# EAS 454 - Tall Building 4 Rigid-Frame Structures

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Taksiah A. Majid

Rigid Frame Structures Rigid-Frame
 Comprises parallel or orthogonally arranged bents consisting 

 

of f columns l and d girders i d with ith moment t resistant i t t joints. j i t The advantages of rigid frame are simplicity and convenience of its rectangular g form. Its unobstructed arrangement, g , clear of bracing members and structural walls, allows freedom internally for the layout and externally for the fenestration. Ri id frames Rigid f are considered id d economical i l for f buildings b ildi of f up to about 25 stories, above which their drift resistance is costly to control. If it is combined with shear wall or cores, the structure’s potential height may extend up to 50 stories or more. A flat plate structure is very similar to rigid frame but with slabs replacing the girders.

Rigid-Frame g Structures
 As highly redundant structures, rigid frames are designed initially

on the basis of approximate analyses, after which more rigorous analyses l and d checks h k can be b made. d The Th procedure d may typically t i ll include the following stages:

Rigid-Frame Behavior
 The horizontal stiffness of a rigid frame is governed mainly

by the bending resistance of the girders, the columns, connections ti and d the th axial i l rigidity i idit of f the th columns. l  The accumulated horizontal shear above any story of a rigid frame is resisted by y shear in the columns of the story. y  The shear cause the story-height columns to bend in double curvature with point of contra-flexure at approximately midstory height levels. story-height levels

Rigid-Frame Behavior
 The overall deflected shape of the rigid frame structure due

to racking has a shear configuration with concavity upwind, a maximum inclination near the base, base and a minimum inclination at the top.  The overall moment of the external horizontal load is resisted in each story level by the couple resulting from the axial tensile and compressive forces in the columns on opposite i side id of f the h structure.

.  The response p of a rigid g frame to g gravity y loading g differ from a simply connected frame in the continuous behavior of the girders. the story drift due to overall d ll bending b di increases i with i h height.Rigid Frame Behavior Rigid-Frame  Because of the accumulative rotation up the height.  Negative moments are induced adjacent to the columns and positive moments of f usually ll lesser l magnitude d occur in the h midd span regions.  The continuity also causes the maximum girder moments to be sensitive to the pattern of live loading. h i h while hil that h due d to racking tends to decrease. This must be considered when estimating the worst moment conditions.

as for A in the Fig. 7. as for spans AB and CD in Fig.3a. p . 7.  The maximum mid-span sagging moment occurs when live load acts on the span p under consideration and alternate other spans. as for B in Fig.3b. the gravity load maximum hogging moment adjacent to an edge column occurs when live load acts only on the edge span and alternate other spans.  The maximum hogging moments adjacent to an interior column are caused. however.3a. . 7. when live load acts only on the spans adjacent to the column.Rigid Frame Behavior Rigid-Frame  For example.

Rigid Frame Behavior Rigid-Frame  The dependence of a rigid frame on the moment capacity of the columns for resisting horizontal loading usually causes the columns of a rigid frame to be larger than those of the corresponding fully braced simply connected frame. while girders in braced frames are designed g for their mid-span p sagging gg g moment. frame  On the other hand. which may be of lesser value.  Consequently. g girders in rigid g frames are designed for the end-of-span resultant hogging moments. . l girders d in a rigid d frame f may be b smaller ll than h in the corresponding braced frame.

Rigid Frame Behavior Rigid-Frame  Such reductions in size allow economy through the lower cost of the girders and possible reductions in story height. however. by the higher cost of the more complex rigid connections. connections .  These benefits may be offset.

consequently an accurate analysis can be made only after the member sizes are assigned.Approximate Determinate of Member F Forced d Caused C d by b Gravity G it Loading L di g  Rigid frame is a highly redundant structure. Girder Forces – Code Recommended Values 2.  Therefore. Column Forces . Th f member b sizes are decided d d d on the h basis b of f approximate forces estimated either by conservative formulas of by y simplified p methods of analysis y that are independent p of member properties.  Three approaches for estimating girder forces due to gravity loading are as follows: 1. Two – Cycle y Moment Distribution 3.

Girder Forces – Code Recommended Values  In rigid frames with two or more spans in which the longer of any two adjacent spans does not exceed the shorter by more than 20% and where the uniformly distributed design live load does not exceed three times the dead load.1. load the girder moment and shear may be estimated from Table 7.1. .  This summarizes the recommendations g given in the Uniform f Building Code.

Girder Forces – Code Recommended Values .1.

 It is for estimating girder moment in a continuous multi-bay span and d more accurate t than th the th formulas f l in i Table T bl 7.1 71 especially for cases of unequal spans and unequal loading in different spans. The ends of the columns at the floors above and below the considered g girder are fixed. where n is the numbers framing into the joint in the plane of the frame. frame . ti 2. 3.  Assumption for the analysis: 1.2 Two – Cycle Moment Distribution 2. A counterclockwise restraining moment on the end of a girder i d is i positive iti and d a clockwise l k i moment t is i negative. In the absence of known member sizes. distribution factors at each joint are taken equal to 1/n.

Worked W k d example l  A four-span girder AE from a rigid-frame bent is shown with its loading.T Two–Cycle C l Moment M t Di Distribution t ib ti . .

5.Worked example  The fixed-end moments in each span are calculated for dead l di and loading d total l loading l di using i the h formulas f l given i in i Fig.Two–Cycle Two Cycle Moment Distribution . Fi 7. 75 .

Two–Cycle Moment Distribution . .Worked example  Example calculation of fixed-end moment for span AB.

Two–Cycle Two Cycle Moment Distribution .Worked example  The moments for all spans are summarized as follows: DE .

Two–Cycle Two Cycle Moment Distribution .Worked example  The purpose of the moment distribution is to estimate for each support the maximum girder moments that can occur as a result of dead loading and pattern live loading. . and a distribution made for each combination.  A different load combination must be considered for the maximum moment at each support.

Worked example  The moment distribution of each support are presented separately as follows: .Two–Cycle Moment Distribution .

Two–Cycle Moment Distribution .Worked example .

Worked W k d example l .T Two–Cycle C l Moment M t Di Distribution t ib ti .

Worked example Two–Cycle  The complete set of operations can be combined as below: 1 4 5 6 .Two Cycle Moment Distribution .

Worked example  Maximum Mid-Span Moments .Two–Cycle Moment Distribution .

Worked example .Two–Cycle Two Cycle Moment Distribution .

also allocated equally between the column ends above and below the joint.  To this should be added any unbalanced moment due to eccentricity of the girder connections from the centroid of the column. with reductions in live loading as permitted by the local Code of Practice.  The gravity load axial force in a column is estimated from the accumulated l t d tributary t ib t dead d d and d live li floor fl l di above loading b th t that level.3 Column Forces 3. j .  The gravity load maximum column moment is estimated by taking the maximum difference of the end moments in the connected girders and allocating it equally between the column ends just above and below the joint.

constrain the horizontal displacements of all the vertical bent at a floor level to be related by the horizontal translations and rotation of the floor slab. It is usual to assume that the floor slabs are rigid in plane and therefore. • • Allocation of Loading Between Bents First step is to estimate the allocation of the external horizontal force to each bent. .Approximate Analysis of Member F Forces C Caused d By B Horizontal H i t l Loading L di g 1 1.

identically The total external shear at a level will be distributed between the bents in proportion to their shear rigidities (GA) at that level. . the bents translate identically. From the assumption of slab rigidity.Approximate Analysis of Member F Forces C Caused d By B Horizontal H i t l Loading L di g     Symmetric Plan Structure Subjected to Symmetric Loading The structure translate but does not twist.

. .Approximate Analysis of Member F Forces C Caused d By B Horizontal H i t l Loading L di g  Asymmetric Plan Structures  The effect of lateral loading on a structure having an asymmetric plan is to cause a horizontal plane torque in additional to transverse shear. . the structure will twist as well as translate. Therefore.

and defining the location l i of f the h center of f the h shear h rigidity i idi of f the h set of f parallel ll l bents in story i.Approximate Analysis of Member Forces Caused By Horizontal Loading  Referring to the asymmetric structure. relative to an arbitrary origin 0. as given by .

   Member Force Analysis y by y Portal Method The portal method allows an approximate hand analysis for rigid frames without having to specify member size and very useful for a preliminary analysis. ki Suitable for structures of moderate slenderness and height. . and is commonly recommended as useful for structures of up to 25 stories in height with a height-to-width ratio not greater than 4:1.Approximate Analysis of Member F Forces C Caused d By B Horizontal H i t l Loading L di g 2. Most appropriate to rigid frames that deflect predominantly d i tl by b racking.

.  When each of the separate p portals carries a share of the p horizontal shear. tension occurs in the windward columns and compression in the leeward columns.Member Force Analysis by Portal Method  Its name is derived from the analogy between a set of single- bay portal b t l frames f and d a single i l story t of f a multi-bay lti b rigid i id frame.

. li i t d leaving l i an axial forces only in the extreme windward and leeward columns. 2 The horizontal shear at mid 2.Member Force Analysis by Portal Method  If these are superposed to simulate the multi-bay frame. Horizontal loading on the frame causes double curvature bending of all the columns and girders.  The reduction of the highly redundant multistory frame to allow a simple analysis is achieved by making the following assumption: 1. the axial i l forces f of f the th interior i t i columns l are eliminated. mid-story story levels is shared between the columns in proportion to the width of aisle each column supports. with points of contraflexural at the mid-height of columns and mid-span of girders.

starting at the top and working down to the base.  The sequence q of analyzing y g the modules is from left to right.Member Force Analysis by Portal Method  Can be used to analyze the whole frame or just a portion of the frame at a selected level. . g .

Member Force Analysis by Portal Method  Procedures are as follows: .

Member Force Analysis by Portal Method .

Member Force Analysis by Portal Method .

it can be analyzed separately by the above procedure without having to start the analysis at the top (Fig. respectively. 7 9c and d) 7.M b Force Member F Analysis A l i by b Portal P t l Method M th d  The bending moment are recorded on the girders above the left-hand end and below the right-hand end.  The shear are written perpendicular to the columns and beams at the mid-heights and mid-spans. and similarly on the columns as viewed from the right.  The bending g moment diagram g is drawn here on the tension side of the member.  If member forces are required only at a particular level in the structure.9c .

so that overall bending g of the structure by y axial deformations of the columns becomes significant. it may be more appropriate to analyze it by the cantilever method. analysis  If. however.M b Force Member F Analysis A l i by b Portal P t l Method M th d  The simplicity of the portal method and the advantage that it allows a direct analysis of member forces at a intermediate levels make it the most useful of the approximate method for rigid-frame rigid frame analysis. the frame is taller and more slender. .

8.  The bents are spaced at 7.5 kN/m² throughout the height.0 m. to give a total height of 70 m.Portal Method – Worked Example  Determine D t i the th member b forces f i the in th 20-story 20 t f frame of f Fig.  The story height is typically 3. . Fi 7.5 m.  The intensity of the wind loading is 1.

Portal Method – Worked Example  Solution:  Wind load per floor  Distributing Di t ib ti this thi shear h between b t the th top-story t t columns l i in proportion to the widths of aisle supported:  Similarly for columns C and D. .

9a) and considering id i its i free-body f b d equilibrium: ilib i .Portal Method – Worked Example  Starting with the top-left module A20 (Fig. 7.

the moment at the right end of the girder has the same value as at the left end.  The sign g convention for numerical values of the bending g moment is that an anticlockwise moment applied by a joint to the end of a member is taken as positive.Portal Method – Worked Example  Because of the mid-length point of contraflexure.  Similarly. Similarly the column moments at the top and bottom of a story are equal. .

7.Portal Method – Worked Example  Continuing with the next module to the right.9b: . in Fig. B20.

7. moment at end of first girder . consider floor level 8 (Fig.Portal Method – Worked Example  For the direct analysis of forces at an intermediate level.  From moment equilibrium of the joint.8).

Portal Method – Worked Example .

(Fig 7.     Approximate Analysis by Cantilever Method This method is based on the concept that a tall rigid frame subjected to horizontal loading deflects as a flexural cantilever (Fig. in starting by assuming values for the axial forces.Approximate Analysis of Member F Forces C Caused d By B Horizontal H i t l Loading L di g 3. . rather than the shear in the columns. however.2). It differs. It is similar to the portal method in considering the equilibrium of joint modules in sequence. : . 7 2) Suitable for the analysis of structures of up to 35 stories high g with height-to-width g ratios of up p to 5:1.

2.  The assumption for cantilever method are as follows: 1. The axial stress in a column in proportional to its distance from the centroid of the column areas. Horizontal H l loading l d on the h frame f causes double d bl curvature bending of all the columns and girders with points of contraflexure at the mid-heights g of columns and mid-spans p of girders. .Approximate Analysis by Cantilever M th d Method  It is less versatile than the portal method in not allowing a direct analysis of intermediate stories.

Approximate Analysis by Cantilever M th d Method  The procedure for analysis is as follows: .

Approximate Analysis by Cantilever M th d Method .

Approximate Analysis by Cantilever M th d Method .

70 m height frame considered in the portal analysis. external moment due to wind are: .  Referring to Fig. 7.Cantilever Method – Worked Example  Analysis of the same 20-story.10.

Cantilever Method – Worked Example .

Cantilever Method – Worked Example .

C til Cantilever M Method th d – Worked W k dE Example l  From moment equilibrium of joint. moment at top of column .

Thank You. .