iron-Clothes' gun all to pieces. sound like that for no reason. indeed. he is wont to return to me. Then he waited for him therein." Sure enough. and do it again." and in very truth they became mice in great numbers under the house. Then. they all did just as the two of them Then they flew off towards the lake and arrived there. that is what I say. as they sat and watched them. did it how Now. just as she had (pretendedly) done. Then the two sisters went back to their all own house.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 427 407 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES you had killed that little jack-rabbit. as you say?" "It is thus that I did so to him. Consedit in foramen defaecationis. Those. having made a raucous noise. So that wife of his did then. is sisters. then." The elder sister said. when dawn came. They caused the bow-strings (of Iron-Clothes and his daughters) to hang loose. but how did you kill him. with this seed-beater of mine. making a horrible squeaking noise. . and the seed-beater struck right into the spot where the arrow had struck. now." said Iron-Clothes. "Let us all his all turn ourselves into in Sure enough. They gnawed things to pieces.^^ "No! it has been done by a spy. acted as before. "Go ahead. they got to be rats in great number Iron-Clothes' house. " That one it is whom I have wounded. rats. "Let us turn ourselves into mice. Now those two brothers said. the two brothers said. "Let us all turn ourselves into pinon jays. as he was sitting right in the brush.

nji"' cu'quc. WA'qi't uywac u tara'vtn'na ai'. Chipmunk deceives the Giant. am' m nava'(|)itstijw am ' piya'iya m' ya 'vanaxp'tya'.ii)war'uxp ai) tya'. waVt'n'i'piyaaim'.tunip''i'n aro'ijqwant na "vt't u m'lijup tya qani'av ijnt'ijuts iiv"a'ianai]qwat iac i? u wi"na'. mava'ntuywa m' pA^'qa'quptyaiyam'. ijni'quqwa i)' ma kwi'pa'p iya' co 'q un ai)' qwa'uai)' mtni'c tk' qu'qwc'p tyaicua q'. a'ip lya' piya 'i). tA'ct'av ai)' pina'ijqw o'v^'^aiyauq qa'tcu qu'qwtri'wa'iYicampa qa 'una'cuv a'ip iya'.aim ta'm'. nj'nur/woxain mai)a'c u pi'nqa'm'aipiya'. 9. p'R^" qwa'ut uywac u ponipo' tA'ci'av ai) a'ip lya'.428 408 tuinp''i'n arj'ijqwunt X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ai)' qwitca'-/\v'Dip tya' nan a'ro q wipaxptYa. niar)a'c u paq am' paya'ii'wta m 'ai' to'qwa'p i'namipiya'it'nai'.u'qwt'yutsiyaivatc umpi'cAcampA mam-i'v^'atci' qu'qwi'va'. njnt'axwa'xtiin na va'tstqw am' qwa'ut u^wam nia ni u'c u n'ai'.wa'am u-^qwi'yu aR kwi'tu'xpam pompo'n'ap lya'aim'. m "a'l) ya' tava"ats ai)' piyii'niywacjjV. a'i^uwan' ma m uc r nava'tsti)w am AVA'qi't uywa'am' tara'vm'na'piya'alm'. a'ip t([a 'tc U qatcu' n a 'n la'ap '. tsts tu'na i)qimt3!n t'. 'ani'k'^ (ju'tu'c ui)' pA'-cja'tjciiiiuinpa ij'ain tn'.aR tor)qwa"piya' ijn['i)uniti)qucam niaru'xqwaqqi'p tyaiyaqam' paya'ij'wiam uc[). maija'c ijnt'ijuqwa n a'q itc c u tiimp^i'n aro'ijqwant ai)' q wipia'". niai)a'c'ui)WA tan a'qttc aq' kwi'tu'x pa q oai)' qi'i'p tya'. u v'^'ai' uv'^a-'^ian i'' cina'qwav oa'xa qanan'/^ a'ipiYa' o'pa'q ta tiimp'^'i'narD'i]- qwant ai)'. u'qwi'yuai) aR qu'qwi'mn)mava 'ntuywa i]' tump''i'n aquai) aija'uraaic u paiyii'qum ip tya'. mamiic 't'v''aiyauq patcn'i)wa "ij a tci"anni(J) tu'u'niAp'iYa ijnt'i]^uqwa m' paya'ij'wiam. ro'ijqwanti aij' patct'i)wtnwaq uai)' pA'pa'q '(jwaiijup tyartuaiyiam'. w 'a'ian 'a'ik '. pava'tcajqiva i)an 'a'ian 'a'ik qa'tcu pA^cia'ijqiijumpa i) 'amtn ])iya'ni '^. ijni ''^.ai)'. ij' ma q- ava'ijwi aij' (}A'(ia'R'ip'[Ya'. a'iyaic WA^'qi't uywa'am m'lni'c ik ' poo'i'pa t i- i'ljwanti t'i'rava ntux \va qu'qwi'p lya. ntijw t'RUqwat iiywaq a- w va ntarai)\VA a'iyaq' qu'qo'qwikanarjum a'R qa'tcu maa'ntstijwji '*. t t maija'c u a'ip'iya'. a'ix ucampa ij' pa ^va'tcipi'xa'. a'i^uwai)' ijni ''^. iv*in ijni'ts. niaija'na va'c u qari'ptya' qatcu yu'niu'ti'r)qunt'ai)\v qi'i'p iyaaic ai)' u iint'i)Uqwa I) ijnt'r)uts. ma qa'c u qu'tuc a'l)' . ijnt'tstaqan' pava'iva i)'. uwa't uywat u'aiytno'. tava'rtijqwttc at)' piya'i)'\vai(}) m "a'va ya/waam' "a'ik qan t'-^.wa'am u'^qwt'yu aR poo'i'paam' tsitsiqwaxa'imiptyain i'.

Crotalus euni momordit per anurn." in spite of her saying so." "No! he will his mother. "We shall all be beaten. the arrows were all braced. As soon as he did so. he shot at to face him. one of them fell dead to the ground. Whenever they did so. So let me call him. as it were.*^ place. Whenever they did so. The two brothers brought their mother home. it is said. around clunem crebro tetendi. this time did not even start. then Iron-Clothes drew in his further up. after a while. but he did nothing but sing. shoot at them merely for fun. he .) did face this way and keep putting out my When he had spoken thus. that is what I say. then. to their breasts. Now somebody always broke them by shooting said. Let me. but when they did so. kill you. he That Rattlesnake l)it him again.) did turn kept putting out their breasts. per anos eorum. stretched what was left of their bowstrings. Whenever he shot." part. that is what I say. indeed. There he killed the two of them. but whenever they did so. he said. the arrows would all stick. 9. That one is the Giant. stooping. those daughters of his seized their bows and pulled the bowThey strings. his arrow would come back to him. " I. somebody is walking in yonder direction. breath sharply and groaned with pain. for at them."' That (Red Ant) kept on saying." around turned as they their breasts them through saying. Chipmunk deceives the Giant. the two sisters turned around and. my dear. He will kill you. he fell dead. as it were. That Iron-Clothes remained seated as thougii nothing had happened.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Vies 429 409 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UIxNTAH UTES Cum autem ille id faceret." said Chipmunk to his mother. When he had spoken thus. for those (arrows) which you are shooting have no effect. "No! do not say anything. stooping. my (when in that plight." said "Let me call him. To that place had they all gone to kill IronClothes and his daughters. Then. At that dwell. Chipmunk and his mother were wont to "Oh! my mother. their bowstrings snapped. for my part. When he had done so. (when in that plight. my dear. at the other one he shot again as she turned around the other way. and before he could reach his house. who am wont So to have but one little arrow. "I. That Red Ant and. That Red Ant did not shoot. the two sisters turned about and breast. clunes crebro tetenderunt.



Southern Paiiitc and Ute

qwats- naijqa'fsaqaip tYa.

a'itcaq' tira'cikw, a'iptya aqac-

a'iqumpaAcuni piye'ni, a'ip't'Ya'. qa'tcu mar)a"amm' pA^qa'quqwaiqumpa*, a'ip't'Ya' piya'r) arj'. a'ixucuar)' wa'a'r)tr)up'ia'ip ate

Ya. "'u'v^aiyauq- aija'cuqu'tuc-









a'ip ate

marja'e- o"" sa'a'r)qip't'Yaiyar)' amu<[) pi'teip't'Ya' mar)a'e
nari'xwc 'n apai)'.

u qu'tu'enirn




axa'n tjjaint' a'ik-' pa'i^jain



'a'ik' p't'nt'kai^in- a'i^a', a'ip't'xa a'ipate





ivi'p 't'Ya'aikw

nava'eunt' qA^qa'ti'ptxa' eua'r)umir)ka'aik w.





axa'va ntuxwa'*





t'v'^t'ramtxa' uv^a'navo'aYantiparjwctuxw. qu'tu'c-. uv'^a'ntuxw'am iint'r)utsa'ip't'xa' marja'c u qu'tu'e- ai)' a'ipatst qwitca'n a r)'

ti'qa'p 't'xa'aikw.



axa'ni^jai ani'k^ rn^a'nintcuru'*





qwitca'n am, a'ip't'xa' qu'tu'cavu 'axant aR pu'tca'p't'xa. ynt'rjum'i'-'ts avaqwituYw'am' nama'rjWicava'am'. 'v'ma.i,








a'ipate ag'.



imi'A na-m-u'mar)wtc-ava'am', a'ip

y'ma.i, a'ip't'Ya a'ipate aq'.


uxwt'vuts aR


uxwi'vutstma q' o'v^aiyauq' mta"p'tr)'

ma r)wt'cp't'Yaiyar)'.






i|nt'Yaicuar)' qu'tu'c- aq'





n'i'ntac ucuru' cv'i"m uc}) n'j", 'a'ip't'xa aria'c u tava'rtr)qwitc ai]'. ava'qwtuYwani mari'r)Wipava-ni inii"hanipan tyain '^ uc- qatcu"umi niarii'i]Wipar)wa'*. o'v^aiyauqu qu'tu'c aq' qwitca'p 'la-ij a'xavat



ma-ga'c-u 'a'xavaiYU qw-a'tsaxavuRup'tyrn'riuts-





uijwa'ruxWA t'int'A'pi'Ya'aikw, pA'qa'quntsa ijani qu'tu'e iya'vaxan'nam imi ui}wa' a'ik ain" pA'^qa'va ntin a'ik ain'nami.


Coyote unsuccessfully imitates Carrion Beetle.


m ''a'va'


qni'ts a'ip't'Ya', t'lYi'Vi-


tv''t'ya-q-' ni'"(j)a cu'p-a-ro'*eu-'it

OYwanumae-,a'ip'tYa' mam't'-







Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes


called to him.

That Giant, having come
said that boy.

to a standstill, listened.

"Now he has come to a halt," my mother," said he. "No!
passes by," said his mother.

"Let me


out again,

that one will



dear, as he

In spite of her saying so, he yelled out. then that Giant commenced to go along upwards toward them. "My mother, go ahead! make mush for him. He is coming up," said the boy. So she made mush for him. That one, provided with


Then he said, " For what reason are you making that sound of calling me, you boy/" "Just for fun I called out, saying, 'Come and see me!' " said the boy. And then he put mush before him. That one drank it; just as though it were nothing, he kept on sitting as he finished the (mush
gigantic strength, arrived where they were.

they kept putting before him). So doing, the Giant said, " Quo soles
into a semi-circular valley."


ut defaeces?"

" Off this


"Let us two, then, go off yonder," said the Giant. Deinde ei ibi defaecaverunt. Ille Gigas excrementum pueri Deinde inquit, "Quid facis? Non ita est defaecandum. Vide edit. quod a me defaecatum," inquit Gigas simul atque haec dixit, defaecavit. The semicircular valley was filled up. After he had done so, he said, "Let us two push each other into it." "All right!" said the boy. "Let me push you first," said the boy. "No! let me push you first," "All right!" said the boy. The Giant pushed him said the Giant. with a little blade of grass, but the grass bent. And then he pushed him with his little finger, but in spite of his so doing, that one did not budge. The Giant tried again and pushed him with both his

" Let me "Neither could you push me into it, seeing that even I could not push you." Deinde eum impulit in medium Gigantis excrementum. That (Giant) made a splashing noise as he moved about in it; right there did (Chipmunk) kill him. Then he told his mother about it, "I have killed the Giant whom you feared, as you said of him that he would kill me, of whom you said that."

hands, but in spite of his so doing, (the boy) did not budge.


(try to push) you!" said that



Coyote unsuccessfully




Carrion Beetle built a house there. Then he said, "My friends, go ahead! gather together at my place for just one night," said he to the Deer. "What did he say?" said the Deer. " 'Do you all



Southern Paiute and Ute





a'ik 'ApiYa.


qam'vai}' qwitcvi'nip'ptya 'an a






avi'piya. qnt'quts'aa'ik \v o 't'saqw a'ik^Aptya. tiv''t'tsi 'at i'o'p lya. a'up a'" yi^i" yo'n'mqumpa ts sampA mano'n i tcai)wt'q a p iya'. ctna'qwav ai) a'ikw, a'ip iya' t'tcuq- ar)a'vatcuxwAqip lya u'qo'vttcatci ai)'. ctna'i]wa4)i, ant'aijwiitsttca'm'i' ijm'riu qDyo"'tsiam t'i'm{' tiyi'arjwj", a'ip 'iya' cina'ijwac})!. qatcu'an ant'arjwa'*, a'ip iya u'^qu'vitcatc'.




iv*'i"q wantj^a



tim'ava', a'ip iya



i'xanintcuiy o'v^aiyauqu

waa'q u pa


tvaqw mori"units a'ik-

ma no'qoq'oai'.




tiyt'aqw?', 'iv''t'yaq'

cu 'p aro'*


numac", a'ik an

a'ip'iya' cina'qwacj)!, ni" 'aik-^

u'v'^aiyauqu yi^i'va a vt'yi uni'quts o'. v'm^j', pu'tcu'tcuywaxaicanipa'q w. u'v'^aiyauq u ctna'r)wav ijni'c- a n I'p iya' tint'ar)qiqain'nar)wa<j)V. qnt'ts- yi^i'va avt'p'iya' mam'i'ac- fiyt'aijw'i am: qam'n a^tyam

A^^qo'^x u.





ur)w o", a'ik Apiya unc'quts-

a'upa'* mii]qwa"p'iya.

stna'qwaviy aq' tA'pt't'caq piya' cina'qwav aq'.


YU^qu'tscqwa'campA pA'qA'qu-

Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes



gather together at my place,' that is what he said," said they. And then they gathered together at his house, and they were seated inside his house. Then they slept, and that Carrion Beetle lay at the doorway. Deinde valde'*^ pepedit. "O, pepedit ille," dixerunt. They were about to run away through the doorway, but they all died.

Coyote came to visit Carrion Beetle in the morning. "Oh!" said Coyote, "having said what, did you do thus to them, killing these Deer?" said Coyote. "I did not say anything," said Carrion Beetle. " All right! Let me, then, tell it to you," said Carrion Beetle. " First I build a house, then I boil beans in two buckets, and then I eat all of them. Next, then, I say to the Deer, 'Do you all gather together at my place for just one night,' say I. Deinde in limine jaceo et pedo." "All right!" said Coyote. "I said so,^^ though I knew about

then Coyote did just as he had been told by him. Now he lay doorway, while the Deer were asleep in the house. Deinde pepedit Canis. " O, Canis pepedit," dixerunt. Then they ru.shed out through the doorway and crushed Coyote by trampling on him. Only two fawns had Coyote killed.


in the


1 1


Southern Paiute and Ute


Gray Hawk and Toad Gamble.

m "a'vaiyaxwa


piqwa'ijw'ai^) qari'piYa'aim'

a'ip cYa',®^

M.M. J.=

to-go-ga-wi-wi ya



ni pai







to-go -ga-wi-wi

ya-ni pai-ya — ya-ni pai-ya -ya — ni.'"'

Vv^ttca'n [uqwa'iya'vt'n t]3« u'v^a payc'kwa'i'^^ t'v'^ttca'n [u'qwa'iya'vt] qani'vayi'k \vaiva'[vt-']




pa'iytk t'van- [o 'qwa'iya] taci'panti




i'v^t'tVa'a'[vt'] qari-'vi't"iva'[vi']9' nia'ikan- i'v't'ss u'v«'a 'n- [oqw] aika ' pave'n'ntgwa'i'iva



mar)ac cay.wa'xucav
M.Af. J.=


piijwa'i] aip iya,


tavi -









- yti)






- vi -







'tst' [o'qw] aika a'ntga'a"a a'ya'up a"ar)qwa"aivatst" [uqw] a'ik



"a ni"i i'mir)w'aini'[vi]

va'r)\vtn i[vi"i] i'miijwa'a'inipa 'ani'yl

qari" ma'ian 'aik


um^'a'va ])t'tctxw'aip iya' ciiui'ijwavt qaiv.'va m' to'ca'p ai" naiya'r)wtr)qit' uapiya' mi}\vta'iya u' ma n o'q yatstyanttnwa'*.





qa 'ptya'.

Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes


texts of the kaibab paiutes and uintah utes

Gray Hawk and Toad Gamble.*^"

At that place, Gray Hawk said.


Gray Hawk was

living with his wife.

Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani

Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani.^'

me me

go go


to that place,

off to visit,

But do you stay


shall return in the evening.

Do you then remain, That is what I say, there, say
said that


who am about

to go away,'

Gray Hawk.

His wife said,


Taviavigim pasiijwayuntaqayiriim

Paviavigim pasiijwayuntaqaYiqim.*^


you say, be doing thus, you, as you say, be going away? Do you, then, me with you, Take me with you.
will you, as will


Stay, that



Somehow he
breasted one.*^

I say, stay!" arrived there at the house of Coyote and the white-


played the hand game with them and they won

from him


of his people.

Gray Hawk sang,



Southern Pciiute and Ute

to'go ga'wiwi

to'go ga'wi wi

yani' paiya'yani' paiya 'ya-'nt ' paiya 'yani' paiya'ya'ni. a n 'u'qwa ya '[vi'n t] mr)wi 'Y^ii'ttni '[vi"]



'qwa'ir)o 'sa'mpa'a'ni [va'n





ga'wiwi' yani paiya 'yani paiya'ya'nt qwa'qwa'ir)Oca'mpan[o 'qwa'i'] a'itca'ni 'i 'm['u'qwa ya']n toca 'p aya"aYa'nti 'i '^i'l'm i.
' i




'uqwa'iya] nj

'ni nt'ijwca'iya'ni


mano'q waq


'^vca p'

to'ha'paiya tstvanttr)wa'*^°*

ntrjwi'aquqwa'q oai)' sina'qwav ai]' (jwa'p lyaiyaq-am'. caxwa'x ucac})!

paiyi'kw'aipiya' tava'iya q



tint'Apia' piv^a'iyuc})





ijni'n "impiya.

a'iptya, tVin i4nt'r)qit)'oyoiva'°^
a'ip iya' nj'nia'"

'ijn ijni'ts

i'va qari'va".

c'tcuqw qa'tcu ni'

caywo'x ucav


to'qwa\a'. qa'tcu ni' naTo"qwava', caywo'x ucav ai)' qa'p iya',

ga'wiwi' yani

to'go ga'wiwi


paiya'yani' paiya'ya'ni paiya'yani' paiya'ya'nt. [qwa'ya 'riqo] ar)wa'vantu'ywaqwa'ir)o'mpa

ma'iyan [u'qw]aika





'qwai] pt 'mpi'n-'a-

vu'gaip u'i)wa ya

tVcn imi'rjwai'mpa,

a'ip lya'




ta'viavi'gim pa'str)waya'ntaqayt'i}"im

pa'vtavi'gim pa'siijwayu'ntaqayi


pa'vtavi'gim pa'str)waya'ntaqayc'r)im
pa'vtavi'gim pa'stqwayu'ntaqayt'ii."*


caywa'xucav ai)' piqwa'ia(j)U'tu'c iir)wi'tp tya. ym'^uts- mia"ants qa n tqw'ec ura'ruin'noa.i o 'p a'" tu'pa'quptya. ynt' tiiyu'mpai"^ a ni'qwa yipqw'aip tya' tiVt'ts- mp ti^qa'riwiptya'.
a'ip iyain

tu'pn'n lyu'pnctaywono',






pu'ca'yaip tyaiyai)'.


tu'pa'k ika'.


mari'ant'aqwuc- o'pa'qaitcttci
'p a'*









narjwa'upa 'tuywai]W.


mantsa'qwtnapiya' timtu'q unto'qupiyain t'.

to'go ga'wiwi' yani' paiya'yani' paiya'ya'nt.

a'yan i'r)0 '[v'^'i] 'aitca'n."^ aya'n ir)o'[v'*t"] u'i}wac u'niya 'ntcani ani'r)uni' pir)wa 'n o'r)',"^


Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes


Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani.




beginning to be deprived of people,

You have beaten me.
Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani. Now you have beaten me, You, that are white-breasted.
Alas for



They have been beaten."
All of his things and his people did Coyote and the white-breasted one win from him. Gray Hawk returned home when the sun was setting. He did not tell his wife from where he was returning. He was wont to do thus always. In the morning he said, "Let me go away to some people, and do you then remain here." "No! I shall go with you and you shall stake me." " No! I shall stake myself," said

Gray Hawk. Gray Hawk


Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani. Let me go away to him. That is what I say, to him.

The Toad.
"Let me go with you,"
said his wife, singing,

" Taviavigim pasiqwayuntaqayirjim, Paviavigim, pasir) wayuntaqayii) im, Paviavigim, pasiq wayuntaqa Yiq im, Paviavigim, pasii) wayuntaqayir) im."
his wife to go to sleep, and then he slipped out through a tiny little opening, the smoke-hole of the house. And he went off under the sky till he got very far away. " Would that you might wake up!" thought he, and sure enough his wife awoke. Then she looked for him. " Where has he gone to?" thought she. " Perhaps he has gone through that little opening." Thinking so, she herself slipped out through it and followed his track. And she threw some of her blood on his track, so that Gray Hawk felt as though there were heavy lumps all over his body.

Gray Hawk caused

"Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani. has become of me? Perhaps that wife of mine did so to me,"




Southern Paiute and Vte


maqac- a'upaqqiptya'



ti'raiyuava WA"tst'r)UpiYaiyai)'.


in*a'va i) yrn'r)utsmaqa'c- pirjwa'r)-

ta'vtavi-'gim pa'siqwayu'ntaqayc'qin

ni"ui)w a




u'r)waiac"* pu'mpun'nua'vtf^a'ip- ui)\va'iya-

wa'tctktga'inu qa'ni uqwu'iya




'yu'p an

aik ', uv^a'"^^ w'"* a'ik aruani' "^



a'in 'iancyan"^''



m ''a'upa'm
Xw'aip iya

qm'r)uts- na qwa'aiintk uptya'aim""^^




m' ptmpt'n'oavtxaip



m "^a'vai



nampa'n antstyax qava',

a'ip tya saywa'xuca(})i.

ctna'r)waviaiya(])V to


tya piqwa'qw'a-

'qm'quts- qumu'ntiaRU^qwDp iya.
n", a'ip'tya



pA'pa'q ava



"mpa'iycr)wtni nan a'c'o








'ijuijquijw'ain', a'ip tya


tv^"t'rai)W nj'nt


uru'anan' w'a'xa-



qwaia'riq'patcuywaa'q waqwini^^" pA'pa'qar)um-


a'ip tya saywa'xucacj)!.

m^a'upa' yu'ncqup tya fi'raiyuaxuca(J>i



'ura 'r)wini^^^


ni, a'ip tya


qwaia'qq'patcuywa qa 'ya'.

'q w^'^" pA'pa'-

t'v^'tya'yap t'[u'qwa'iya 'a'vt'ntn'na']
n'i'nta"a- [u'qwa'iya- a'vt'n in'na"a']

qwa'qu't o 'o"a 'va'mpt

'ani 'i'




nia 'yari 'riqwa'iya'ni-

nj'nc a


a'tvt 'u'nti]u'nipa"a

qwa'iya'r)qwa pa 'tcu'y\va'a'qan[o 'q\vaya"a
pa'p aq a 'qo 'm pa


qwpa q

'a'^aruywani tuv^a'xaitcaii)uq u qwaia'i)ai)' nari'iyavam' w'jni'/vv'aiptya. 'a'ikw ntrjwi'Riqwat u^wava r'uan tyan t^ain t', a'ip tya caywa'x uca(|)i. a'ifcaq WA cu 'yuc u piya"r)WA uru'a'nani pirn a'r)wtni qwaywa 'ijumpan ar)wtm in', i'mi ptmpt'n'oavtyaip nari'ywinA'ptqw a'ruaivi',^^' a'ip tya caywa'x uca<5)i. maijac pirjwa'r) ar)' qumu'ntiaRrqwanti' wt/a 'ma'q-w qari'ptya. wa't iiy watca m''^* maya'i)A pimpt'n'Davuyaip ai)" 'amt'i)w'air)ki', a'ip tya pipwa-'r)' caywa'x ucavt' qa 'ya',
' '




Texts of the Kaihab Paiiites and Uintah Utes


said he.


wife of his

came along

in his track, until there in the

open plain she caught up with him.


then his wife sang,

" Taviavigim pasir)wayuntaqaYir)ini.

shall be doing thus to him,


that Toad. There at the house have you



"That you are to do thus to him, do you say, but I did say, 'Stay Did I say to you, 'Go along with me through here'?" there.' And then the two of them started off on their way together and there they arrived at the house of Toad and Coyote. A hand game took place "Let us have a foot-race," said Coyote. He staked his own there. coyote together with his wife. And then they heated rocks on a fire. " Should you all have beaten me, you will kill me," said Gray Hawk. " I do not care in how many different kinds of games you engage with
will not beat me," said Toad. " Let us proceed right through clump of woods which belongs to me. On the other side of it you will kill me," said Gray Hawk. Through that open plain they started "On the other side of it you to run towards the clump of woods. shall all kill me," said Gray Hawk, singing,

me, you



it is

a pity



Should get beaten. Let us my clump of woods Now proceed right through. And on the other side of it You shall kill me."

the other side of

they were emerging through his clump of woods, coming out on it. Toad's position was between the two of them,

"Oh! it seems Gray Hawk. "Now there is one thing left in which you will all beat me. You Toad are one who His wife was sitting on the has great power," said Gray Hawk. "They have edge of the pit in which stones were being heated. come to view through there. Toad is coming along with them," said the wife of Gray Hawk, singing.

Hawk and

Woodpecker), as they raced along.


I .shall

get the worst of it," said



Southern Paiute and Vte

a'i^ca'ria pc'mptn'noa'vugaip- a'i]a


ugwa "a

i'v^'Tniivi "i]

tst'kan a ci'nar)wavi qu'muntia'ruqwant'i'


nia'varjwtt o 'xwa wt'n aiin i'[vin'nina


ma'iy'an [o'qwa] 'a'ik aa['aVtn'nina '], ct'nai)wav i 'm't wi'n aiin a'vaqwit o '-/wa.
t'v^tni-ga "a ma'var)wit



W{'naiini"t, ina'iyan ['uqw] a'ika[vi
a'ip tya piijwa 'q





tuqu'c amptai'a'i^^ain



niava'qwituYwa'mi tstqwi'c ava'Acampam' qiiK'qwai'riWA

pi'n'oavuYaip- ur)W pi'pi'tciqa

uru"ac o"" pi'tctywa nti. tsiqwt'n'aiva'm ava'r)WituxWA. nari'^wmApuij^^uriw 'a'inam'quma-'m ui)W,
ta'viavi 'gim
a'ip tya

a'iptya cma'r)wa4)i, ijmu'qw'aiyui'v'^aiyauq om' 'a'xavatcuxwa'ami





pa'vtavi 'gim pa'sii]wayu'ntaqaYt
ct'narjwavi "i u'wat uywa'tsa


[uq wa'iya]



a'm-tr)wa'a'intca r)a"a

ina'r)ac utv'^i "i] pi'mptn'oa'viiyaip-







c'v'^tniga"a ma'variwitu'ywani "t tst'qwtc ani"t, ma'iyan [uqw] a'ik a[^i
ct'nai)wavi '.'^


m ''a'up*^ amn'cu pa 'q ariri' 'u'ra' ya'cpiya. ijna'x- paya'riri' wawa'x iptya. maija'cu pimpi'n'Da\'uyaip- ai]' par)Wt'avum''anti' paiya'm a'qwa(|) niantcu'xwa qq'ptya. m "'ar 'a'lvtaq UR to'ca'paiyatstai)'.

'an a'ytt


ts tsi'piir)war|'iiqu


cu^^° tspt'i}uptya pt'mpt'n'oavuyaip'.

caywa'x ucav a'iptya,

qa'tcu'a'qa yu'r)qwipa'r]wa'it im- a 'ro "a pi 'mpt'n'o 'a'vt 'ga'ip- a '4-'iiaa'itca ra'r)wa'nu qwa'qu'tu'a 'va 'n t"

qwa "a' so'yuco'






u'ni r)ii'tstn

o 'ru' pima 'n

qwa'i)utu"uva'na' oru' paqa


Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes




"Now Toad Has appeared through
Go ahead




into the pit with red hot stones

Do you throw me, That is what I say. •Coyote, do you throw me



ahead! now into that Throw me, that is what I say,"
said his wife, singing.

do you speak as though dying with haste? After a while I do that to you, after a while I shall push you into that (pit of heated stones) with a stick, when Toad returns with them," said Coyote, " for with them, sure enough, he is about to arrive. Then I shall throw you right into it with a stick. A mighty person, say you, is your husband," said Coyote. "Go aheadi throw me into it with a


stick," (said

Gray Hawk's

wife,) singing,

" Taviavigim pasii)wayuntaqaYii)im


Paviavigim pasiq wayuntaqa yiq im. Coyote! through there they have Appeared,

With them has he (appeared), That Toad,

He who is Go ahead,

not to be overcome. thenl into that do you

Push me, that


I say,



into the lake.

Coming through there they all flew towards the lake and all dived That Toad fastened on to his breast some of the mud

from the bottom of the water, and that is why he is white-breasted nowadays. When they all emerged from inside of the water, Toad

came out with them.

Gray Hawk


" He is not one who can be overcome, The Toad, Now we shall be beaten,


one thing left be beaten. Whereby, then, I shall be killed

In which






Southern Pahitc and Vte







vi'ga'ip c'

p ompo ptma 'qan o'ri'[vi ']






n|'niy o 'r)wa' pi'r)\va'iyaa"ni'4-'
pt'nia a'ai] o

quna"a ya 'v'atco 'ywa tci'qwic a'ti' va'na ct 'na'r)wavi"ai} o 'r)wa' pt'ma'a'a qwa'qwa' paqa 'r)umpa"ana 'r)wa




a ip iya

caywa x ucav aq qa ^a. cu'yucu piya'i'p't'Ya tiimp^i'ri'wa
tiv"i'tcair)Uqwa m'

'a'^aruxwam' qwaia'qqwpa q ai]'. X ucav
vac up-


au man a 'x i wauwa'x ipiya na va'c u pompo'n'oaviyaip yrnu'qwa'* ts pi'ijuptya. 'aa'ik w, a'ip iva caywa'nirjwi'RUqwat uYwava n lar'uani. a'it'ca(i w

cu 'yuc- piya"r)W

a'ik ' a^a'n tqumpa "ni uv*ai' unipa'in i'' nana'*Y^f'u3.tim*an" pitci'i3qi"v*a n', a'ip iy^^ niarja'c- pompo'n'oavuYaip- ai)\ a'it'caqWA cu 'yucu piya"r)w, a'ipt'Ya caywa'x ucav

UR qari'Ri pA^q^'umpa na m tn

ptma'mm'n ur qwaa 'qunipa n' uru'c- OYo'nta'uru'an am qwaia'qqwpatcuYwa mm' ni'nt


paiya 'yani' paiya 'ya'ni to'goga'wiwi yani' paiya'yani paiya 'ya'nt. to'goga'wiwi' yani' paiya 'yani' paiya 'ya'nt, qa'tc[uqwa'iyav't'ni"t] yo'qqwi 'ip aqwa" mi to'go ga'wi wi' yani' paiya 'yani- paiya 'ya'nt to'go ga'wi wi' yani paiya 'yani- paiya 'ya'nt.
' '
' i '

to'go ga'wi wi' yani




saywa'x ucavt

an a'x-i



qwaia'qqwpa q
Yaqqiijwail: im'







a'ip cYa

a' to'^oq wttcinic


aqa'c amp ynits uru'avt' ntqwi'xa *vat im', cu'v^antic u piya'i'pt'Ya pi 'p urj'warixtvi'at)

aq "aro"an-a-i3'.

ma m-u'c-




'tscqwax^i'p tYain






pi 'p-uij'warix:vur)wai'(|)

oa'xanixw'am' tu'p^a'q

na va'c 'um' yiv"i'ntamaqa'c u pompo'n'oavuts ai)
pi 'p

'an a





nan a '"xanin i ora'q ant'. caywa'x ucacf)! p'impi'n'oaviYaip




qatcu'aij' ts pi'quijwaqu



Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes




that Toad,



Whereby she Whereby she

right into the


Will be pushed by Coyote,

be killed,"

Gray Hawk, singing. One (test) was left. They all entered into his rock and when they came out right through it, Toad emerged with them on the other side "Oh!" said Gray Hawk, "it seems of it as though it were nothing.
but one thing left in which firs which belongs to me and on the other side of which you will kill me," said Gray Hawk, " 'You who will kill me,' thus you say, singing, as he flew along. and in some way, indeed, shall I do thus to you, no matter if you "Now there test me with different kinds of tests," said that Toad. is but one (test) left," said Gray Hawk, singing,
that I
to be defeated.







beat me, that knoll clad with dried-up

"Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani, Not easily to be overcome are you. Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani, Togogawiwi yani paiyayani paiyayani."
though they were stuck here and there in the knoll, firs, belonging to Gray Hawk, but Toad came out on the other side of it as though it were nothing. "Oh! Toad, you have been right along one who is not easily overcome, equal to me in all respects, equal to me in knowledge, equal to me in But who, then, I wonder, shall prove the greater ability to run. man?" said Gray Hawk. Only one more (obstacle) was left belonging to his friend. Woodpecker. Those were as though stuck in the (tree
It looked as

clad with dried-up

with holes in it),^" while Gray Hawk and his friend Woodpecker proceeded right through the dried-up pine tree as though it were nothing at all. That Toad made a bumping noise inside of the dried up tree as he tried to find his way out, the tree of Woodpecker that was standing there and that he had bored by digging in all directions. "Now where is he gone to?" said Gray Hawk, when Toad did not come out with them.



Southern Paiute and Ute


a'Yani'qo ntsa" [oqwa'iya


pt'niptn'o'avt'ga'ipt' i'mi'[vt'].


a'iy'i" igi'r[uqw] a'ike'.

a'yan i'ga'i'i' [qw] aik a' u'na'Ye'y^ q'^o'ro'xwa'ni "tga'in i 'ya'+' na 'ri 'xwi'i'na'pc', i 'mi '[vi '] ma'iy i'gi'r [iiqw] a'ika [a-'v'i 'n'mna
a'ip tYa


caywa'x ucav a q a


I'v^aiyauq Daci








anik* pA'^qwa'n'aYaiva

nti, a'ip tY^. saYwa'xucacj)i.

pa'iA" qari'ri'

u'a'xavaivu yaxa'vant i'mi pA^qwa'n'aYa.iYU. u'v^aiyauqu paiyi'qumana'cu saywa'x ucavi pirjwa'r) pi'Yai'm' qant'aYanti 'a'ura'.
cia'p lYa,

a'itca-qa o'wa't



tst'kana'a ci'nar)wav a'varjwctu'xwan tst'r)\v[cani"t, ma'iyan [uq w] a'iika'/^'

a'ip i'y^ maija'c

ma m



u caywa xucavi piqwa i) qa- ya'. qant'va'm' caywa'x uca(j)i tiYi'vuriwa'aici)


Xwa'aiptYa'aim' cma'qwavty aq' qumu'ntuaRqwanti 'a'xavatcux WA wtwi'n'naip [Yaiyai)' mano'qo pimpi'n'Dantsi' mqwi'aiyai)' qoYo"'qo'o'ipiai'

p taYai'tuaiyiam' maqa'iac- qm'qats- caYwa'xucavt niqwc'aiya-q um'qumi'tsiai)' caYwa'xucav niijwi'RUqwDp lYai'cuar)'.
ai)' pir)wa'i]w'ai(})


qani"am uv




to'goga'wiwi' yani ' paiya-'yani paiya'ya'm to'goga'wi \vi- yani' paiya'yani' paiya 'ya'nt. a'itcai) o'i}wacL»' ptmpi'n'oa'vu'Ya'ip- ii'r)wa ni 'xa'va't'i'ijum ma'intci' uqwa'vi' ma'iga'in- o'qwa ' pitct'rjqiru'n- 'u'qwa' nt'r)wana'r)qwa '+' paqa'i}ut i'YJ''[vi'],"*

a'ip lYa

pii)wa 'i)- ar)' a'ip tYa, imi'ntcu ar'o'ai) caywa'x uca(})i. r)a'* nio'p atux wa i}ni'r)'ur)W ni'ntca i) nji'niantca 'ona no

a'intcu'an a'ik

qm'r)U pA^qa'riutst'ijw pcmpt'n'oavtYaipT. imi'ntcuar'o'ai) », a'iptYa caYwa'xucacJ)! piqwa'ruxwacj).

Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes


" What has become You Toad?
of you,

Greater than anyone else, that, indeed, did you claim to be. What are you doing in there. As though making a noise of bobbing about,


As, indeed,

powerful one. you claim to be?"

Gray Hawk,

then the two of them, (Gray Hawk and Woodpecker), hit the dried-up tree with their magic power and caused it to go to pieces, and there did the two of them kill Toad. " As though you were alone of


account had you been acting, you who are destined to be a toad," said Gray Hawk. " You shall always be crying in the lake when you are a toad," and then they went back towards the village. That
wife of

Gray Hawk's was


Has come

he through there to view, O Coyote! Into the (pit with heated stones) Push me, that is what I say,"


said that wife of

Gray Hawk's, singing. Those two. Gray Hawk and his friend, arrived at the house.


All of Toad's they threw right into the pit with heated stones. that had been Hawk Gray of that people the killed, but were people After they had done so, Gray Hawk slain they brought back to life. and his wife returned towards their house. Gray Hawk sang as he went


"Togogawiwi yanipaiyayani paiyayani Togogawiwi yanipaiyayani paiyayani. Now that one, Toad, The one that said that he was greater than I, The one who, thus saying, engaged in contests with me,

By me

has been killed,"
said, " Is it l>y yourself that

Gray Hawk. His wife

so to him? so as to

You have done

that to iiim by




" 'Did

you do that

to him?'

you have done was I who acted that is not what I

said," said

Gray Hawk

to his wife.



Southern Paiute and Vte

ta'viavi'giin pa'stqwayu'iitaqayt 'qim

pa'vtavi'gim pa'strjwayu'ntaqaYi pa'vtavi 'gim pa'strjwayu'ntaqayi
ni'ntca a'lj igi'ru ijni'rjo'






u'rjwaya'um 'c'miya"p'
'p at

ni'niantsa'r) igir i^'niqu

'x wa.'"*"

iini'antca i}an









uqwa'xa *vat

im^ixa.i' qa'tcu piya'^aqqiqwait'



njw'c'nts a/a'va' paya'in'niriwa'^ nj'ni' pA''qii'ui)qu''piYantin'.

Xw'aip lYa'aim' qan c'vamu(|).





qa 'pcYa,

to go ga wi



paiya- yani

paiya- ya ni




to'go ga'wi'wi to'go ga'wi wi

' '

' '

ga'wiwi' yani


to'goga'wi wi



paiya 'yani' paiya 'ya'ni. paiya'yani ' paiya'ya'nt paiya'yani ' paiya 'ya'nt. paiya 'yani' paiya'ya'nt paiya'yani paiya 'ya'nt.

qwaia'i)qwpatcta'ami to m'nij






invitks the

Deer and Mountain Sheep to
ijnt'iiuts a'ip




ai) inn'''a'va'

qari'p tya.

tya tiYt'aijwf
a'ip tya.










'a'ik^ (la

't'c aij',

a'ik '^Aptya tiyt'aijwV






ya q' kiya'q ax





a'ik '^Aptya.

'ai)a'v o'" kiyii'p-





kiya'c^ 'piya




waa 'qu








na xa'ruwats


nam o









wi -pa-r)wi-tu-xwa



'an - tsi - ka



Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes


"Taviavigi'm pasinwayuntaqayirjim Paviavigim pasir)wayuntaqayir)irn Paviavigim pasii)wayuntaqaYii)im. I truly have done so to him,

The Toad Have I killed.
It It

not you (who have done



by my aid, indeed, that you have done so Gray Hawk's wife).

to him,"

have done so to him through your have done so to him, being greater than he, being one who can not be overcome. There is no person living anywhere who would have been able to kill me." The two of them arrived at their house and then Gray Hawk sang,
help,' did I say that?

(Then Gray


said,) " 'I

"Togogawiwi Togogawiwi Togogawiwi Togogawiwi Togogawiwi Togogawiwi

yanipaiyayani paij'ayani yanipaiyayani paiyayani. yanipaiyayani paiyayani yanipaiyayani paiyayani.

yanipaiyayani paiyayani yanipaiyayani paiyayani."


Have any of you heard on the other side from here a sound as of heavy body falling?


invites the

Deer and

ISIountain Sheep to a Dance.^1


Rat*- was living there. And then he said to the Deer and MountainSheep, "Do you all come and have a round dance at my place,"
did Rat say?" said the Deer and the Mountain'Do you all come and have a round dance at my place,' that is what he said," said they. .So a round dance took place where he lived. Those were all dancing, while that Rat and two from among them were sitting down and discussing on the side of the round dance, as it was going on. The young Mountain-Sheep was the first to sing, and this is how he sang,
said he.




"Moving through

the sand wasii,

c'v^aiyauq' tiyt'ai' na ya'x'qinami'i)wa'* qa'ts VxavatcuywaptYa kiya'pT wjm'm'mtaxa'.1 448 428 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIK • # . ni-ni-ya-qlo-qwai-ya mai-i)o-q\va - qa - ni o-tcu-mi ni-ni-ya-q|oqWAi|mai-r)o-q\va-<:|a-ni o-tcu-mi-ka-mim-pa — — — 4. maqa'c.ka-mim-pa o-tco-mi- ka-miin :^i±|iEEiEE£S£J_j^ o - P ^^"^ tco - mi -4 - ka - mim-pa.mi-ka-mim . -=^» —i?s r ——— : I 'V ^ E^ —K— :^_zt=|:^^-*-*-H —t2. nrai)'waq qa m'mta'p iyao nj't A'ciarim ni-ni-ya-q|o-q\vai mai-i)o. 'm' narT''yava lya 'm'miap qa a" ma u.'^^ UYwan uni antux WA cja 'ni'mtap'tY*!ai) iim'ijuts tiyt'aruwats 'aij'a'vinaijqWA uv^'c't u'piya ma- ''ii) ov^t't u' 3.qwai mai-r)o-qwa\\i - -#- -•- -0- -0- -• • -•- -• -•- -• • pa -ri cuwa'roxwoit niai)ac- - ya pa -nwi-tu-xwa tai) -'an-tsi-ka . antux WA. ni-ni-ya-qo.qwa-qa-ni > o-tcu-mi-ka- mim-pa — j—[4 ^--N- o-tco-mi- ka-mim o-tco-mi. ta-mar-'ai ''i'i)A - pa - rai - pa - 143 rai .'o #.

then that young Deer sang a song after him." ." Up to nearly the middle of the night he sang as he danced along. foot-prints. close your eyes. And then Rat went right into the round dance. joining hands with the Deer and Mountain Ram. This is how he sang as he danced along.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 449 429 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES (He) keeps kicking up his knees." This one sang as he danced along up to the first dawn. standing between the two of them. And "There are summer foot-prints. foot-prints. and the song that this one sang was as follows. that " As soon as I say so. You two will close your eyes.

'^^ mai)a'c. m *an ijn t'vii nt'i.'''^ o'tcumi ka 'mimpa otco mi naxa'ruwats ai)' wi'ci'ytntap tntm'nuap tya. a'i^a'. i] '^j ' r/am ip tya I'fi'c amp'. 'i'vilntuywa'c ainpa 'q \va' iirii'avi'.450 430 X Southern Paint e and Ute SAPIR ijwa"(j p'tya. a'ik a i)'. nji'ni ijni'c u qa'm I'qup tya. 146 ijni'c a n ' t'p tya ciia'roxwttiiywa'n ai)() um v''t't antiix w uv'^t't i' u'ptya. qa 'ts ai)' qA^qa'Rptya iya'ijiip't'ya.o 'qwai maii)o (jwa '((ani' 'kaiiii 'm. ijntc a'im iptya. o'v"ai- yauq marja'c u tiu'aruwats u'p'tyaaic ijni'c u (la'ptya. .ai)' ton a'va ts ijnt'i]'uq u. 'a'iya qan t'vii ntirjw aK na yu'tca'^ mai)a'c qa 'ts tya'p tyaiyaq' tu'qo'avi'. ijni'ijutstam n'j"' qu'tst'k iva ni ' ta va'i' ni^^ava'q-' qa ri'q uq w. kiya't axa'n i^ja'aiijw 'a'im i'. u'tcu'm'Mi'kam'mtava.'"'* mam u'c u tiyt'axiim ai)Ui)want'i naya'x umariwa'" na ni'n'naq oxa ija'mi w'snt'- rn'mtap tya. y'lnai. ' pa'riya'o 'wtp a 'ijwtt u 'ywa ta 'i)'antst'ka nt '. ton a'iyiaT)ai]umi. o'v^aiyauq niar)a'c anipa'roywa'ptyativ*tc aicu. aya'n ' iani''** wti't on op "iYii ijni'r)Utsiam' . uru'q w tiimp^t'y ijnt'ijuqwa r)' tiimp aR pu'riiq wiptya. taniar'a'ip a ra'ip a ra'ipa'. i\*t'arai)W ma ij a'4>A kiya'm lava'. na ya'x'iim a q'a 'ton ap tya. yai- ti)iitsttcH in a'ip tya. na ya'x u poo'i'pa't a'ikw. r)wa'". a'ikw. a'ik-Apiya tiu'ai)w am' na xa'ijwtijwa'*. aik 'fptya mamu'c u tiyt'aqw am' na ya'^wt- qnt'quts. o"" kiya'p' aR m ''a'vaaivu tiya'i'ptya.o'v^'aiyaiiq ' cja 'ts ai) o 'c{>witup tyaaio r. ya q.tiv^'i'p iaqai'an i'i)U.mava" tiv^^'t'p cava (1)1 [nu'i^w'aipcYa mai)a'c u mava'aiyuani' ti^a'n i^'piya 4nt'i)uts piiv*a 'n'aiyuam'ic}) ti'i'a'ni — kainA qu'tst'k iptya. (j iiit'iiil i'ni a'iptya cia'ts ijnttc pan a'x (pva' ava 'ntuywac. a'ii)Uptya qa'tstam. maija'c u na xa'ruwatc arj ijnt'c u qa 'p tya. 'tv"i'ya yaijuin'. mamu'cu. a nru'c u tiu'aijw am' na /a'ljuijwa' a'ik aiyir 'aik a'itca q piya.

' that.^ Those Deer and Mountain-Sheep said. As before he began to sing as he danced. close your eyes. and dance along. He sang just as the other one had done. at his house. Those Deer and Mountain-Sheep said. burned them on top of (the leaves and branches) on which he had butchered them. "Do you all go back to the tion?" said Rat." did just as the other one had done. Moving through the sand wash. 'You must keep your eyes shut as you Both of below the neck. Rat ran away and slipped under a stone." said those Deer and Mountain-Sheep. country that is yours. (He) keeps kicking up his knees. He "There are summer foot-prints. the rock was shattered to pieces. stood on either side of them as they danced along. about to stab the two of you!" he cried out. and then they all went off and arrived at their country. In the same way he always spoke. one of the Deer Bucks and a Mountain Ram. just as that Rat was going to stab them. dance. sure enough." And then that Rat sang his song again. That one cut up And then he the two (animals that he had killed) at that place. "Why does he always say. " 'That So it begins to burn is how it will be. "Oh! what couhl have happened to them that they are in this condiAnd then he said. Those two. all have a round dance at his place. is what he said. He sang up to nearly the middle of the night." of nearly closed eyelids while The young Mountain-Sheep peeped out he was dancing. and then that young Deer sang a song." "All right. indeed. and then I shall burn them when the sun sets yonder. foot-prints. and is He as he did so. "Oh! us then that one spoke out loud." so he said.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 451 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES 431 them he stul^hed with a knife through their chests just when he had done so to them. The young Mountain-Sheep sang " And. The Mountain Ram struck at it with his horns. " As soon as I say so. You two " will close your eyes. Perhaps the story goes as far as this. there took place the round in the same way. foot-prints.^^ . He always arranged to have a round dance take place. "^ That Rat cut the meat up into thin slices.' speaking thus?" telling And let them what to do. he burst into tears.

aik- aija'cuon o'coapitci-^.iYU tiu'axum aqw qwiri'kipi'Ya'aim". qni'quts* mamu'cuaq' mava 'ntuxwA pA^'qa'qupt'Yaiyaq'am'.qa'ivai avo 'aiya q aq' nava'viqw wtni'xarixw'aip tYa'aim' ma m t'Acuaq' tina'qqw niqwt'ariiiYwa'qa'm' ctna'qwavt aq a'ivaiyaquqwa'ai(})V.m^a'va. u paiyi'ijU "i'm. ni'ru' aic})i qwirt'ki'. mamu'cu tiv'^a'ts qm'quts. tiv^a'ta aq ivs'tci ano't A'ciaqqu qa ct-nai)- wa- vi •v^i-qwa- i)a- no qwa- mail] qi- VI- niu v^'a. mamuc u'v^ai' tiv*ats am' nava'vtqw ntqwu'v'^inaqqNv'am' pitct'xw'aipiYa. mava'qwiYU a'ip tYa qa'tcu tiv*a'qaavo'a-Yantii' cma'qwax})! a 'mpaiyan i qwaiyuc ampA YU^qu'tstqwaAcamp pA^qa'p lYa. aitcto'p at ^qu'kwi'k•Ap^a'^ mam uc- ynt'kayai'' u'v^aiyauq mr)wu'v'*inar)q\vpatcuYwa'am 'qni'rjUtsi'm o'pa'qaitci ava "ntux wptYa'aim' a'upat ia'am' qu'qwt'p tYa 'aqa'qwa'* nar)\va"aic u tu'qu'mum uts ' aq' tiv^a'tsl pavt'a^i.ijm'quts. . I)U- mi.' qa n t'^xaip tya c|na'i)wavi 'am t'r)\va'*. qa'ivai piijwa '*va' tin a'"''qamintnipiYa 'p'tya.a'. qatcu"uqw campaq wo'pa'q nava'vti)W cu-'par'aap i'. avo 'a xanti*.stna'r)wavt a'ivaiyai)'.vaijA u v''ar)wi yo qaiva v ma'iya 'n [o 'qw] a'ika a'ik^. tiVa'ts- m''a'va' a'ivaiyaijwii' pa vc'ijuqwa'aicj)'!.iyu lant'qutsi'im' tiimp'^'it in a'va. pampa'naq "qw'aip iya qan t'vantuYwac}) maqac ctna'qwav aq' YU'qu'tstqwf pA^qa'q ain acj) no '"p aiyikw'aip tYa. a'ip ar)' i) u'v*aiyaiiq mamu'ccina'i)wav cma'ijwav a'ivaiyaqwa m ""'a'vaiyun ai)' t' na'a'it'tip tya- uni'i)uts- :i:i'Yi D'pa'q Mtct' va" su'p a r'oap tya. X Southern Pciiute and Ute SAPIR The Badger People wage War against Wolf and Coyote. wa'nuyuntcan t'Ya ccna'ijwac})!. 'i'c yua um*a'nikaim ' c aik '. pin i'm iquptYaiyaq 'warn' ma m I'acu nava'viqwf wtni'xaririm "{'. tina"piYaiyaq'.452 432 13. qnt'quts. unt'riutsmiyD"'tstv'aqw watct'p'iya qo'qwi- ma kap tya'aik.

Those two (brothers) killed them at that place. Panther and his elder brother Wolf. " 'You are just now." to remain like that. And then Coyote built a fire Then those companions of his were gathered together at off yonder. "O Coyote. Two fawns were all he killed. the foot of a mountain in a valley When daybreak was still far off. wont wake up I In spite of their all doing this they did not shoot (as a target). And then those two brothers. and that Coyote returned carrying the fawns that he had killed. but the two Wolf brothers returned after everybody else. go ahead! for him Call out as (Call out for) That is you go about again. The two brothers. it . him there at the mountain. The Badger People wage War against Wolf and Coyote. ^^ what I say.. and both of them shot through the hole. though he did not kill any big game. were living with Coyote's companions. (Wolf and Panther). through the hole. but I did not have returned from over there long ago. Then they hunted at the mountain valley. and when they had done so. that place.' say you. (Wolf and Panther) proceeded after everybody else to the place of assembling. Now Coyote placed at a little distance from (the fire) a bone that had a little hole in it. went to take their place (at certain spots where the deer would pass when pursued). his brothers There Wolf and They were accustomed to hunt at bordered by a semi-circular ridge. Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 453 433 texts of the kaibab paiutes and uintah utes 13. they started off looking straight ahead up to those two brothers that were stationed lying in wait for game. Wolf sang. In that mountain valley Coyote made a great racket. And then they all went back in little parties to their camp. And then there at the base of the cliff two deer bucks arose." said Coyote. while Coyote and his companions were rounding up (the deer) up in the mountain. and Coyote's companions all shot at said he. but you are but just waking up.

mam u'c u mava" qaqqan i a'up a'* yu^wi'- pina'qqwA I)' cina'r)wa(|)i pi'tcipt'Ya unttc a'ip iy^. mjni'c iptya ctna'nwavt' qa'nt' anra'.ctna'nw'av ai)'. u'm'mtip tya pA'pa'tsiampinapq i}nt'i)Uts ctna'nwavt tiv^a'ts an' nava'vti)W a'ivaiyai)w u'ln'mtip tYa.i'. ijwt'a /n V 'ina. 'e'ik a'ip tya. a'i:^w'aip tYa tA'to'mpA'- tcamai)qoain' kwi'pa'p aYaiqqw'aiya' ma'np ac i]nti)uts ai)' ijni'i)ut. a'ip CYa ctna'i)wav. i we' ai)' o. cv^i'nta'* na nwa"pa ijo'm'.u'q w ctna'i)wavt' qan t'va r)' pi'tciptYa. p t'Ya. qatcu'ya' si"kan am' qima'ntc'kivai)\va'. t'Acu'q w nana'nqam iaux u 'a'ina r|'. qatcii'a r)' ctna'ijwav ui)W qa ri'r)wq. -rf 2 — f** 1 1- 4=tE:ti=S^ nana13 :gi&: =^=1: ye-\. ai]' ma m nia 'H't'r)w a'ip'iya. m "a'va ni a'ivaiyarjwtani a'ivaiyar)Mta s si" 'k s WA'tci'nup't'Ya- ma 'ip iya'* cawa'i'piya'". qatcu'r"* nii}wi'ait impa nt ani'ntc'. caq a. ma va" qan-t'a m' waa'n'ain- . a inu'c.ti'qwin ctna'r)wavt u^qwt'yum ant tu'u'mAtst'qw a'ip tYa. ''i't n'i" a inpA^qaiyin t c i'ti'c ai)'. pcr)qa'i}ni-^aii]wa'm' pirjwa'iaraijW ti'qa''t cj 'horaijW^^^ qwavi'qumpa' c'v^aiyauq iirarjw pan a'x qw'aiva'. 'v 'ma. ma r 'aro"ami i'ntc ua't. u.v*o.i. axa n. ri'p lYa.i. aya'n iyaiyaq an i'i)um u^qwi'yun.'*' mava' ymii'iYw'aip tYa qantana'. a'ik ^Api'ya °'a'ura".s- a mu'v"ait OY^nfl^'aiya'. lim'quts. aik Apiya in a'va nfi ai)' mamu'c ap 't'Ya n'wain q avail' ina'mptntsirjwi'am mar)ac- nt'a \ '. qa tcu'aq- an am' qim a'ntc'ktva owa'".- piriqa'ni aip tYa. puwa'r'uaiyir'u'on i^ain a'ip iya t' nar)qa't: w. m''a'va' qan I'aYai'ptY^' yua'^yantimpa'. mamu'cu ma'm'autscr)w am ava" qant' jnK"i'ptYa. a'ipiY8'» pina'qqwai)' pc'tctvaqov^'t'tctaip r mam AcampA. qa'- miarixain tia ij' t aik ' 'aijac- uni'ijuts. "tv^'t'a ijnt'r)uts mam a'ntcuai'kaair)Wptmpi'n'i'kaiva'tsi'i)W. 'a'ikw. a'ip iY^ pA'pa'tsia in ai)'.o'p as. 'an i' ar aik^.aR qa'pD'qo'miqka".aR qa'ivei ama'nti naYu'tci'aitc'. tv""t'rai)w qnt'ts *'a'nraik ava'. amp ina'mp'ctsr ijnt'ijuts- ti'qa'xa". iiuujac cij'ictnai)wav ai)' a'ii]Uqwai)' ijmu'Vcnaijqwaxw'aip tYa. a'ip iya. a'ik a ij'. na m 'ntstqwt qa 'm tap rfa nij^ ^ ma'up- pDro'quptya qa'ivsi ".- 454 434 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR uc u'v'^ai'quina'ina'ntuywain tava'.'*. a'ip tYS. mamuc i}nt'i)iits nti)wu'v*tnar)qwam' pi'tctxw'aip 'aro"am t' inainu'cu pivi'qwaiyam ai}' pA'pa'tsiam a'ip lya.m'^a'upa' ina'ntuYwamiiv*t'yarar)w ora'q'pt'Ya.q-wa- ma va yni'ijuts- sjna'ijwav qa c'.m'jn i's iptya.

all go ahead towards that place." When he said so." "All right. Yonder he caught up with them. then. hitting them on their ankles as he passed alongside of them." said the Coyote. having among Coyote's arrows. The women arrived there at the house. " Coyote is not at home. said. id est quod dixit. that other Coyote went off in pursuit of them." said the oldest sister among the (women)." said he and walked on. "do you hurry up and follow in their tracks. Coyote's home one by one. then. Those women sat down there throughout the houses. sounded like some one singing while quickly taken broken arrows from travelling." said he. (Badger people). Am I getting to be a medicine-man?" said he. After a while Coyote returned. The oldest sister among their bounce up and down. heard what he said. ^* And then off yonder they went for badgers. and there they dug up badgers. " Bark*^ aprons we will return home. They turned back to the same place. we shall camp one night more and then to hunt theirs (Lark) wives said. "Why is it that over there on the mountain there is always something burning? Is there no person living there who does this? Let us. Do you all. I am getting sick and tired of always eating badgers. it was meant for welcome words. ejus sociorum urina aliena miscebitur. as they were journeying. And then they arrived there and put "Why up among the panions all hou." Now It there the Coyote®" " was sitting. each by herself. as he listened. "Meorum sociorum urina®^ non aliena miscebitur." said her younger sisters. "Oh! what noise is that?" said he. "Let us go to hunt badgers. Then he. "It was only a way of talking. Then the chief of their husbands. Wolf . And so they started off in that direction towards the mountain. after a while. That chief of kept saying. is it that my arrows always happen to break?" and those (women). wait for him if you intend to see him. This is what they sang when they were on their way. The oldest sister among them arrived at Coyote's house. Then they turned back towards Coyote's house.Texts of the Kciibah Paiutes and U in tub Utes 455 435 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES There" was a village yonder on the plain. inquit." said he. comand those two brothers. "Oh!" said Coyote. and then he said. "If we keep on doing thus to the (badgers)." "All right." said those (Lark women). which are to be eaten by our wives. arrived And then." "Non. " but he will arrive shortly.

wa'n oyuntc' paiyu'i)U i 'c 'iiwan' pi"so"tsiani' 'a'imt' a'iqqixa'.i'.456 436 tstsir)W X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR qari'p tYa'aim'. a'ip tYa tiv^a'ts-. t ma mu wa maq' c- inampttstr)w tYa. am" ptqqa oraq- p'tya maqac nta^vti) qa'p m^^f^." ti'qa rj'wtt u'iqwaip t'Ya". qa'tcotcani''[vt'nt"] a'itmo'''no''*si''ya'pa"- i'ya'ap a'[vt'ni"]. kwi'tun i "' kwi'tuni "' kwi'tuni "'. ti'Yt'p tn tk ma m pen i'k ari'xa' -i'ac- arixaimi''. pt'riqa 'i4ni''Ya'ir|wa'm-t'". ma'iyan [uqw] ti't a'ika'[vt'n']. mam wa'n 'aints tstrjwa impt'aqw an i'karii' pina'qqwam' nai)wa"aicu'm' 'amt'qwa'aim avt'p iya'aim'. tsttci'qaq'wipt'Ya'aim'.m qa-tco-tca-ni-vin-nt' a. imi' 'aik.o'ljw a'ik 'a u'r)waya[vt'ni'n a"] pi'r)war)wta-'ra-'r)wa" pi'i}wa-r)wta-'ra-'i)w o'i)wa" pi'r)waTuqwa'ir)upt'ga-'q-o"'. ^avaaiyuar)'a'mu({) ma ru'x uqwa qqup lYa'*'' mamu'cu mama'"'- maqa'c u cu'i'cmaqwav ai)' qaqqa'nt a'up a'* paxa'impuriixwa a'ivurup tYa.i-t i-no-no-st'-i -ya-'a-pa-vtn-nt' st'nai)wavi'ya' on d'c oap itci^a'. ma nrii'c u a'ivurux ucampa 13' ai)a'Kicu'aikwoavi'pi'a'*. ct'na Tjwavi' o'r)wa" pi'r)war)wta'ra'i]w. cma'r)wa(})i {ma'n 'kaim taxar'uan o' nimpi'm "^a'n i^kaimt aik* r)warut saqwap tqwaxa. ma'intcani no *mD '"si". 'tcuqu tiv^a'ts ai)' qa 'p tYa. a'ipt'Ya ctna'ijwav 'ama'ntux w cuwa'p itct^a ampa'xana q'. pina's tuc- a'iptya. pi'qwa yara'r) o 'qwa" a" iqava 'na pi'na i)qwara'i) [o 'q wa'i'] pa'n a xaqwa'iva v.'^** .

" said Wolf. That other Coyote. and those two became women. as though sitting and looking on. that eat. "Coyote! it is not thus that one should act. looking for something to eat?" After a while both of them lay with those two They stretched them between their legs. There at their houses two little girls were sitting. is well. Those (hunters) said. While you have kept on doing so to say. "I was not dreaming "I was not dreaming the (badgers). over there long ago and have returned. "In that fashion are you wont to speak. which our wives are destined to is soon you shall all go back." said Coyote as he woke up. while walking from one house to another. Those Badgers kept on digging and that chief of theirs sang. but you are just waking up. "Coyote has caused our wives to turn away.Texts of the Kaihcib Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 457 437 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES (and Panther). they all lay down without paying any attention to him. when having as wife one that has been taken away from another. In the morning Wolf sang. kept saying. has away from us and made them well. I say. "Ecce anum meum!"^^ In spite of his going about and speaking thus. arrived after every one else had come." what I have . talking to give him advice? I have been girls. I his what taken our wives own. as Coyote. " What are you doing seated there. aroused by Wolf's words. that dreamt. Is it to a boy that you are always talking.

ijm'ijuts- uVaiyauq- MU^'qwi'^ap.- 458 438 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ni' t'v^aiyauq' pa na'xqw'aip iya qani'viintuywa qan t'ain iyaint ta <}). a'in'ntan t^ain 'aik^. a'ip't'Ya. mava' jmi'ipiya ([an t'ayanti'. avaApa nti' ma p a roanru'c U . a'ivearjwiai)' pimpi'- n'''ka. iv^i"q-waxa' na-ai)' yu'q w'tp tA'ci'anti uru"ava'. mam p iya. u-ts13'. tiya'ix-u.iyuan cma'rjwavt atci'ruxuai)' mana''a'intstts p-iya. ma oyo' t'sai'yaq tnti)wintstnw am' na wipaiac a'ik 'Apiya. tiiv*'t'tsmai)a'ntu'paApiya.a'iveaijwiai)' tcaijwin'NA^qapiya atci'KU'=qwap i'ljw'am" tiv'^a'tsi' cma'qwav atci' a 'xamantsaijwcnamaqa'navac an t'k Apiya a 'xamamania({)t. t'p iya 'atci'RUpiya. pinaqq tiv'''a'ts a'ip iya.u'm- st'a'ni'moxoniriwintstijw paiacyu'(i am m-ii'c- u''qu'v'^ttcat. pii)wa"m ai}' paiyt'qw'oiva uv^a'ntimanai)cma'qwav a'ip tya.u-ts-. 'v'mq. ampa'xanar)' u'c tiv'^a'tsi ama'ntiixw cuwa'p ai)' o"" ma m uv'^'a u piqwa'ijwtam- m'lni'c qw^'aipiya arj' tiv^t'p taiyauv 'ntux w. pirjwa'iaratjw piijwa'RUptyanfi.i'. cjna'qwac})! pjnt'k ijni'-^uam qmu'navasijni'-^uar)'.ant'- k 'piya 'at ct'EU^qwap qa n i u'v^'aiyauq a n a'i)wi n'nam'Mi "a ti'ti'yair)''i3wavi''r)W 'ijnt'i)uts a'ip txa ina'n 'an I'an "aik 'f.aR ti'qa'ij'wipiya ctna'qwavi ai) aij'a'vantux w. itci^ja'.i' a'ip iya. maqa'c u tiv"a'ts qa'p iya . mam ii'c u stna'ijwav aij' nana'vaviijw u'v^aiyaiiq a'ivear)wav ' am ai) I'ljwa'* ptijcia'ri'nax qam 'ptya. u'c u MU'^qwi xA^qarim. maniu'cu pii)wa'i)wtain ar)' tuwa'm tap tya poro'm'mtap a ntuywacj).iyuam'. an iya. a'ik 'Apiya. ctna'ijwavi ai) ma mu'c u ma'up tux a'* 'a'ivear)wt aq' pina'riqw qan I'^jaiyuc u nai]wa'upaam' poro'q upiya. qna'r|wavty piqwa'i)' na mc'ntntu'arjqip tya. na m i'xwavir)uptai an' ava'na. mam-u's. 'i 'c 'uan' na 'va im ti' ctna'qwav i]ni'i)uts ar) 'a'ik ' o no't ovin'ni^a'.iyuam w ntntu'ar)qip iyai'tuai'. am o"ura atci" ts tsa"qa. uu qa n t'p tn I n aya'(})A''qaip iY^c'. am u'c u \va 'n aip atsu)w am nava'vtijw"}" ijnt'ijuts pjnti 'i)iip iya'aim' njnwu'vt- naqqwoni-taxoam'. ctna'i)wa(j)i iVu'ai)' qw'av imi ijni'k 'pi 'u'ra'. ma mu'cu pi'pt's 'otstqw yo 'n'mijup iya m o"ura' mom o'aiyau(}) pimpi'n'''ka. a'ik 'Apiya. "^f stna'i)wa(J)i inoi'm'mtap"iya wa'- n'aip atsiriW'' mgi'ijkitcan"pa-r)up iya^^® a'i^ucampa pinti 'r)-up-iya ma i]ai)w ijnt'- quts.stnuj\vintsii)v\iijwa' a'ik 'Apiya. ma m u'c u tiv'^a'ts na va'vir)W tu^qn'm um utsiqwa' a tct'RU'piya'aim'. ma m-u'' wa'ixpiya ma va' ((an ijni'k t am [ cu ijni'i)\jts \\n\'^(X.

And then the Badger chief said. and Coyote threw the bows and arrows away into a hiding place. that is what I said. Coyote's wife was the first to give birth to a child." said they. be war. The two boys hung on to Wolf and his brother. Each of those wives gave birth to a child while they were travelling on their way. So then those wives of theirs went back home to their country. "All right." as Coyote was just waking up. and when Coyote saw them doing this. "let it. while you are but just waking up." said they. The two brothers. aroused by Wolf's words. Wolf and Panther. Their house looked an old deserted camp. "Long ago have I already been packing up in order to move. "Coyote! let your wife return home to the place from which they have all come." Coyote said. someone had evidently given birth to a child. who were coming behind everyone else. " What did I say? Coyote has taken our wives as his own. The Scorpion people and the Carrion Beetle people counseled a fist fight." They passed by him in spite of what he said. The Crested Bluejay people counseled war with bows and arrows. making a bow and arrows. That Wolf was singing when daybreak came. a little arrow. W^hen his companions saw what Coyote was doing. like And Coyote and his started off yonder in their tracks. he did as they did. they did just what he did and made bows and arrows. They who had been called together for war were assembled there at some distance from the house. Now they were deliberating how they were going to act.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vies 459 439 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES then they all went back to their house. Coyote and his companions (Wolf and Panther). Those children started off running towards their fathers as soon as they saw them. companions. . as he held out bows and arrows for each. and then after a while W^olf said. a little arrow. kept on hunting. And then they got to be visible from the house. Those companions of his did just as he had done. And then they arrived there at the village. Coyote led along two boys who were coming in the lead towards them. And then a Httle girl hung on to him. Those three brothers. having lived there for some time." said he. At the first place that they camped at over night. and then a war council took place against Coyote. He said. " A little arrow. they threw the bows and arrows that they had made away into a hiding place. he made a bow and arrows. then. made bows and arrows. They became exceedingly angry.

imi' r^ir uijwaro"' "'^'oai" m '"a'ni*kaivatc'camp avt'vatc' qa'n iyir a'cuv'' a'ivatc'.. iini'r)\its a'ip iya tiVa'ts aq'.[vi 'ni ci'naijw a \ '. ma va"am' naTa'({)ikap "cya. i'va'n a'ik a aijaco' ni a 'viva 'ts ci'naqwa'vi iVcxwa 'no u'v-'^'a [vi '] na'yuq wi'yqi 'tu ami'ya ma'iyan [o 'uq w] u'm ani 'ya 'vimi 'ya ywa 'ro ano 'a ni'mpti)wa 'ri'tsaT)wa'pi i)wa 'ya yo '.waa'iYUsamp" piya'13'wipiYa saYwaxaya'T'tcoqofo"'piya. qa tc tcaY''p atcux w na^u'q wikap iya nayuq win tni'avii)W.— 460 440 sc'nai)wa 'vi ' — ^ —— — — Southern Pahite and Ute SAPIR iv^'c'xwa'no. aij' mava"co'" na yo'q wip aR ti'qa'ij'wiptya cma'i)\vav ' ma va" naYu'qwti)qit!uap cya a'iveai)wtr)wa'ai({).uv'^ai' piijwa'nfiYwaqainimptnta'am'. ' . iv''i"ca' i'mi naya'qwii)- mam t qit u'". ] i 'aga'q. u'm ani 'k a'imiyaxwa 'ro wano uqwa ya ni'inptijwa 'ri 'tsa i)wa 'p i)wa 'xa yo '. ma'iyan [o'qw] a'ika. a'ip tya ctna'i)\va(|)i. cya. iiqwa'c utcaiiju^" tsi'lm' cma'qwav ui]W pA'qa'i]Utic ampA. ctna'qwavt aij' pA^qa'ijupuayai'tuaiyiai]' ma n o'q cma'ijwavt a'iveaqwj' qoYo"'ptaYai'fuai'. ' i i'v^'ixwa 'no ' u v*a '[vi ] na'Yuqwiijci'it J j 'mi . mamu'c u mava' WA'tcc'qwiyumunc' Ywayantiqwiqwanti".u'v^'a [vi'J ' na 'yuq wi 'i)qi 'tu wa 'mi ya '[uq wa ya 'J. lini'kayai'camp' na yu'qwikap ta'* u^qwt'ynam. nava'vii)W qa'ivaiya'am mamu'cu saywa'- -4 -^^#™# I I :5 —n —^-^ —— N—N_N-jf=P-N —N ^-^ —N_^-_N_A_::^— —0—0 — —^ — —— — — —• n — —00 — — — 0—-^ —^^^0-^ — H— — —— I I • I -i ^^H i 1 • 1 • '- 1 1 ' -\ - i-t i-ya-ni ai-ka-vi-nt' ma-n i-mi-'a-xa-'a-vi-nt'^^* to'qomo"motsi'[v'uni'n'na'] ni'ni'a[vt'n'nina'n['] to'qomo'rui ga'igumpa'nan' . tuwa'tstr)wa'q uv piqwa'iav am' tiv^'atsmava'viriw u'c u 'x i yqn a'qupiqn a vi'tci a u^qwa'p uv^a'i'toxw aiya'm U(}) uxti'n Yaiyaija'm'.^^'''' . ni'aac]- ptijwa'ntiiYwaq ain imp'tn ta'm ui)WA. a'ik a.aR manu'nt' 'atci'm a({) na yw^i'p A^qap lya tiimp^'i'm' ijni'i)uts tu'p^i'p lya. iint'i)Una yu'qwtriqit' nap cY^'jiiiii' ma n o'qoam'im' qnc'riuts. ma'iyan[o'qw] a'ik a (vi 'ni ci'nai)wa vi '. ma 'it ni u'c u tiv^'a'ts ai)' "'a'urai'mV ntijwj Xaitcaxwan ir)wci)w uywa'am' wfnc'm'miap am' qa 'p lya'aim'.

engaged in close combat. do you. then. lying down. Those blue-hatted people were singing. O Coyote! V>ui right here. being battle chiefs. . always doing nothing but singing. indeed. then. And then they hit each other with their bows and threw rocks at each other. "Go ahead! engage in battle. When he has as his wife one that he has taken away from another. O Panther! you whom I am going to have as a panther-skin blanket.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 461 441 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES " Coyote. That is what I say. however. shall I be lying down. four in number. Coyote!" "Who is it. Their arrows were all used up. have always been acting in that way. One should not be acting that way When he has as his wife one that he has taken away from another. on whom you have always been depending? You. "It is too bad that you are doing so. Those two W^olf brothers put their wives and their children into the sticks lying alongside of their quivers. That Coyote has already been killed. there Engage in combat with people." said Coyote. The Wolf brothers moved along towards the mountain in front of the others. "^^ In spite of their doing so. So there was a battle at that same place and Coyote fought there together with his companions. It is I. after I have killed you. Coyote was killed. Now only two survived of those who were bluehatted." And then the two of them fought there and killed them all. upon whom you have always been depending. That is not how one should be acting. and all of Coyote's companions were killed. say I. then. always lying down. there in combat with people. O Coyote! do you. indeed. and then Wolf said (to Panther). they could not kill each other by shooting. Engage That is what I say.^ Those there. Go ahead! Engage in combat there with people.

qo''n^'i'ka. ii'm^ari' ama"a[vc'nt'] qa'iva'i aqa'i'a[vi'n c"J c'J i'] ma'iya'i' ani'k a[v['n m'"wt'tuYwa"a[vi'n w"t'ntmi"axa"a[vc'n i't t']. ijni'ijiitst'm i'yatia'am mano'arup tYa tii'mp ar qnt'rjUqwam' pu'ruqwipcYa.i' a q a'piYa/®°ni'niaxaint' saywa'xaitcoxwaxainumpanan" I'ti 'a n i an i'kaiva ntim' tiv^t'p ava"an oo'a'mi c pA^qa'q w^'aiijuqwani.uv'^'ai i'i'tci' tiv''i'p t im a'i'/aitcu' aik mari'riqaiyiaq nji'ni' ni^a '*va 't irjqaiva tnni'. impi'xai' ma'ri am'. t mamu'cu i sayvva'xaitca- am' qa'p tYa'aim'.ura'imcku'tsi[vi'n i'mpi'ya'i'i m'^a'va' t'] ['].462 442 X Southern Paiutc and Vte SAPiR a'n i[v't'n'nina'n'nina'nt'] pa i't 'q aijo'tsim [u'q waiya'a]. Xwan t" ' rjupiya'aim am u '"wa'mi. i^a'nca'[v'un i'na'] a'] i'] ma'ip a'yiu'fv'iini'n i'mi'i[vt'n'nina'n ['] pa'qai]u'nipana'n't[vt'n na'ri'xwi'nap ii'r)'u[v'^a'n i'] ma'intcu'[v'yni'n'nani'n ti'v*atsi"t[vt'n'nina'n i't t']. t'J lYa'nc a'ika[vi'n ma'ntmc"aYa"t[vi'n c'] nu '"wt'tUYwa'fv'qni'n'na'l W{'n"(mi"aYa"a[vc'nt'] qa'iva'ia[vc'n'nina'n a'.^^® tiv^'a'ts pA^qa'qutsi'ni'. maqa'c u tiVa'ts qa'p tya. maija'c u . ma m u'c oyp'tcai'yaq ii)w am a'ip cY''^^- 'aim'. a'] lYa'n tya"a[vin i'] ma'n ik a'iiva"anti'i' a'] i'mia'[vini'n'nanin to'qoa"anii"i[vi T] i'tci' tiv'^t'p t'l'a'a a'vaa'n. 'u'r'um ijni'ts.maxa'riv*a nfi'm'. a'i^ai'm' tiimp^i'p a'nam avc'ir)ur)w 'f. I'ti'an aik^ nji'ncA pA^qa'q w'aii)uinpa nam nji'ntA tu'qu'p tYaiva n am i'ti'a n ant'm'nuai' ni'owi'tux w qa'ivei 'a'ura'. tnu'ntcu'" njt'nt' nixa'H'a'i'mi'^^war'uaq.a vi'^aa'a. I'ti'a n ta'm ant'k^ tump*i"am ava"an a vi'ijuijqwa'aim' nim*i'- yua'm' a'i^aiyamc'm' man o'aruptYaiyam'im'.

(Wolf and Panther). is you are in that position as you proceed. create this earth. " It is too bad that you speak thus. seeing that you are to be greater than I?"65 go saying. "It is too bad that you two are thus lying down on a rock in front of us." killed you." Those blue-hatted people sang. What have you on that (mountain) that will. the two of them. my part. whom I am about to possess as panther skin. lay down on a rock in front of the two (Bluejays). as you say. proThat Wolf sang. you you the mighty one. O Wolf! too bad that your flesh will be thus lying on this earth. "Do you say that you are a greater tect you?" one than I? Did you. shall have a blue hat when I have bad that you shall be thus while your bones are lying on the earth after I have killed you. then. keeping your places in front me as you move along. " What have you there on that mountain. " And I.. that you are thus keeping your position in front of me as you move along? "It is too bad that whom "It I shall kill. they reached down to hold (Wolf and Wolf sang." So saying. whom I am about to kill.Texts of the Kaihah Paiules and Uintah Utes 463 443 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES " It of is too bad that you are doing so. then. It is too bad that you are in that plight as you move along before me towards the mountain. Those Mountain Bluejays said. having started towards the mountain. for It is too .

si' pina'qqw qnc'k aru''ca'ui)w^®' aqa'ruq WA qan I'aYanti iiv^a 'ntimanai)qw ma nia"uts. A'pi"'kain'. aura' paiyt ijupt'Ya a'ip lYa qwa na'ntst anariix \v. marja'cu qa'p't'Ya oxo'ts'iy'aq '.aintc' pA^qj^'umpantin aintc' cu'q upty an t'k. puv''an'nani m 'a'va'm ynt'ijuts- 'v*a'm avi'qup'tYaic 'im'. imi'an' pi'ijum iijqurjw qa n uv^'i'mitux w. i um^a'rjA maa'inyi'fkant t um a'ip t'Ya ma m a"ut. a'orjqoav ar a vc'tc' pu-'ruq wipiya. marja'c u Dro"*p 't'Ya. a'iYaic uaq'am' ma no'arup tYaiyaq'am' i'yat ia'amt ma n o'arup inti' ai'yuijWA a'r)axain na ruyw i'. yai'm qm'ijLtsi'm i'yat ia'm' man o'anip iv^i'yaYap I. ijni'quts 'an a 'x i pi'tciptYa. u am qnt'qutst'm' ntr)wu'a m an pu 'ruq wiptYa. sivi'ntiv^tp cv*a' pini'k arip tYaiyaq ' qwa nants qan pjn i'k ijnt'nuts qan t'aYanti".i'm OY-^'tsai'yaq t^aiva nt'i. t' ava"an ai' uv^i'miqa n a'iqum tmmpt'Ya. qni'tct a'ip tYa. iva 'n 'can t5rain a'itj)! naYu'qwtqqit' uaiYi. uni'quqwa T)" stna'qwac})! qwiri'kiptYa. Eagle as Suitor. mamu cu qani am ^nt'ijuts- t 14.464 444 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR iv''t" ""qwa n im".aij' ma ma"utsi' nta '*vtr]'wa ni mam a"ats ai)' ma n o'q oam tuu"ainnnpiYa "a'ivamc" qan I'Yantim i aija'c u nia 'H'ti]'wa m. a'iptYa a'itciarami pai'k-A- ni'wu'RiqwatuYwap yn t'miqu'm'. pina'qqw am-t'i]\vanti cma'i)wavc a'ivaiyar)\v| a tci" kwi'ta"X upa 'ai)' tsi'nc'x ikantr ctna'rjwavc' tA'qwi'mpu''qwir)q'p'tYa'aikw. ai}' ai] m*a'va." nava'vtqwja pA'^qa'qutiVa'ts ai] a'iptYa.iyaai) o"" qwii't iqwaptYaiyai)' qwana'ntc w'a'xarux w na H^a'cu pjni'karip tYa (pva n a'ntsi qwti'k ari w'l'ci'a r)' .ts pi'nup'Yam*a'i)a q' maa'in in a'ait i. nv^'a'va 'm a'oijq^'avi avt'tci ava"na'm avi'rjupcam o '"wa'm'. a'ip tYa na ru'x wa. pi'tcip'tYa. ^uava qani va ma n o'q oam 'tm' ntr)wi'mar)'up tYaiyam'im'. ijnt'quts tiv''a'imik upiYa paiya 'Hi una'p ai]Wi. ni'niA tu'^qii'q aitco/oxwaiva n antm' pA''qa'r)Utsir)uni'.^^^ maija'c i' moa'r). aYa'n ir)untca' i'mi ni/a '"va 't im. ma 'ma'otsir)w"f tuxw ts ts pi'q. ma rn u'cuani' man o'arup cyaiyam 'um'. pirjwa'xaiva n' piitci'ani qwii'kari w'a'xaruxw ptni'k ariya'. maqa'c u ti'v^ats a'ip lYa. tY''^ ijni'r)uqwain tiv^^a'ts . tiv^c'c a oyp'tsai'va- q ait I'qarj'wipi'Ya'aim'. pi'tcipt'Ya'aim'.

" Alas vain. Right here was I now engaged in fighting.^® Eagle arrived in the country of the Sibit®^ Indians. That Mountain Bluejay sang. "That one it is who has not been touched. And then he started to go down. they reached down to hold them with their hands. Coyote arose. That father of the young wo- man was the Eagle. and the dead log that was lying on the ground was crushed to pieces. Those." said he." for us two brothers! dead log that was lying on the ground the two of them lay down in front of the Bluejays. And then they caused all of (their After a while people who had been slain) to come to life again. and the rock was crushed to pieces. After he had sat and done this for some time. started back towards their house." said he to himself. he would say to himself.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 465 445 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAIl UTES Panther) with their hands. who are destined to be a mountain bluejay. "I must have been sleeping. having so done. Eagle as Suitor. a young woman came out under him from the village yonder." And then the two of them lay down again on ice in front of the (Bluejays). ^^ but Eagle sat and looked right through the smoke as though it were You shall . When they had done this. their bodies were shattered to pieces. That Wolf said. and there at the house they arrived. young men that lived in the village. Those reached down to hold them with their hands. descending the hill. you who say that you are about to kill me? advisedly do you act." And. sat And then he and watched the village from above the houses. but. As he saw the young women going out of the houses now and then. "that we two are just about to be beaten. tilted up with his foot the bow that was stuck through Coyote's anus." So he locked him up there in the smoke. "Alas!" said Wolf. " their chief." 14. the two of them turned into mountain bluejays. and then he arrived inside the (liouse). "O you. who are destined to be a pantherhide hat when we have killed you!" So saying. whenever a young woman would come out of the house. (Wolf and Panther). And on a It seems that we are to be killed. they reached in vain. but it was in vain that they reached for them. "That one too has been touched. sure enough. And then he said. The young woman was wont to refuse all That chief of theirs said of to have my daughter as your wife if you sit and look right through the smoke. while walking along. When they had done so. When he had done so. you who say that you are 111greater than I. they reached in That Wolf said. " What has become of you. some one from among Coyote's companions.

aRi. iin-t'ts- ptya'q a'ip I'Ya a'ip ai} a. iV't'ai)' qwan n a'nts-.uv'^a 'ntux w ma m a"utsi' st't'p a'immpiYa tiYWi-'n aqqim tmmptYaiyar) a'ip atsi'. nta'*v nt'a cjji.iyai] a'iv*'tr)wavitc tv'^t'ya t o"" m "'a'upa'" m t mar)a'cu ctna'qwav ai) cu 'que u qam t'({)"A''qaqan ama'ntux w nampa'nantstYa'ijqiq ai)'. a'ip-t'Ya tuwa'tsiqw. ai)' v^mariqw "'u'mp'^tc- an I'k aipcYainc'.iqwa'*. a'iyar) 'aik-^. ai)' m-a'va' mam-a"uts.qan ['yaip-iiYa waa'q-u tuwa'tsir)wui]'wai(})i. m a'upa' o"^ qwan a'nts ar)' yaa'iijq'^ua- p lYa mona'tsiYantiai) "'u'v'^a' aq' qami'xAv'oin a q' ynt'quts so'par'DaptYa qwan a'ntc ag no 'p aiytkipcya. marja'c- ariqa'xwic A to 'xwa "xwtcA. iv*''c"r)W' piya'ram. mar)a'c u toya'av ai}' wi'qwi'nta-i)ta-r)'.466 446 tu'tuar)UpiYa. mava'ntuYwaq'am' nava'(t)itsir)W nar|wa"q-uai)a'm pA^'qa'quptYaiyaija'm' i]nt'r)uts. iv*i'y'ar)W yaa'it tyariqiq ai}W. v'ma. Wt'ya i)' nana'mava'ntuYwam-V ma n-o'q-oam' nu'a'p tYaiyam' a'ip-iYaic u. q'piYaiyai]' ti'qa'p-i'Ya'aik.'\p'iya. ptmpi'n'ixka. a'nts- qant'am*va'c. ovt" qwii'ts ui)wa'vatcuYwar)qw'aip lYa i]ni'r)uts-.'a A^qa'nai]- qwop a trti'xaiiju'q t'va w qwan na m u'^'upa 'q waii)'. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR u'v'^aiyauq' qwi''kari' tstnit'u'na ui)qifp-[Yaiyaq' ar)'. maqa'cu cina'r)wa(|)i. tiv*i'ts- pa'a't-oyont 'uraro" tixwt'nap.i. a'ip-i'Ya. ti'Ywi 'n ai)qir'aa-r)a'mi "'u'r)'w toxD"m i^ni'k-^. fiv^tc* qan j' *'a'ura' yo 'n'mqup lYa qwan a'nts. qup-iYa qan pctciptYa- i)W{nair)qiqai)'. paiyt'kw^'aip tY^ piya'vatcuxwa(}). Rattlesnake as Story-teller. 'an-o'- qoxwan-t' ynic- qnt'k-'. a'iqupiYa. ctna'rjwav na-ru'n'nar)qiq a mava 'ntUYwam' man-o'q-o tva to'pa'raip cya.niqwt'yaijwt'm'miap tYa. a'ip iy^. a'ip'iya maria'cu cina'r)\vav ai}'. qam {" I)' a'ip lYa. toxo'ai)'. mar)as Ijaivatc t i'v^'aiyauq ' c cc'naqwavtya 'q uf uacamp aq' cjna'qwavii)- 'tcuq- Si'ip'iya. aik-* piya'RU^'qwa "x'f i^ni ariqa'xwtcA to-'Ya-*YWtc-A. a'ip-'t''tstai) ar) a'ip I'Ya.-o'q-Dxwa q'wan a'iijuptYa. ava 'ntux wpiya co'quc u qa". *x't' iimi piya'RU^qwa a'ip ats- t'Ya. tOYo'ni tixwi'n aqqini. toxD"m uijw a'i^^wa'* tixwt 'n at iv''ttcuxwai'tr)W. a'ip tYa qwan a'nts ai}' ma m a"utsi' pir)wa'rar)up tya. 15. ur)WA.ur)WA tA'ta'q wivt- . maria'c u piya'r)' tiv^i'quptYaiyai]'. mar)a'c u tuwa'tsai) tixwt 'n at iv'^ttc'piixai'tr)W piya'iyacj).v'ma. iv'^i'y'aijw 'a'iv*cr)wav!t's ur)WA nan a'c'o- qupiniya'ai]w a n i'rjqiq'. 'a-n.i. 'ntuywaqwan' t'ltci qa'tc' sijma'. iv'^iccar) o"" piT]\va'xaiyai}' pa tci'n- ai)'.. ijni'k aYai'cuai)' qwa-- a'ntsi' narja'i'ait! luk-'pt'Yaiyar)'.

" "Under your mother That boy returned home to his mother. and Eagle married the young woman. And then that one. a story?" said she. That Rattlesnake^' coiled around her. . Again said Coyote. " And so. When did you do so to me?" she exclaimed. Taking a stick. 'I'nder your mother flashes red. then.' that is what he said. He was always telling that story to the boy. "Do you all look at the newly married fellow. sons. That Coyote said. At this point I do not remember further." said his grandfather. Eagle's feathers turned black. and arrived at That Coyote (said)." And Eagle threw all of them down one after another. Do you all make him hunt game. Ibi edit urinam feminae. Rattlesnake as Story-teller. go and ask him story. And then they were gathered together yonder. Now Eagle was hunting through there along with the rest. "When did he do so flashes purple. flashes purple. "Do you all have a fist-fight with him. they started off through there to run towards the house." And he knocked them all down with his fist. but the rabbits that he had killed did his father-in-law carry home. " then. Eagle came to that place and carried with him but one jack-rabbit. "Do you. have my daughter for a wife. This story is a very right past long one. " Go and tell your grandfather. After treating Eagle in this fashion. wont to be a coyote." said he. flashes red. "Did your grandfather tell you " He said. ^^ And then the chief poked out the smoking fire with a stick." said he. merely for fun. "All right." " All right. Do you all have a foot-race with him right up to the house." said the son.'''^ He kept saying the same thing." said the chief. his mother said. sure enough. she then went off" to him. to me?"^" she exclaimed.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah lltes 467 447 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES nothing at all. said he. they made him angry. pretended to When they all got near the house. tell me a story. His mother asked him." said that Coyote. for a My grandfather. "Do you all try different sorts of tests on the newly married one. "Do you all wrestle with him. At that place the two brothers killed both of the (babes And then the elder brother said. who has killed but one jack-rabbit. said in the morning. There. their mother had given birth to). Eagle fall behind every one else. went the house. them as though it were nothing at all. and Eagle. though the others were not coyotes. A young woman was living there together with her two That son of hers asked his mother to tell him a story. 15.

a'ikw. mar)ac. a'ip lya. . qan c'yaip c'ya'aim' tuwa'- tscyai'pcya'aim' so qam 'que u qamu'v^'uctsc a' nca'^yanti'. am' qa'tcu paii"piaicu pina'qqw amu'v''tnar)qw maija'cvi'ai) ai)'. ''i'mcar'uanicram a'xaijwantccijqimi'ka'. od'vc" tA''qa'.a' yaa'i5f. ts pi'qupiiYa. a'it'car)w^' ii)a"pctst ui]W. ijm'r)uts. maria'cu pa-vt'tsiai) ar) a'ipiya.iyur)Wits(q-w niv''a'RA'ton'Ni'tiava qoaqw wa'a"i]W^uip-cya. paiyc'q -w'aip cya' aim' qan-c'va*ntuxwam-U(i). a'i^ciarjwq. maqa'c u nig^'n apcqw a\) i^ni'^. pina'qqw piijwa'i)' yaa'iijqw'aik aqoai)' qan c'ai] ava '*ntux wpcya qamc'qw qnc'quts. ym'quts. uv"a 'ntuxWACutcaijani cjiin'^i'''iv*i"i]W ya'xw'ai'rjw toxo'avii)w um' qatcu"m iya'vaxava (jt'ijWA. qamu'v^^'ucts i'mi yu'^^a'xcyam'. a'ipcya t'i'qa'xa'aim' mam c'rjwanti'. cya. maqa'c. I'ti'camp uni'mipcya pi'tccmir)ka 'a'imincmpcya. kiptya. ir)a"pitsa'it'ciariwa'''. rjwai'm'. and Hawk. 'tv'^i"r)waxa'* ya'xw'ai'qw. ai) moo'p utc um^'a'va' piqwa'qw'aic})"!.a' qam o'aantscr)wf ^®^ maya'mip'tyaiyam' na 11 ori'ac. a'iptya pavi'tsiai]'. maija'c u pavt'tsiar) at) a'ip't'xa. axa'n iqg'qw. maqa'c u paiyi'k w'aip cya o'p ac U. mar)a'su piya'i)' ti'm''a'mintmpcyaiyam' qamc'r|W{'.'u'^par)' ya'yw'oip tyaiyai]' puv^a 'ntuy\var)a({)t cjim'^c''^ qain' uv^V pi'tciptya. qatcu"qwan 16. cvaciimfi'.^^ Owl's Widow's Experiences with Skunk.a'ixucuai)' m^a'upa''* ya '"/w'aip tya'airiw ii)a"pitsi'. marja'c. Badger.toyo'avirjw'f to'tst'v'antia'm' tira'rjwantctpay^ip cya. i}ni'i]Uqwan' paiyt'kw'oip'iYa.' ir)a"pttst uijw ni'ntca 13 'u'v^antuxvva'rjW wfna'i^kt'qw. moo'putsijui'ijumiqka' c'y'aiminpcya tA'cc'pauxu pitci'm inunpcya.wi'qa'm'Mi'kantim}' maa'ipcya. toxo'aviqwc am' to'tsi'v'antia m' tira'qwantctp ayMp 17^ a'ip lya pa ya-'vaiytptyaiyar). a'ipcya. t^x^'aviqwi um' to'tsi'v'antia'm' tira'qwantctpay-impa'.468 448 Xw'aiqw. toyo'avir)\vaxainc uqw t'ira'xuava 'in avi'ptya. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR a'i^fuar)' toxo'aruA'tstqw m''a'va ntuxwa q' tA'ta'q wivipiYaiyaq' pi'aia({)t.*'a't h)waij\vca'ai3W ti'qa'm ipcya.paiyi'- qni'rjuqwar)' mava 'n tuyvva i]' qtp tyaiyar)'. uv^'a 'ntuywar) i^nc'quts- ya'vaiycpcya. ijni'riuts- yar)\vc'm'imaxuai)' ci'mc'^ qwitca'rjupiya. uv'^a'ntux wcuaqani cim''t'A'^qit'car)W toxD'avcqwta'm ur)w a'ip Xw'ai'rjW iv'^i'uqwaxa'*^^' ya'uqwa'oaxituxw'am' paii'rjurjwa''".uma'upa'qw ya'xw'aip tya.

Then he returned to yonder place with him. and then she found jack-rabbits whicii had been covered up. When he had said this. and Hawk. then. And then he stepped on the rattlesnakes' heads as he went along. Having split bones in two by hitting them on a stone. That one went off in yonder direction to fetch him from where he had left him. (so) that one went That elder brother of his said. "What did you with the baby?" "I threw him down over there and came away. and fetch him. "I left him there at the same place and came home. whenever he would return. his wife went to his house." said he. and there he arrived. And then." said he. but he always ate the good ones himself. And then he came back home. Owl's Widow's Experiences with Skunk. Badger. They had one son whose name was Rabbit-eye. and returned with the (baby). then. "Do you. and she ate some of them." That mother of the (boy's) would roast the jack-rabbits in the ashes. Hooting Owl used to hunt rabbits and he would arrive home in the evening. "Oh I" It seems that he has been always hiding these from us. he used to give them young jackrabbits. come and take them away. Whenever he did so. The old Hooting Owl was wont always to do thus when he was engaged in hunting. When (the baby) did this. Rabbit-eye. that one went through there to fetch him. That elder brother of his said. When he had done so. He stepped on the heads of the rattlesnakes as he walked along." said she. and you shall step on the rattlesnakes' heads as you go along. I do not remember the (story) from this point. when he had gone out hunting." "Go ahead! go and fetch him. that (younger brother) returned home. "What did you do with himy" said his elder brother. and you shall not be afraid of the rattlesnakes.Texts of the Kaihah Point es and Uintah Vtes 469 449 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES "Go alieadl go when he had said this. he left him at that place. Hooting Owl was living there with his wife. IG. " What have you done back home. Truly (the baby) was lying right among the rattlesnakes. as the rattlesnakes were in great numbers round about him. (infans) defaecavit. After a while a human baby came out after them. . go and fetch him." said he. with the baby?" " I left him at that same place and came away." "Do you go. The rattlesnake children (that came out of her) were numerous. (the other) there stepped on his and squeeze our motlier by stepping on her. he used to say. as he was carrying him along. After a while." and mother and squeezed her several times. That one went off in yonder direction to fetch him." said his elder brother. "You.

qatcu'tcan axa'r'oaqwt'ap acu pjnt'k ai'tu''. ' ' t qiq w'aiva ntiaijani. tA'ci'n 'aik ain'. nava'[ - t c u'an tsa a'ik^ yaxa'xa'. i)a'c u cia'pc' pitci't qni'x'ui)W po'yu'' Aptyain iim'qut'sc r)wani iqwavaxap tya niv"a'RA'ton'Ni'tir)wava':):)'\ aR nampa'ia a'a'xarux w.7 nt'aj' qan I'va i}'am' pi'tcixwa'aip tya.qna'^yttuywaq tsc'a"'Wttc'pcya nampa'iyaq'. . mama"utc an c'k ariq a' pai'qqwcoq \vikai\aq aiyaq'. u'v^aiyauq iinc'ijuts. an c'an cqw'ait i a'iyaic qn uv^t'inituywai)up cya a'ik qan c'acf). 'a'ikw. i)a'c u p? n. qatc. a'ip cyain i" pont'A. qa'tcu. mai]a'c u niaiia'c main uv'^a'ntuxwcutcari'animi cjim I'ak i tn)qa'mv[aiya'i)W. iiuiijac c'v^'aiyauq moo'pats a'ip iya. qa'tcu. *xa'n cijutsc aik. tiv^^'c'ts- mcyoma'x a NA^qwo'arjup cya. a'ip cya piya 'ij'. '^ntir/wai)'liiii'qutsi'm' am' ci'xn t'x qwa'^'piya °'o''' pam' pay^'m'mtap p. 'f.a p cya ' qan xa'" c'on aijqop pont'avuruxwa'. cu'RU'^qwaRuptya. uv^'a"cuya''' ya'a'ik \va' in i"am. a'ip cya. a'ip cya piya'r)'. niai]a'cu tspo 'i]qiq\vani.470 4r)() X Southern Paiutc ami Vte SAPIR ma ptya.'waxaint ur qari'n'a13W tca'^xwc'Dqi'ka'." qant'vau piya'r)' a'ip'iya. a'ip c'ya. pina'qqw yaya'p tya. ya'a'ik a i]ani qu'tca'pot D''ciwarim ai)an ui)\v pjm'k aiijq'fmxw'aiva'. a'ip cya p^nj'A. pinar)q 'o"" ya'a'ip cya moo'puts-. a'ip cya a'. a'i'an aik iva"ai)' mam a"uts- qari'q qa 'tcu.marja'c u piya 'i) ar)a'- ruxwa'q \VA tinc'A'pc'yai'qw. p^n^'A. (la'tca cina'i)\vavi'ap ai' (ja'tcr p^ni'a 'p ai' iji] uru"'^ tiimp^i't u^qwatuywaf uinciiqw'aiva ntiai)ani qa'tc i'na'mpiitst'apai i]i] uiii"'' tiv^t']) uniq WAtux wt'uir)ptqwa'i)' pf'nt'k ai^w'aipcyaiyari'am'.s i)\vaiyuc}) u'cu'q wt^. aya'n ti)utsti)w' piya'ni qatcu ma'.iir)W. iv^i'ya qati'rjwm axi'mar)wtt uxw qatcu"ui)W pjni'qw'aq ho'i)W^^* pgnc'aiyaij' tva'yi'yam'^®^tuyu'ntuywar)'um\a'ip'tyama'ma'*cayw4ts-. a"iit. a'iyaic'uqWA piya'iyacj) qwii'p cya pcv^j}. a'ian 'iyir 'aik -. mamu'c ma u mava cya. mam a"utsi' pcv^'a' qari'q ain. m ^a'ri' aru'* n'i'ni pu 'pan' y'u'xwanc ''nA. a'ip'c'ya. t i] ijrn'i)uts tuywa'nu pA'pa'qApiya. tii](|a'ncvcaiyav ijn a 'x i 'ync'ijuts pone" nana'q oaijupcya qatcn""ci 'u'v"aiyauq ' w naijwi^'i'yam' pjni'- n a'aip cya. tinti'n cai)q'it:ua- m en OA. a'iptya nioo'p t'ts-.yaxa'xa' piya'ni. maija'c.

' that. — relative died. " I am just crying like this for fun. " What has happened to you. They left him at that place as they started away.^'^ not Coyote. His wife and (her son) went to see him. a young woman must have been sitting here. "I wonder what has happened to my mother that she does that. he made a noise of shaking off snow from his feet. he picked up his mother. And now let him come and see me. "Oh!" thought Skunk. "When I die." said Skunk. and then at night he groaned with pain." And when he thought this. And then he looked for tracks." "No! it is because of the way in which I have been moving around. is what I said. Do you two start to go up from here. the bones sounded as though they went right through his feet. "No! it is a young woman that must have been sitting. my mother. not Skunk he it is who will cause my (boy) to be going under the rocks not Badger he it is who will cause my (boy) to go under the ground. in his cave house. My feet must have burned from intense cold. but she pushed its sharp point further into his feet." And then that mother of his told him about it. you shall let my (boy) go to see him who is light gray around his body." And so after a while died Hooting Owl. After a while she cried. His mother was sitting outside the house making a basket of squawbush twigs. "What did I say!" he said. and they travelled along in yonder Then they went and arrived at Skunk's house. she says. crying?" said Skunk. The two of them went back to their house. Skunk was whistling a tune at his house while making skunk-blankets." said he. but he did not discover their tracks." "Then do you quickly go away from here before Skunk sees you. has your — — . And then Skunk set to tracking about in various directions. and have come here." said his mother.Texts of the Kaihab Poiutes and Uintah Utes 471 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES 451 she stood them up at the place where he was accustomed to shake his feet free of snow. ." said Hooting Owl. As he did so." said his mother. " 'It is a young woman that has been sitting here. and then the Hooting Owl said. "Prick it out for me with a point. After sunset that (Hooting Owl) made a noise as he arrived. indeed. he went outside of his house. it is smooth and hollow. and the place where she for her part had been seated was marked with wrinkles." So saying. "We have left him yonder in the cave that is his house. " No! someone has told you something." said the old woman. that you are doing this. "I do not know what has happened to me. That direction. who has never acted like that before. " In that same place. The young woman said. "No! that is what I say." said she.

pjni'k air)uinii]kuar)' mava'Aco'om' wjni'p iYa'aim' navjmtc u '"raiijqw'aip iy^-^'^'' a'iptYa.s- taxa'va- yavantiac}) po'aviriwi' mantsa'r)winap tYa. 'u'v"a m" WA'tsi'r)UptYa aya'x upa ijan qatcu'niaxqa'* qani'ani pj'm'qwa'*.i'. w^'a'p "taxanfi a'ip tYa. p't'qqaqniptYa'aiqw a'ixucammai'mpun a i}qip tYa. aR "tya mano'n a'ip ats t paYa'it'caip tYa. aip "iya piya'r)'. ptya'i) ai] qatcu ant'k- yqwa'qw'ait i p5n{'a''y ui}waru" o'pur)\v. 'ye' t'rjUpt'Yai'q w nai^wa'aim' ya'a'ip't'Ya. p'jn t'n'uik aip I'Ya a nr avt'tsttci'. aip tYa P5n. a'ik w. a'ikwi. "'u"pani ijmijutsnanti'naYwa'aip iyaiyam'. ttci'n t^a'* p^n t'avuir aR naxa'^n'wtntriqi. pqhj'a moi'm'mtari' na'xai' qu'qwt'p tya.u''®^ na^a'^w. a'ip tYa qu'qu'q wt^aiyam' na -/a'qw'jA. a'iYuai) a vt'tsttci lun'^'a'ntiix \v ntqupt'Ya tu\va'tsir)\v"5"ai3'. ijnt'r)ats- nana'i'aip tva o 'p qnt'riats- paiyt'ar)' q woip tYa op ac pt'vuntka. p. i'p ii]waiaruamt' unt'k ' c ct'tcum'mi^a'. I'tc a'ip atsi" qwi 'n oro'omp' ttci"ca'* piya'i'yarjW qwt'n Dro'omp itci'xain i' piya'n t'*** qwc'noro'omp' ttci"ca'* nj'ntA qwi 'n oro'omp'.iquts . i4m't'uir)qiYaiyai)an'. p?n}'A aiptya t tsta'mptyuat! tst'a'mptviar) ttp tYa'aim' ts navt'n a x i. i}nt'r)Uqwa'r)W par)\v. tiv^'t't nnt naqa'i'ijnt'r)uts mamu'cu nanti'naYwa'aip tYa'aim. m-^a'va ina'mputc a'ipiYa.aiyar)'. qa n t'va ntuywczc}). ij'mjj-.staap a tv. pina'riqw moro"i' wi'cs'ramptaxaint' p5n{'avt'tr)W toYo'tst'af ttk aik a'. yntka'ip tYamaa'iyon'an i-^. ijnt'quts na Ya'Y^yp''^ ain av ijmu'urair)qw'aip tya u^qwt'yuqwaxain UR po'avtqwf to'to'tcariqiaq ai'ptya.iiu' navt"^tsti)W. ai]' qa tcn'tcan 'a't'in qant'^aiptYa tiiwa'tstnwuqw'aic}).jni'A nanti'nApiYa'aim' aR pa'y^itcap t'Yaiyar)' pijnt'avtarj "tYa.i' miiru 'n 'uxwa".aik ' i 'tcuq- avt'^'um' navt"''tstijw"t'. ijm'ts a'ip tya. iri".'A. ynt'- yua 'va yo 'n'- . ijni'n'mxucuar)' mam a"ut. ma ri'c- 'a'*tcuYwa'p"tYain tarn'. Xa'"r)\v[nixaiyaq am' am qoXo"itcarn tni. a'ip "tYa u'tcu'mika. a'ip ats ar)' na m t'''aip tya axa'iqu'tsi'qw o 'p t'. a'ip piyani liqwa'riram aR t'^ tc'jxwt''ram'. piya 'r) ar)' qnts. iv'^t'n ta'axa' an t'm a'a'ura'.i. ovi'nipimpin ara'putstrjw ai) a m u'v^tnaqqw am a pttci'xw'aip tYa.472 452 X Southern Paiute and Vte SAPiu 'u'v^amixaint' nai)wa't'tik a. y 'mfj. on o.i"am"tn.

"This is the boy's blanket. then. always pinching him?" In spite of his saying that.Texts of the Kaibab Paiiites and Uintah Utes 473 453 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES circling far around. mother and son are lying. he went and followed them " Wiiere are you taking up. him to like that/ Where are you taking him to. Both of cepit et abjecit. Skunk followed them up. it turned out that his skunk-blanket had been caused to cover a bush cactus." said his mother. I say. and his mother said. "I have not been dreaming well. They stood on the little ridge and looked." said he as he kept shooting the mountain sheep. having taken the wind in at one gulp. but the wild rose bushes scratched him and all of his skunkblanket was scratched up to tatters. His arrows. "I have killed them. then. seeing that here in the plain. covered with this skunk-blanket of mine. Stand. "It is not really raining. In the morning he said. them died. as he held his femina pediculos inter crura "Off through here are mountain sheep. the two of them. Yonder. He went towards them." When he said that. were standing in that same place covered with the blanket. et pepedit. and his mother had the same experience with it. (mother and child). After a while he lifted up the blanket from them. Then he was angry. and then he went towards the mountain sheep that he had killed. And then the two of them caused to arise behind them a plain covered with wild rose bushes. it kept on happening to him in that way. hurry along towards us. And this is his mother's blanket. "Oh!" said the boy. and when he had done so. The very tiniest l)oy of his family arrivetl on it behind them. and yonder he caught up with tliein. to be like that? Did you not see my arms around right! her. while this is my mother's blanket." That storm appeared to be gradually approaching them. Then . pray. "Oh!" said Skunk. "Don't! Are you wont to do that to your old husband. Then he said. Do you. Then he said." the cedar grove. and this is my own blanket. it turned out. appeared the tracks of mother In that direction. As he now and then took a look. his boys ran off on to the little ridge. "my mother! \ rain storm is approaching " All right. housey" said he." said he. had lice on their points. And then he turned back home to his house. when he had looked back. Cum ille ita ei faceret. then. Podex est viverrae. The boy died first. "^^ "All my dear. with his eyes closed and rubbing his chin against them. There dwelt Badger together with his sons. one on each. Skunk was exceedingly angry and followed in their tracks. causing him and child. indeed." Skunk shot the mountain sheep that was moving along in the lead.

a'ip iya cma'i)wac})i. mava 'iyuani' poa'm ainq'ip'iyaic nam'. a'ik wi yaiyaci am' pa'iqwanaijwa'. i'l'i) 'ii) 'i'l)'. c tiv^i'c o'" \vt'i]waxantums o par)wtt a'mpaian a'ip iya. mam a"c aywoitsiam" cjan I'va' pttci'-/\va'aip iya. (})A''qa'. qatcu'tcan i|ni'c 'at in ono's tap '. qats e'iai) iyir 'aik-* (|on o 'm'm ui)W. u '+v^. niaa 'v 'a 'vttcin tiv"i'pu lini'yuts* a'ip tya jna'niputs a'ik Apiya. a'ip tYa.inqit nap w. an t'an 'aik ma m uv" ijnt'i)uts. a'ip iya a'ip ats ai]'. aij' ctna'i}wavi'am- ma'ni "'autsuiwf kiya'i](iiqan'naiir s j 'ai'pin m am uc o"" m a'li'pa ni tk upiyaic 'um' qan t" a'up ap iya'aim'. qa'tc iiiiwa'uucuaim'mtava i)wa' qan till ana'ijqwop' mama'haywjitc'^^ uijw (jan i'^.pi'tcr/w'aip iya A"st 'aru^'qwa YtMi'kuptya. a'ip cya. a'i^. a'ip iya piya 'i)'. a'ip iya. iiv^'a 'ai' ma o 'pa i] a'mpaian a'ivucampA ([atcu'ai]' pjni't uin aivaA^cja ij' wt'nwaxantimpaijwit'i' qa 'q'fu'acampA kiya'r)a'ip'iya qatcu 'q wa'^m' s o tsi'n aiva'aq warn'. q' tompo'q oiv ur i a'in am. . wt'ijwaxantr.aic ampaA'^qa'^m so tst'k aiptwa'n untcan qa sotsirjufu''". tiv"i'i}uptYaiyam'.)'v"aiyauq. i" '.474 454 r)uts a'ip'tya. t^mpo'q oivimani tiv^t'c t''. a'ip iya jna'niputs mamu'c u m^a'vanti' i m *a'upa (jan t'vii ni ik upiya'aim' iya. Cjna'i)\vav 'ui)\v yaa'iva nti. ijnt'ijumi 'ts a'ip iya. ts a'ip iya. qiqat' uac ampA jna'niputs mava 'i ynt'ijuts. tV'i'arian t ijm'm'mtat' uiijci'icuaijan . ijni'i)utsn ['ni'intap iya. '.in'naijw mava 'ai' man I'm'iiuap iyaaic u. t'onipo'q . . mam a"uts pu'tcu'tcuywaptu tuwa'tsujwiai) ya'aik mamu'c w a'. \va '+n' a vi"yini'. a'ik wi piya'ni iv"'i"qwaram' ' tsi'kai- miya"antstc ampA. a 'mpiroa 'qaiva' ntin iiR aivji nt'i. maija'c ovi'mpimpin ara'putstqw ynic a'ip iya. ijnica'ip iya.)ivtin nianti'ai)\v am'" tiv^i'c t''. mava 'aivu pu(w)am aipcya. tompo'q oivim an' ''i'tcia tiv^'c'c imjVi'a' aik' t)mp. "'u'r'a q' piv"a'"ni- uR pt'tci'xwa'aiva n a'am'. ijnic a'ip iya. a'ip cya nia nra"uts-. t . . X Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPiR uwe+n''^^ yua'^Y^ritumpa a'vttcim in ta'*m' na'yayo 'n 'tqup iya qan I'va nt'ux w. pa'ici wananwa'^'^'' navt"atsii)w'i pa'ip i mai)a'c jna'niputs tiimp"a'upa'am' waya"piya. niaijac jna'mputs am u'c}) pi'tci/wa'aip iyaaic u. a'ip "iya wiyi'mocDamantiact) tcano'i)qwar)qits-.aiva nt'i. ma 'im'i ija'c u pi'riqamaip iya. iint'ijuts jfna'mputs a'ip tya. mai)a'c u mo'a m' naya'vai'. a'ik fjuq warn' a'ik '^Apiya.paiyi'q w'aip iya maqa'c u. a'ip iya c[na'i)\va(])i. an ipupiya.)'q oiv a'i^a'. ynt'ijuts piya'iya I) ar|a'vinar)qw 'a'ivut'uiqup iya. ^'a'ik tiv'^'tc o"" c[na'i)wacj)i ta va'. niin"t'-^.^" a'ip atsi' na m i"aiYutuii)up iya. ma va' ni u'c u m "a'u'pa'amtk upiya'aim'.iint'i)mni tvii'tci t '.wa'^ qa'tcu wi'ci 'a - tii'tu'v^itcaijwiv'.

"Pay me with feathers. And then he started to travel under the surface of the earth." Then he did so while in And then he said." said said." said Coyote. .Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Vtes 475 455 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES he said. "Go ahead! let him. "Oh!" said Coyote. "I have not been dreaming well. yes. they did peep at the canyon. there was a noise going on in the canyon. "Blood! blood!" As soon as they said this. you two shall not peep at it. my dear. The very tiniest one of all said the same thing. "Yes. Sure enough." said (those evil spirits)." said Badger." "We two did not pluck out any of the woman. "These are the feathers that I speak of. is what your great-grandfather said. He said the same thing. Coyote was helping at that place to burn brush (in order to scare up rabbits). and that father " Way over there there seems to be someof theirs asked them. And again he doctored them." said the as she pulled out "Pay me with feathers. indeed. "Pay me with "What do you mean when you say feathers?" said she." some of her pubic hair." said they. " What did I say?" said Badger. and again he did thus while moving. and over yonder they two are lying. On the other side of (Coyote's) camp an old woman will be dwelling. That one kept on saying." The young woman understood what he meant. They arrived (who was Hawk's mother). They started off on their way through there." said his mother. They ran off towards the house. he said. you shall not let him look at it. feathers.''^ 1 by Coyote's house. even though people are laughing. The Badger said just as before. at the house of the old woman. So the two of them started off again in that direction. and then after him he made his mother well. Then they started off in that direction. but you shall not pay any attention to him as you go along. "Coyote will be hunting. Although they said that. Badger again went off and came to where they were. Even though people are singing in the canyon. blood flowed out of the mouths of mother and son. "O my mother let us take a peep at it. travel yonder direction away up from here. Sure enough. thing lying. and that is where you are to arrive. over yonder on the plain it looks as though there are he. by the sound of women laughing as though they were happy. but they passed moving. Then he came up to them and doctored them there. And then Badger "Way two lying. only a little bit. feathers. "Where my house is will be easily recognized by the noise. "Oh! over there someone has taken a peep. yesl" said he." said the boy. And then he went back from there." and those sons of his did the same. He first caused the boy to get well. "Nol That. Even though there is a noise going on." said Badger. When he had done so.

qaxa'iva^xant tinti'Ya i)qiptYaiyai)'. qan i'5f. 'u'v^antr cii'x pi'Ya yjrii'mputs umu'ruyw qu'tcu'm' pa q waiii'ntux w nu'i'k aip lYa. a'ip-iYa yir)i'mputs-. o'v'aiyauq r cma'ijwav a tci'ac}) wjni'fuip tYa qi'ca'v'tq w qu'qwt'p iqnt'qutstcA'tca'p urux wip'iYain c'. i qu'teu'mpi'. a'ip lYa.m i'. piya'i) a'ip lYa.476 456 pina'riqWA Ywoits i^ir X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR ctna'i)\va({)i pi'tci'xwa'aip lya ijnctc a'ip t'. pina'riqw maria'c- a'ip ats- qam-(' ovi'nfuaqwoiptqwf piyo'xom'aija'iac. a'ip lYa yiqi'mputs '*vana*x'ni. a'i^juar)' '"'. a'p an a^va ni.a'ip atst aqa'vatci' naria'mptn'- miaxa iini'r)uts. iva'qwj'' tiimp^'a'iani. a'ip lYain 'tcuq u mam a"*saYwoits u''qwa'no"xw'ai£ uip m a'va nti i}m'r)uts 'uts- mar)a'c u q'i'ca'vt maa'iptYa. no 'Ywmi.qan I'ai)' L"qwa'p tYa. a'ip lya qu'teu'mpi'.pitci'p iy^- nimmptYa. ctna'- 'a'iveyeyan". cma'qwavitcai] mjWA naqa'i'aif uqqiariani. qa'tcu.)itsi ava'ntuYwai]ktxa ijmtc pttc'i'v'a qani'aq' impt" iint'ka'ip iya. ir)a•"^ qa 'teu a'ip'i'Ya. tcotco'montix ika'ini iva '*'* naqqa'wi'i'ikuv^a' pa "axavatcux w. a'ipiYa ivii" o'ava 'nam. i^nt'ijuts. a'it'cai}w aya'upa 'i}W. pi'tcipi'Ya. tca'i]wi(i ptya marja'c.tuYwa'n' maria'c u mama'lYaiyar)' tiimp^'t" tin a'H-a nti' man 'arup lYaiyar)' qi'ca'vi'.aimi"ptYa m ""a'va' unite piqwa'r) at]' cii'x A"tiv''t- tcupiYaiyai)'.a' a'intcu'an "aik^. ina"*. paa'n a " o"" ciina'i)wa<J)i m'^'a'upa'" si'Yaxw'aip lYa yiqi'mputs m '^a'u'pa'* paxtqwa '*rux wpiYa cu'yai)'. no'n i' tu'p'^i'p lYa. i|ni'ni'q\va i]' Ya'aik w.^^^ maija'c lYa. naqqa'variwipantuxwi^'am' w'l'ikuv^a' pa njriwi'ar) aR tu'p'^'i'p lYa a'i^juar)' mari'xavatcux WA. ma . t i' ^'a'ikw. qam'va ntux w paiyi'k iptYa. Xtnt' qo '+nt5f. qo '4-nt- 17. qa 'tcu. '*' axa'v* iva . tir)wi"ivani nana'ijwt'on oik ami. maria'cj) qu'tcu'mpiy axa'va'ami no'va'mi. tY'*^' niaiu a"*s a- ui]W c rpu'v^'aintntstYaim ''i'vii" a'iptya. ii]a ai)' i'i'i}'. ijni'ts a'ip lYa yiqi'mputs-. i'i'nA. ntr p(n c'k ariy.'" unite a'ip lYa.a'ip ats t'. i pina'qqwa r)' qa nrj'riw?' maqa'c u mama'- w 'uts. aip tYa i cma'i)wa4)i. ij uar)" qam 13' ai)' '}' ai)' tsqwi'n'nap tu'u'm otts m' 5f. uv'*ai'. qa 'tcu. . uni'ijuts- cu'yuc u piya'i'pt'Ya. ma nu'n c ampA tiimpa '"n aR piya'i'pt' a qwi 'k ari ti'ma'piYa. u maqa'c u^qu'mputcttcaixw'aip CYa. u'a'xarux ar)'. cina'r)wa(J)i Coyote and Porcupine. i)wac{)i qu'qu'q wi^a tiimp^t'paiai 'ura*. a'ip tYJit mam 'i'vii a"acaY\v. ctna'r)wav atci'ar)' 'tcuqu qu'qu'q wipcya. qa'tcu cu'yar)'.

come back!"^^ gone?" 17. ho! Come and carry me on your back. I shall drop off" riglit into the water." Coyote was always living there." "Where." said Porcupine. the other one. "My aunt. " Come back.' did I say that'/" its said he. I shall drop off right into the water. So then Coyote went off in yonder direction in order to get squaw-bush twigs. At night that young woman reached out her hands and held Gray Hawk down forcibly. has made him angry." ." "This one?" "No! the other one.Ml parts of her body were gone through as he spoke only that mouth of hers — . and then Coyote stood up his own bow and Gray Hawk shot at it. That mother of his said. then? here between my horns?" "No! while you keep sliaking your head. " In which direction has he In the morning the old woman caused her to go for wood. Coyote and Porcupine. (Hawk) said. "The old indeed. " Coyote. and after a while she raked it out with a stick. it seemed as though it were thrown about in different directions. After a while Coyote arrived there.'^^ In the morning Coyote had him engage in a contest with him." And then she said. (Owl's son). Coyote shot at (Hawk's) bow several times. (boy). Then she came back to (the old woman's) house. is wont to have cold water." Speaking in this manner. my dear. The (old woman) buried the jack-rabbit in the ashes to roast it. disappeared right through The young woman thought. "Where shall I carry you?" said the Buffalo cow. Porcupine said to them. When she had done so. and then he said.^^ Having come to the old here. Then mountains went up in dust and became level. Buffalos were standing across the water." said he.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes All 457 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES woman." "This one?" "No. and the Buffalo cow came up to him and then. and she gathered wood there at the base of the cliff. "here on my back?" "No! I'll fall off when you shake yourself. As he did this. and then only one was left over. And then she found Gray Hawk's house. he went through them all. His wife asked him to go for squaw-bush twigs (for making baskets). and yonder he was gathering them. He kept looking angrily at that boy. "What are you doing right and watching? 'You shall arrive here. taking the jack-rabbits. hair After a while the boy. the Hawk the smoke. arrived. dragging along a jack-rahbit with come loose. "Oh!" said Coyote. sitting woman's house. "Here inside of my ear?" "No! while you shake your ears. "This one?" "Yes!" said Porcupine. Porcupine was walking in that direction along the river shore. "my comrade!" as he kept shooting up towards the side of the clifT.

a'ip tya yjiqi'mputs-. ' uv^'ai'. a'ip iy^^. 'i|'mt\.i'' qatcu'a qani pjnt'qwa''. ijnitc a'ip tya. a'itcaram uv'ai'. pjn i'r)W(?''. a'itcaram u'v^'ai'. ctaywan-QA tiya 'n ints. ctna'qwav qmariA pA^qa'qu- 'o'v'^aiyauq' tiya'n tma'qutstai)' m "^'a'vantux w ma tca'p tya. a'ip lya ctna'r)wa(*)i. mava'nt'uYwa I)' pA^qa'rjUpt'Ya. impa'ya veyin'am"* aro"* mt'a 'p tv"utst'ar)\v u'qwa'iya *vaiytx u. unt'qumt ts' paiyii'(})i'sia'p utstm' p't^a'p tyaiyaq' kwiva"an' . xiai] 'ur)W tA'pu'q wttc'i . . qii)wa'*va '- q'. ynt'quts ctna'r)Wav arja'v'a x qni'rjUtstai]' tA'pa'q wi- piya yar)'. a'intci'a'ik'f. a'i:y. u'qwa'p tmsnti maqa'c a'ixuaq u'qwa'p tmanti" ya 'vaiytp tya. qwaa'quptyaiyar)' yiqi'mputst'.i". i'i'qa iva'ntuywatca'ani pA^'qa'q'urjW. stna'rjwavtai)' i kiye'qqipiya ynt'^uar)'. ma'u'pa' 'a'xanr/wamikuptYa. ya'^xwa'". qm'qufstqwct' tA'tcu"par)umpt'. a'ip iya qu'tcu'mpi'. qa'tcu.yiqi'm'ye'n ucu qiqwa '*va 'q '. i]ni'r)uqwa r)' marja'c u tiimp^a'upa i)' tA'pu'q wipiya. 'a'ikw. a'itcaram u'v^'ai'. a'ip't'Y^. tiya'n ip'tyai- 'u'v^aiyauq. a'ipYya cma'r)wa(})i. m . ignite a'ip iya. qima'ruc u ya '*xwa'*. cina'r)wa(j)i puwa'r'uaiyinion t^ain i'. a'i$ ucuai}'.uar)' a'itcaram wi^a 'm aq'. ivii 'nti' qatcu'r'ua- qa" i'mi. . maija'c u qa'qtijupcYa. a'i^uar) ovt'ya *vaiytp tya yirji'mputs ptxaiyar)'.478 458 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR puts-.i'. qwA'st'xwi'pap t/aiyaq piyi'a i]'. 'u'v^aiyauq u ctna'r)wav a'ip tya. wtt'pu'caya.a'ip tya aqa'rux wa yir)i'mputst'. t kup tya mar)a'vatcar)wtr)up lya ijnt'rjuts ia'v'iiani . impt'mA'a'. ai)a"va tiv*'t''v''txaiva q'. a'ip tya qu'tcu'mpi'. . impt'mA'ctaywangA a'i'an aik^. 'ys'nuc u tox'i'tiraxuava 'q '. ijni'tsstna'r)wav a'ip tya. a'ip tYa. ynt'qut'st' wawa'stvats pA^qa'quqwa'airjwa' qa'tcu. a'ip tya yj'rji'mputs ijnt'quts a'ir)umt its aqa'v'a x i tar)a'roaimar)vva({)aptya.pina'r)qwa'q w nar)qa'p tyai'cu'q w. tiv^i'ts.a'i iyir 'aik '. u'v'aiyauq' impt'mA'ciaywan qa ti^a 'n ints *'a't inaqqap lya'aik w. lim'quts lini'ijuts impi'mA'ctaa'ivurup iy^ wi-'pu'caxaiya' yir}i'mputs Xwan-QA ti 'I'a n ints ''a'va nti' si^i'xaxa' nar)qa'p tya ampa'x piA. 'o'v'^aiyauqu cma'r)wav uma'u'pa'H i' nampu'c ayai'Xain qu'tcu'mpi'.pu'ar'uaiyiruon i:jjain i'. a'ip tya ctna'qwacj)!. ijRt'riutsiai) aqa'vatcuXwa r)A cma'r|\vavi' moi'p tya. . a'ip tya ctna'r)\va(J)i.

and then said this." now?" "At its other shore. "What. When he had said this. Porcupine brought back a stick and Coyote killed him with it. When Coyote had said this. and then he butchered the (cow). and then he killed her at that place. " The one who jumps over her will have the hide. He won over Porcupine. And then. right in the middle of the (stream). shall be butchering with?' that." said Coyote. that one came with some wood." we got to now?" "On its bank." "No! 'What. I wonder. "Where have said the Buffalo cow." When he had said this. "Yes! at this place have I killed him. got now?" said Porcupine. As soon as she did this. heard someone talking. I wonder. (Porcupine said). for man. Thereupon Coyote said. he who was talking. indeed. Then. Perhaps. Then. Coyote. Coyote laughed at him as he did so. started to go right through the (water) in yonder direction." Where have we got now?" " Here "Where have we got to said the Buffalo cow." therefore it is fell "Did you not see an animal wounded by me? down dead around here. "I wonder. he crawled on his knees in order to climb over her. After a while he heard it again. He "Where have we still. that I is shall "Perhaps you have gone and killed him. ibi defaecavit. "Here in my mouth?" said the Buffalo cow. he did not see him." and he led Coyote to the (Buffalo cow). After he had done this." said Porcupine. for my part. that one jumped right through her mouth. getting to be a medicine man?" said he. having finished butchering the (cow). "Go and fetch some wood. when he had said this. I wonder. And then Coyote started to look for tracks off yonder and met that one he said. " What. as he was collecting squaw-bush twigs at that place." said Coyote. "Why is what you bring little in size when you fetch wood? Go and fetch another. am getting to be very much of a medicine then he heard it clearly. " When she and she made a gasping noise. "Right here still at the shore. he hung him up on a little long-leafed pine growing along what ." And then. and then he said. and then Coyote said. as he went here and there looking for a knife. shall I be butchering with?" said Porcupine. shall I be butchering with?" was saying." said Coyote." said Coyote." said the Buffalo cow. Thereupon he said to Porcupine. "Oh! am I. "All right. you said. And then Coyote jumped over her. and you who are looking for a knife. I I be whittling with for making an arrow foreshaft?' I said. " I. "No! 'What." said Porcupine. then. he hit her heart with his tail my part.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 479 459 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES was left. "Yes!" said Porcupine. indeed.

lint'ijuts- ma ri'v" aro" i'mpt '+n. lint'quts- mfnti'c pt'Ya yiqi'mputsia q pa n a'q'{^ qwaq ai)' wjna'ick". wjna'iqqi. i'mi cii'xaxwai'tJuim tntini. miyD"-''tsi({)a ti'qa'ri'wipliYa ym'r)uts.o"" pina'pu'tstr)w \va ar)' ti''nti' pjnt'k aiquptYa. qa'tcu. a'ipiYa aqaruYw a'ip atsi*. p c'Ya pts 'dd 'ts[r)wia(})C 'u'v^aiyauq' pA'qa'iju. pina'qqw ijntkaYu'c uam' ma qa'c u yjirji'mputs dJ\^'i^2aaC tina'qqwanfiAcuyaYwon QA pi'n I'kaiquqqu p. yni'rjuts miya'va'. ctna'qwav iva'ntuYwatca'^ni pi 'si'avai' a'ip't'Ya. uwa'tux w qwa'. qu 'n'i'ka' a'i^uai] aru'q wa ar)' wa qu'tcu'm'i'qwacjiipt'Ya ma r)a'campA pina'patstrjw wi'ct'xmtap uar)' n tavipiYa.480 460 tu'qo'avt'. qm'rjutspaYa'inNU'^qwtp tYaaic u a'ip tya qwttca'q aina r)'. a'i^uwaq' ccna'qwav a'.pcxa'i'yiriw paiyi'c|)rstap cm". iva'ntuxwa '*. ar)a'<{) a'ipats ar) wanaqqWAptYa ti 'mp^ n o'qwitca'm |A. qni'ijutsiaq' tin a'^va ntim anarjqwan taq-' aru'q nar)qa"t'aip lYa yiv^i'mpi'. mano'ni' tuYu'ntuxw "'o'v^aiyauqu v'm^. m ' ma n o'q o n[ qwtar)' wtwt'q avttc'piYa a'ipatst yni'ijuts aija'c. ijutsi'q w qa'tcu pi'mptn'i'pta'^ uv'^a'^nti' pu'ca'y. a'ikw. X Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPIR qmqu'ts- paYa'in'NU^qwtpiYa. qni''aim' na ijwa'iyun'nam tap tYa'aim'.mari'c. q axa' lini'quts aru'q pariwi'xarux w u'tcu'm'i^'qwavtva'.ucuai)' yjiijii m- puts ar)' pa'ipix^iyar)'. yiqi'mputai aija'rux w. pa n a'rjqwoaqwcoii saya'v tyaiya ur a'ip-t'Ya yjiqi'mputs-. pA^qa'p tYai'cuaij' yirji'mputsi'. u'u'ra' pa 'm antca'^qain av'^" axo'rav'^ik axu'q wa'm'.aru q wa^xeYU ya^a vurup ijni'rjuts tY^^- '^ i^.u o'p atuYwap tYa. uv'^a'ntuYwac u. .aik'AptYa.amt'qwanti. m "'aq'a'q'. mano'n a'ip lYa ctna'qwacj)!. qwaqwa'ntcux w. iva 'nqa'tcu.qwiri'k-ipiYa. um''a'u'pa'''c o"" pDTo'm'mtap't'Ya m^-mu'cu cma'rjwav ai]' pi qwa'qw'aiv 'amu'v^'tnaqqWA'patcuxw mta'ptYamava' (mi'iYw'aip tYa. aija'c a'i^uaq' qwa. ma na n a ija'c u yjiqii'mputs. qwiri'kiyi'ai)'. ^xa'va•ntuYwa'* . qnits a'ipiYa. t'uxwa ''. ctna'rjwac})!.upacu paiyii'ijuts*'a'tuinpA''qar)UptYaiyar)'.u'^*^ pA'pa'raqqam aiyuaq'. tiVtc. mava'ntu-/wa ai)'. tv''''t'rar) qnt'ijuts.aR to'^'pD'ton'i'kantint'.i'. qwiri'ctna'r)wa({)i qo 'ni'ptYaicijin'ijutsk iyiar)'. pi'tcr/wa'aip iini'r)uts I'Ya mava 'ivu t'l'^cia'piYa- i}nt'i)iits 'p !Ya aip'tYa.^^' a'ixuaq' paiyi'v^'tinp aR nan a'p lYa. pa'iyiv^'impt' 'n t''. 'u'v^'aiyauq' paiyi'qw''aip lYa tuwa'tscqwjar) aq' panpi'n'''k ai'pt'Yaiyar)' WA^'qi'riki^fuai)'. pimpi'n'i'kai'piiYa. mar)a'cu a'i- ccna'r)wa<j)i pt'tctxwa'aits a'ip lYa.ymc a'irjUptYa.

There it cut all the boy's kinsmen in two. Thereupon he went back home." said his excrement. Porcupine called to him and caused the pine tree to have branches up from its very bottom. and then that (excrement) spoke out in the same way.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 481 461 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES A\D T'INTAH UTES the water there on top of the And then he started ott"." So saying. getting up. " Long-leafed pine growing by the water. proceed towards it. Coyote and his wife proceeded behind the (children) and they held their arms around each other's necks as they went along. lie the backbone!" "All (tree). meat "Oh! he is in order to return to him later. "Do you down under the on your backs with your eyes closed. There he ate and got exceedingly full. and then he said to Porcupine. That Porcupine arose and then he said. " Ubi soles defaecare?" " Way off there from one of its branches. So they travelled along in that direction. the boy got when he had said this." "Right here?" "No! a little further on. grow up!" When he had said this. "He is getting up. Then they did not see the (game) and looked for it at that place. killed him good and hard. W^hen Porcupine had said this. "Throw me down then. That Coyote. and his children saw him as he came. while his children licked his hands that were covered with blood. having arrived home. "I wish that someone from among them would look up this way. when they had been doing this. the smallest one of all looked up. then. said. Coyote." Coyote turned back again to the same place and again killed Porcupine. and then I hung him up for safe keeping on a long-leafed pine by the water." said Coyote. he went off along it. sure enough. He got to be but a little distance off. "You who are accustomed to have me go to get squaw bush twigs!" said he." said Porcupine. And then he went about crying under the tree. having returned to the same place. As it said so. except the very smallest one who lay with his eyes only half closed. the long-leafed pine grew. down under it with their eyes closed. And then Coyote said. Thereupon Coyote and you shall lie (said). Let us all. " That's the one. that Porcupine thought." and. And then he turned over to his side in order to dodge as Porcupine threw the (backbone) down. and then he started off again. "Right here?" "No! a little further on." said he to the boy." And then. After a while. they all lay . all. There they arrived. "Right here I have killed an animal. Then the boy climbed up it and came to where that one was. right. As he did this. "What is that way up there like a black round thing?" And then they all looked up.

a'ip tya piya'ijA. fi'rjwtn . a'ip tya. tV't'aqA moa'i'yam uqw qa 'ya'ait iaxaip t'a'aq o 'pa q' moi'n'ni^wa'". o" a'ip t'a q o 'p ac an t'p tya. fiv^ie- I't'm'mtip'tya. ctna'r)wa(})i pa teu'qwtac})^ wiwi'xi' pjn I'avip lya.a'ip ate ai)' pu^qwt'yam a q tiYaTpcya.oi't a4>t paxa'in'ntva i)'wain t'. ' n I'^ck u pa teii'qwixai'p't'Ya' ctna'ijwac})! moy^'a 'q an in- tcuptya qnite a'ip'tya. ai]' pi 'vun poro'q uptya. ynt'quts 'aiqw sa '"ntiq a a'iyaq' m tp 'tya.^^ a'ip tya pivi'a m'. ivji 'nutuywa '*. t'yain t a'ip ats .to'p uijqu/^'aivat' amp uv*ai' sa'a'ijq'iqava'. my-'an in t mta"putstqwt'aeu pA^qa'qum 'ijni'quts 'a'x p't'ni'kaip t- . a'ip'tya.ava'r)Wi pjn c'aviva tst'q w Dv*'a'xctca. a'ipats aqa'x'im arjWituxw qni'ts a'ip tya. qatc t 't'm t'x'ir 'f sa'a'r)q'iqavai)'waiyam' a'iyuaij iyir 'aik '^ moniQ'aqqm um'. su 'yuxwa.482 462 X Southern Paiute ami Ute SAPiR ' qwai]wa'ntcuxw. yni'ijuts- patcu'i)wta T)' tiv^'i't'c at iijwai'yaqw^*^ wiyi'ijqaip "cya. ijnite a'ip'tya. qni'^uai)' yini''tcu pi 'van tkam tava nwsi'* niy'i'm ai]wttux w po ro'q uv'^'a'. a'ip tya cina'ijwac})!. a'i^juaqqa tstn'noro'p tya a'ip ate aq'. a'i^raic. ya'a'iva ya'a'ik am n'i'ni' niani qatcun. 'aa'ik w. pina'qqWA ta va'i' mj^w't'c tn^** am a'''i'l) a'i^uai) iy'ir qava '"va'anA. t qnt'ijuts i) a vt'p'tya. i'i'r)'. fina'ijqwant'im ijnt'r)uts anaqqw pt'tctva nt'i qat'cu'urjw sa'a'qqiqava pt'tc'ivantuc q'ima'ijac u pana'qqWAt'imanaqqw t u tn ina'i}qWA li'wayac ij'wayaxain tavamaijwt'e nt'i qatcu"ur)W sa'a'i)q'iqava-i)wa'aii)W. a'ipiya. ai)a'c. ema'rjwav ava'r)w a vc'p tya mam c'Acuaq' pa teu'r)wta(})t novc'k auamii'r)\vant X u. a'ip j'. qu'tsi'k *kava ni. naqqwA pt'te'p'tya to 'q war'im '(" 'aik'.in qatcu"ui]W sa'a'ijq'iqavi^ i)Wc|'*. qan t'^aip tya m a'va' ma ym'ijuts- cu 'q ae-u tuwa'tst^ai'piya. eu'q uptm aik^. 'an t'axai' a'ik t'i'qwtn t tk aip tya 'f. iv'''i'ya q mjimwi pa teii'ijwtni no vi'kaq' i}nt'r)uts o"" ni" aik. am I'n ar'i'iyxy pa tcu'qw't'a 'teuqu piya 'q a'ip'tya.' qu'tst'k^kaijum't'tstni lint'rjuts- niqw't'nts r)wji'^. ma va" p?n t'p lya. cma'ijwav 'u'v^'aiyauq u naxa'm iijup cya. paa'iyom un a'ivap utsti)w i^ni'xueampa m' qa'tc am u'RUeu'aik an t'p ta'*. cina'i)wac{)i Coyote and His Daughters. eu'iYU am a'naijqWA pi'tciv"ant'i' qnt'ts. qni'ijuqwa I) a'ip ate ar)' tiii)wi"ip iya saxwe'iya q aR pA'ta'q ipiya. 'aq °'o'x pa'* moi'n'nip t'yaiyaq'.itei". 18. lint'ljuts. a'ip tya yjqi'mputs-. maqa'c u ctna'qwac*)i pA^qf^'qmin tmp't'yai'qw qa'tsi' i^ni'qumiqkaa'ip'tya pivi'am'.ta nj'ntciqii]qiptYaiyaq'. mga'n inte ar)A mompa'q u. i|nt'i3uts- yni'tsy a' a'ip tya mava'ntuywa ij' qu'tst'k '^kap tya.a'ip atsni^a'va ntuxw.

as he indeed did say. The boy poked in holes for rats with his stick. When she had spoken thus. while I shall lie down in the And then indeed Coyote lay in it. the boy " You may say anything." said their mother. lay the bark on. "Go That Coyote it killed the rat he always ate raw. " Do you all. and when he had done the boy. as indeed father said.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 483 463 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES to its very end. will you make mush. " it happened shall just as he had said."^° fell off and his belly burst." said she. ahead! go and lead him around yonder to where your father used to hunt rats. arrived. off. Then he said." said their mother. "I shall die. rising of the sun (one who After a while there arrived from the was seated) on a black horse. her daughters. He had five daughters*' and he had one Coyote built a house of cedar bark. Deinde una ejus filiarum vulvam habebat pulcherrimam. *^ but for him too you shall not make mush. " This one." Sure enough. Coyote and His Daughters. tion to them." said he. but you shall not make mush for him. And then Coyote got sick. "Right here?" "Yes! at that place. "it looks like my . That boy stuck out his buttocks there. you shall all burn me on a wood pile. but 3'ou shall not make mush for him. And And then he lay between then in the morning the (boy's) mother said. but though they came. Another one will arrive from the rising of the sun and he will have a black horse. Then quickly they started off away from him. And then another one will arrive from the north. Still another one (will arrive) from the south. filiarum vidit cum jaceret. I shall no longer live.*^ son. Only for him. "And then you shall not look back as you return but shall start off quickly away from me. he led him around in yonder direction. Coyote was living there. And then a person will arrive from the west. Unmarried men. so. then. And then he died and they burned him at that place." said Coyote. When he did this. "My father has rolled "What are you talking about?" said his mother. When I am dead. your three in number. As soon as he did that. my daughters. 18. (house) and see the openings. "Oh!" thought every time. and then he said. Porcupine shook (the tree) by stamping once."*' Canis pudenda suarum while his daughters covered it with bark. The boy looked back and said." said he. they paid no atten- You not make mush for these.

a'ip ats- in aro' i'r)A. The Bird that carried People away. mjm {'antscyantimpa ivu tA'tco'n'naxa' wa'a'"xwaiva nti. ync'rjutsc'qw i watcc'p cya'aik "c"y w qa x^'acji't c 'tcuq u pfnc'k aip uv'^'a'nti' po"avc^.uaij' niava 'ai' ccna'ijwacj)! w'a'ux wi^kup "cya tA'tcii'n'naxa'. 'u'ra' aip cyain ijnc'rjuts 'o'^'pa'* qa nc NU''qwi'r)qw'aip cya. pcya a'i^. ccna'r)wa4>i paijwa'i'm.uai]' scna'gwav uv'^a" nan t'n'narjWitux w ngn u'qwipiya. icu. a'ian iyir 'aik *. aro".ain qatco'am'. ava'nti" 'o 'p ac qn a'iva nt'i. 'ijni'k a X Southern Pciiiite and Ute SAPiR q oarj' ctna'ijwav ai]' cja 'tst' '.484 464 yaiyar)'. 'u'v^'aiyauq mam a"c aywoits a'ipatsc u^qwc'yuruqqup-tya. m ija'ni. a'ip "cya u. a'ip ate qan c'^^aip cya. ava"'*t i' tccmpa'^*^ pa^ii"noq wsitcci'tcuq. ya'q-waip "c"ya'aik-w aro' qa xu'ni. a'ip cya. cina'gwavtarariw uqwaro'" niari'n'NA''quv''a ntirar)WA. 'aip cya 19. a'ip "cya. ijm'ijuts.inii'^ain c' ti'RA'ccn'avc^.aiva nt'i so n c'ai}\varixaii}upcya. 'a'ifcanw. ync'riuts uv'^a'riwituxwqwa'ik a'. tina'ijqwantiAcuyaxwon qa pjnc'k aiijuqqup'. p'jn i'k aip "cya pu'c'tcatsc^ain i'i)A. qni'tsmaa'ip cyaiyam' tuyu'ntuywam' po ro'xuam'. ijnc'quts uv^'a'ijwituxwpcya qan {". ijni'^. qayu'ni. qari'p cya. qni'ijats uv^'a" pc'tciixwa- naqqa'q aip cya'aikw wa'i^an a'am" qanc'vai]W(YU. pA^'qa'ijuts. a'i^iin cai)' ccna'i)wa(})i tii'nti' pjjnc'k aiijupcya.aic maqa'iac. . a'iaii iyi'r 'aik a'ip cya. ccna'i)wav.uai) uv^i'n aijqwop ai' wa'ix Apt'ya. uv''a'r)Wituxwqwa'ik aro'". a'i-^.tftii'qA- piya. mca"putsc' wana'RU'pcya. cv'^c'raijw ync'riuts- tuyu'ntuywaq c'. ijni'i)iits qa 7_u'ni.uncquts i]wt^ain c nana'qqavaxanti" qa-xu'vatcuxwa4)'t. aip cya. in i'ntc \x\* aro' ijni'i)uts- pu'"i'tcatscr)w i' qa x^'ai)'. cv'*c'moan-. a'ip cya. ijnc'ijuts o'" tuyu'ntuywaq iiumpcya.uv^'a'nti' a'.uv^a'ntux-wpcyaic-u uv'^a'u'v'^a'q.'ini so n c'arjw'c/aiva ntim'. po"an qaxo'aq". i'tcuq. t"int"i'axa m a'q w watcc'p c cxa'aikw. mca"ants ava"at wa'n aRu'putscyaic watcc'p cya'aikw. qni'^. a'i^iiai]' a'ip "cya. I) m'' ai)' a'vayaxwa a'ip tits- qayu'ijw'aicl) iinc'rjuts- paxa'in'nct iv^'ctcuap "cya. 'an t'an 'aik '^. qa ' ts aro" q"i'i'ijqiva r)a'm ini. a'ip "cya 'a'ik \v. in 'u'v'^'aiyauq-' i'r)A. pina'putscqw ai) a'ip cyain c'. 'ani'an "aik^.'o"pa'* ({an t'i)Wituywa<[)t toyo'q wiptya. iini'ijuts- inia"ants ava"t i' wana'Ru'pc'xaic u. <ic unipa'. iint'rjuts raqw axi'm aqwtt uxw yo'n'ntr)umpa'. piya'q a'ip cya.

he set it at the head of his grandmother's sleeping place. it is lived a learned how to walk. then. And then he arrived there and heard their talking in the house. had got into it. Lice. In it. . And then in the morning he looked there. And then his mother said. my grandmother?" said he again. There. "My grandmother! what sort of thing is this?" "They are mice. having killed a rat." As soon as he thought this. but as he did so they were talking outCoyote kept running there back and forth. "There will be the same sorts Coyote thought. he went up to it." And then the old woman made a bow and arrows for the boy. "What ears. ate did I say? 'My father. it will bite you. And then he ran in yonder direction towards the house. Then there he set it in a smooth path." said his grandmother. scratching around with his claws. up. he said. it turned out. 19. had got into it. the youngest child thought. Then he went into the house. Coyote. my dear. Coyote began to bark at that place. indeed. "What always kilHng the Httle ones." said his grandmother. "I wish that he would look up here. away. And then the boy made a Early in little larger net and set it at the entrance end of the tent. sort of thing is this. has he gone to?" and then over there towards the house he ran along. the morning he looked there. And then the boy made another net." said he. ^^ scratching around in little hollows of ridges. you will be barking!" When she said this. is "What what I said. a little Early in the morning larger. they turned into the Dipper. doing this. " Let us all run away from here. Let us. it turned out. "Where of sound here as ordinarily." And then he watched As he did so. all go up to the sky. "It is my lice. The Bird that carried People said. indeed. " You on the other hand will be a desert-dog. doing. Coyote looked up and then he Coyote yelled and. The boy and then he made a little net.Texts of the Kaibah Paiiites and Uintah Utes 485 465 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES father. sat something that had big Then he went and brought it to his grandmother. for he is him it as he lay in hiding. "It is a rat. While he was side." So then they all went up to the sky. "O my grandmother! what sort of thing is this?" said he. it turned out.' that. so discovered them travelling along upwards. Mice. It is Coyote who will be in pursuit of us. is what I said.^* boy with his grandmother." ^^ said she. When he had made it." said he. did I say? *^Iy father.' that. "You shall be the Dipper!"**^ When he had said this.

a'ixucampa watci'p iya t' a'ip ats- wan i a'r)wantctxw'aip iya. qu'qu'q wipiya.i' ya qaxo"oi)W. yan' ma n o'n atct'm a qac}) tst't'm iixwtp iyaiyai)'^^' tcA'^qi'v'utya ij'. i'i'i]ai a'imi'ka' qa xun a'i-^. 'q wipiyaiyai}" uv^'a 'ntuywa pA^'qa'ijUijni'ijuts- qni'r)Utsiar)' qa ya'vatcuxwacj).' sarjwa'vt t' 'u'v"a 'q wan a'iya(J) po 'a xantinipa'. tci'p iya a'ix ucanipa T) 'o" pa'* wan a'rjwantci'xw'aip iya a'iyac*). "'u'v^'a 'q ' wan a'iya({)'i. i'tcuq- maa'v'i'axaruxw po'axantinipa' watci'p 'iya. 'q'n isampa'* wan 'aijwantc'i.s 'tcuq ava 'ntuxvvijuiijuts "'u'v*a' wan a'ljwantcip iya. qa yo'ai)" pu't'c iri'tp iya.s- qa'm wan ar)'- iiv''a'ntuywa 'q rp'iyaiyar)' i)' pA^qa'rjUptyaiyar)' 'u'v^'a 'q i ' ya qu'qwi'p tyai'cuar) qa xu'vatcuywa<J)i. qa xo"oi)W siri"'pcya.aic qari'p iya.aic ampan ta i)' qu'qu'q W'lpiyaitya'r'uf^aiarjani. wan no a'iyac}). 'u'v'^a q ' wa wan qni'ts a'ip iyain t'.qari'p iya. ava'ijwi^^ain ta vu'ts. a'. qu'qwt'p i)a(})^^® ava 'nfuxwa I)" qa/u'vatcuxwa tya. uv^a 'ntuxw piyo'- qu'qo'q w'ipiya. t ijnt'ijuts qni'-^uai)' qa'tcu yu'mu'x *'Apta'*. ijnt'i)uts si'umpuntkai}nt'r)ut.a'air)W. c anipa'ai)W i t i t ijni'^. iini'r)uts qa /u'vatcuxwa r)a<}) ya 'q 'tcaqqaxo'ai)'.ai- pA^qa'i)uptya'aii)W. a'ip iur)W yain a'ip ats.^*^ t' qnt'rjiits i}ni'i)Uts a'iyac}) watct'p tyaaic r tunip"i" tin a ava 'ntux W'qtp iya ava'ijwt-^ain tu^qu'p uts iint'i)Uts!ar) tya'vaxariqaic ampa r)' qu'qwt'p tyaiyat)'. a'ip iqatcu'rax qa'*'^^ nai)qa'i)w. t ijni'ijuts 'tcuq- "ava'ntux wqtpiya tu^qu''a'ip atst'r)w m um utst^ain in"a'i)\vi ijni'"^.ii)(iinani. in i i afo"avi' pu'p am in i'tc'i po 'a- Xant aR ma 'viaxanti'.486 466 X Southern Paiiite ami Lite SAPiR maria'c. 'a'ik w. a'ip tya "'u'n icampa'* r) wan a'RU 'o"pa'* pa'a'v'im in' pA''qa'i)qii- rjumpa'. 'q ip'iya. a'ip iya. X qip iya'aiijw 'ijni'quts 'ui]W pA'^qa'ijupiya. ijnt'r)uts ava'ntuxwqtp tYaicu. ijnt'r|uts ava 'ntax wi)' qcp iya ava'ljwixain tiyt'A qarii'p iya. qa ri'p tya. ira 'i'. i'avtn^u'oet im "^in qip iya ava'i)wixain a vi'p iya. '"va'. a'ik \v. ni'^a'nicainpa' qui. ijnc'i)ut. . a'ix team pai)w °'o"pa'* wan a'ljwantcixw'aip iyaaic r. a'ip iyain t". ijnt'i)Utsi'i)W ti\''t'ts qa xu'vatcuxwa(|). iint'i)Utsiai)' ijni'ts pA^qa'qupiyaiyai)' ' ya wa tc't'p tyaic u i'tcuqrip tyain w'a'xaruxw ava'ntuxwqwa'aip'iyaicu ava'i)wi:jiain'. 'tcuq- "'u'v*aq' piyaic u. °'o" pa'* wan a'ljwantciywa'aip iyaaicu i n a'iyac}) t' watcc'p iya.ain qwi'yaxant'i qari'p iya. ijnt'r)uts 'tcuq- 'u'v"a (i waava'ntax Wqtpiya ava'ijwt' ^. pA^qa'i^uptyaiyar)'.a'ipiits 'a in a"aic u wan a'run ac|)t nan a'p i" tya. a'ip ats lya'vayap ixa'aii)W i]ni'-^.p'l'n i'r)win t-^.uai) u-^'qwt'yuai)' tu'p^'i'k uptya. ijnt'qutstai)' ip'tya. lint'ijutsl'rjw ijnt'i)Utsi'i)W piyo'x qwa'aip iya'aii)W qaxu'vatcuxwac}).

There again he shot at it. . he went off again yonder to set his net. sat a jack-rabbit." thought he. it turned out. "that is enough for you. I wonder. he shot at it and killed it. He brought it home with him to his grandmother. again. "it is this one off that my grandmother has always been referring to. it turned out. And then he set his net there. he shot at him. then early in the morning he came to it. Do you not hear what I say to you?" In spite of her speaking thus. There he set his net. There he set his net. An animal off will kill you. In it. "That's enough of setting nets. so doing. "Oh!" thought the boy. " What sort of thing.Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 487 467 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES That boy grew up together with the net which he made. Then. he killed it. There he set his net. and then he killed it. In spite of his thinking thus. The boy was afraid of him. although he was afraid of it. and. Then he brought it home to his grandmother. while he stood looking at him. Then early in the morning he came to it. And then in the morning he came to it. His grandmother was exceedingly surprised. was sitting in it. In it. lay something that was dreadful in appearance. The boy kept shooting there at it. There right And then early in the morning he came to rabbit. In it. In spite of her saying this the boy went Then he went And however." said she. dragging it along to his grandmother. When he did so. In spite of this. He brought it And then again he set his net there right and then he Then early in the morning he wenc off turned out. In spite of her saying this. . it He shot there at it home to it to his grandmother. he shot at him and killed him. In it. And then he came home. and then he thought. "Oh!" said his grandmother. it again. As he did this. it turned out. A panther. inspiring me with dread for him. he went off yonder to set his net. In it. And then he dragged him to his grandmother. Then his grandmother was surprised. off yonder to set his net again. in the brush at a trail he set his net. he (the monster) did not move. my dear. was sitting a grizzly bear. in the sage-brush at a trail. He killed it there and then he carried it home to his grandmother.\nd then he kept poking him with his bow in his testicles. In it. it turned out. was sitting a wildcat." yonder to set his net again. was sitting a cotton-tailed killed it. sat a deer. looking out of his light gray eyes. Then early in the morning he came to it. "that's enough of making nets. And then again he set his net there at the base of the clifT. "My!" said his grandmother. is it by which this trail has been gone over through the brush?" And then early in the morning he came to it. all of his arrows were used up. it turned out. it turned out.

'ar). a'ik^Aptya njjrjwu'nD ""vt" ta^a'p taqw. mar)a'c ijni'k ar)uin ijuts. tsiyii'm''naijW.iKj \va ' ([ n'jtjwu'n d '61 pt'tc'iptya.uv^'a 'ntux . tst'q-w A'pt'ip tya. wi'ct'a - yni'ijuts tiv'^i'p-i uv^'a 'x-itux-w xaik ain a-q' paic axa'RUqwap tya. ma n a'.iin a'ip ats i qitca'ri'inai)qiqaAa ijan i 'tciiq IJ. "'u'v^a' tya. ijmu'rux w. a'iyuaq ai] \iv*a 'ntu'ii'v^antiyani qitca'ri'niap i ya 'qqiqaq I. w'aip tya. ma m u'cayuc ampan tinl na va'c U qwiri'k tni . i^ni'ijuqwa ij' ma m u'c ' ana '^yttux w po td'- quptya ora'q ijnt'ijutsp't'ya.'. am 'am. unia'i)a'^ ti'nia'(i ya 'rjq'iqaq l. . ijnt'r)Uts:aq ti'ma'qAptya.i ii'a'xav ton o(i\vitci uin a ya 'pitcf/wa'aip "'ii'v"a iti' ijm'ijuts a'ip "tya taya'p tanwiav qa(i I. w I unt'ijiits 'ava"a X ya 'vaiytp-taiyxni paiyi'q w'aipo ro'q rptya 'o-'p at ux \v ti'(J)*'iptnji'nt' ayai'ptac{)t ^^^ mtnrt'n'i'ctk w'aip-iya. ma-vt'i)wan oii]qiq 'ptya.i'v"a ntiyani qitca'ri'niat iv"ttcuq\vain a'ik 'Aptya. h^i'ya q-' ptv*a 'ntim anaqqwaijumi vji ts yj"'*t i'ptaijum 'o 'p at ux w mtmt'n'i'- cik-wa''' ni" aik. "'u'v"a n A'pt'i*/. ma ija'c u niqwu'n o '(|)i tA'ct'p aux u pi'tci'xwa'aip tya. ijni'ijUtsiaijani o^(})l. iiv"a' c' pitct'xw'aip tya qan I'^aip-'ta'ijw qa mari'cuxwain . ' tA'st'pt' tA^qt'iiytrjq'iqap-tya qitca'vtna-^ytt-- ux w. lim/yiiiiui x i'l) a'iv^in ntiyani (litca'ri'map i ya'r)q"ipaya'in'nim inan' paya'in'niviiiysi'. ynt'i)uts am u'ruyw ' a'ip tya. qntputs am u'rux w taya'p tczi)wtav a'ip-'tya.'an k'Apiya a'.oyo i)qwanri' a'a'rjavt'xaip tya njiijwu i)\v aniV cu q-uc u yu yu u^wai ptya co 'v^antim' i|nt'i)ats- puvu 'iyaip ta'. maija'c a'ipats- qa-/o'av inva"ui-a' paiyt'([ xo'a(. pa.S. '''qainac}). i^nits o' 'o'p ac. ijnits a'ip ats a'ip tya amu'rux \v. iv"t'yaq mtni i'r)\vanti tA'st'p Ti4)iJ'caxaik ijnt'rjuts ora'q ava' t'- puv^'a'r)Wituywarai)w UR yo 'n'ntijumpa t''k 1} up tya qni'ijUqwa qa-ri'r aR nintci'tcu(i uijnt'ijutstam' ii\-"a-'ntuywa qnt'c pA''qa'i)Up'tyaiyai)'. man o'q- qntam' naya'p a ijqit'u'tp tya n'iijwt'axanti'.488 468 X Southern Paiiite and Vte SAPiR "(j)! ijni'xucuai)' nir)\vt'n d qwii'p i'Y^^iyiii]'- ijni'ijutsiar)' tuyn'moyo'ii- pai aru'qwa XI ya n^vt'in'nuap 'r)' "lya. a'ip tya' njr)wvi'n ijni'ijuts i q a mV ti' nava'c u kiya'p tya a'ip ats-. qa'tcu yuyu'uwaip-ta' *'a'r)avt'aip ta' maqa'c u ma n-o'q-oam' tiVt'quptya. iv''i"yar)warar)WA pA'pa'q £iumpa r)W. maija'c u ti^'qa'p'iya'aik w cu'aijumt'ywaqar)' ya 'qq'iqaq ip'tya. 'tcuqa'ip atst* t' ti'ma'q Apiyai^'ai)'. ijnt'ijuts a'ip "tya.tavaiya'. ' i'k^ ti'ma'qAmava'iyon qni'qain an tarai) 'uqWA. maijac a'ipats ai)' 'a'v"aiya\iq ij' pA'pa'q aiya'aip tya.

"Do you all turn back to whatever places you have been brought from. the island began There the boy killed him. some of you. Wlien he had finished eating it. as it turned . they did as he had said. Go ahead. this." On the fir-covered island the people had one leg or one arm. "Over there do you all Those said. and then he said to his servants. Then he said. And then that (boy) asked all of them. fetch for me the blood roast that I have asked for. Then the boy said to them. this boy was poking I ordinarily go to. and then they scattered dirt over it. They shall all run. Then we will dig the place into which we Then. "Who is doing that? It looks like the one that we have roasted under the ashes. Man-Carrier came home. As soon as he did this. sure enough. After they had all done this. "Do you there fetch for me the blood roast. eacli returning to liis former coimtry." over the (bridge) and went off." said the Man-Carrier. they brought it to him there. while I will return yonder And then they started off to where I have l)een brougiit from. he slept." When he had said this. ^^ This time I have come back from a little further away than While I was sleeping there. and he said to them. and look for flint. And then he said to his servants. And then they roasted it. and he ate it. those (mutilated captives) all started off into the pit that they had dug. that one always arises as though it were nothing. There on ii httie knoll covered with that came right up out of the water he arrived with him." said the ManAnd then when the sun was going down the Carrier's servants. Then that one kept groaning with pain to fidget around." "Though we roast him under the ashes. at That boy went back towards his grandmother." chipped flint into small pieces into the blood that was to be roasted.Texts of the Kaihah Paiittes and Uintah Utes 489 4G9 TEXTS OF TlIK KAIBAR PAIUTE. Then you all shall make a blood roast of him for me in the morning.S AND UINTAH UTES carried firs After the boy had done so. "Let us all kill him. the Man-Carrier picked him up and him along under the sky. It seemed. me. others had no legs or no arms or no eyes. "Over there do you all fetch me the blood roast. the boy played away up yonder as though it were nothing. There he arri\-e(l what had been his grandmother's house. And then in the morning they roasted the boy. And then he caused all the inhabitants to appear just as they had been before. As soon as he did and started to shake. What had been Ins feathers they made into a bridge. That Man-Carrier came home in the evening.

a'iyuar) a'ip tya a'ip atsc' ai'piYa. imi'ntcu' aik' nj'qwi qaYo'ai]'. . maa'in tqun o'".wavijmk aip lYaint' qa p[n paYa'in'nt^a'.490 470 ^ Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR I'p tn qa n t' naya'(})A''qai'ptYa qa xo'arjaxain i'n i'l'i)'. t aq' mava'r)Wi o'c^®^ pa sa'y. tiv^'c'cuxwairri' qayu't'siriw uru"aptYa. qaYo'ai)' maa'in in i''p lYaiyar)'.

it was her grandson. Sure enough. could not see. looked watery gray in her eyes^° an old uninhabited house. touch me. then!" When he had said this. —she . as it turned out. as it proved. his grandmother touched the boy.Texts of the Kaibah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 491 471 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES out. " Are you a of person that are making that noise walking about?" "Yes. like His grandmother.

uqWA mampu'tst ui)w ur)wa'vinar)qWA mama'q o 'miu<j)"it'ui'.i^a a'ip iya'aim'. in- am wiqqit uau an**' a'ip tya ii\va"ey. ma 'm a'otstrjwix 'um.qm'quts. (iaAtcu"q w a^a'n i-kai'pin .i'tstar)*. am' nava'vtrjw uv*a'iy'um' qwoavi'r)Upayu(|) nari'v"'tr)up cya'aim'. um' ma ma'q o'mi'pc' pupu'tcutcuywapt. 'a'im }'. ijm'tstxwa i)' to 'm. uv''a"a y ijnt'rjuts u'v'^aiyauqwa T) 'ijm'quts. ni'-/wa' ^'v^aiyauq' paiyc'qwo'oi' ma 'q s tn ava'ntux WA. ijnt'k ai)umi tstk^^* ijm'r)uts qma'nti' wi'a'i3qm'A''qai'. ni" o'p a' m *a'upa'* poro'm'mtap'iya qava'uxWA'civaiy ant'rjq'tuaxw'oiva'.i qijwa"axaruxwai)'u13' r)wa'aq u toy^o'lMU'^taq aij'wtijqvniw (ju'ciwi'tua iyir pA^'qa'tjumpa p I. a'ip t'ya qava'uxWA'civaix . qa'iva-vttcitstr)wa' Po 'pa q wa'm' tcutcuYwap-'i. a Ute War Story. niqwi'ntstr) qm^'a'va' qa'ivam' qa nt'-xaiptya qava'uxWA'civaix i na va'v[i}w am t'axav'am' qan I'yaip'tya.uqwA pu'tcu'tcuywat uyiqwami po 'p a' a'qo 'mtqwi'tp i'. i. qana'rim a ma'otstgwtx 'um' qatc' wi't'pu tcutcuxwar)wa'" si'ra a m a'Dtstqw'iy/a'm. i'mi toyo'in op aca'i(})Aputsti)w'[ t a'imi'ka'.i' i]nttsfj.uq aivam um u'r)wantir)wa'* w'a'p amanti' wi'qa'vitcaq ai'. lint'tstywa'am' jm't"''.itsiacJ)V. iint'r)Utsigwax qa'm 'o^i ijm "'a'nti' wa i)wt'£ tk ai'.' i tiv-'^i'i)ui)qwa- 'aii)W tcA''qa'. ynitci a'ik'Apiya. ni iyir 'a'iin qa'tcu tump''i'yooA tiqwa'- vaxaij'waq w na uwa"aiysiY '"ci wi'avun'nta'(i w yiju'. tcA^qa'.wa"an uv^a'nt'' a'ik- qan t'va\ t'v^aiyauq uywai) ci'ra y ui)' ma 'vt'r)w limu'ruxWA qam'yantim''a'.na qwa'ntux w pa'. The two Horse-tail Hair Brothers. i'i'tcta q piv^'a'iora'q ai\ m mam ' yauq' qana'ri'tstqw'aq 2. impu "ru"avi'^^* ntqwt'nts.492 472 mpu'tc ui)' ma m a'q d 'miu{{)*i^ui'. um'tstywar) 'o^i' to 'm. to'm.'axu qava 'ai' piv'V^n a'. nj'ni a'ip atsi]^a mama'qo'mi'pr i' pu'pu'tiya'i'pi:- q iini qana'ri uv^a ma ma'q uv^'a o 'mip-i yant'i tsti)w yiv''a'nar)waimpan a'/axa ain'*^ci'ra ni anarjqWA^^^ qana'ri jnK"i'tu'°'. 'i'm an ['a no n o'c iu| cviitc'. tina"tux wqan'i'ntcim'^j' qava'uxWA'civaix i nava'vtqw amu'v^anti" qoyo"'ptaya'i'tuai'. a'ip iya qa\a'uxWA'civaix ma m q'riwant oa' umaq' mama'qo'miU(})"itui)qiva r)um a'i(})T tA'ci'p aux u. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR PAIUTE NON-MYTHICAL TEXTS. 'Dq. um'guts pa'iyan t'^^* wawa'tct ora'q aipt'. iv'^^in ijnt'r)iits i]nt'k arim' nfm njriwt'aiyan o 'p a q'. a'ik axwai) 'o^i'. w't'm'mtaq umt'am'. c'i'ra- qana'rii ni'ywa'* ma 'q 'siinanaijqWA^'^ uv^'a 'ntux wqwa'ai'. 1.pim I'qwi'ik ai' 'a'ivami ijmu'ijwantr a'ivam t'x um' ta vi'kam tp i tavi'm intiac})t ta a'ini'kaqum i'.

That." that " is Tom here will sing the bear said. ^^ When I was a boy. The Kanab women did not know how to dance.\k Dance. indeed. They then placed a pan over the hole that had been dug. they then dug a hole. At yonder place where they were camping over night they asked each other. and some of the young men they kept hitting with pebbles puts^^ sang the bear dance songs. is what I am wont to dream. Some of those who were out hunting were killed by some people. then I stayed there at the camp. a Ute War Story. Springs." said his younger brother." The two Horse-tail Hair brothers started off and travelled along in that direction. this evening. questioning his younger brother. a bear dance took place at Kanab. am wont to dream that when guns are fired and bullets drop down just like mud. Then Tom sang the bear Springs. 1. mence to dance along with those The young men that were hit would comwho were hitting. After that I went back to Moccasin This is the time when the Kanab Indians learned the bear dance. and then they stood some of them up and cut notches into them. indeed." said Horse-tail Hair. said Horse-tail Hair. How THE Kaiuab Paiutes learned the Be. And then the Cedar City chief said to those who were camping. that they threw at them. PAIUTE NON-MYTHICAL TEXTS. "You have always been dreaming just like myself. Some of the young men returned from spying. "Claiming what for themselves^^ might be the persons who act in that way to my people? Let me. Then the Cedar City Indians^' I went to Kanab from Moccasin arrived at Kanab from Cedar City.^"* After they had done that. dance songs for you what he Then Tom together with some of the young men cut down cedar branches.^* and then MamThen the women danced back and forth. The two Horse-tail Hair Brothers. then. dance songs after Mamputs. living there on the mountain and the two HorseHair brothers were living among them. go off yonder to engage with them. but if anyone shoots him right on the forehead he will be killed. 2.^^ when people had come back from the fall hunt. "What have you ever dreamt?"^* "I. The two brothers said. Then they The Indians were tail . so the Cedar City women taught them how the bear dance was performed.Texts of the Kaihab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 493 473 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES II. bullets do not go through the horse that I am riding.

'a'xavatcux w poro'q upiYa. ptYa.o 'pa'm' ma n t'k w'aiquti 'q w.' pA^qa'quti 'rim f. tA'ta'p I'tcaq'ptYa. tu^wa'n amt'gwanti yu'tstqw}' m"5mi'n'i'ctkw''oipiYa.494 474 naia'vai}wa'" X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR qan /ayant UR. mam a"m' qwitcu'v^ari' nava'4)itstqw qari'p tYa'aim' pt^'a-'mt nava'viqw. qw'aip tYa'aim'. qava 'qw Yanti 'a"imkw'''air)Uqwaq.ur 'a'. puqqu'' qWA'ct'- m ts antuywan ta(}) pi'fka'waYaip lYa uqwa'v'antuxwa'am' na qwa"aim' pi'qupiya'aim'. . qan qnt'ijuts 4im"63itsi(l) mta"ants OYo'ntiinuqwiptYa.itstar) aq' pA^qa'qut'i'ptYa tA'ct'aqqwa'aixu. unt'qats- qava'uqava'u- xwA'civaix aq' tava'i^ maq'wi'c 'u pA^qa'quti'ptYaic u ma no'qo qava 'q\v} tu'p^i'k uqwa m V. fiv'^'ttc qan I'ayanti a 'yap jn cyuywip cya naiya'(})A*qaip ta'* qwitcu'vatsttcima q' o"" qani'aYant aYa'ni*uv'^a'riwitux kai'tsnm' parjwa'^van'noayantii t w to'ca'iyuaYai'piyaini'. qani'aijnt'qutstuywa'r'uiriqw'aij u a'niA co 'pa yaip CYa. tcA^'qa'. ma mu'c u nava'vcqwV we 'tc'qo'om' tavt'ntmpuruatsamcV})'^' maya'x'aiya qqits amt'axava- ts fcuywam' tarj'wa'c ur)up iya'aim' qwaia'qqwA'pa m I'm' na va'c-U tina'rjqw'am' m'^a"axaroxwa'm' ka'natstm' w'a'tctYiqupiYa. ma pa ''n'oaxant' niijwu'ntstriwii am' pa 'ir) warn ar o'iqwaYanti uv^'a'qwitux w N'^'qwt'qa'c u qa nt't iraxuava' NA'so'xo'ma^vip tYa' tixii''ya'*'j" a'm aq antint qo'in'i'kain am'. ta'pi**tcaqaiptYa qan i i^n a'"q wa ma mu'c 'um t'l'ca'vi' t t'i'ti'punaq '*- qaptya qwttcu'vatsitcii ama'm' am' pim a 'm' ta'p i^tcaq '''qain' piYa. t'qwanfi qa nc' t ira'^uava' piya'ij'wi- m ynt'quts o'iqwantstYanti ava'n'NO''q''om'MitstYaipanti'aqw ora'p tYa uv^aqw i^nt'ijuts. a'ik 'Apiya. ts qava'qwj ka'p tn'naqamimm- ma m u'c u cu'yucu yu't-^nifr)wtr)W{ a sua'pitclq 'ptYa am u'rjwanti qa ni'^anfim "'('. pavt'tsaq^^^ aq a'iptya. i'm u'^qwai iqwi't u x \v qu'qwi'p Apayaimpa'. tcA*tu'pa'q I'kip t'Yai'co'm' ava"am' na '"q wirjqitiuap lYa'aim'.'iiminimpiYai'tuai'. I) qa'. maru'qWAtuYw'otm DYo'Dqaritsitci man ar)' ('yiyi^t na i "vt'n avam ant'am' na'uqwtr)qii^uap aqqWA pA'^qjj.NA'co'xu'map lYa. tYa'aim' d 'vis puqqu'am- ani'kaip'iYa qo'o'it rim ptYa. a'ifcia'q w w'a'qtnam. iini'r)Uqwa q' tcA^qa'. a'ip lYa.i'niqucampA ta mt'ntcu' qni'quts i'va 'm qmu'v'^tnaqqwop a pa ya'in'ntva 'mi limt'ac.itsta aq' puqqu'A pA''qa'r)UptaYai'fuai\ maqa'cu pavi'aq ai) aqa'upa'* taq'wa'c uqup tYa. p iya qnt'avt^a' xWA'ctvaixi' man t'^tyut uxwan tk g'.itstai) aqa'vtt'i'i)- naqqwA'patci' tavt'p tYa.

having hung their hatchets through string loops tied to their wrists. galloped their horses right into the (enemy) and. they Horses were tied to each of the tents and those (Utes) led them off one by one and tied each of them on the little knoll. When commenced it. The blood of those who were killed was streaming in the wash. his younger brother lit right behind him. Some of those who were living in the camp awoke. On that knoll two brothers were sitting." So then gether on then. On through the there meadow And at a little distance from the camp was a small knoll covered with it firs. " Now their whooping has ceased. but shall we two then continue to walk about here^"^ after they (have died). they came right through there. That one (who had hidden himself) lay covered with earth in the center of the camp. (the Utes) were assembled to- became quiet.^™" And then he covered himself with earth in it. He was hungry while he lay in this condition for five nights. and their horses were killed one after another. they whooped as though it were nothing at all. As though covered with timber laid low was the open valley with people lying slain. Horsetail Hair's younger brother was killed as dawn was approaching. They went up into that little fir-covered knoll (in order to get a fresh horse). and both of them got on top of him. Someone killed his younger brother's horse. . The elder brother said. Their horse had a sore back clear down to his tail. when those have had that happen to them?" said he. It looked like a plain dotted with white^^ passing valley. " You. Then he dug a hole in the shaded bend of a little wash. That elder brother of his charged right past him. In the morning those two brothers. easily handled. During the night some of the Utes turned back home. Then Horse-tail Hair was also killed when the sun was up. indeed. after all the horses had been used up. " The camp does not look as though it could be easily handled.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 495 475 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PATUTES AND UINTAH UTES said. to get dark. as soon as everything And started off right into the camp. and when he did so. For five days the two of them engaged in battle. having come out beyond them. and really the camp did not look as though it could be said they. shall shoot in the opposite direction as we move along. Turning up again (towards the knoll). They always cut through the ropes with which the horses had been tied." a knoll they sat and watched the camp from their hiding place. One from among the Ute Indians was left behind in the center of the camp. kinsmen of the two brothers who were killed. and at that place the two of them engaged in battle.

unt'ijuts °'o'''pam'miapiYa i}WinQ nuqwi^w'aiva'ar)W. yaik ain am' nava'vii]vv{' tstsar)ki'aq a'm'mtaxa'. c amp a n i'k nai)wa"aimt paiyt'q w'oiptYa. qava 'ai A'po'n ait ir)wavaxai)kt:)fuai) a tci'acj) \va vu'n'i'ptYa. tvVijwani p. ijni'rjutsqa'm^"^ u'a'xaruxw. X Southern Poiute and Ute SAPiR am I'axavatcuxw'am' na ni'n'naq Dvatciamt({) pciijqu'tscainicj) kwi'papApa'xiqu'qwt'pApax ipcya nava'c'um' tspt'k w'aiqupcYa'aim'. pu'ca'xai^ai' qa'cu tiv^a" ma ija'cu tiv*a" ta ija'xw'aip lYa mai)a'c-U tarja'xw'aip tya.tarj'wa'avit ampa ya'nA. maT)a'c u NA'co'xD'ma^vttc ai)' tu ywa'n" qwiri'q ipiya. 3.'m o' p'tYa. a'ip tYa.aqa'upa'* qa 'm'nitap iya to'tsi'a 'y^-'intc i'k aip iya. "i'v'^'ta-q ' Mampu'ts' Style of Beginning a Speech. maija'c u ma'up a'" pavt'tstai]. ni'uv^a'yu'm' a'ip iya pa^vi'tstar)'. mar)wa'(j)A''piYa .496 476 ynt'quts'. 'n ma ont nana'qq'^qa' ai m "a'ntstqwini^"' piya'tstqwtni ivatci t pavt'tsti)wtni patsi'tsiqw't'ni tOY^'tsirjwtni qa Yu'tstqwtni r" pt'no. . qni'^uai) ar|a'vat!sai)\v maqa'cu tiimp^t' ava'^ruqwaip a'qw qa 'm'nuap tyai't'iiai'. mr)wt'ntstYain t' pao'wi'pantuxw ya'uq wa p tYa. mama'c.nt'paiyi'kipiYa tiv''i'ptaiav 'u'ra'.

" From there both of them went back home. my dear grandfathers. "Let me go to stand around and look for him. the words of the chief at Los Pinos. went down into the creek. here! my my dear fathers. That one had come back). dear older sisters. That (Ute Indian) was in hiding in the shadow of a rock. " It is only I. That one who lay covered with earth got up at night. it seemed. Then he crawled on his hands and knees through the camp. galloped the one (who horse's hoofs 3. down while Mamputs' Style of Beginning a hear. as the noise of was heard. A person. got his bow ready for shooting." said his elder brother. people were dancing along singing (the scalp dance) to meet him.'"^ way up from . my dear mothers." And then he went along in yonder direction.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 497 477 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES they whipped their horse riglit into them. That one turned home in yonder direction towards his country. Those people were moving along singing past him as they carried the two brothers' heads on poles.^°2 Do you all older brothers. Speech. They shot in both directions as they moved on and came out clear beyond as though it were nothing at all. As he did so. my my dear dear grandmothers. "hunting for you. The elder brother said.

tst .'a-i) a ar)-wai-aaiy'i'[vii']. MYTH Myth '-^^ RECITATIVES. qa'rim'avaa' qa'ni 'ara'mi. ma'i'an. Sparrow Hawk's Myth Recitative.^^ Recitative. sapi'gak'a'vaa 'tsiqw' a'ik tiv''i'tstsa'mpaa'i) uij 'ura"aiyi'[vi'J 'i) uq 'uru'aiyii'[vi'].498 478 III. 2°* a - ya - n i-k'a-va - a-tst-ijurjwl'ai-kai urj- wai' m'*. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR PAIUTE 1 .vasampa mr a ywa n lo qwa [vr yaj.v"'i - tcan u - qwa - ya ^^-'^i ti 'in rH - - tu-gwan-tim - pan av'aiva '[vi ] o - qwa ya qa"niin avcya t 'ti 'q i v^'^tqw ri qa- an o.[oqw] a'iqa'fviczni'na'].^*'^ 2. uqwa'vatco 'qwa a 'qwai'iva'n ixa 'a'. ai'k-' si'viintiv'^'i 'p-i'v'^'an- [oqw] u'v^a'anilvi'] qa'minav'tya'tP"* qa'mtn'avtya 't i 'qaxw'aiva'tst. i'va'a [vi'] qa'riv^a [oq-wa'ya] nia'va'a[vi'] qa'ni 'ara'mi-.^"' Eagle's ^^^^ i pi - ya p't .^"* qwii'qwai'i'naa .- min-tcu .

Eagle's My Go dear mother. In the country of the Sibit Indians. let me go. To him. . however. have killed myself. Recitative. That is what I say. Truly he is The one that has taken her away. There at our house. MYTH Myth RECITATIVES. PAIUTE 1. to the east. 2. say I. here Remain.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 499 479 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES III. as Doing what will you all. indeed. Sparrow-Hawk's Myth Recitative.'"* Do you. then.'"^ let me I shall eat jack-rabbits that I have killed myself. Stay there at our house. as you say? you say. You him Overcome. Am I there I About to go to eat jack-rabbits that Here you shall stay.

"] o'n tto 'ika"aqo'i)wa' ma'ntga'[ivi'ani'na"].tci ct-narj-wa-vt cc - naq-wacj)! ^^° ni'c itca i)wax'a' non'ni ni'aq- 'jca non'mxa '. X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPIR Rattlesnake's Myth Recitativf.' 500 480 3. u'qwas'o '[v]'] wants! 'vuqqu'n u'qwa ni'ntya'a[vi'n qa'qe'r)uqwa'nti[vi 'ni'] qa'tci ' mji'.^'^ ti -v^t-t nntlai-va .^'^ o - yo-yo-yo o - yo - yo .^'* 5. ma'iyan ['oqw] aik a ' t '.a - ri - a i'] - ni a-ni-kain' nia'iyan ['o 'qw] a'i'tga '[vi']. i'mintco 'a[\ unia'ncnii i'migwa '[vi'ivi'ni'] ci'naqwa'vt'y u'qw'aya' '. i'mintco ' uv*a'i unia'n cmi' tu'cuini 'ya[tv'^t'n']. cc'naqwav ctnar)wa'(J)i ct'narjwavt cmaqwa 'cj)i.. ma'ik a'qu'qwa a'n ika'a[vi'n'] u'qwaya's uqwa' stna'qwavt' ma'ntto 'ika'aqo o'ari'ani' to'c oo'v"'a' nia'ik a'qo 'r)\va a'n i^ja' 'ijwa' imi ".^^^ > - a .ri - a - ni iii-kain' a . Iron-Clothes' > Myth Recitative. Coyote's Lament.^"^ :^ -^:rH^ -•: itzEi: ct-nar)-\vacj)i — s*- cc-naq-wa-vt iqwa'iti".yo o - yo - yo - yo o- . [oqwaiyaa'] wa'ntstv'uqqo ai) ur)wa pa'qai)umpa'antii}wa'.

That antelope of mine Has made a raucous sound. O Coyote. oyoyoyo. oyoyoyo. then. are you wont to grind seeds? As one who is spying on me has told you. on your back! It is I who the Antelope As though wont O Will O kill. Coyote. doing these things.Texts of the Kaihah Paiutes and Uintah Utes 501 texts of the kaibab paiutes and uintah utes 3.' doing that are you. Coyote. That is what I say. are you wont to do that. Coyote! 4. Iron-Clothes' Myth Recitative. 5. then. that is what I say. oyoyoyo. Coyote! Teasing people. As that Coyote has caused you to do. then. 481 Rattlesnake's to speak truly. Coyote. Coyote! though wont to speak Coyote. to make that You. on your back! carry me. Saying. You are not wont to act in that way. it has been done by one who spies on me. That You. then. 'You shall grind seeds. so. as Coyote Has caused you to act thus. though he is not wont kind of noise. Coyote's Lament. Oyoyoyo. carry me. oyoyoyo! . that it has been done by one who spies on me. Myth Recitative. so you do.

tya'q ani-. A Myth 'i Song. Ig "^ 3 -•- S- -•. aya'ntga'i. oyo'yoyo.'i]\vuruq\va 'tii'ywana'ni'qwiruqwa 'tii'ywana 'camp a 'raiiu' ' c'v^'tyaYa 'p*'[u'qwaiya'] t'v^ntcani 'i'ga[vi'n t] \i\" umpi 'ca'campa' a'muv^'atci' to'rjwaqt'rn'.3-#- -^ ui) - -0- -».^^" 7.y Red Ant's Myth Regit ativ?:. c'v^tyaya'pi' [v'cn t] a 'q ana 'ca'nipararjwa a'ro vva'iYi.^^^ . oyo'yoyo oyo'yoyo. ' ni'nia 'y.' 502 482 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR -• — *-^jt ^ ^ V ^ ava — *~^ yo-yo-yo iva'n-i- o -yo -yo -yo.\ i ^' CO .-*- -* 3 -•- 3 ' * U '^ na-ri-v*t-yan' 'a-ro-v'^'a- 'a-ro-' a-tcc-vi IV— J"^— 3—-— -N— -4— -K P f. + ya' imi'ya' ta'vatsiva na'ijwacj wa ta 'vi 'n i* + yayama tcctco ma'. ta'nwaya'a '10 'wa'iyi n'. qa'pc imi i aiy a'ikamip i nv^'a tiywi 'n a/a qa 'p i ai' (jaya 'v'o- q-wan^^^ uqwai'.^'^ una'v'r/a'[vi']. i.''^ 6.ixwa'nt" 'a'iviui)wa'cu[v''i].tu'i'ijqigai.q u camp wa i o 'tstga'ii'vatci' nj"i(vi 'n i'n an 'na] ct'narjwavi i'ini[vi'] ni" [uqwa "a'yavi'] co'q uca 'inp u'r)\va[vi' '] o 'tstga'ii'vatci'."^ .wa'/ain ni'nia 'xwa'xain i' i' qwa'iit UYwa'"a'ro [v*i'] wa'cjit iiY>va"a'co [v*i'n pi'mptna"a'y i[vi'] i] ij'ni yi 'i''[vin i"]. oyo'yoyo itci'ani- tya'nti.

then. you The leg bone. facing this way. as it seems. while the sun is shining. about the other^ telling the What story. It is my Little I custom always but one arrow to have. merely for fun. Alas that it is we.Texts of the Kaibcih Paiutes and Uintah Utes 503 483 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES Here shall I put away of this? my quiver. Red Ant's Myth Recitative. 7. to keep bending down with buttocks stuck It out. make I a rattling noise with. . oyoyoyo oyoyoyol Why did that one say that to me. was my lot too. who are beaten. Shoot at them. A Myth Song. sing that which was sung: of Of you. O you Coyote! is am the one that wont It was my lot too. then. people always say was sung at that point. to do thus. when Let me. facing to have but one little arrow. That it is we who are beaten! Alas! let me. oyoyoyol Warning me oyoyoyo! fi.

u'was. ma'ipug ur ywa'c wi'i'vtdju'Ywavan' pa'vautnt ux. wi'i'vtdju'ywavani.ura' uxga'ipiga qa'vadjux qwas ' ' ' t paYa'va' kate'. ywac.* a'". gwtdjap'tr)' gari'p tgaic. 1. ywac. a'v"e'am 'ir)gi' e ''pa' poro'''.u'^'^aiyauq '. n. ijwac.u 'v'^aiyauq o 'p'^puga ij'v ura yaria'mbits o 'p^'pugaic. kate'. ma'ipugaic. yaqa'mbits u'pAptga. ya 'vayaitn'. u v u'V^aiyauq. no'YWtn'.u"v"aiyauq'. ka'tc'. ma'ip tg ura' co'int'. n{' ara'" we 'ts ti]" gwtdjap". pa 'vaui"tugwan' wt'i'vtdju'Ywavani soya'kuik'^a'm'.u"v^aiyauq.u'S'^aiyauq m" . qwac.o 'p'pugaic.ytga'p tga. ya-'vayaitn'.ur o'p'ptga. niv''a"na" kari'Vii'A.u"v*aiyauq-. qwa'c u 'v^'aiyauq' ma'ipugaic. ijwac ur u'^^'aiyauq' ma'ip tgaic gut c ij". Porcupine tricks Coyote. iimuc lira' qu'^djum.o 'p'^pugaic. u"vai ira' a Aa'n'nu'^gwtnt ura"p iga. st'is ura' ur)' ura' a'tu'Ywav'tm ura'p'tga. ma'ip tgaic u'V^aiyauq' i]wa'c.u"v*aiyauq' gu 'dj ij" paya'a^'gwip tga pa-'wauintuy uru". ma'iptga.u"gwandi' ttv^'t'^" pa'manun tu''b''i'p"tga. uwac u 'v^aiyauq '. no 'ywcn'. ma'iptgaic ijwacu'^-^aiyauq' pi'ka'k uv^'auaj't'. ka'tc'. ma'ip uga. m^'yan a'ik-'.u"v*aiyauq' tt v'^t ''pugaik I. tv'^t'c*' o'({)i. u'vand ura tjv'^i'q'pugaic. a'p igani nart'ava' kari"wi'A. ma'ip tga. i^wac u'v^'aiyauq'. t^'was. ma'ip tg lira' qwudjun \\m^'{' gwtdja'p'. i^wac- u'V^'aiyauq-'.u"v"aiyauq' t^v'^t'^'ptgai'ti)". qwacttv''[ "pugaic'^tq'. ma'ip tga yarja'mbidj u'q'. ma'ip ug ur q'^'ac yarja'mbidj \\'\ uwac. ya'vaYaim'. u 'va ira' suwa'axpiga'^ gwitca'p'ti) u 'va gari'ptga. UTE MYTHS. ma'ipug ur ijwa'c iar)a'mbidj y". ina'ipug qwa'c. ura'^ ku'dju'm u'p a" poro'p tga. maip tg ura '. ga'tc'. ma'ip ugaic. ka'tc' pa 'dtruvwavactram' am'k a'. qwac u"v"aiyauq'. ma'nai'am tntce ya'vaYai'. ijwac. i^wac u "v^'aiyauq o'p'ptgaic.' a'".u 'p'pcga na ndt'n"bu5a'm". n{ gu'c ga'tc'. u'wac. qwac u 'v^aiyauq'. ma'ip tga. n.^ i^wac u'V^'aiyauq'. ijwac. aya'n '' ura n}"pa" ' ^iga'vani. ma'ip tga. o 'v'^'ai*. (m^i'' gu'c nj 'nai< movo't'o'pa' kari'Viavant. nj' a'" ma'ipug ur i^wa'c. ma'iptga. ijwac. ma'ip tg ur ywa'c. liwa'nax.u'^'^aiyauq'. nfpa' a' toY^o"'. ijwac. ma'ipug ur ywa'c. u'4-v"ai u-'+v^ai. nj' ara'" mant'umbanti u'N^'^aiyauq ara'" gatct'"' ywac.' 504 484 X Southern Paiute and Ute SAPiR IV. tsibi'^'puga. u'V'^ai ura' cu"ax ptga. pi ya'u'wixptga. a'v'^'idjam' t"vai poru'qu. ka'tc'. u"vai ira' nf^ wa"m u'r cu"axptga u"v*ai.u'v'^'aiyauq. ijmuc u"v^aiyauq gwe e'ndux t^uwc'p iga. u"v*aiyauq y'wac. ma'ip ug ur liwa'c. pa 'manuq^du'wac'tr)' tu'p^'i'p'iga.

Mason) . Whitk Kocks.CiiAKiJi': Mack. Uintah Vite Indian. I'lAit (Taken by A. J.


"I am afraid." it moving on . "Go ahead. now. Right there were buffaloes. That (Porcupine) said." said he again."^ Thereupon he went on. Then the (Porcupine) asked him (if they had arrived on the other side). And then he went on again in yonder said then the buffaloes' dung." he said. in yonder direction. "No! Thereupon I am afraid. it was that (Porcupine) that spoke. "Ride between my horns." said he. they were He thereupon went off yonder. He said "No!" again. 1. So he went on in that direction. was a large stream. again. then!" and that one entered inside of him. Then said Porcupine." said that (Porcupine) then. they were quite fresh. was the best one of them. "No! I shall fall down. indeed. "Yesl" said he. And then that one said. "But how will you enter inside of me? Indeed I am afraid of these quills of yours. There. And those (buffaloes) were lying on the other side." Then he. said he. Porcupine went on again. tracked them. then said. Then he asked When over there. "No." And he then said." " No!" said then the Porcupine. "Just now they have set off from here. " You. "Ride on top of me. "Just now. the Porcupine. have they moved on through here. And there another's dung was lying." And then "Come and .\ Porcupine was going there. we are still in the middle of the water. Now there the tracks of them were quite fresh." said he then. "I shall fall into the water when you breathe. shall sit in my nose. " No! I shall be doing it so as not to be hurting you. And then that buffalo said again. Thus those buffaloes were all gone through one after another till just one was left. Right there he asked (some dung).7<?. he went on again." the (buffalo) said. Now there (one buffalo's) dung was quite fresh. indeed. Then direction. then. there. And then the buffalo started to go off into the water. "Come and carry mel" "I?" (said one of them). carry mel" "IV said he then. Everything that belonged to him was gone through. and again went off yonder. ("Come and carry mel") "I?" said one of them then. " (Is it) all right inside of me?"^ "Yes. he crossed over the water. he asked it again. I am afraid.\7.v of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah Utes 505 485 TEXTS OF THE KAIBAB PAIUTES AND UINTAH UTES IV." So the (Buffalo) said. UTE MYTHS. said. "No!" said he then. it was lying" there. but he (said). then. yes. He." again." And he then. Then he asked it (how long it had been lying there). "I am his dung for some time. That one came to him. And then again he "No!" said. Porcupine tricks CoyoTE. " I shall fall down into the water.

u'v^'aiyauq- qni'ts sA'pu'v*i'ar)" tA'dji'piqgup'iga. a't'mqgaq aiyaq a'r\ tqgt". ma'iypiga kany'^'aittmbanti. n.- 506 486 tjv''|"^pugaic'ii)'.® gadj uru" mama'ndi' t'ka'n oapai'. u'S'^aiyauq' pim't u'x tc'pi'^'puga.ij'wa'vanduywap igaim".' qwac u"v*aiyauq' t'qa"wi'p"cga. '' ' ma'ip-iga. ma'ipug ur ywa'c. om ant'ak'. yauq' pi 'q'nar)^ u "va wjni'ka'Y oru" ma'ipcga. nia'ip uga. ijwac u 'v"ai- kadj uru" yauq'.ijwa'c iaqa'mbidj 11". mama'ndt' pa 'vanduy uru" uv^a'k' pah'x p'iga. qwac u'v^aiyauq' ciri'tPdt'q '. qwac u 'v^'aiyauq'. uru" kwAci 'uxbap uga. ma 'noqu sA'pu'v'^ta'i)' pan'yujgwDiyaq yauwi'kwpugaik-' 'v^aiyauq qwac u t'ka'n oapai'. ma'ipug u"v"'aiyauq. liwac ur u 'v^andux kwi'pa'mbtdji'^wapuga. qwac u 'v^'aiyauq' ytr)i'mbidj i|" u"va pa- liwac u'v^aiyauq ig ' tci'bi'p uga. ma'iiqwa'. liwac gwa'i a'ik '. ina'ip i- 6mbu''"&qu