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figures, and with such other properties, and such proportion to space, as most conduced
to the end for which He formed them Optics, p.400 .

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uJ c U'e oU tU' uNA* uJ s' dOJ rE uK<

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ld! qBH!

WdE U(
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rOEF! UH WdE U(
U?eO?H b?I q? b?L? Yb?( U( Y?? c W?bI? w" U?MK?
sJL* s XKF? w b* u U* WO UL 5M 5?u vK Wb(
UbNA w UMzUJ c W"UB* i0 UNM uJ
5K 5?OU_ 5( 5?U XKDQ" rO?EF UH Wd?E U r
Ue p w?" U0 uJ c wC?I UN Yb?( U( ULNOK? bL
WIKD Wb t UJ*
U* uN jI" fO q1 rOEF U?H bIF 5OuJ ULKF
r? uJ? UC? UJ?* Ue? oK? q? UI?U u?u d?" s W?UD?
uK< r UF s e UL UJ* Ue q UJ U w" oKa
d?BF? su?O ? rN?CF? U c? ZM?du s?HO? o?"u p? vK?
b t?Q uI? u rO?EF U?H? rN" u? rE U? YO Y?b(
w? U?b? w U?* s?J r? U?CH? s? U? UJ? w?" U* s? W?K?d
vM?F*U" U?IK UC? UJ* Ue? q rOE?F UH? UM XI?K
Wb UC UeKK" Wb UJLK t UI c
uJ rOLB
Cosmologists believe that the big bang represents not just the appearance of matter
and energy in a preexisting void, but the creation of space and time too. The universe
was not created in space and time; space and time are part of the created universe.
Davies, cosmic, p.123.

u u uJ
The biggest misunderstanding about the big bang is that it began as a lump of matter somewhere in the void of space. It was not Just matter that was created during the
big bang. It was space and time that were created. So in the sense that time has beginning, space also has a beginning. Boslouh, Universe, p.64.

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w? WU?D s? WL?OE?F W?OL?J pK? UC? wC?I? rO?EF? U?H


nO?d u? qU?H? UN?OH?J U X?u s? b& r U?H? p d X?I?
UNOK Ud q tMJq c uJ c W"UB* i0 UNM ]uJ v U
U?NM? u?J? v?? Wu?q?? Wd?q? WM?O?F W?I?d?D W?b? c?M? d??
iF? Uq? c?N W?dA? UO?( "_ u?M W?Oq?LA? Uu?L:
bL? s? d( bF?* p UI? U0 u?J b U?* 5?F? 5OzU?eO?H
v bL? w" dLq? w ULM u?I" uF w? ULM 5 d?H c
U0 bL WM u?OK dA bF c UMu v qE? UN YO b_
rO?EF U?H s b? WOU b?F bL? bF u? d( bF* U?I
]uI?" uJ U?F e u?OK u?OK n W?zU s b? e u q? Ud
w U( tL v qB q
o U) uu U1 WOCI WqM? U d eO X~ WdEM cN
U?d bI? b?b?? u{u? W?U w?" W?Ou?J? W _ U?b?I q?F?& UN?
u v?K q? b 5? rN?M d?O?d U u?Od?G u?Ou? W?H?H
UL?d WC?U WU? WId?D r? UF u?J s? b? uJ u?u o? U)
5OJKH UeOH ULK sJ UNqH WIdD U tI U vK t t s b
c U u b w v dOA 5Ou WHH s rNF s
b?F r?K" r? d?G~ w?" Wu?L? UJ? U s? UN? oK?F? U u?J
ZMdu Ue aU
Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion that separates models that recollapse from those that go on expanding forever, so that even
now, ten thousand million years later, it is still expanding at nearly the critical rate?
If the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one
part in hundred thousand million, The universe would have recollapsed before it ever
reached its present size. Hawking, Time, p.121-122.

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Rq? b; U* c s? U/ WC?U WU W?HB r? UF s R?q


r bF U?Nb WOHOd s? UNIK s R t? b UDCM? U~ UC
UO sJ
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U s s
UNIK c u v UF tK UI U
bF s U q w UNIKa r t UI
UNqH XIK w w UN UI
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U WdEM"U rNCF U{
e?LA s?b?K* 5O?zUeO?H i?F XK?F w? w Wd?EM?K Ue?* c
uI c U( wHqKH U_ =uI UN_ `B r u u UNM
wFOD rKFK r^uB tOK
r?uF? vK U?IKF? uOJ?KH o U?) tU?d Wb w?" dU? U
wLKF qIF ca c nu* vK? UHOD bUA rNKF" w" c
rK?F tM? nAJ? qO U?& WO?u{u* W?U w" u?J d?H qI? u
r UF c s 5 UMMN w" Ub?IF w bIFLK UUB uJ tqH
oOC? UMU?M qO b l? tbI?F bDB 5? UM qd dB? ULd d?B
UN vMF UF tOHa b~ s p UM fO Q w]b
dU uJOKH o U)
Their reaction provides an interesting demonstration of the response of the scientific mind-supposedly a very objective mind-when evidence uncovered by science it=

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bI? sU?AM s U?I" p v?K UN? bNA?qO? rN u i?F qI? r


UD w" W?b uJK UN _ t?e dHM c uJ? dJ" XUd
c? b??L?? u??d W? Q?q? u??I? s?U???A?M?? V??d d??? v?
dJ?" s W?O{U? UF W?AU?M w?" Wd? WO?HU? WG c?wM?IK?I
WOu UNu Vq sUAM XIK Ue w" Wb
r tM? eL? U2 u?J Wb? dJ" t? u u?$s q?I
e? r W?KU?2 u R? s d?N q? sd? WF?O? UL?K s? qI?
sJ1 WO?FO dU u?u uI uGO?qq rN v c? WOHUF r?NKF"
UdOqH
p td UJ UOFO dOqH UdOqH sJ1 U dU u
w WU?( WHqKH b?{ u U/ dOqH? u U0 dOqH? b{ fO tK? U sR* _
wLK wI? dOqH s p UM fO? p c t tqHM nJ r? UF Q w]b
cN sbI?F* ULKF s dO?d WOFOD U?_ vK vM dOq?H duE
sR? UbM? v t?S" p c? rN?d s b? o U ^u?B s d?HM W?HqK?H
t Sd U?N tbd WF?OD dO w?" qb UI? U tbd rN?S" o U)U rN?CF
r o?K) b? d? d? u c? t uu? l b??* sU?A?M
U UN w WOFOD 5uI vCI0 dOq tQ tdd
= self leads to conflict with the articles of faith in our profession, It turns out that the
scientist behaves the way the rest of us do when our beliefs are in conflict with the
evidence. We become irritated, we pretend the conflict does not exist, or we paper it
over with meaningless phrasis. God, p.15-16.

oUq bB*
He was disturbed by the idea of a universe that blows up, because it implied that the
world had a beginning. In a letter to De Sitter... Einstein wrote: This circumstance
of an expanding universe irritates me. This is curiously emotional language for
adiscussion of some mathematical formulas. I suppose that the idea of a beginning in
time annoyed Eindtein because of its theological implications. God, p.29.

oUq bB*

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buA v U w w WdEM cN" UO lu s dOG eL sJ


p c c w" UNO?b WdE s p UM fO UNb~ U?L uI u qd
U WK UN u{UF* `~
o"U) u vK UN"b d d
o U) uu uI s UM " WdEM X~ t U s rNML"
X?Ud W?UD? U* d?" U? s p? UM? fO? dJ? uI?
s WE?K pK e?O1 sJ1 Ud c? U qFH v? Q" dO r? uu
s? oK?) d?H? c? s j?q_ _ w?" d?_ UE??K q?d
i; bF s WFOD =uJ WON bF
sJ rFM" WON S uJ s?J1 WFOD Q uI eK t U
t p UM{d?" i; bF s UNMuJ u?J c s eK
c q fO c? sJ tb bUA c c UM?ud oKa r
c UMud uu Uu w" WIU UuKa v UF tK rKq* bIF
U s?K u?I? o U?) u? dC? 5?KzU?I? s U?M?KI? w?" wC?/
sJ U?IK Wdd t?"U{ dQ" b?L UD w?" uJ QAM _ V?q
v UF t qLJ uB

uOJKH o U) dU
There is no ground fir supposing that matter and energy existed before and was suddenly galvanized into action. For what could distinguish that moment from all other
moments in eternity? ... It is simpler to postulate creation ex nihili, Divine will constituting nature from nothingnes. Jastro, Universe, p.122.

dU t
As to the first cause of the universe in the context of expansion, that is left to the
reader to insert, but our picture is incomplete without Him. Jastro, God, p.122.

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Ud b? WIzU" W?UMF? dO? b XUd u?JK? v _ Wb? vMF? c
s* t? Ue? Wb? cM U?O?~ U?d b rO?EF? U?H s?Uq? uL?M
p s u?I Q c U WI?dD cN uJ? b U* dqH b? VFB
UM U s U oKa bd Ud o U) F" Ud
o"U dOG oK q sbK* iF U$
W?dE?M w? q? U?NO? U?d w? X?U? U?( uJ? W?dE? XU?d
dI? c s? fU?) bI?F w?" uJ? q~ U?LK? 5O?zUe?OH? 5 W?FzU?A
WIOI( sJ? w uJ Q uI w UdEM? b c XUd O*
e U? td d?Lq b?9 w" uJ? c bU?A* UNO?K X w?
sJ1 Ud UL" _ cM UN U c Ud s?J iF s UNCF bF d&
bL c l WU W"UJ XK nOJ?" uO UNOK w w W"UJ U uJ
bU w pK q q bb' U* wQ s s
UN W?dEM c u?U~ sc W? ULKF? b u qu b?d" U
U 5?bO bF? s dN d? X? ULKd b?F s oK?a
WdE?M cN X? w pK q? q? d d UN?M ]uJ Y?K
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b9 dL uJ U U uI 5 uFL XU
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This means that the initial state of the univers must have been very carefully chosen
indeed if the hot big bang model was correct right back to the beginning of time. It
would be very difficult to explain why the universe should have begum in just this
way except as the act of a God who intended to create beings like us. Hawking,
Time, p.127.

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wQ s s c u dLq* oK) s Wb WK_ dd qu uI


X w" oKa UN? dNE jI" UN UJ s wQ? UN WuK< U*
b b?u bF? X w" U?* UNM? uJ? w? bF?* c bu? U
Wd?G U? s?J p c?d UNQ? d U W?dG W?U w" d?J" c b?
UNM dOF s?JL* s U WOKL dJ" XUd wFO?D rKF w" dJH
bUA* l WI"u UNzU X U WDCM WGOB
5OFO?D ULKF? s dOd dzU? tOK U WdE?M c qu d? UbM
l VUM wM dOqH UO UdOqH Q tdE uH~ uKF WH"
oK) d?" sLC WdE?M c w$u t U U? p s wFOD? rKF
WOL?KF WOL?( d UF w?" tOMF c? U c U bF? s ULK dL?q*
uNH? tIOI? w" u bF s? UO_ U? uNH _ UN?OUF lQ? v
UO{U J f d wM
Wd?E XUd t?_ w$u d?H d WO?LK W?dE v X?q
uI rOEF UH WdE S" bF s oKa c uI dLq* oK)
uJ WFO
The most obvious question to ask about continuous creation is this: Where does the
created material come from? It does not come from anywhere. Material simply appears - it is created. At one time the various atoms composing the material do not exist, and at a later Time they do. This may seem a very strange idea and I agree that it
is, but in science if does not matter how strange an idea may seem so long as it
works-that is to say, so long as the idea can be expressed in a precise form and so
long as its consequences are in agreement with observation. Nature p.112.

w$u WOq
This theory involves the hypothesis of the continuous creation of matter ex nihilo.
And this is not precisely what is usually meant by respecting scientific determinism
even in its widest sense, for the concept of emergence out of nothing is characteristically theological or magical even of clothed in mathematical form. Causality.

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Ud b?F U U?uq? Ud oK? b U?J U s? tO" U?0 tKd u?J


U"u UNO ]d" b dO? S" WOMb UNzd dLq* oK?) WdE dJ b w$u
r U Ud n R d? sb s UNM bF U rOEF U?H WdE s
c bF? s U r U v U?OFO R U?H WdE r? UF q
U( u?J W?dE? v t?c? U d?d u?I d?O?M q?F c? u
sJ2 t q? UNO" u~ UMODF? WOUe Wb dJ?H UUFU UN? u XU
uJ W?dE t u? tM qI? r uJ o?K) WbO?KI W?OMb u?B U
w" udc* n~u? U UN q_ UN_ WO?U dd_ UOHqK" w? XU U(
QAM
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rK?FK? Ud? tO?K V? sJ? UU?b iF? tO?]b U? dJM? tI? s
uN? d0 U?a U W?u Ud? Z vK? UO? wM? WOI?F
v ub dQ?" p c `dB s w?q r sb c b{ W?OBF
r U qd dH? w WUq dJH pK? bb w" bOH tKF? sJ VF
qd u? qd s tq?H bd& w?" `K" b w? U Uq? u WFO?D UL?K s
WIOI( s t w" VBF
rO?EF? U?H W?dE? w" d?OM? d? r w? d?JH? uI? r
c X?qO? UN?O Q?' w X?U? U( u?J W?dE w?" UN?MO?F u?u
bF? s oKa? uJ s q?d UM UL?d uI w? w WdE?M
Wd?E u?I U?Ld .b?I b?NF? uI U?Ld u?I U?N r?F W?b U?N
t_ uI c s ]d" U/ dOM Ud sJ Wb t tKd uJ UH
U0 .b?I b?NF? t uI? U0 u?I ? u d U?M S?" wM? u
w" w? qJ l? t dM U?Ld uI? q rO?EF U? Wd?E t u?I
Wb UN XqO UuK< WKqK S" Wb uJ
r UF q r U
rNb 5 c .bI bNF Ud s _ qBH v dOA

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vC ULO" u{d b uKF WH" WFOD ULK s bK* Ud


b?K S" w?Mb U?COH? u `?H W?OA d?Lq?* oK) W?dE v?K
uu? uI? s p c? uMG?q?O bF? s oK?)U u?I U u?K rN?M u?O
S" 5? U( w?" dU?) u u?J w?G?M s?b S?" tO?K o? U)
w" rKF s fO bF s UO_ u qO bF s oKaK b p UM
uu uI qb t sJ r d?q sb U"d s u U/ w
5 .bI wdG b?F v dOA c qd wLK sJ?2 w t qO o U
WIOI?( sQ" 5OdG sd?JH* s dOd U? w" gFAF U sb? rKF
tKd c w"
s o?K) ? uI u?O s r?d U? t uL?KF U?M s? dO?d
s w? w" dO?F cN? u tS?" W U?_ v 5q?M* 5 b?F
oK c] u v UF t u vK UIKF WOLO s aO uI rNd
u UL vK td U! U] W] w* _ uL]0
dI ddc? r U s b w" _ u?Lq oK t d? bI"
U UL?d UO sJ r? bF uK< oK? t dd q w s w? oK
WHD s tIK t U l .d3 UO p r: q= s3 pIK b=
s sb _ UF? dz uI dI s WOLO s? t U U q0
bdR? r w? s o?K) bO?I U?BM u?NO? bM? WbI?* V?J
bI* UJ s UJ w" Wd~
5MR* 5 w s oK) dOF lzUA ULF v sJ
UH uL
sb _ UF dz
The doctrine of creation out of nothing -ex nihili- is nowhere expressly taught in
Holy Scripture. Ethics, vol 4. p. 22

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UNIKa v UF tK wMF U/ i; bF s oKa UO_ wMF


ULMO? bF v UNI?K eF _U" 5uN?H* 5 lU dH? bF s
b w o U v eF wU
Uu?NH? fO q?u t?O U c? vMF?*U b?F s o?K) S?"
UCOH u_ `" tO" sJ r `~ u? sb t uI U iOI u q UOM
wu?J qO b? _ p UN b? q bI? sc r?u ULd w?Mb
u W U? vK WO tGO?~ w" UM ULd eJd U/ o? U) u vK
bF s Ub;
U wA s?J1 q UM UI? s Y* c t? Ub c UM R? v uF
i; bF s wQ
5O?zUe?OH? dzU? UM U?Ld t?OK? U sJ?2 p q?u U? Ub?M
qu? vK? t lM? U sJ? t?dE w?" bF? _ dD{U?" uKF? WH?"
tUd w" rb uI UeOH ULK s dOJ u U~
Vdud u$ UJ U w p UM sJ r Wb w"
b?I? dH? s? U? w q?d U?u?O U? U?? ua?~
U?duJ? s W?u?J b? WM?U? U? U?e U?J*U? W?b? XU?d
WIOb ULOq' s UdO UdJ
qO?q q d?qF WC?UM dJ?" b dO? s wA b? dJ"
wA b c u? bF dH XK WLO?Iq UF UNM d?OF
gd" U* oK
In the beginning there was nothing, neither time nor space, neither stars nor planet,
neither rocks nor plants, neither animals nor humanbeings. Fritzch, Creation, p.3.

dH? w" d?N w? qd X?Ud U?F? u c? vK? UI?KF? u? u?db? U


u wHM U w?N" wzUeOH uBK UUM? UMJ2 uI UJ came into the void
sc Ue U?J* b vMF0 (void) baq bF s u?u wb wU dR
uI u U v U s uu UI bBI (into) uM c vK UF uJ

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b _ UCUM J Ud UH s p tU U t] b
b q?UH q?UH qU?" v U?% wN" U?F" VO?q U?
bu b nOJ" uu wH u bF uu UO uJ
b?F? s? dN? w?A? u?I?M?* hM? V?U?~ u?I? UL?d X?K?
uIM U?M_ ULN vK b?F dH UMLN" r?OIq dO UC? J U"
dN? r bF? w" dH? w" UO?Ha?q U?d dN c? wA c? cM?O
UOHaq sJ r t XK pQJ" bF w" UOHaq Ud t XK sJ tM
tM? b? lO?Dq? F?" WH~ b?FK? X? lOD?q? p
tK u sc W =Q* s r s* W]Mq q U p c wHM U
Uu?K<U? o U) t?O?A s -d?" rJ? rN? u U W?OU? WH?~ v U?F
sJ1 " b b?F tM -d" U2 d u U?bF*U tNOA w?" rFu"
sJ? r UHa? U?UJ Ub? bu? U u?J
b d? UJ U b?u b dN?E sJ1 ?" bF
sJ r? UN vK? lU qO? Uu S" F?" b b UO?_ c U0
i; bF U Wuq
sJ?1 " U?ID?M ?I ?O?q d? bF? s w?A u? Ud
w" Q U?MUN bd 5?OzUeOH i?F sJ lu s? qO t~ v?K uI
eH uI bF s wQ UO_ iF vK b U rNLK
s p? UM? fO? tKd o?Ka?K b?u n?~ d _ UM?JK?0 uJ? b
uJ UN b w W?OHOJ WKCF s W dd W U~ b? WOLK WKJA
b W?OLJ U?eOH b? uK? qF" dO? s c b? sJL* s? Ud
w w vK qB?% lODq s p W1bI WL]Kq?* w" dG X"
uu v? l"bM u?d tqH o U? uJ s u?O ub? 5OzUe?OH

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U?H? iF w?" UJ s? uM? X% rO?q' d?NE U?LdUO?zUI?K


Xq?O WO?~ WdE?M c qO?~UH X?Ud rN* s? fO WO? UF WU?D
tKd oKaK wLK dOqH uB sJL* s t rN* U/ WOB
nOd UM dqH U?U db WOzUeO" WdE p UM? UM eH Uda
dO?qH? w b? dqH? wJ? p u?I b?F s w?Q s?J1 U?O_
u c? wA U? tK?~ UO v?K U q?_ vK uJ? wG?MO" U?OzUe?O"
u b; p? uI XM?d sJ u dq?H c tb? V
w? wA? 5 WK?~ b& lO?D?q nO?d dF X?OK?" w
c _ wA bO?H s UJ s dNE w? WuM X% ULOq'U q?OL
tM? UMK?I UL?d d u? u?db? bF? dqH? r UN?MJ b?UA d?U
bF s UO_ uN vK UOzUeO" O iNM U c w" fO t UIU
dFA? t s rd? U" dH?~ WUq X U?bM U?d VU~ dK?O U
u t?MJ rO?EF U?H WdE s 5?OzUeOH b?K t dF c? d(U
o U)
For the first time a unified description of all creation could be within our grasp. No
scientific problem is more fundamental or more daunting than the puzzle of how the
universe came into being. Could this have happened without any supernatural input?
Quantum mechanics seems to provide a loophole in the age-old assumption that
"you can't get something for nothing'. Physicists are now talking about 'the selfcreating universe': a cosmos that erupts into existence spontaneously, much as a subnuclear particle pops out of nowhere in certain high energy processes. The question of
whether the details of this theory are right or wrong is not important. What matters is
that it is now possible to conceive of a scentific explanation of all creation.God, p.8.

c vK UIKF u udb U
This, in any case is an event that occurs in space and time, within a domain bathed
in matter and radiation. "Nothing" is nowhere to be seen in this situation .
(bF ) WUD U*U `"U U w" UJ* Ue w" b% WF U qd vK c

l{u c w" t UJ

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UNq?HM UNI?K bF s U?O_ oKa? uI Uda? tM b d?


w{U?* Ue s? U X? w" t r?OEF? U?H Wd?E wC?I? uI u?N"
sJ qO?BH UN"U?AJ sJ1 W?IdD p bF? b9 t r Q" u?J oK
sJ1 w? qzUu s U? Ud ud p UM? sJ r Xu p? q
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The Bog Bang requires that at some time in the past the Universe was suddenly
created. After that it expanded in a manner that can be explored in detail. But before
that time there was no universe-and no time! One way to avoid the enormous difficulties presented by the Big Bang is to deny it happened.

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The idea of a physical system containing an explanation of itself might seem paradoxical to the layman but it is an idea that has some precedence in physics. While
one may concede, (ignoring quantum effects ) that every event is contingent, and depends for its explanation on some other event, it need not follow that this series either continues endlessly, or ends in God, It may be closed into a loop. For example,
four events, or objects, or systems, E1, E2, E3, E4, may have the following dependence on each other God, p.47.

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A being sees himself as independent only when he stands on his own feet, when he
owes his existence to himself. A man who lives by the grace of another regards himself as a dependent being. But I live completely by the grace of another if I owe him
not only the maintenance of my life, but also its creation, if he is the source of my
life. My life is necessarily grounded outside itself if it is not my own creation. The
creation is therefore an idea which is very hard to excise from the popular consciousness. This consciousness is incapable of comprehending the self mediated being.
(Durchsichselbstsein) of nature and of man, since such a being contradicts all the
palpable evidence of practical life ... ... Now it is easy to say to a particular individual what Aristotle said: You were begotten by your father and your mother which
means that in you the mating of tow human beings, a human species-act, produced
another human being. Clearly then, man also owes his existence to man in a physical
sense. Therefore you should not keep sight of the one aspect the infinite progression
which leads you on to the question: 'who begot my father, his grandfather, etc.? You
should also keep in mind the circular movement sensuously perceptible in that progression whereby man reproduces himself in the act of begetting and thus always =

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= remains the subject. But you will reply: I grant you this circular movement, but
you must also grant me the right to this progress back to the question : Who begot
the first man and nature and nature in general? I can only answer your question is it
self a product of abstraction. Ask yourself how you arrived at that question. Ask
yourself whether your question does not arise from a standpoint to which I cannot reply because it is a pervese one .

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R Qq tLB qF? v t tU bI UdUJ" UNM lD?q rK" tIM


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In short, so long as each individual member of the succession is explained then
(ipso facto) the succession is explained. And as every member of the chain owes its
existence to some preceding member or members, each member of the infinite chain
is explained. Asking for a cause of the whole universe has a different logical status
from asking for a cause of an object or event within the universe. God, p.37.

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compare the following: (1) every event has a cause; (2) to know that an event has
happened one must know how it came about. The first simply tells us that if we are
interested in the cause of an event, there will always be such a cause for us to discover. But it leaves us free to start and stop at any point we choose in the search for
causes; we can, if we want to go on to look for the cause of the cause and so on (ad
infinitum), but we need not do so; if we have found a cause, we have found a couse,
whatever its cause may be. The second assertion, however, would never allow us to
assert that we know that an event has happened ... . for if we cannot know that an
event has taken place unless we know the event that is its cause, then equally we
cannot know that the cause-event has taken place unless we know its cause, and so
on as infinitum, In short, if the theory is to fulfill its promise, the series must stop
somewhere, and yet the theory is such that the series cannot stop anywhere-unless, a
claim of privilege is sustained for a certain kind of event, e.g. the creation of the Universe. Reasoning, p.29.

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But the cosmological argument is founded on the assumption that everything requires a cause, yet ends in the conclusion that at least one thing (God) does not require a cause. The argument seems to be self-contradictory. God, p.37.

oU)
Every event .... requires a cause. There cannot be an infinite chain of causes, so
there must be a first cause of everything. This cause is God. God, p.33.

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Even granted the consmogical argument so far-that the universe must have a cause
there is a longical difficulty in attributing that cause to God, for it could then be
asked 'What caused God?' The response is usually 'God does not need a cause. He is
a necessary being, whose cause is to be round within himself, .Moreover if one is =

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= prepared to concede that something -God- can exist without an external cause,
why go that far along the chain? Why can't the universe exist without am external
cause? Does it require any greater suspension of disbelief to suppose that the Universe exists without a cause than to suppose that God causes Himself? God. p.37-38.

oU)
If we stop and go no farther (than God), why go so far? Why not stop at the material world? ... By supposing it to contain the principle of its order within itself, we
really assert it to be God. God, p.48.

rUF
For, it is claimed, everything must have a cause, and so there must be a cause of the
Universe that is in essence 'other' than the Universe. However, the logic of this argument is not very compelling. Anyone who can live with the Deity as an uncaused
cause can surely live with the Universe itself as the uncaused cause. World, p.227.

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1- Barrow, John D, (The World Within the World), Oxford University
press, Oxford, 1988.
2 - Berman, David. (A History of Atheism on Britain), London and New
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11- Fritzsch, Harld, (The Creation of Matter): The Universe from Beginning to End, translated by Jean Steinberg, Basic Books, Inc. Publish-

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ers, New York, 1984.


12 - Flew, Antony, (God, A Philosophical Critique), LaSalle, IL: Open
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24 - Steven M. Stanley, (The New Evolutionary Timetable), Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers, New York, 198, p13.
25 - Taylor, John, (When the Clock struck Zero): Science's Ultimate
Limits, Picador, London, 1993.
26 - U S News & World Report.
27 - Weinberg, Steven, (Dreams of a Final Theory): The search for the
Fundamental Laws of Nature, Vintage, London,1993.

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