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QS LANKA (PVT) LTD.
Due to following main reasons basically it is compulsory toestablish an effective safety management program. (1). To prevent injuries and illnesses. (2). In addition to that, managing safety is to avoid direct & indirect costs that work related,injuries, illness and property damage incur Direct cost are expenses directly associated with a work related injury or illness. They includethe following cost. (a). Medical Expenses. (b). Medications. (c). Workers compensation benefits. (d). Rehabilitation cost. Indirect cost are all other expenses resulting from work related incidents or illness. They includethe following costs. (a). Production losses or delays. (b). Property or product damage. (c). Training. (d). Supervisory time. (e). Administrative time.
SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Safety isn't going to just happen. Individuals have to know what they are responsible, for, andwhat roles they play. Then they have got to be held accountable for their behavior. The keyindividual at the job site is site manager or engineer or crew leader who ever is in immediatein charge.
Safety planning is based on following steps. (a). Safety Training (b). Providing protective equipment. (c). Scheduled inspection. (d). Behavior Observations. (e). Safe job Procedures. (f). Data accountability for safe behavior. (g). Corrective action planning and goal setting. (h). Total employees involvement and support.
Sometimes working safety doesn't come naturally. Employees must be educated or taught howto engage in their activities in safe manner. Means how to operate Machine / Power / Toolsetc. This education we hope to give using following methods. (a). Speaking engagement by experts in safety. (b). Distributing various publication on safety and Health issues among employees. (c). Displaying audiovisual aids on work place hazards, and technical advice. (d). Providing basic and advance seminars and classes for employees.
Providing Protective Equipment
After providing protective equipment it is necessary instruct and educate. (a). What to wear when. (b). How to inspect it (c). How to wear it. (d).How to get into the habit so it's impossible to forget.
Tools equipment, Method, and procedure have to be looked at every so often to make sure that they are in good shape, that they're safest thing available, and that they haven't started fallingapart, been cracked or warped, or had a guard shaken or rusted loose.
Which are simply audits or slices of work that look closely at the safety aspect of tightly focusedbehaviors or work task.
Safe job Procedure
That means simply how to do a job or task the right-way, without taking needless risks.
Data Accountability Safe Behaviour
If no one is held accountable for choosing or following safe ways to work, then those ways of doing things may just not happen. Employees must know what expected of them when it cometo safe behavior.
Corrective action Planning and Goal setting
Both of these take considerable thinking and advance planning, with input from employees, from Management, and sometime from outside agencies and other sources.
Total employee Involvement and Support
Total employee, that means you, too Management and employees alike it's the only way to makesafety every one's responsibility.
PROGRAMME MEASUREMENT AND REVIEW
When doing programme measurement and review; following factors to be observed. a) Injury or near-miss reduction level b) Displaying of employees safe behaviors c) Safety cost come down level Time to time check the records of site audits, tool box minutes, training sheets and other relevant records and confirmed whether things are actually happening.
CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
The causes of accidents are broadly classified as under: 1. Physical causes 2. Physiological causes 3. Psychological causes
The Physical causes responsible for accidents are as follows : (a) Relating to Machines : (1) The working space on the machine being less obstructs free movements of workers material. (2) The machine being not properly adjusted (3)The machine being unsuitable for the job. (4)The machine being unguarded or improperly guarded (5)Electric motor on the machine not properly insulated. (b) Relating to Tools: (1) Tools being brittle, may break suddenly e.g. blades on a sawingmachine. (2) Tools being blunt and worn out due to constant use. (3) Tools used being too small for the job. (4) Tools being without the handle or the handle being loose. (c) Relating to Materials: (1)The material being inflammable e.g. use of explosives and petroleum products etc. (2) The brittle material not handled with c are (3)The material being too hot e.g. sewage in the maintenance of sewers. (4)The material used being poisonous and dangerous e.g. acids (5) The material emitting foul gases e.g. sewage in the maintenance ofsewers.
(d) Relating to Uniform: (1)Dress being loose (2)The sleeves of the shirt being without buttons (3) The shoes being loose and slippery (4) Protective dress prescribed for a job not used, e.g. tarring outfitwhile handling hotTar andwelding shields while doing welding work.
(e)Relating to Environment:
Following are some of the main causes (1)The floors being slippery (2) Poor lighting conditions (3) Poor ventilation and unhygienic conditions (4) Loose electric cables and live conductors (5)Obstacles and projections in the working area, e.g. a wooden board found Raised in woodenflooring etc., (6)Building used being unsafe (7) Use of unstable and unsafe ladder (8) External noises and disturbances (9)Improper discipline among workers.
2. Physiological Causes : The main causes of accidents on account of poor health conditions are as under: (1) Poor Eye Sight : e.g. a driver while driving a vehicle may notbe able to seetheobstacle ahead clearly, especially when the light dim (2) Over Work: Atired worker loses control over his limbs and may meetwith an accident (3) Poor Health: Asound mind is sound body is well known. A man with poor health gets tired soonand sometimes a worker does harm to his body while doing a job which is beyond his capacity.
(4)Old Age : In old age eye sight is poor and quite often one is hard of hearing and general health becomes poor. These factors areresponsible for the accident.
: A worker under the influence of intoxicants like wine, loses control over his mind
(6)Physical Handicap :A handicapped person has more chances of meeting withan accident.
The causes connected with the mind of a worker are listed below: (1)Worry :Aperson under strains of worries has least control over hismind.
: Mental tension is caused due to strained relations with
or co-workers and one loses control over his mind.
: Ahighly emotional man loses balance of mind quickly. : When a person acts under impulse, without proper
thinking, the chanceof his meeting with an accident increased considerably.
: A person who gets nervous in a particular situation,
losses control over his limbs. (6) Over Confidence
: Over confidence many a times causes an accident.
: A careless worker meets with an accident more often
: Under fearone loses control over one's limbs.
Employees need a proper grounding in Safety Management techniques and in safe operatingprocedure from the start. Safety training in following ways. (1).Specially newly recruited persons are selected to give the safety training. (2).Refresher training for regular persons. (3). Arranging of monthly safety meeting. (4). Arranging of tool - box safety meeting. (5). Arranging of safety training for employees how to operate properly, tools, equipment insafe manner and how to use materials which are newly introduced towork site. skill training is also part of the safetypicture and arrange to give skill training for the employees. For newly recruited persons must be given safety training especially in following categories. (a) Safety management principles. (b) Facility safety rules. (c) Material handling and mobile equipment safety. (d) Lockout / Hazardous energy control. (e) Hazardous material communication and handling. (f) Protective equipment and guards. (g) Tools and equipment safety. (h) Ergonomics. (i) Emergency equipment. In addition to regular safety topics that all employees receive, company arrange additionaltraining for supervisor in the following areas. (a). Safety management principles. (b). Behavior observations. (c). Incident investigation. (d). Correction and reinforcement techniques. (e). Effective training method. In fact when planning safety training following are under strict consideration. (a). Identify the training needs of the employees. (b). Decide what the minimum training end result should be. (c). Plan the training session. (d). Prepare the session. (e). Decide where to have the training.
(f). Train. (g). Verify the training.
Monthly Safety Meeting
Regular monthly safety meeting demonstrate the company's concern for the lives and well beingof its employees. This help build a co - operative climate providing employees with the opportunity to contribute ideas and suggestions to improve safety, quality, productivity andmorale. The supervisor, safety representative and crew leaders, run the monthly safety meeting withhelp from, (a). Guest presenters. (b). Manufacture and other mentioned earlier.
Tool - Box Safety Meeting
Tool -Box safety meetings are brief gathering of crews or employees along with their supervisor or crew leaders. They are usually held early in the morning before the crew begin their work day or before theystart some specific work.
Suggested safety tool –box talk topics
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) Employee accountability. Excavation and shoring. Eye protection : Safety glasses and goggles. Fall protection. Fire prevention. Foot protection. Hand protection and gloves. Hand tool use and maintenance. First - aid treatment. Electrical safety. Confined space. Barricade. Crane and Hoist. Hazardous material. Head protection: Helmet and boots. Hearing protection. House keeping and waste disposal. Ladders. Material Handling and Storage. Personal Protection Equipment. Power tool use and Maintenance. Safety harness and lanyards. Scaffolding. Security : Fire prevention. Skin protection : proper protective clothing. Spill clean up. Slips, trips and falls. Suspended load operation.
(29) Ventilation. (30) Work place violence.
GENERAL SAFETY RULES
01. No workers below 18 years and above 55 years of age shall be engaged for a job. 02. The workers who are engage in job should be in sound physical condition. 03. When recruiting the workers their Identity card and Police report should be checked. 04. Don't allow children to enter in to work site. 05. Every time to be ensured, weather adequate supervision is provided in working areas. Also ensured weather persons who engage in works behaving without causinganyhazard to others. 06. Reporting for work under the influence of drugs or alcohol to be strictly prohibited. 07. Neat and clean work clothing (suitable clothing ) must be worn at all times. Never wear loose fitting clothing that could be caught in equipment or machinery and also avoidwearing jewelry at the work site. 08. Safety helmet, eye protection and safety shoes or boots must be worn by everybody at the work site at all times, except in designated places outside the construction area.(even drivers, helpers & operators must abide this rule). 09. If you don't know, ask when in doubt about the safe or correct way to perform a job, get instruction from a supervisor or knowledgeable employee before attempting to the task. 10. Running out side vehicle cabs : No employee may ride on running board or hang on to the outside of trucks, front end loaders, backhoes, Bulldozers, tractors or other mobile equipment is running or in motion. Never ride or stand in or on a loader or backhoe bucket to perform work. 11. Unauthorized operation of equipment : Never attempt to operate company equipmentor vehicles unless trained in their use and authorized to do so by your relevant officer in charge. 12. Suspended loads: Never walk or stand under or next to suspended loads. Stand clear or material being unloaded from open - sided flat bed trailers. 13. Equipment guards: Don't remove protective guards while tools, Machinery, or mobile equipment are in operation. Never completean equipment maintenance or repair jobwithout replacing guards, that had to be removed for servicing , cleaning or repairs. Report damage or missing guards to your supervisor immediately.
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14. Persons who engage-in work at 2 - meter or above should wear safety belt and lanyard to be anchored properly, it is better to anchor at the level of shoulder. 15. It is compulsory to wear eye protection while doing works such as, grinding, chipping,welding and gas cutting. 16. Proper lightening to be provided at work places in night time, also to the places at darkeven in day time if there any activity to be done. 17. Digging pits to be barricaded till backfilling. Also provide proper access method to reachfor work. 18. Don't allow any body to entering to erection zone or dismantling zone, also provide proper barricade to avoid entering to the said zones. 19. Don't allow to throw material from higher places , if necessary provide barricadedkeeping safe space and keep signal men to avoid entering by others. 20. Due to wind or vehicle running dust will be formed within site premises, to avoid thatwater to be sprayed by using bowser or any other method. 21. Electrical main panel board must consist MCB and ELCB. 22. To supply electricity power must be used 3 or 4 core cables and it should be consist earthwire, also construct proper earthing pit. 23. Horseplay is completely prohibited at work place. Except in emergency running at thesite is completely prohibited. 24. Don't allow connect bare wire to electrical socket. If need use plug top 25. Even minor accident occur inform it to safety coordinator or site in charge since it will help to avoid such incident in future. 26. Seat belts :' The use of seat belts is required in company cars, trucks, lift trucks, frontend loaders and other moving equipment. 27. Scaffolding and riming : all scaffolding and rigging work must be supported andinspected by experienced, competent, individuals in accordance with approved standardand regulations. 28. Excavation and trenches : All excavating and trench digging must be supervised andinspected by experience, competent individuals in accordance with approval standardand regulations. 29. Practice good housekeeping : When discarding boards always remove or bend downprotruding nails. Keep work areas clean as the day progresses. Don't allow
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debris to bestrewn about work areas or to collect on floor or in excavations or basements. 30. Reinforcement rods : Exposed, vertical reinforcement rods and similar protuberancesmust be shielded with large enough covers to prevent employees or visitors who mayaccidently fall on to them from impaling or injuring themselves. 31. Don't stack material at access areas and passageways. Also don't stack material such asbricks on dangerous higher places. 32. All tools and tackles, before using must be checked. If any defect inform it to relevantin - charge, any way all using lifting tackles must be certified by mechanical Engineer. 33. All tools and tackle shall be tested and have a Identification number, safe working loadand date of next test marked on them. 34. A tools and tackles inspection register must be maintained and update regularly. 35. All site vehicles must have reverse horn. (Ex. Earth moving vehicles and equipment) 36. Adequate numbers of firefighting equipment must be at work site, further workers to begiven training how to use firefighting equipment. 37. When found unsafe conditions, unsafe act it should be informed to safety coordinatorthen relevant in charges must attend to correct such incidents immediately. 38. Ladders should be placed and set firmly to avoid slipping. Also fixed ladders shouldhave standard protection cage to avoid fell down, while climbing up or down. 39. Special safety method should be arrange while lifting up 1 down drums which fill withfuel or oil. 40. When doing welding work, welding clamp should be used. Also proper earthing shouldbe done and return cable should be used for earthing. 41. All pressure gauge used in gas cutting apparatus shall be in good working conditions. 42. Eye washing facilities to be provided at site, specially if use chemicals above facilities isvery important. 43. For hose connection, connectors or hose clamp must be used. 44. At relevant places, warning boards or caution notice should be displayed. 45. For all cranes competent signalmen should be employed for signaling. 46. When tapping power line, junction box must be used, don't cut in between of the power line for tapping
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47. All lifting tools and tackles shall be stored properly when not in use.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE]
Personal protective equipment has limits. It is effective of reducing risk, but it should never be used in the place of safe procedures. A pair of gloves or safety glass, for example ; should never be the only control measure between an employee and an observed risk. They are really a lastresort, a last line of defence - something to guard your eyes or hands if something goes wrong.
Head Protection : (A). The main purpose of protective helmets or hard hat is to minimize the rate and level at (B). A second purpose of helmets is to partially protect the head, face and neck from electricalcurrent and from other environmental hazard such as sun - rays snow, wind and extreme temperatures (C). There are two basic types of hard hats. Type - I and Type - II Type - I hard hats have a full brim not less than 1 inch wide around the entire helmet. Type - I1 hard hats include helmets without brim (Lips) but having a bill or peak in thefront to help to protect the eyes and face.
There are four classes of Helmets.
Class –A:- For general service and protection against impact hazard some
defenceagainsLow - voltage electrical current.
Class - B:- For general service and protection against impact hazards plan some
defenceagainst High - voltage electrical current.
Class –C:- Some impact protection, but No - voltage protection usually made ofaluminium. Class –D:- Impact protection, fire resistant and will not conduct electricity. Made chiefly
for fire - fighters.
Note :- Insist that employees, sub - contractors and visitors present during pre -completion
stage or on site construction activities wear Type - I or Type - 11,Class - A or Class - B helmets.
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FACE AND EYE PROTECTION
Most severe worksite optical injuries are caused by foreign bodies entering the eyes bitsor pieces of metal, wood, plastic, stones masonry or whatever material is being worked with. Since select and provide suitable eye and face protection for employees working with or nearstriking tools, grinding or abrasive tools, burning or welding tools, dust or air borne particulates,chemicals and all other equipment, materials and method that pose eye hazards. There are many different kinds and models of face and eye protection. Some of the morecommon ones include safety glasses with side shields, goggles and face shields. Goggles
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1. GOGGLES, Flexible Fitting - Regular Ventilation
2. GOGGLES, Flexible Fitting - Hooded Ventilation 3. GOGGLES, Cushioned Fitting - Rigid Body
Metal Frame - with Sideshields 5. SPECTACLES, Plastic Frame - with Sideshields 6. WELDING GOGGLES, Converse Type - Tinted Lenses 7. WELDING HELMETS
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Acetylene – Burning Acetylene - Cutting Acetylene - Welding Chemical Handling Chipping Electric (arc) welding
HAZARDS Sparks, harmful rays, molten metal, flying particles
7, 8, 9
Splash, acid bums, fumes Flying particles Sparks, intense rays, molten metal Glare, heat, molten metal Flying particles Flying particles Chemical splash, glass breakage Flying particles Heat, glare, sparks, splash
2, 10 (For sever exposure add 10 over 2)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A
9, 11, ( 11 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses advisable )
Furnace Operations Grinding - Light Grinding - Heavy Laboratory Machining Molten metals
7, 8, 9 ( For severe exposure add 10 ) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
1, 3,7A, 8A ( For severe exposure add 10)
2 ( 10 When in combination with 4 , 5 , 6
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 7, 8, ( 10 in combination with 4, 5 , 6, in tinted lenses ) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
Flying particles, sparks
Sound :Sound is any pressure variation in air, water or other substances that the humanear can detect.It is measured in decibels (dBA) for loudness and in hertz (Hz) for frequency. Not all sounds are detectable by human ear. Ultrasound is an extremely highfrequency sound (like a dog whistle), and infrasound sound is sound at anextremely low frequency, commonly referred to as vibration. When employees are subject to sound levels exceeding those table levels, feasibleadministrative or engineering controls shall be used. If such controls fail toreduce sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective equipmentis required.
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Duration per Day, Hours
8 6 4 3 2 1 1/2 1 1/2 ¼ or less
Sound Level dBA Slow Response
90 92 95 97 100 102 105 110 115
(1). Train employees on the dangers of excessive noise exposure on the worksite.
(2). Conduct a noise survey on worksite task having the loudest noise levels.Test sound levels inside mobile equipment cabs and near all loud activities includingwith and near compressors, engines, and other power tools and equipment.
comfortable noise - reduction personal protective devices such as earmuffs,earplug, and canal caps. Train employees on the protective equipments capabilities,limitation use and care. (4). Wherever and whenever appropriate, enforce the use of hearing protection throughout the worksite.
(5).Supervisors and other members of Management must abide by hearing protection rules while working at or visiting the site. There are three main types hearing protection
(1). Earmuffs (2). Ear plug
(3). Canal caps
Again, hearing protection devices cannot just be handed out to employees without any instruction on how to use them. Training must accompany the issuance of protection. Employees should inspect the devices frequently for signs of hardening, shrinking or fracturing and replace them as necessary.
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HAND PROTECTION (HANDS - OUR MOST IMPORTANT TOOLS]
(1). Most hand injuries result from boredom (tire some) lack of attention and work sitedistractions. ( Mental confusion or distress) (2). Identify hand hazards at worksite, then train employees on hazard recognition andprevention. (3).Appropriate, well fitted gloves should be worn by employees, whenever possible while facingpoint of contact hazard (4). Employees should know how to select, wear, inspect and maintain their gloves. (5).Because so many types, styles, and models of gloves are available, it's best to consult with safetydistributor who has extensive knowledge in glove applications and selections,and order allcompany gloves through that individual. Normally personal protective equipment for the hands, is gloves.
Glove type :-
Normally gloves made of canvas, leather, rubber, cloth and numerous modern man - made materials with textured. Palms and fingers for better grabbing power no particular pair of gloves can protect against every possible hand hazard.
Selecting the right gloves: Consider the physical hazards to be encountered determine what risks are most likely to be present in the workers task. Cuts, abrasions, punctures, temperature, chemicals, or others. Then select glove types accordingly for example. (1) Abrasion - resistant gloves should be worn when handling rough materials such as masonry blocks, rough plywood and lumber and steel cable. When wrists and arms are exposed to the same materials having abrasion or puncture risk abrasion resistant are protection should also be used such as gauntlets or sleeves. (2) Electricians should wear approved gloves when working on or near exposedEnergized electrical parts. Gloves must be inspected and tested at intervals specifiedby the manufacture. Required voltage ratings of the gloves should be determined depending on the voltage of potential hazard. Written electrical safe work practicesdesignate which task require gloves providing electrical protection. Protective over gloves should be worn to preserve the integrity of the rubber gloves.
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(3) Chemical - protective gloves should be worn when handling hazardous chemicals and corrosives, depending on the substance handled and the manufacture's recommendations. (4) Welder's gloves should be worn while welding or burning to protect against heat, Sparks rough objects, and flash burns. (5) Latex or nitrile gloves should be available for individuals trained for emergencyresponse and First - Aid where there is a potential for exposure or blood – borne pathogens.
BODY AND FOOT PROTECTION
General guidelines –
(1). Employees should wear close fitting or medium - fitting jeans or durable trousers. (2). Recommend long - sleeved work shirts, accept shirts having nothing less than four – inchsleeves. (3).Company supervisors should set a good example by what they wear at the work site. (4). Safety work shoes or boots are a must. (5). Safety footwear having worn soles and uppers must be discarded and replaced. (6).Improperly laced shoes and boots have caused more falls and injuries than construction. employees care to admit. Insist that employees maintain their laces at all times (7).Prohibit the wearing of light duty home - use waterproof boots that are worn over socks. Require water proof boots possessing similar characteristics to safety shoes or boots or light weight pull over boots that are worn over regular safety foot wear.
Some individuals tend to dismiss clothes as not really being part of employee personal protective equipment. That's mistake, First of all, bare skin is not very durable.Somebody think that working in hot weather, tanning exposure from the sun – while considered a handsome asset.But as dermatologist opinion it is definitely not healthy over the long term.
Foot and Leg Protection Considerations
(1).Legging protect the legs and feet from welding sparks. (2).Protective leggings should be worn by employees operating a chain saw.
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(3).Plastic or composite knee pads make kneeling tasks a lot safer and more comfortable for the knees caps. (4). Heat resistant safety shoes are available to protect roofers, pavers, and other workers exposed to hot temperatures. Safety shoes should be sturdy and have impact - resistant toes. Many come with metal insoles and other guards to better protect against puncture wounds. (5).Six and eight inch boots are preferred over the lower models because they will provide Support and protection past the ankles. (6). All employees work longer hours and as they get older shoe comfort becomes an increasingly important factor in reducing fatigue. (7). What about the footwear of visitors, non-workers and others who may access the work site? Generally the hazards they'll encounter, should not be as risky as those faced by company's employees, as long as visitors and other non employees stay out of active heavy work areas. But open - toed, medium or high - heeled shoes or sandals must not be allowed on the worksite. (8). Be careful that employees, when faced with wet and muddy conditions, don't elect to wear inexpensive waterproof boots design for home use. (9). Watch the &laces n safety foot - wear. Some laces attach near the top on metal eyelets that eventually bend so the laces will come loose and flop around.
Falls consistently cause a proportionally high number of serious injuries and deaths in the Construction industry, year after year. What can be done to protect the company employees?
General Guide lines.
(1) . Set a goal of 100 percent fall protection for the employees, using personal protective equipment and safe work practices and procedures. Install guardrails around open floors, walls, and platforms, wherever else falls are possible. The top rails must be sturdy (strongly built) enough to withstand a 200 - pound load.
(2). (3).Train workers in safe work practices before allowing them to work on foundation walls,
roofs, trusses, and exterior wall and floor erections and installations.
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Whenever possible, employ fall protection system like slide guards and roof anchors
and alternative work practices when a guardrail system cannot be used.
(5).Train all employees to recognize fall hazards, and support the training of competent persons in your crews. Who will be able to set up and maintain effective fall - protection
(6). Through local trade associations and regulatory agencies understand and abide by or exceed current minimum fall - protection regulations.
Where fall hazards exist
There are plenty of places in the typical construction worksite from which employees can fall. Some of these hazards include. (a). Unprotected leading edges of floors, roofs, and building components under construction. (b). Edges of trenches and Excavations. (c). Roof of all pitches. (d). Finished and unfinished skylights. (e). Stairways, ladders, Scaffolds and other work platforms. (f). Wall openings.
Fall Protection Equipment
There are lot of fall - protection systems and safety equipment on the market with more being developed all the time. Here are some kinds of equipment currently available.
Full body harness :
There are numerous reason to use full body harness (see Fig - 1) instead of belts for personal fallprotection. When a fall occurs, belt deliver a vicious Jerk and severe impact to a person'smidsection. Which has had disastrous effect to many workers. A full body harness, however will suspend a person in sitting position where the buttock will absorb most of the load.
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( Fig - 1 )
Shock - absorbing lanyards.
Shock - absorbing lanyards are fall protection devices whose jobs begins once a fall occurs. (See fig - 2). They are attached at both ends - one end to a full body harness that someone is wearing and other end to a sturdy anchor point.(fig-2)
Self - retracting life lines.
Self - retracting lifelines are fall - arrest devices using self - retracting cables. They combinelocking mechanism with - energy dissipating (disperse) components that allow almostimmediate - yet smooth.- fall arrest. Self - retracting lifelines are typically anchored to a point above the back attachment D ring offull body harness. They're designed for use on jobs on vertical, horizontal or inclined planes.
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Self - retracting life line involve components that are not able to be fully inspected by the users,the unit should be inspected by the manufacture at least once per year under normal operatingconditions. They're easy to maintain but certain precaution must be taken to ensure safety ofoperation. (1) Lifelines must be inspected before each use. The user should pull out the entire length of cable to check for damage and should pull sharply on the cable several times in order to verify that the breaking mechanism is working properly. (2). The system, must only be used by workers who have been trained by a competent person in its operation and maintenance. (3). To limit the possibility of a swing or pendulum (body suspended so as to be free to swing) the system must be anchored as close as possible to the user's head. (4). Self - retracting life line must not be used with a body belt of any type. They must be attached to the back D - ring of a full body harness for maximum safety. (5). When the system is not in use, the cable should be fully rewound into the housing. It should always be rewound slowly. Never let it rewind freely even for a short distance. (6).If an impact load is generated against the unit, it should be taken out of service immediately and sent back to the manufacture for inspection and rectification. (7). Positioning lanyards are generally construct of stretch - resistant three to six foot length that help a person with positioning only. They will prevent someone from getting too close to an edge or other hazard. They are available with a variety of anchorage hooks.
Snap hook (see fig - 3) can be used as anchoring connectors on positioning devices and onshock - absorbing lanyards. They often contain double locking mechanisms to ensure againstroll out or other forms of accidental opening. As with all fall - protection devices, snap hooks should be inspected before each use. (1). Determine if the hook gate can be opened without depressing the lock mechanism. Is it can, discard the hook immediately. (2). Check the integrity (soundness) of the spring mechanism. If a reasonable amount of force is not needed to open the gate, or if the gate does not snap back in to place, the spring may be worn or damaged. If so discard the hook immediately.
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(3).Check for visible sign of damage or wear, if the hook is cracked or otherwise damaged or has been subject to a service impact load, discard the hook immediately. (4). Bear in mind that if the hook has been subject to a load, the device to which it is attached may need to discard as well, depending on the device.
Recommendation for using Fall- Protection Equipment
(1). Determine and evaluate fall risks on the job site. (2). Define an appropriate fall - arrest system for the job to be performed and provide an appropriate plan for rescue. (3). Preferably select all system components from the same manufacture. (4).Ensure that the equipment selected is in compliance with the laws and standard currently in force. (5). Check the conditions of use of the system by reading and complying with the instructions supplied with the components. (Fig - 3)
(6). Provide the user with initial and continuous training necessary for handling, using, maintaining and storing the equipment entrusted to him or her. (7).Select reliable anchorage points located as close as possible to the user, and is possible above the user's head, having a minimum static strength at failure of at least 5,000 pounds. (8). (9). Carefully check each of the system components before each use. Avoid the user's working alone.
(10). Store the equipment under conditions that will not alter the system's components. (11). Prevent any modification of a system component without prior agreement from the manufacture. (12). Report any defect, anomaly (irregularity) wear, or fall that might effect a system
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component. (13). Immediately remove from service any component that has been subjected to an impact load.
Fall - Proofing floor and wall openings
(1). Install guardrails around open floors and walls where the fall distance to the next level is six feet or greater. The top rails must be able to with stand a 200 - pound load. (2). Construct guardrails with a top rail at 42 inches of height, with a mid rail about half that high. (21 - Inch) (3). Install toe boards when other employees are working below the work area.
(4). Cover floor openings larger than two inches square with material that can safely support The working load.
Alternatives to constructing guard rails.
(1). Use other fall - protection systems like slide guards or roof anchors, or alternative safe work practices when guard rail system cannot be used. (2). Wear proper shoes or footwear to lessen slipping hazards.
(3). Train workers on safe work practices before performing work on foundation walls, roofs, trusses and where performing exterior wall erections and floor installations. An example of a safe work practice is to have employees wrap their feet and legs around the webs of trusses to lessen the possibility of a fall.
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Working on Roofs.
(1). Check the slipping hazard before getting on to roof surfaces. Slimy algae like moss or similar growths can also create dangerous slipping hazard.
(2). Cover and secure all sky lights and openings, pr install guard rails to keep workers from falling through the openings. (3). When roof pitch is over 4 : 12 and up to 6 : 12 install slide guards along the roof eave after the first three rows of roofing material installed. (4).Use fall protection equipment where steep roofs or high ground to eave distances are involved. (5). When storms, lightning, hail, high winds or other severs weather conditions create unsafe conditions, roof must be off - limits to employees.
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