Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (over 1,000 bar/15,000 psi) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (Pumpe/Düse or pump nozzles). Thirdgeneration common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up to 1,800 bar/26,000 psi. In gasoline engines, it is used in gasoline direct injection engine technology. Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make possible fine electronic control over the fuel injection time and quantity, and the higher pressure that the common rail technology makes available provides better fuelatomisation. In order to lower engine noise, the engine's electronic control unit can inject a small amount of diesel just before the main injection event ("pilot" injection), thus reducing its explosiveness and vibration, as well as optimising injection timing and quantity for variations in fuel quality, cold starting and so on. Some advanced common rail fuel systems perform as many as five injections per stroke. Common rail engines require very short (< 10 second) or no heating-up time at all, dependent on ambient temperature, and produce lower engine noise and emissions than older systems. Diesel engines have historically used various forms of fuel injection. Two common types include the unit injection system and the distributor/inline pump systems (See diesel engine and unit injector for more information). While these older systems provided accurate fuel quantity and injection timing control, they were limited by several factors:  They were cam driven, and injection pressure was proportional to engine speed. This typically meant that the highest injection pressure could only be achieved at the highest engine speed and the maximum achievable injection pressure decreased as engine speed decreased. This relationship is true with all pumps, even those used on common rail systems; with the unit or distributor systems, however, the injection pressure is tied to the instantaneous pressure of a single pumping event with no accumulator, and thus the relationship is more prominent and troublesome. They were limited in the number and timing of injection events that could be commanded during a single combustion event. While multiple injection events are possible with these older systems, it is much more difficult and costly to achieve. For the typical distributor/inline system, the start of injection occurred at a pre-determined pressure (often referred to as: pop pressure) and ended at a pre-determined pressure. This characteristic resulted from "dummy" injectors in the cylinder head which opened and closed at pressures determined by the spring preload applied to the plunger in the injector. Once the pressure in the injector reached a predetermined level, the plunger would lift and injection would start.

In common rail systems, a high-pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure — up to and above 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure.

the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated.. most engine manufacturers easily accept that added complexity in trade for better engine performance and greater design flexibility. as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. and double (or dual) overhead camshaft ("DOHC"). Four valves give an engine steadier low-speed performance and a better acceleration feeling. FOUR VALVE ENGINE An engine has valves that let the air-fuel mixture into the combustion chamber to be burned and then draw out the exhaust gas after the combustion. thus producing a square injection rate. That’s why most race engines and high-performance engines have four valves. which include using a rubber/kevlar toothedtiming belt. Compared to OHV pushrod (or I-Head) systems with the same number of valves the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower total mass. But the 4-valve engine has two intake and two exhaust valves. many OHC engines today employ variable valve timing to improve efficiency and power. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimized port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. Just like having two doors lets more people enter and leave a room in a given amount of time than one door and more exits make for a more efficient flow of people. 4 or 5) valves per cylinder. A conventional engine has one intake valve to let in the air-fuel mixture and one exhaust valve to let out the exhaust gases. The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled. four valves is better than two. or in less common cases. a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. SURFACE IGNITION Surface ignition is ignition of the fuel-air charge by any hot surface other than the spark discharge prior to the arrival of the normal flame front. In conjunction with multiple (3. above the combustion chambers. OVERHEAD CAM ENGINE Overhead cam (OHC) valvetrain configurations place the engine camshaft within the cylinder heads. or glowing combustion-chamber deposit: i. This simplifies the purpose of the high-pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail). Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically actuated. and drive the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared to overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods. If the accumulator.e. With no intrusive pushrods the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous crossection and length. a flame develops at each surface-ignition location and starts to propagate across the chamber in an analogous manner to what occurs with normal spark-ignition . Though the system that drives the cams may become more complex. gears. •Following surface ignition. OHC also inherently allows for greater engine speeds over comparable cam-in-block designs. Yamaha’s YZR-M1 MotoGP race machine has four valves. It may occur before the spark ignites the charge (preignition) or after normal ignition (postignition) Surface Ignition is ignition of the fuel-air mixture by a hot spot on the combustion chamber walls such as an overheated valve or spark plug.This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high-pressure fuel. pump and plumbing are sized properly. by any means other than the normal spark discharge. There are two overhead camshaft layouts: single overhead camshaft ("SOHC"). chain. For example. The OHC system can be driven using the same methods as an OHV system.

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