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# PRIST UNIVERSITY PUDUCHERRY CAMPUS ANTENNAS AND WAVES PROPAGATION ANSWER KEY FOR QUESTION PAPER SET-I PART

-A 1. Define antenna efficiency. It is defined as the ratio of power radiated by the antenna to the total input power supplied to the antenna. 2. Differentiate radian and steradian. Measure of phase angle is radian&solid angle is steradian.1 steradian=1 radian2 . 3. What is uniform linear array? Group of antennas are fed with a current of equal magnitude with uniform phase shift along the line. 4. What is parasitic array? Multielement arrays having number of parasitic elements are called parasistic array. They have one or more parasitic elements and atleast one driven element. 5. What are the applications of loop antennas? Used in radio receiver,aircraft receiver,direction finding&UHF transmitters. 6. What are travelling wave antennas? Antennas in which there is no reflected wave is called travelling wave antennas. 7. What are the various modes of propagation? i)ground wave propagation ii) sky wave propagation iii) space wave propagation. 8. Write short notes on F region. F1&F2 combine to form one layer called F region. It lies between 140-400km from earth surface. It is the top most ionized layer. 9.What are the types of antenna measurement?

(a)Write notes on various form of arrays. bandwidth measurement and radiation pattern measurement. gain measurement.2 induces an emf at open terminals of antenna no.Impedance measurement. 10. iv) parasistic arrays. Diagram-(4) Explanation-(4) Expressions-(8) (b) Explain the reciprocity theorem in detail. ii) end-fire array. iii) collinear array.diagram(2) statement(2)-direction of maximum radiation coincides with array axis.(A) Explain retarded vector potential in detail. Voltage wave standing ratio is defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum voltage.1 induces an emf at open terminals of antenna no.Diagram(2) Statement(2) (b) Explain the array of N-sources of equal amplitude and spacing-broadside casei) direction of pattern maxima ii)direction of pattern minima iii) beamwidth of major lobe. PART-B 11.diagram(2) statement(2)-radiation pattern has circular symmetry.Define VSWR.2 and current at terminals of antenna no.270 . i) broadside array.diagram(2) statement(2)-direction of maximum radiation is perpendicular to array axis. Diagram-(4) Explanation-(4) Proof-(6) 12. Statement-(2)-If a current at terminals of antenna no.1 provided both currents are equal. Diagram-(2) Definition-(2) Expression of field strength-(6) Pattern maxima(2)-90.

It is defined as the ratio of power radiated by the antenna to the total input power supplied.diagram(4).Circular component method(2).Calculation of MUF(8) 15.180 Beam width of major lobe(2) 13.Explanation(4) Log periodic antennas-Diagram(4).Procedure for measurement(4) Beamwidth of antenna. Diagram(6) Explanation(08) Expression(4) (b)Write short notes on i)parabolic reflectors ii)Log-periodic antennas i) ii) Parabolic reflectors.Explanation(6).(a) Describe the methods for measuring gain and beamwidth of antenna. Gain measurement. Define antenna efficiency. Diagram(6).diagram(4).(a) Derive the expressions for fields radiated due to TWA. . Procedure(4).Pattern minima(2)-0.(a)Explain briefly the various modes of propagation.polarization pattern method(2). i) Ground wave propagation(4) Diagram(4) iii) iv) Sky wave propagation(4) Space wave propagation(4) (b)Explain maximum usable frequency and how to calculate MUF.Explanation(4) 14.Linearly component method(2). MUF definition(2).Procedure(4) (b)Describe briefly about polarization measurement. ANSWER KEY FOR QUESTION PAPER SET-II PART-A 1.Diagram(4).

Define power gain. 7. Explain the directivity of an antenna.uniform. 3.2. It is defined as the minimum distance from the transmitter at which a sky wave of given frequency is returned to the earth by ionosphere. 6. What is pattern multiplication concept. 4. Define gain of an antenna. 5. Define skip distance.Normally it is done from end to end. 10. What are the applications of Yagi-uda antenna? High frequency communication. 8. TV reception. 9. The total field pattern is the addition of phase pattern of individual sources multiplied with multiplication of individual source pattern. What is critical frequency? It is defined as the highest frequency which can be reflected back by a particular layer at vertical incidence. Gain of an antenna is defined as the ability to concentrate the radiated power in a given direction or to absorb effectively the incident power from that direction. Draw the structure of log-periodic antenna. . It is defined as the ratio of maximum intensity to the average radiation intensity. What is tapering of array? The reduction of sidelobe level is called tapering which means current in source of linear array is non.

Expressions(8)-Rr=80 2( dl/λ)2 Ω.Explanation(4).minima and half power point dtrection(4) Radiation pattern(2) iii)Unequal amplitude and any phase(4) (b)Write short notes on binomial arrays ii)phased arrays i)Binomial arrays Diagram(2) Explanation(2) Advantages(2) Disadvantages(2) ii) phased arrays Diagram(2) Explanation(2) Advantages(2) Disadvantages(2) . 11. Diagram(4). PART-B 11.(b)Derive an expression for electric and magnetic field due to a current element at distance point in free space. minima and half power point direction (4) Radiation pattern(2) ii) equal amplitude and opposite phase Maxima.Er)-(6) Magnetic field components(HФ)-(6) 12. i) equal amplitude and phase Maxima.It compares the radiated power density of the actual antenna and that of an isotropic antenna on the basis that both are fed with same input power. (a)Derive the expression for the far field pattern of an array of 2-isotropic point sources i) equal amplitude and phaseii) equal amplitude and opposite phase iii) unequal amplitude and any phase. (a)Derive an expression for the power radiated by the current element and calculate the radiation resistance. Diagram(4) Electric field components (Eϴ.

skip. (a)Describe the methods for measuring power gain .interference.EMF of loop antenna(2).Diagram(4). Diagram(4) Calculation of field strength(6) Attenuation characteristics(6) (b)Explain briefly about ionspheric abnormalities.Explanation(4) Loop antennas. 15. Diagram(4) EMF of loop antenna(6) Application as direction finder(6) (b)Write short notes on i) slot radiators ii) Loop antennas Slot radiators. i) Measurement of gain-direct comparison method Diagram(3) Explanation(3) ii) Measurement of radiation efficiency Diagram(3) Explanation(3) .Diagram(2). 14. (a)Explain Ground wave propagation in detail.13. Radiation efficiency and transmission bandwidth of an antenna.polarization. Normal and abnormal variations(2) Mongel-Dellinger effect(2) Ionospheric storms(2) Sun spot cycles(2) Tides and winds(2) Fadings(6)-Selective. (a)Obtain the expression for the EMF due to loop antenna and explain its use as direction finder.Radiation resistance of loop antenna(4).

. What is an array and mention various forms of arrays? Antenna array is a group of isotropic radiators arranged in a similar manner. The various forms of arrays are i) broadside array ii) End-fire array iii) Parasitic array iv) collinear array.Definition(3) ii) Antenna Aperture Definition(3). 2. Write notes on binomial arrays. *It is a kind of non-uniform amplitude array. In terms of pointing vector P=E×H. What is radiation intensity in terms of pointing vector? It is defined as power per unit solid angle. Directivity= maximum radiation intensity of test antenna --------------------------------------------------------Average radiation intensity of test antenna For an isotropic antenna G0=KD. Calculate directivity of an isotropic antenna.iii) Transmission bandwidth measurement Diagram(2) Explanation(2) (b)Derive an expression to determine antenna efficiency and antenna aperture. 5. ANSWER KEY FOR QUESTION SET-III PART-A 1. 3. *The amplitudes of radiating sources are proportional to the coefficient of binomial series. i) Antenna efficiency Expressions(5). * Sidelobes are completely eliminated. 4.Expression(5). Give the reason for poor radiation of loop antenna.

Effective aperture. Define MUF. 10. It is defined as the height to which a short pulse of energy sent vertically upward and traveling with speed of light would reach taking the same two ways travel time as does the actual pulse reflected from the layer. parabolic reflector. 8.etc.I (b) Derive radiation resistance. D= ηA ( 4Π/λ2) ηA.Loop antenna of single turn have very small radiation resistance and to improve the radiation resistance no. It is defined as the transmission of a radio wave vertically to the ionosphere and back. Properties: • • It has built in impedance transforming properly. It is related to the directive gain of large aperture antenna of the type horn. PART-B 11.(a) Derive the total power radiated by half wave dipole. 6.of turns may be increased but efficiency is still poor due to the loop design. Diagram(4) Explanation(4) Derivation(8) – W=60 Irms2 . The directivity is bi-directional. Define virtual height. Define antenna aperture efficiency.directivity and effective aperture of a half wave dipole. What is folded dipole?What are its important properties? A folded dipole is one in which two half wave dipoles –one continuous and the other split at the centre have been folded and joined together in parallel at the ends. Maximum Usable Frequency is defined as the frequency which can be reflected back to earth for some specific angle of incidence. 7. Define vertical incidence measurement. Diagram(4) Radiation resistance(4) – Rr=W/ Irms2 . 9.

Definition-(4) Radiation pattern of 4 isotropic elements fed in phase. Construction-(6) Diagram-(4) Working-(6) (b) Explain the principle of operation and application of loop antenna. minima and half power point direction.(a) Explain the effect of earth magnetic field on radio wave propagation. Diagram-(4) Explanation-(12) (b) Determine the effective earth radius in space wave propagation.(6) 14. spaced λ/2 apart-(6) Radiation pattern of 8 isotropic elements fed in phase. Diagram-(2) Working principle-(6) EMF equation-(2) Application . spaced λ/2 apart –(6) (b) Derive the expression for electric field sources of n-isotropic point sources and also find maxima. Diagram-(4) Explanation-(4) . Expression for electric field-(4) Pattern maxima(4) Pattern minima-(4) Half power point direction-(4) 13.Effective aperture(4) Directivity(4) 12(a) Explain the principle of pattern multiplication.(a) With suitable diagram discuss the principle and operation of yagi-uda antenna.

Definition-(4) Expressions-(12) . (a) Write short notes on vertical incidence measurement of the ionosphere. Diagram-(6) Explanation-(10) (b) Derive an expression to determine the directivity of an antenna.Expressions-(8) 15.