You are on page 1of 285

COATINGS MANUAL

CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY RICHMOND, CA

December 1998

Manual sponsor:

For information or help regarding this manual, contact R.A. (Rich) Doyle, (510) 242-3247

Printing History
Coatings Manual
First Edition First Revision Second Revision Third Revision Fourth Revision Second Edition First Revision October 1988 December 1990 February 1992 August 1992 January 1995 September 1996 December 1998

Restricted Material Technical Memorandum


This material is transmitted subject to the Export Control Laws of the United States Department of Commerce for technical data. Furthermore, you hereby assure us that the material transmitted herewith shall not be exported or re-exported by you in violation of these export controls.

The information in this Manual has been jointly developed by Chevron Corporation and its Operating Companies. The Manual has been written to assist Chevron personnel in their work; as such, it may be interpreted and used as seen fit by operating management. Copyright 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1998 CHEVRON CORPORATION. All rights reserved. This document contains proprietary information for use by Chevron Corporation, its subsidiaries, and affiliates. All other uses require written permission.

December 1998

Chevron Corporation

List of Current Pages


Coatings Manual
The following list shows publication or revision dates for the contents of this manual. To verify that your manual contains current material, check the sections in question with the list below. If your copy is not current, contact the Technical Standards Team, Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond, CA (510) 242-7241.

Section 50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Quick Reference Appendix A Appendix B Index 2000 COM-MS-4042 COM-MS-4732 COM-MS-4738 COM-MS-4739 COM-MS-4743 COM-MS-4771 COM-MS-5005 COM-MS-5006 List of Drawings

Date September 1996 November 1998 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 September 1996 November 1998 None Given January 1995 September 1996 September 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 January 1996 See the list in the Standard Drawings and Forms section of this manual. Current revision dates are shown for Forms. Current revision numbers are shown for Standard Drawings.

Chevron Corporation

December 1998

(This page reserved for future use.)

December 1998

Chevron Corporation

Maintaining This Manual


Coatings Manual
If you have moved or you want to change the distribution of this manual, use the form below. Once you have completed the information, fold, staple, and send by company mail. You can also FAX your change to (510) 242-2157. u Change addressee as shown below. u Replace manual owner with name below. u Remove the name shown below. Previous Owner: Last Current Owner: Last Company: Street: City: First M.I. Dept/Div: P.O. Box: State: Zip: First M.I. Title: Title:

Requesting Signature Send this completed form to: Document Control, Room 50-4328 Chevron Research and Technology Company 100 Chevron Way (P.O. Box 1627) Richmond, CA 94802

Date

CRTC Consultants Card


The Chevron Research and Technology Company (CRTC) is a full-service, in-house engineering organization. CRTC periodically publishes a Consultants Card listing primary contacts in the CRTC specialty divisions. To order a Consultants Card, contact Ken Wasilchin of the CRTC Technical Standards Team at (510) 242-7241, or email him at KWAS.

Chevron Corporation

December 1998

(This page reserved for future use.)

December 1998

Chevron Corporation

Reader Response Form


Coatings Manual
We are very interested in comments and suggestions for improving this manual and keeping it up to date. Please use this form to suggest changes; notify us of errors or inaccuracies; provide information that reflects changing technology; or submit material (drawings, specifications, procedures, etc.) that should be considered for inclusion. Feel free to include photocopies of page(s) you have comments about. All suggestions will be reviewed as part of the update cycle for the next revision of this manual. Send your comments to: Document Control, Room 50-4328 Chevron Research and Technology Company 100 Chevron Way (P.O.Box 1627) Richmond, CA 94802 Comments

Page or Section Number

Name Address

Phone

Chevron Corporation

December 1998

(This page reserved for future use.)

December 1998

Chevron Corporation

Coatings
Manual Sponsor: R.A. (Rich) Doyle / Phone: (510) 242-3247 / E-mail: rdoy@chevron.com
This document contains extensive hyperlinks to figures and cross-referenced sections. The pointer will change to a pointing finger when positioned over text which contains a link.

List of Current Pages 50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Using this Manual General Information Environment, Health & Safety Coatings Selection Surface Preparation Application Coating Concrete Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings Offshore Coatings Pipeline Coatings 50-1 100-1 200-1 300-1 400-1 500-1 600-1 700-1 800-1 900-1 QR-1

Quick Reference Guide Appendices Appendix A Appendix B

Conversion Charts Color Chips

Chevron Corporation

December 1998

50

Using this Manual


Abstract
In this manual, you will find procedures for coating steel and other metal substrates. Additionally, there are individual sections for those surfaces and logistics requiring special consideration: concrete, downhole tubulars, offshore, and pipeline coatings. This section offers broad, general information: the reasons for coatings, the components of a coating and coatings systems, a successful coatings program, and the structure of this manual. Contents 51 52 60 61 62 63 70 71 72 80 90 Scope and Application Organization Reasons for Coating External Coatings Under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing Internal Coatings Components of Coatings and Coating Systems Components of Coatings Coating Systems The Successful Coating Program References 50-7 50-7 50-5 50-3 Page

Chevron Corporation

50-1

September 1996

50 Using this Manual

Coatings Manual

51

Scope and Application


The Coatings Manual is intended: For Company personnel who are responsible for selecting, applying, or inspecting coatings For both entry-level personnel and non-specialists regardless of experience As a source of practical, useful information based on the Company's experiences

Your input and experience are important for improving subsequent revisions and keeping this manual up-to-date; therefore, we have included a form in the front of the manual to facilitate your suggesting changes. Note Do not use this manual as a substitute for sound engineering judgment.

52

Organization
The colored tabs in the manual will help you find information quickly. In summary: White tabs are for table of contents, introduction, appendices, index, and general purpose topics. Blue tabs denote Engineering Guidelines. Gray tabs are used for Specifications and related forms. Red tab marks a place for you to keep coatings documents that are developed at your facility.

Engineering Guidelines
The Engineering Guidelines cover: An overview of coatings General information about selecting coatings; preparing surfaces; and applying, inspecting, and maintaining coatings Specific information about surfaces and logistics that require special considerationconcrete, downhole tubulars, offshore, and pipelines

Specifications
The specifications include: A Quick Reference Guide (for selecting coating systems; coatings system data sheets; list of acceptable brands; and Coating Compatibility Chart) The Company's specifications in commented form Standard Forms

September 1996

50-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

50 Using this Manual

Other Company Manuals


Within this manual, there are references to documents in other Company manuals (example: COM-MS-4738 in this manual). These documents carry the prefix of the particular manual. These prefixes are as follows: Prefixes CIV CMP COM CPM DRI ELC EXH FFM FPM HTR ICM IRM MAC NCM PIM PMP PPL PVM TAM UTL WEM Company Manuals Civil and Structural Compressor Coatings Corrosion Prevention Driver Electrical Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Fluid Flow Fire Protection Fired Heater and Waste Heat Recovery Instrumentation and Control Insulation and Refractory Machinery Support Systems Noise Control Piping Pump Pipeline Pressure Vessel Tank Utilities Welding

60

Reasons for Coating


The Company coats structures and equipment for several reasons. Many of these reasons are discussed below.

61

External Coatings
External coatings are generally for aesthetics, corrosion prevention, evaporation reduction, and safety.

Chevron Corporation

50-3

September 1996

50 Using this Manual

Coatings Manual

Aesthetics
Coatings improve the appearance of objects, which contributes to good employee morale, advertising, neighborhood relations, and civic pride.

Corrosion Protection
Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem in humid, warm, coastal locations; in chemical and fertilizer plants; and on offshore structures. Regardless of the geographical location, coating is essential for protection against corrosion in most plant areas.

Evaporation Reduction
Painted in light colors, the roofs of storage tanks reflect rather than absorb the sun's energy thus reducing evaporative loss of the stored material.

Safety
Special coatings mark fire equipment, traffic lanes, and piping that carries hazardous materials.

62

Under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing


A properly designed coating system, applied to the substrate under thermal insulation and fireproofing systems, gives the best long-term protection against chloride stress-corrosion cracking (CSCC) of stainless steel and reduces corrosion of carbon steel. CSCC and increased corrosion occur: When moisture permeates the insulation or fireproofing system and condenses against the substrate, creating a condition similar to immersion service Because steel operating temperatures affect the corrosivity of water As long as the temperature of the water remains below its boiling point: the hotter the steel, the hotter the water, the higher the rate of corrosivity When moisture leaches soluble salts that contain chloride or sulfide ions

Again, the hotter the solution, the greater the effect. Because they develop under insulation and fireproofing, these conditions are very hard to detect. Maintenance and inspection are very difficult and usually require removing the insulation or fireproofing. Often the first indication of a problem is an equipment failure. For guidance on choosing coatings, refer to Coatings Under Insulation and Fireproofing in the System Number Selection Guide (part of the Quick Reference Guide).

September 1996

50-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

50 Using this Manual

63

Internal Coatings
Internal coatings can maintain product purity, reduce stockside and underside corrosion, and affect potable water.

Product Purity
Even at low corrosion rates, some corrosion occurs. An internal coating may be necessary to prevent the products of corrosionsuch as iron oxide (rust) or scales from contaminating the stock and causing problems.

Stockside Corrosion
Internal coatings extend the life of the tank or vessel and reduce the chance of leaks, especially in storage tank bottoms. The water layer which settles out in the bottom of the tank causes most of the tank bottom internal corrosion.[1]

Underside Corrosion
For tanks, the corrosion rate of the underside depends mainly on soil composition and moisture content. Based on experience, you can predict when underside corrosion may be a problem.[1]

Potable Water
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates coatings for lining potable water tanks.

70

Components of Coatings and Coating Systems


71 Components of Coatings
A coating consists of a pigment, a vehicle (binder plus solvent), and additives. Pigments give color and protective properties to the paint. The vehicle provides curing to form a continuous film and adhesion to the substrate. The vehicle is made of the binder (which forms the film) and the solvent (which dissolves the binder and adjusts viscosity to improve application). The solvent also partly controls drying rate. Additives are drying and wetting agents, ultraviolet screening agents, etc.

Methods of Film Formation


Understanding how binders work is critical when choosing a coating system. For most coatings, film forms in one of several ways. Thermoplastic. The solid resin, melted for application, resolidifies when it cools. Example: Tar in roof coatings.

Chevron Corporation

50-5

September 1996

50 Using this Manual

Coatings Manual

Solvent Evaporation. The coating dries as the solvent evaporates (or dries at lower temperatures than those which involve a chemical reaction). If re-exposed to the same solvent, the coating can redissolve. Example: Vinyls, chlorinated rubbers and lacquers. Oxidation. Coatings composed of drying oils cure by reacting with air. Oxygen cross links the resin molecules into a solid gel. Example: Alkyds. Cross Link. Dual-component products cross link at room temperature, either with or without a catalyst. Example: Epoxies (two polymers react, no catalyst), polyesters (catalyzed) and urethanes (catalyzed). Heat Cure. Heat causes direct cross-linking between filmformer molecules, or activates a catalyst to cause cross-linking. Normally, these coatings are shop-applied only, because of the special heating requirements. Example: Baked phenolic linings. Emulsion. When the water evaporates from an emulsion of resin particles and water, the resin particles coalesce to form a film. Example: Latex acrylics.

72

Coating Systems
A coating system refers to the layers that make a complete coating: primer, tiecoat or intermediate coat, and topcoat.

Primer Coats
Primer coats adhere well to the substrate and inhibit corrosion and undercutting at defects, such as pin holes or holidays (breaks) in the film. Note that holidays are pinholes or thin spots which either develop during application or nicks and scrapes which occur later. Corrosion will start at these spots. Primer coats also bond well to the intercoat, tolerate variations in application conditions and handling, and resist weathering (helpful because delays may occur between priming and topcoating).

Tiecoats
Tiecoats (or intermediate coats) build film thickness, bond the primer to the topcoat, and protect substrate and primer from aggressive chemicals in the environment.

Topcoats
Topcoats protect the substrate and undercoats from the environment, provide chemical resistance, enhance the surface appearance, and provide non-skid and other properties.

September 1996

50-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

50 Using this Manual

Some coatings are incompatible. Before choosing coatings to apply over previously coated surfaces, see the Coating Compatibility Chart in the Quick Reference Guide.

80

The Successful Coating Program


The successful coating program has four elements: Selection Surface preparation Application Quality control (inspection and on-going maintenance)

Each of these elements is described in more detail in this manual.

90

References
1. Chevron Corporation. Corrosion Prevention Manual, Corrosion of Storage Tank Bottoms, Chevron Research and Technology Company. Richmond, CA: January, 1994.

Chevron Corporation

50-7

September 1996

100 General Information


Abstract
Among the general information in this section is a description of the coatings and coating systems, which includes the advantages, disadvantages, and uses. Coatings are also described in the individual sections for special surfaces such as: concrete, downhole tubulars, and pipelines. Note This manual does not contain information about coatings for architectural surfaces. Quality control is essential for any project. Among the key elements of quality control for coatings are inspections, monitoring progress, and protecting the Companys equipment. For assistance with specific questions about coatings, see the listing of the Companys specialists and coating manufacturers in the Quick Reference Guide. Contents 110 111 112 113 114 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 130 140 150 Coating Descriptions (A-E) Acrylics Alkyds Epoxies Elastomers Coatings Descriptions (PZ) Phenolics Polyesters Polyurethanes Silicones Vinyls Zinc-rich Coatings Petroleum-based Tapes Water-based Coatings Coating Systems for Immersion Service 100-21 100-21 100-22 100-13 Page 100-3

Chevron Corporation

100-1

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

151 152 153 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 170

Non-reinforced Thin-film Coatings Glass-flake-reinforced Coatings Laminate-reinforced Coatings Quality Control General Information Inspection Programs Inspectors Monitoring Progress General Inspection Procedures Specific Inspection Procedures Instruments, Tools, and Equipment Protecting the Companys Equipment References 100-46 100-27

November 1998

100-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

110 Coating Descriptions (A-E)


The following coatings are described in this section: Acrylics Alkyds Epoxies Elastomers

For details about each type of coating, read the following descriptions. See also Figure 100-1, Summary of Properties in Coatings.

111 Acrylics
Acrylic ester resins are polymers and co-polymers of the esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids. As thermoplastics, they soften at high temperatures. Advantages: Good moisture and mild chemical resistance Either fast-drying solvent evaporation or coalescence

Disadvantages: Poor resistance to aromatic solvents

Uses: Solvent acrylic: truck and machinery finishes Latex emulsions: stucco, wood, and masonry By Company: as architectural coatings

112 Alkyds
Alkyd resins are basically modified polyesters. An alkyd is the reaction product of a polyhydric alcohol and a polybasic acid. A common alkyd resin uses glycerol as the alcohol and phthalic acid as the polybasic acid. Oxidation in the air cures alkyd coating resins. Adding drying oils to pure alkyd modifies the alkyd into alkyd coating resins. These resins are classified by oil length (long, medium, and short). The alkyd resin without oil modification is hard and brittle. As the oil length increases (more oil added), the film becomes softer and more flexible. Advantages: Perform well in moderate environments Easy-to-handle, single-component coatings Inexpensive Fair-to-good performance in most of the Company's environments

Chevron Corporation

100-3

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Fig. 100-1

Summary of Properties in Coatings (1 of 2)


Wet Atmosphere Good 1. Atmosphere 2. Splash/Spillage Acid 1. Good 2. Poor- Fair Poor-Good Yellows Excellent 1. Fair- Poor 2. N/R 1. Good 2. Fair Excellent 1. N/R 2. Poor-Fair N/R 1. Excellent 2. Good Excellent 1. N/R 2. Very Good N/R 1. N/R
(1)

Coatings Acrylic

Type of Cure Solvent Evaporation Oxidation

Effect of Sunlight Chalk Resistant Slow Chalk Chalks Yellow Chalks Yellow Chalks, Cracks Slow Chalk N/R

Alkali 1. Good 2. Poor-Fair 1. Poor 2. N/R 1. Excellent 2. Excellent 1. N/R 2. Excellent 1. Excellent 2. Good 1. N/R 2. Very Good 1. N/R
(1)

Oxidizing 1. Good 2. Poor-Fair 1. Fair 2. N/R 1. Limited 2. N/R 1. N/R 2. N/R 1. Excellent 2. N/R 1. N/R 2. Good 1. N/R
(1)

Solvent 1. Fair 2. N/R 1. Fair 2. N/R 1. Excellent 2. Excellent 1. N/R 2. Very Good 1. Poor 2. N/R 1. N/R 2. N/R 1. N/R(1) 2. Very Good(1) 1. Poor(1) 2. Outstanding(1)

Alkyd

Amine-cured & Amine Adduct Epoxy Polyamide Epoxy Coal-tar Epoxy Polyamide Chlorinated Rubber Epoxy Phenolic

Cross Linked

Cross Linked

Cross Linked

Solvent Evap.

Cross Linked

2. Good(1) Baked Phenolic Heat Cured N/R N/R 1. Good(1) 2. Lid Mineral Acids(1) Moisture-cured Urethane (II) Cross Linked Aromatic Yellows; Aliphatic Excellent Excellent Very Good 1. Good 2. Fair

2. Very Good(1) 1. Good(1) 2. N/R


(1)

2. N/R(1) N/R(1)

1. Good 2. Fair

1. Poor 2. N/R

1. Excellent 2. Good

Silicone

Heat Cured Cross Linked

Very Good

1. Good 2. Poor

1. Good 2. Poor 1. Good 2. Fair 1. Excellent 2. Good 1. Topcoat 2. N/R 1. Topcoat 2. N/R 1. Topcoat 2. N/R

1. Very Good 2. Poor

1. Fair 2. Fair 1. Good 2. Good-Poor 1. Poor 2. N/R 1. Excellent 2. Very Good 1. Excellent 2. Excellent 1. Excellent 2. Excellent

Silicone Alkyd

Oxidation

Excellent

Very Good

1. Good 2. Poor

1. Good 2. Poor 1. Excellent 2. Good 1. Topcoat 2. N/R 1. Topcoat 2. N/R 1. Topcoat 2. N/R

Vinyl

Solvent Evap.

Slow Chalk Chalk

Excellent Excellent(2)
(2)

1. Excellent 2. Very Good 1. Topcoat 2. N/R

Organic Zinc-rich Post-cured Inorganic Zinc Solvent-based Self-cured Inorganic Zinc

Cross Linked

Cross Linked

None

Excellent

1. Topcoat 2. N/R

Cross Linked

None

Excellent

(2)

1. Topcoat 2. N/R

November 1998

100-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Fig. 100-1
Coatings Acrylic Alkyd

Summary of Properties in Coatings (2 of 2)


Tank Linings N/R N/R N/R Physical Properties Abrasion Good Fair Good Heat Limited Fair Good Hardness Good Fair Very hard Gloss High to Semi Chalks to Flat Chalks to Flat Range of Color Full Full Full

Immersion N/R N/R Very Good

Amine-cured & Amine Adduct Epoxy Polyamide Epoxy Coal-tar Epoxy Polyamide Chlorinated Rubber Epoxy Phenolic

Very Good Excellent Very Good Very Good

Solvents Water Water Water Widerange Solvent Wide Resistance N/R N/R N/R Water N/R Fuels Solvent Fuels Solvent

Good Limited Fair-Poor Good

Good Excellent Poor Outstanding

Hard Very Hard Good Very Hard

Chalks to Flat Flat Semi to Flat High

Full Black, Red Wide Dark

Baked Phenolic

1. Excellent(1) 2. Very Good

Good

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Clear Dark

Moisture-cured Urethane (II) Silicone Silicone Alkyd Vinyl Organic Zinc-rich Post-cured Inorganic Zinc Solvent-based Self-cured Inorganic Zinc

N/R N/R N/R Very good Good(3) Good(3) Good(3)

Excellent Good Good Fair-Poor Good Excellent Excellent

Good Excellent Very Good Poor Good Excellent Excellent

Excellent Good Good Good Very Good Excellent Very Good

High High High Semi to Flat Semi to Flat Flat Flat

Full Full Full Wide Some Earth Tones Earth Tones

(1) As tank lining (2) When top-coated (3) With epoxy topcoat

Good service on large, flat surfaces

Example: Good service is exemplified by this coatings almost 20 years on Hawaiian refinery tanks. Disadvantages: Long drying time Not chemically resistant; unsuitable for highly corrosive areas such as chemical and fertilizer plants or offshore structures Unsatisfactory for water immersion

Chevron Corporation

100-5

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Not suited to highly alkaline surfaces such as fresh concrete, galvanized steel, and inorganic zinc Chalk in sunlight Usually fail within a few years on piping and structural components Not VOC-compliant

Uses: In external primers and finish coatings

Long-oil Alkyds (60 to 70 Percent Oil)


Advantages: Good flexibility and wetting properties

Disadvantages: Very slow drying

Uses: Over poorly prepared steel where the oil penetrates rust and develops adhesion

Medium-oil Alkyds (45 to 60 percent oil)


Advantages: Hard, tough films Dry faster, generally, than long-oil alkyds

Uses: Finish coats The Companys most popular choice of alkyd

Note

Short-oil Alkyds (35 to 45 percent oil)


Uses: Fast air drying and baking enamels for hardness and mar resistance The Company uses very little of these.

Note

113 Epoxies
The most common epoxy resins are formed by the reaction of epichlorhydrin and bisphenol-A. This reaction can be controlled to produce resins ranging from liquids of low-molecular weight to solids of high-molecular weight.

November 1998

100-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Complete curing gives epoxies their chemical and water resistance. Curing time increases at temperatures below about 70F, essentially stopping below about 50F unless it is a specially formulated low-temperature epoxy. Epoxies have very good resistance to bases and many solvents. Epoxies have poor acid resistance unless modified with a phenolic. Advantages: Resist water and chemicals, especially caustics, superbly Resist weather well Adhere well, particularly to concrete Apply easily

Disadvantages: Do not retain color and gloss as well as alkyds Tend to chalk rapidly Do not have good acid resistance Need surfaces between layers of epoxy roughened by solvent or blasting when applying multiple coats as many epoxies cure with a hard, slick surface Need successive coats of epoxy applied as soon as possible to obtain satisfactory adhesion between coats. Manufacturers normally recommend a maximum time between coats. Need long cure time. For epoxy linings at 70F, curing may take one week. In the field, coatings applicators often accelerate the curing of an internal coating with a low-temperature bake (100 to 150F). Do not put internal coatings into service until they are fully cured.

Caution Uses:

Epoxy resins are the most popular resin for thin-film coatings on concrete.

There are six groups of epoxy coatings in this section: amine cured, amine adduct, polyamide, coal tar, epoxy mastics, and epoxy novolac.

Amine-cured Epoxies
These coatings are epoxy resins cross-linked with one of several amine compounds.

Caution Because the amines can present a health hazard, apply them according to manufacturers safety recommendations.

Amine Adduct Epoxies


Amine adducts are stable intermediate products resulting from the reaction of a portion of the epoxy resin with an amine curing agent. The amine adduct, instead of the amine, is added to the epoxy coating to cure it.

Chevron Corporation

100-7

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Advantages: Same properties as liquid amines, but much less hazardous Very good resistance to oils, solvents, and chemicals

Disadvantages: Ultraviolet degradation causes rapid chalking

Uses: Lining gasoline storage tanks, chemical tanks Corrosion-resistant primer under polyurethane foam insulation

Polyamide Epoxies
Polyamide resins are produced from polyamines and fatty acids. Epoxy coatings for atmospheric exposures are usually polyamides. Mastic coatings which adhere to wet surfaces and which will cure under water are formulated with polyamide epoxies. Advantages: Good surface-wetting properties Longer pot life, more flexibility and better water resistance than amine or amine-adduct cured epoxies Good resistance to alkalies, petroleum products, and salt water

Disadvantages: Not quite as chemically resistant as amine adduct epoxies.

Uses: Topcoats and tiecoats in severe exposures

Coal-tar Epoxies
As the name suggests these coatings are blends of epoxy resins and coal tar. Note Coal tar is a suspected carcinogen but is tied up sufficiently in the polymer so that manufacturers consider the cured film safe. Coal-tar epoxies can be either polyamide- or amine-adduct cured. Usually applied in two heavy coats of eight mils each, these coatings are normally self-priming. Advantages: Outstanding for water-immersion service

Disadvantages: Chalk rapidly and fail in (ultraviolet) sunlight

November 1998

100-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Uses: Underwater, in water tank linings (except potable water tanks), and on buried structural steel

Note Although coatings manufacturers continue to use them for municipal watertank linings, the Company prefers FDA-approved polyamide or amine-adduct epoxies for potable-water tank linings.

Epoxy Mastics
Advantages: Perform better than alkyds Adhere to a variety of surface preparations, including tightly adhered rust Adhere to any old coating firmly attached to the substrate VOC compliant

Disadvantages: More expensive than alkyds

Uses: For less-than-perfectly prepared surfaces

Epoxy Novolac
Epoxy novolac resins are second-generation epoxies with greater cross-linking density. Advantages: Greater resistance to chemical attack and high temperatures than standard epoxies

Disadvantages: More expensive and less flexible than standard epoxies

Uses: Common coating for concrete

114 Elastomers
An elastomer is a polymeric substance with more than 100 percent elongation in a tensile test. Included in this category are natural- and synthetic-rubber products (which also have the physical characteristics of natural rubber). The chemical, oil, and water resistance of elastomers vary widely. Coatings applicators can apply modified elastomers as coatings. The Company uses many elastomeric coatings, such as chlorinated rubber and hypalon, alone over steel and other surfaces or, as required, with special primers such as inorganic zinc.

Chevron Corporation

100-9

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

There are two classes of elastomers: cross-linking and air-drying.

Catalyzed Cross-linking Elastomers


Neoprene, butyl, thiokol, silicone, and hypalon are the most common, catalyticsetting, elastomer coatings. Neoprene. A synthetic rubber, produced by polymerizing chloroprene, neoprene is either pigmented or clear and is manufactured as thin flexible films or mastics. Advantages: Good heat and flame resistance Good acid, alkali, and water resistance

Disadvantages: Softened by aromatic solvents

Uses: Block insulation coatings

Butyl. A copolymer of isobutylene and isoprene, butyl is polymerized with an aluminum chloride catalyst. Advantages: Exceptionally low water permeability Better sunlight and weather resistance than most rubbers

Disadvantages: Unknown

Uses: Coating urethane foam and block insulation Piping tape wrap primers and tape mastics

Thiokol. Thiokol is a polysulfide rubber. Advantages: Excellent gasoline and water resistance

Disadvantages: Unknown

Uses: Caulking compounds Flexible seal over leaking rivet seams in oil tanks Pond and tank linings (in sheet form)

November 1998

100-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Silicone Rubber. Silicone rubber is a room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone. Advantages: Good for hot service

Disadvantages: Poor solvent resistance

Uses: Gaskets in hot services Caulking Potting materials

Hypalon. Hypalon is a chlorinated polyethylene resin. Advantages: Excellent sunlight resistance Good chemical resistance

Disadvantages: Unknown

Uses: Flexible coating vehicles or mastics and sheet lining Mild acid spill protection for concrete (the Company's most popular use) Topcoat over polyurethane foam or block insulation Pond and tank linings

Air-drying Elastomers
Chlorinated rubber, an air-dried formulation of hypalon, and butadiene-styrene are the most popular elastomers for air-drying coatings. Chlorinated Rubber. Chlorine and natural rubber latex produce chlorinated rubber resins. When suitably plasticized and pigmented, these resins exhibit outstanding resistance to a broad range of corrosive chemicals and environments. Advantages: Shows outstanding resistance to severe chemical environments such as acids, alkalies, salt fog, water, oxidizing agents, bleaches, and cleaning compounds Dries rapidly, allowing application of several coats in one day Produces excellent bond between old and new coats as the solvents in the new coat penetrate the old coat

Disadvantages:

Chevron Corporation

100-11

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Does not resist sunlight damage as well as alkyds and acrylics Causes alkyd or oil coatings to blister if applied over them Dissolves in oils and solvents Oil spills could potentially soften these coatings.

Caution Uses:

Offshore platforms Humid coastal refineries

Hypalon. The air-drying hypalon is a chlorosulfonated polyethelene. Advantages: Good weatherability

Disadvantages: Unknown

Uses: Topcoat elastomers to improve weather resistance

Butadiene-Styrene. The most widely used type of synthetic rubber, butadienestyrene is a copolymer of three parts butadiene and one part styrene. Advantages: Good resistance to alkali, water, and mild acids Excellent external durability if pigmented properly

Disadvantages: Embrittles with age if formulated improperly

Uses: Vehicles in coatings and mastics for stucco and masonry

Polyurethane Elastomers. Polyurethane elastomers are thermal plastic polymers. Advantages: AliphaticExcellent color and gloss retention

Disadvantages: AromaticYellows badly in sunlight

Uses: Vehicles for thin or semi-mastic coatings for sealing polyurethane foam insulation Deck and floor coatings

November 1998

100-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

120 Coatings Descriptions (PZ)


The following coatings are described in this section: Phenolics Polyesters Polyurethanes Silicones Vinyl Zinc rich

121 Phenolics
Phenolic resins, formed by the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, produce a range of coatings from hard plastics (Bakelite) to oil-soluble resins and from heatreactive varnishes to air drying oils. The Company uses two phenolic resins in coatings: a baked pure phenolic and an air-drying epoxy phenolic.

Baked Phenolics
Baked phenolics are almost exclusively shop-applied due to a complicated baking procedure. They contain resins which are polymerized by being heated above 300F. The reaction time and temperature depend on the modifying oils and resins. Note The Company uses baked phenolics only in the most severe immersion services where no other material will work, such as container inner-coatings and tank car linings. Advantages: Excellent chemical and water resistance Withstand immersion in almost all petroleum products Good abrasion resistance

Disadvantages: Poor wetability (the ability of a coating to flow over a surface) Require maximum surface preparation Poor adhesion Embrittles

Note To overcome poor adhesion and brittleness, some formulas are modified with epoxy resins, giving them better caustic resistance than pure phenolics but not equal resistance to strong solvents.

Epoxy Phenolics
Catalytic setting (non-baking) phenolics are usually composed of phenolic resins and epoxies.

Chevron Corporation

100-13

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Advantages: Better chemical and solvent resistance than pure epoxies

Disadvantages: Lower resistance to chemicals and solvents than pure baked phenolics

Uses: Lining tanks, vessels, containers, etc.

122 Polyesters
While there are two major classes of polyester resins, the Company uses only isophthalic. Isophthalic polyesters, the resin preferred for corrosion protection, is also the main resin in laminate-reinforced systems. While the chemical and temperature resistance of polyester is usually poorer than any of the other resins, they are also the least expensive.

123 Polyurethanes
Polyurethane resins are formed by the reaction of isocyanates with polyols and are used for a variety of purposes from foam insulation to air-drying coatings and varnishes. The isocyanate may be either aromatic or aliphatic. There are literally thousands of polyurethane formulationsfrom hard roller skate wheels to elastomeric materials that stretch like rubber bandswhich have many different properties. Some of these properties are: Abrasion resistance Chemical resistance Elasticity Impact resistance Tensile strength

Caution Remember that increases in one property result in decreases in another. Because of this, many elastomeric polyurethanes are not as chemically resistant as the more rigid polyurethanes. The most common polyols are acrylics and polyesters, although there are epoxies, vinyls, and alkyds. Advantages: Highly resistant to abrasion and impact Catalyzed urethanes are highly chemical resistant Better performance than alkyds AliphaticFor atmospheric coatings, usually as easy to overcoat as epoxies AromaticMore chemically resistant than aliphatic urethanes

November 1998

100-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Disadvantages: More expensive than alkyds AromaticNot designed for external exposure as they chalk and yellow; difficult to overcoat because adhesion is poor

Uses: AliphaticNon-fading, non-chalking external finishes AromaticTank linings, chemically resistant coatings, flexible elastomeric coatings for polyurethane foam insulation coverings

Classifications. Urethane coatings cure by a variety of mechanisms as classified by ASTM D16-75 types. Types II, IV, and V are considered high performance and are described below. Most of the Company's experience has been with Type V, the twopackage polyol-cured urethane. Type II, One-package Moisture-cured. The Company has limited experience with these urethanes which cure by reacting with moisture in the air. The moisture reacts with a prepolymer containing isocyanate so that the isocyanate is released for crosslinking. The reaction also releases CO2 which must migrate to the surface before the film sets up.

Caution In high humidity areas, such as offshore, the reaction can occur so rapidly that the CO2 cannot escape; and the film is filled with gas bubbles and pinholes. Type IV, Two-package Catalyzed. These urethanes cure by reacting with a lowmolecular-weight-reactive catalyst. They cure in a similar way not only to moisturecure (although the catalyst is in a separate package), but also to epoxy coatings. Type V, Two-package Polyol-cured. These urethanes are the Company's most common choice for high-performance coating systems such as for offshore platforms and chemical plants. To cure, polyol-cured coatings react with pre-reacted (adduct) hydroxyl-bearing polyols. They require no additional curing agent; however, coatings applicators may add an agent to promote low-temperature curing.

124 Silicones
Silicones are a group of various organo-silicon-oxide polymers available as fluids, elastomers, and resins. Because of their chemical composition, silicones have excellent resistance to heat, weathering, and moisture. Note Repairing silicone coatings is very difficult because almost nothing will adhere to them. For small repairs, sand the failure and apply fresh silicone coating with a brush. For large repairs, remove the coating by abrasive blasting and recoat. The Company uses both classes of silicone coating resins: heat-reactive and modified.

Chevron Corporation

100-15

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Heat-reactive
Silicone resins are cross-linked polymers which require a high-temperature cure to produce heat-stable films. Catalyzed formulations which cure at room temperature are now available. Non-catalyzed formulations remain tacky until heated above about 300 to 400F. For this reason, most field applications use the catalyzed, roomtemperature cure. The film thickness of baked silicone coatings is low compared to that of other coatings. A self-primed two-coat application usually produces only 1 to 2 mils dry film thickness (DFT). Advantages: Excellent sunlight resistance Good durability at high temperatures

Disadvantages: Apply only on abrasion-blasted surfaces

Uses:
Furnaces and stacks up to 600F (up to 750F for aluminum and black colors)

Note

The color and gloss retention of baked silicones depends on the pigments.

Modified or Air-drying
Modified or air-drying silicones are produced by reaction with organic resins such as alkyds or acrylics. Advantages: Excellent gloss and color retention Good weather and sunlight resistance Many resist temperatures up to 300F

Disadvantages: Tend to cure quite slowly even at ambient temperature, taking weeks to harden and resist damage in cool weather. Topcoat inorganic zinc with an epoxy or silicone acrylic.

Note

125 Vinyls
Vinyl resins are formed from the reaction of acetylene with acetic or hydrochloric acids. Varying this process produces resins consisting of 100 percent vinyl chloride, or 100 percent vinyl acetate. The resins in protective coatings are usually co-polymers containing 80 to 90 percent vinyl chloride and 5 to 15 percent vinyl acetate.

November 1998

100-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Vinyl resins are hard and brittle and must be combined with plasticizers and dissolved in solvents to form vehicles for coatings. Vinyl solutions contain only 15 to 40 percent solids depending on the co-polymers. The various vinyl-resin solutions are compatible and may be blended to emphasize desired properties. Some blends adhere very well to concrete and metal and are used in formulating primers. Other blends are pigmented and plasticized to produce highbuild films. Used for finish coats, some blends have low solids and adhere poorly to steel but have very good chemical and weather resistance. The Company uses vinyls for many services, often where water exposure is expected such as on floating tank roofs, docks, and on offshore platforms near the water. Advantages: Excellent chemical, water, and aliphatic oil resistance Excellent shelf life Ready bond to weathered vinyl films Removable with a solvent wash when desired Easy to patch old coatings without blistering or wrinkling Easy to apply by spray

Disadvantages: May lose their plasticizer over time and embrittle, a problem with vinyl as a weathercoat over polyurethane-foam insulation Do not have good gloss retention or stain resistance Dissolved by ketones, esters, chlorinated solvents, and some aromatics Need good ventilation to avoid prolonged (solvent evaporation) drying Tend to lift and blister because of the strong solvents Difficult to brush or roll because of their rapid drying Tend to bubble and pinhole when applied over porous inorganic zinc

Uses: With alkyds or epoxy esters to improve film build, gloss, and adhesion which are excellent as vehicles: In rust-inhibiting primers for ferrous metals In seal or tiecoats over inorganic zinc primers to improve adhesion of vinyl, alkyd, chlorinated rubber In epoxy ester topcoats

In formulae ranging from thin-bodied, air-drying coatings to semi-mastic putties and air-drying, baking plastisols

Chevron Corporation

100-17

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

To formulate a wide variety of latex materials in glues, paper sizes, and emulsion coatings In vinyl-emulsion-latex coatings for both internal and external services. The retention of deep colors by vinyl latexes is superior to that of most other coatings.

Vinyl Ester
Vinyl ester resin is a reaction product between polyesters and epoxies and shares many of the attributes of polyesters. Advantages: Resistance to acid, solvent attack, and high temperatures

Disadvantages: More expensive than an isophthalic polyester or normal epoxy

Uses: Coating concrete

126 Zinc-rich Coatings


Zinc-rich coatings, which have zinc dust as the pigment and inorganic or organic vehicles, are divided into two classes: inorganic and organic zinc. Zinc-rich coatings offer good corrosion resistance for steel due to the sacrificial nature of the zinc pigment. The zinc acts as an anode to protect the steel galvanically and prevent corrosion. This coating is applied alone or as a primer under a variety of topcoats. Under suitable topcoats, all of these primers greatly enhance the life of the coating system in many exposures, especially in marine services. When testing to determine the benefit of zinc in a coating, the Company found the quality of performance to be rated (best to worst) as follows: 1. 2. 3. Inorganic zincs Zinc-rich organic coatings Organic coatings

Inorganic-zinc Coatings
Inorganic-zinc coatings consist of two components: A pigment composed solely or principally of zinc powder Any of a variety of patented and proprietary inorganic or semi-inorganic vehicles to form the matrix of the coating

Post-cured inorganic zincs have a third component: a curing agent such as phosphoric acid. Among the vehicles are ethyl and sodium silicate, phosphates, and other complexes.

November 1998

100-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

When properly mixed, applied to blasted steel surfaces, and allowed to cure, the resultant coatings have outstanding resistance to weathering, humidity, elevated temperatures, organic solvents, animal and vegetable oils, both fresh and salt water, and most petroleum products. In addition, these coatings (especially post-cured) have excellent abrasion resistance. The corrosion resistance of the cured film is similar to that of galvanized iron; the weather resistance is superior to galvanized iron. Two types of inorganic zinc coatings are self-cured and post-cured.

Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc Coatings


Self-cured inorganic zinc coatings are either solvent- or water-based vehicles. While both produce an inorganic film, their methods differ. Current technology is almost all solvent-alkyl-silicate-resin based. Solvent-based Coatings. The Company uses self-cured, solvent-based, inorganic zincs in many places such as piping, tanks, and offshore. Although manufacturers have used several inorganic silicate vehicles such as ethyl silicate and bi-metallic alkoxide complexes to make these coatings, almost all self-cured inorganic zincs are now alkyl silicates such as ethyl silicate. Ethyl-silicate-based coatings convert to an inorganic, insoluble state in reaction to moisture. Some formulae require long periods (three to four weeks) of high humidity to reach ultimate hardness. Many manufacturers now claim their ethyl silicates can be topcoated almost immediately since enough moisture permeates through the topcoats to cure the primer. Solvent-based coatings are popular because their vehicles show superior wetting ability, they dry fast and resist water immediately, and their film thickness is less critical than for post-cured inorganic zinc coatings. Some self-cured inorganic zincs are modified to include some organic resin for more rapid film formation and increased flexibility. Properly formulated, they can perform as well as normal alkyl silicates.

Caution The Company does not recommend single-component inorganic zincs. Laboratory tests and experience show that these zincs do not perform as well as the two-component zincs. One reason is that the zinc settles in the can and is not easily put back in suspension. The applied coating is, therefore, deficient in zinc. Coatings applicators mix the multi-component zincs at the time of application and agitate them continuously to avoid the settling problem. Water-based Coatings. Tests show that, for weather resistance, water-based coatings are inferior to solvent-based and post-cured inorganic zincs. Note Future changes to clean air regulations may force us to use water-based or new, presently untested, formulations of inorganic zincs. Composed of zinc dust pigment and vehicles containing sodium silicate, or phosphates, the vehicles are water solutions similar to those of the post-cured coatings. After application, the film is water sensitive for some time, the length of which depends on the formula. The vehicles reaction with moisture in the air converts the

Chevron Corporation

100-19

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

water-soluble film to an insoluble film. Conversion time depends on the vehicle and the relative humidity and temperature. Some of these coatings undergo a color change as they cure, indicating when they are completely cured.

Caution Do not topcoat or place these coatings in water-immersion service until they are thoroughly cured.

Post-Cured Inorganic Zinc Coatings


Post-cured inorganic-zinc coatings are composed principally of zinc powder and sodium silicate. When mixed, the zinc-dust pigment and sodium silicate produce a water-soluble coating. coatings applicators must keep the applied film dry until it has cured by a chemical curing agent, such as phosphoric acid, which converts the film to a water insoluble coating. Advantages: Long life under extreme service conditions such as exposure to marine environments

Disadvantages: Sensitivity to moisture until cured White-metal surface preparation Necessity of removing the powder-like post-cure reaction chemicals (by washing very thoroughly) before topcoats will adhere

Uses: Extreme conditions such as offshore structures in marine environments.

Note While post-cured inorganic zinc coatings have a long, successful field history, the Company limits post-cured zincs to extreme services where their long life is needed such as near the water on offshore platforms. Today, however, because self-cured inorganic zincs can last almost as long and are much easier to apply properly, you may choose them instead.

Zinc-rich Organic Coatings


Epoxies, urethanes, chlorinated rubbers, phenolics, styrenes, silicones, and vinyls are vehicles for zinc-rich organic coatings. Epoxies are most common. The zinc content of these coatings should generally be about 80 percent by weight of total solids. The mechanism for curing zinc-rich organic coatings depends on the binder. (See Section 70 of this manual for methods of film formation.) The coatings can be either single- or multi-component. Performance tends to be a function of the durability of the binder, and epoxies are generally considered superior.

November 1998

100-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Advantages: Excellent water and weather resistance Better wetting ability, because of their organic vehicles, than inorganic zinc Usable over a broader range of surface preparation conditions than inorganic zinc

Disadvantages: Not as oil resistant as the inorganic coatings

Uses: Touch up for inorganic-zinc-primed systems Subsea equipment primers As primers under other coatings

Note Often one coat of IOZ alone gives excellent performance. For higher performance or aesthetics, topcoat with epoxy or epoxy plus urethane. Example: One coat of IOZ has lasted 15 plus years on a Richmond Long Wharf line. Pascagoula successfully used a two-coat system of Carboline Coating Companys IOZ with Carboline high-build urethane.

130 Petroleum-based Tapes


Petroleum-based tapes, such as denso, work well in severe service as a wrapping for pipe and structural components. Advantages: Adheres to moist surfaces with minimum surface preparation Adheres to irregular shapes, valves, and pipe fittings

Disadvantages: Could shield cathodic protection if tape fails

Uses: Reinforce heavily corroded lines

140 Water-based Coatings


Chevron Corporation OpCos are required to use coating systems that meet both federal and local regulations controlling the emissions of VOCs. Because water-based coatings use water instead of solvents as the pigment carrier, they typically do not contain any Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) that could be released into the air. Many OpCos may, in the future, be required to use water-based coating systems in order to meet these regulations. After 6 months of testing the major manufacturers water-based coatings, Chevron has concluded that several are acceptable for inclusion in the Coatings Manual. However, since these coatings do not perform as well as solvent based coatings, we

Chevron Corporation

100-21

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

cannot recommend them for severe exposure environments (ie: offshore or industrial environments). Refer to the System Number Selection Guide in the Coatings Manual Quick Reference Guide for a listing of the acceptable brands of water-based coatings for both new construction and maintenance systems.

150 Coating Systems for Immersion Service


Coating systems usually include a first coat (primer), second coat (tiecoat), and a final coat (topcoat). There are three types of coating systems for immersion service and each is described below along with its advantages, disadvantages, and cost. The coatings described are: Non-reinforced, thin-film coatings Glass-flake-reinforced coatings Laminate-reinforced coatings

151 Non-reinforced Thin-film Coatings


Typically only 10 to 20 mils thick (thin films), these non-reinforced coatings: Contain no glass flakes or fibers or laminates for reinforcement Usually have inert fillers such as silica or carbon to reduce shrinkage during cure and to improve abrasion resistance Resemble some of the high-build layers of external coating systems Usually are spray applied in two or more coats: a primer/sealer and one or two high-build topcoats Have recommended dry film thickness (DFT) of 15 to 20 milsthicker systems for more severe services

Most thin-film coatings for tanks are based on epoxy resins, although vinyls, inorganic zinc, and other types of coatings have been used. Advantages: Low cost Use least amount of material Require no expensive hand work Easiest to apply Product purity

Disadvantages: Lack of thickness leads to no resistance to abrasion, severe chemical attack, physical abuse Absence of reinforcement means inability to bridge existing cracks

November 1998

100-22

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Always have some damaged areas, called holidays

Uses: Temporary service Protection from mild corrosion, splash, or spillage environments

Note Apply and inspect this coating system properly to ensure that there are relatively few holidays. The small amount of corrosion which occurs will not be a problem in mild-corrosion environments if the product is pure. If the corrosion environment is severe, however, the holidays will initiate pits that quickly become unacceptable leaks. For severe corrosion service, pre-coated tanks may have similar problems if they are scratched or damaged while being erected. For severe corrosion applications, select a thin film coating if the tanks interior is also cathodically protected to prevent corrosion at damaged areas of the coating. [1]

Life Expectancy
The expected life of a thin-film internal coating is approximately ten years. After ten years, the coating commonly blisters, and corrosion at holidays is usually occurring over enough of the surface that blasting and replacing the entire coating are required. Note Early failure due to blistering often indicates either a problem with the surface preparation or an incorrect coating selection. Periodic inspection and repair (touch-up) of the internal coating may extend its life. As the Company inspects tanks on a ten-year cycle, periodic inspection and touchup is usually not possible.

Limitations and Cost


Because they can be sprayed, thin-film coating systems are generally the easiest and fastest to apply, and also the least expensive. Example: For a tank over 50,000 bbls, it might take a total of four weeks at a minimum to carry out the entire project: Approximately two weeks to clean, blast, and prime Approximately one week to apply the coating An additional week for final curing

Ease of application and cost also vary among different categories of thin film coatings. Factors which make a coating easier or more difficult to apply include: Its ability to flow smoothly and form an even film How well it hangs on vertical surfaces without running or sagging Its tendency to form pinholes Its tolerance to inadequate surface preparation The amount of drying time required between coats

Chevron Corporation

100-23

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

These factors also vary from product to product within a category, so it is difficult to make general statements. Coal-tar epoxies are, however, usually very easy to apply and relatively inexpensive, but the black color makes them difficult to inspect. Straight epoxies (polyamides or amine adduct) are also fairly easy to apply and only slightly more expensive than the coal tars. Epoxy-phenolics are often significantly more expensive and more difficult to apply.

152 Glass-flake-reinforced Coatings


Glass flakes in coatings, available in spray and trowel formulae: Make the coating less permeable and more abrasion resistant Reinforce the resin, allowing thicker film buildup Epoxy and polyester resins are used for glass-flake-reinforced coatings.

Note

The main difference between these two formulae is that the trowel coatings have larger reinforcing glass flakes than the spray. The layers are therefore as follows: Trowel: Two 20 to 40 mil (DFT) coats for a total of 60 to 80 mils (DFT) Spray: Two 15 to 20 mil (DFT) coats for a total of 30 to 40 mils (DFT)

Coatings applicators must roll each layer of both spray and trowel formulae to orient the glass flakes parallel to the surface. Rolling reduces the permeability of the coatings. Cathodic protection should not be required with glass-flake-reinforced coatings (especially trowel-applied types) because they are so thick and are not easily damaged. Advantages: Both (trowel and spray) are more protective than thin-film coatings because they are thicker and have fewer holidays. Both are highly advantageous in services where erosion or abrasion would damage thin-film coatings. Spray can be applied at twice the thickness of thin-film systems, and over more uneven surfacesbecause of the coating's thicknessthan thin film. Trowel is more resistant to chemical attack, abrasion, and physical abuse than either spray formula or thin-film coatings.

Disadvantages: Spray is marginally more expensive than thin-film coatings and rolling is required to improve resistance to chemical attack. Trowel is much more expensive than thin-film coatings; it is considerably more difficult and time-consuming to apply than either the spray formula or thin films, and hand smoothing and rolling is required.

November 1998

100-24

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Note The cost of glass-flake-reinforced coating may be justified if corrosion rates are expected to be relatively high but not severe, or permeation through the coating is a potential problem. Uses: Recommended for both mild and severe corrosion applications. Generally, select: Spray for mild corrosion and for uneven surfaces Trowel for severe corrosion (as an alternative to a thin-film coating with cathodic protection)

Note This coating system is the most widely used one for concrete because of its excellent properties for most environments and lower cost than laminate systems.

Life Expectancy
Expect glass-flake-reinforced coatings to last at least ten years before inspection. Depending on the condition of the coating and the service, making necessary repairs may allow the coating to last another ten years. Frequently, however, it will be necessary to replace the coating after only ten years, especially for sprays. Trowel applications have a better chance of lasting through a second decade.

Limitations and Cost


The spray-applied glass-flake-reinforced coatings are usually only slightly more difficult to apply than non-reinforced coatings. Rolling the glass flake properly takes additional time during application. Spray-applied glass-flake coatings are more costly than non-reinforced coatings. Trowel-applied glass-flake coatings are considerably more difficult and time consuming to apply than sprays. The coating is hand smoothed and rolled to orient the glass flakes. Coating application may take two to three weeks for an average size tank (increasing the total time to five to six weeks), and the total installed cost will be higher than sprayed glass-flake coatings. Epoxy-glass-flake coatings are generally easier to apply than polyesters or vinyl esters, both of which require a final wax coat to obtain full surface curing. If the coating is premixed with wax, common for sprays, the coatings applicator must apply the second coat within the manufacturer-specified time (known as the maximum allowable time) because the second coat will not adhere well if the wax layer has fully cured the first coat.

153 Laminate-reinforced Coatings


The coatings applicator applies laminate reinforced coatings by hand, alternating layers of resin and fiberglass mat to a total thickness of typically 80 to 125 mils. Generally, they apply three layers of resin and two layers of mat. For some services, specifications call for an additional layer of a special surfacing veil of chemical grade glass or polyester and another coat of resin.

Chevron Corporation

100-25

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Note The veil prevents any glass fibers from protruding through the resin surface, which could allow wicking or chemical attack of the glass itself. After the completed laminate is inspected, the coatings applicator applies a final coat of resin. For epoxy resins, this gel coat simply provides additional protection from chemical attack. For polyester resins, the coatings applicator adds a wax to the final resin coat to obtain full curing. Without the wax coat the surface of a polyester coating always remains slightly tacky and lacks its optimum chemical resistance, and the body of the laminate cures very slowly. Advantages: A laminate-reinforced coating provides the best protection against severe corrosion. Laminates should not require cathodic protection as they should not contain any holidays. A laminate is the only type of internal coating which has significant structural strength by itself. Because it does not need to be as thick, epoxy-resin laminates are less expensive than polyester or vinyl ester laminates.

Disadvantages: Compared to thin-film and glass-flake-reinforced coatings, laminates are the most expensive coating. Laminate-reinforced coatings are the most difficult and time consuming to apply.

Uses: Laminates are generally used for stockside corrosion only when there is severe corrosion or when underside corrosion is expected or has occurred.

Life Expectancy
Laminate reinforced coatings will last for 20 years, but inspect and repair them after 10 years. Eventually, the laminate will start to crack and lose its adhesion to the steel, especially if the tank bottom flexes or settles significantly. If underside corrosion occurs, remove the coupons to check the condition of the steel bottom. Replace the laminate and the bottom if the bottom is essentially corroded through.

Caution

Never apply a second laminate over a failed laminate.

Limitation and Cost


Laminate-reinforced coatings are the most difficult and time consuming to apply. The hand layering of fiberglass mat is a slow process, normally requiring at least three weeks for an average-size tank, increasing the total time to a minimum of six

November 1998

100-26

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

weeks. Laminates are also expensive. The total cost per square foot is equal to or higher than that of trowel-applied glass-flake coatings. Because it does not need to be as thick, epoxy-resin laminates are less expensive than polyester or vinyl ester laminates. Polyesters and vinyl esters require a final wax coat to obtain full surface curing; however, as they remain fluid longer before starting to cure, they are easier to use. Note The time between mixing and cure is called the gel time.

The coatings applicator can adjust the gel time by mixing different amounts of catalyst and promoter into the resin. After the resin sets, it will reach 90 percent of full cure in a short time. As epoxy resins do not have a gel time, they cure at a relatively constant rate, starting immediately after mixing, and therefore do not remain as fluid for as long as laminates.

160 Quality Control


161 General Information
Do the job right the first time. Essentially a system of checks and balances, quality control helps ensure that a projects participants fulfill the specifications requirements. For coatings projects, the process should yield a high-quality result that: Contributes to the maximum service life of the structure and equipment Reduces future expenditures for field maintenance

Offshore
Achieving high-quality coatings is more difficult offshore than onshore due to some of the following conditions: Adverse weather Simultaneous operations with other platform activities Congested platform areas Limited availability of transportation Existing substrate surfaces that can be deeply pitted and contaminated with soluble surface salts Inaccessible items

Careful design and planning help to minimize the effects of these conditions. A major component of quality for offshore coatings includes cure and recoat times before returning a facility to service. Critical areas are the +/- 10-foot splash zone, work decks and helidecks, and sweating equipment and piping. See detailed information about quality control for offshore coatings in Section 800 of this manual.

Chevron Corporation

100-27

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Keys to Successful Projects


Comprehensive quality control activities are, however, key to any successful project. The quality control for a specific project depends not only on type of project but also on available resources: financial and personnel. Most projects have the best financial result over the structures life by involving qualified individuals in the project at the most appropriate time for as long as necessary to ensure that the specifications are prepared properly and met. Regardless of the size, among the keys to success of any coating project are the specifications, specialists and inspectors, and the Companys Project Development and Execution Process (CPDEP).

Specifications

Caution Avoid the pitfall of writing specifications so vague and general that they confuse everyone and allow the contractor to provide substandard work. A well-written specification includes: Requirements for the pre-job conference Coating schedule for all items Work schedule Materials, including coatings and abrasive Minimum standards for equipment

Example: Equipment such as moisture traps on coating and blast pots, coating gun types and hose sizes, and quality of compressed air.

Coating Specialists and Inspectors


Industrial coating applications are highly specialized work processes that require support from individuals with particular knowledge and experience: the coating specialist and inspector. Coating Specialist. A coating specialist provides the project's engineering team with: Advice about selecting, inspecting, and applying coatings Information about premature failures Technical and tactical recommendations for day-to-day activities and interaction with the contractor

Coating Inspector. The goal of the project's coating inspector, usually a contractor, parallels the program's objectives to ensure that all surfaces are prepared and all coatings applied within specification. The inspector: Enforces the specification during each phase of the work activities Maintains detailed records of the coating activities

November 1998

100-28

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Note These records are extremely important in case of litigation and provide the engineering team with daily work updates and recommendations. See also the sections below on Inspections and Inspectors.

Companys Project Development & Execution Process (CPDEP)


By taking the Front End Loading (FEL) approach of CPDEP (adding coating experts to the team during the design-and-fabrication phases), the projects team eliminates the problem of materials leaving the fabrication yard with an aesthetically acceptable, yet otherwise short-term and non-corrosion-resistant coating. Example: During the 1980s, one of the Companys profit centers spent over $15MM to repair fabrication work that had failed prematurely (needing major re-work in four years or less). Costly replacement of corroded equipment/structures and repair of premature coating failures are often attributable to the work in fabrication yards.

162 Inspection Programs


An inspection adage states: People do not as you expect. People do as you inspect. Inspecting a coating ensures that it meets specifications for the particular project and provides maximum protection over the coatings expected life. In the Company, there are three inspection programs: one complete and two levels of partial inspections (Figures 100-2, 100-3, 100-4). The three inspection programs require inspectors of varying levels of qualification. The level of inspection chosen for a coating project is primarily a function of the acceptable risk involved if a coating fails prematurely. Corrosion and aesthetics are the two main reasons for applying an external coating. The engineer must choose the best inspection program to meet the needs of the particular project cost effectively. For external coating projects where corrosion is a concern, the Company recommends a complete inspection program, the most conservative, reliable, and costly method of inspection. If aesthetics are the only concern, then either of the two partial inspection programs may be adequate; but some of these projects may require complete inspection.

The Company's representative and the inspector (if different) should agree on a method of reporting the test results and observations of the inspection. A copy of the Company's recommended form, COM-EF-844, is available in this manual. The inspector files a copy of reports with the Company's representative.

Chevron Corporation

100-29

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Complete Inspections
A complete inspection requires a full-time, qualified inspector. The most conservative and costly of the three programs, a complete inspection is recommended when a coatings reliability is critical. The complete inspection checklist (Figure 100-2) is a compilation of items the inspector should examine to ensure that the work satisfies all requirements of the specification. While all items are important, they are ranked in terms of relative importance: ccritical, nnecessary, and aapplies. Missing an a item has lower potential effect on the life of the coating than missing the others.
Fig. 100-2 Inspection ChecklistComplete Inspection (1 of 2)

A qualified coatings inspector ensures the lining work meets the Chevron Specification. The inspector keeps records (using the Company's Standard Form COM-EF-844 or another form agreed upon by the Chevron representative and the inspector) and files a copy of the report with the Chevron OPCO. Each inspection item below has a code letter that indicates its relative importance. Items marked with a (c) are critical, those with an (n) are necessary, and those with an (a) apply. All items are important; but, if an (a) item is missed, the potential impact on the coating life would not be as great as missing a (c) or an (n) item. I. Pre-Job Check Out

t
t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

(c) (c) (c) (c) (a) (c) (a) (n) (c) (a)

Review Chevron OPCO Specifications. Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc. Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc. Check abrasive for cleanliness, dryness, etc. Check abrasive for type and size. Check compressed air for oil and moisture. Check nozzle air pressure. Check that proper coatings and thinners are present. Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life. Record product name, manufacturer, and batch number.

II. Surface Preparation A. B. C. D. E. F. (n) (c) (c) (n) (c) (a) Check ambient conditions. Check degree of surface cleanliness. Check surface for salts or other contaminates. Check surface profile. Check dust and abrasive removal. Take magnetic base reading.

November 1998

100-30

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Fig. 100-2

Inspection ChecklistComplete Inspection (2 of 2)

III. ApplicationFirst Coat

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

A. B. C. D. E. F.

(c) (c) (n) (c) (n) (a)

Check surface for flash rusting. Check ambient conditions. Check steel temperature. Check proper mix ratio observed. Check for proper thinner addition (when necessary). Check wet film thickness.

IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. (c) (c) (c) (c) (n) (c) (n) (a) (c) Check dry film thickness of preceding coats. Check recoat times observed. Check intercoat cleanliness. Check ambient conditions. Check steel temperatures. Check proper mix ratio observed. Check for proper thinner addition (when necessary). Check wet film thickness. Repeat for every coat.

V. Final Inspection A. B. C. D. E. F. (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) 1. 2. Check visual appearance. Check dry film thickness. Holiday test. (Required only for interior coatings) Cure test. Verify all touch-up and repair work. Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO. Verify compliance to specification. List work, if any, not in compliance and why.

Partial Inspections
The Company has two levels of partial inspection, Level 2 being the more limited. Partial Inspection Level 1. Partial Inspection Level 1 (Figure 100-3) differs from a complete inspection not only in the inspectors qualifications and time on the project, but also in the number of tests required. The inspector examines or tests particular itemshighlighted on the checklist during and on completion of the work. Time and cost permitting, the inspector may

Chevron Corporation

100-31

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

also verify the critical and necessary items on the Checklist For Complete Inspection (Figure 100-2) as any extra inspection improves the coatings reliability. Partial Inspection Level 2. Partial Inspection Level 2 (Figure 100-4) is the minimal inspection for any tank or vessel coating project and is recommended only if the Company is willing to accept the risk of premature failure of the coating


Fig. 100-3

Caution Select Level 2, the lowest recommended level, only after evaluating the project carefully and considering the risks of a premature failure.

Inspection Check ListPartial InspectionLevel 1 (1 of 2)

All items listed are critical to Level 1 Partial Inspection and should be conducted by someone familiar with coatings inspection. This person may be a qualified inspector, an experienced Chevron inspector, or an engineer with a good knowledge of coatings inspection. The inspector should keep records (using the Company's Standard Form COM-EF-844 or another form agreed upon by the Chevron representative and the inspector) and should file a copy of the report with the Chevron OPCO. I. Pre-Job Check Out

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

A. B. C. D. E.

Review Chevron OPCO Specification. Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc. Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc. Check abrasive for cleanliness, dryness, etc. Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life.

II. Surface Preparation A. B. Check degree of surface cleanliness. Check dust and abrasive removal.

III. ApplicationFirst Coat A. B. C. Check surface for flash rusting. Check ambient conditions. Check steel temperature.

IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats A. B. C. D. E. F. Check dry film thickness of preceding coats. Check recoat times observed. Check intercoat cleanliness. Check ambient temperatures. Check steel temperatures. Repeat for every coat.

November 1998

100-32

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Fig. 100-3

Inspection Check ListPartial InspectionLevel 1 (2 of 2)

V. Final Inspection

t t t t t t t

A. B. C. D. E.

Check visual appearance. Check dry film thickness. Holiday test. Cure test. Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO. 1. Verify compliance to specification. 2. List work, if any, not in compliance and why. Inspection ChecklistPartial InspectionLevel 2 (1 of 2)

Fig. 100-4

All items listed are critical to Level 2 Partial Inspection. This is the minimum inspection to be performed when lining a tank or vessel. With a little planning and thought, an OPCO engineer or construction representative can carry out all of these tests. The inspector should keep records (using the Company's Standard Form COM EF-844 or another form agreed upon by the Chevron representative and the inspector) and should file a copy of the report with the Chevron OPCO. I. Pre-Job Check Out

t t

A. B.

Review Chevron OPCO Specification Know what the specification requires so you can discuss it with the coating contractor. Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc. Linings will not cover irregular or rough surfaces adequately. Welds should be ground smooth and sharp corners rounded. If not possible, apply a stripe coat of the lining material after surface preparation. Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc. The biggest cause of premature lining failures is a contaminated surface. Cleanliness is the single most important step in the lining of a tank or vessel. Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life. This is a simple step; old coatings are hard to apply and will not perform properly.

C.

D.

II. Surface Preparation

A.

Check degree of surface cleanliness. Linings require abrasive blast cleaning the surface to a White Metal Blast (SSPC-SP5). See Abrasive Blast Coating Guide for Aged or Coated Steel Surfaces in the Coatings Manual for a visual guide to judging degrees of abrasive blast cleaning. Check dust and abrasive removal. Visually check to see there is not any dust or abrasive residue on the surface to be lined. Dust or residue can cause the lining to have poor adhesion.

B.

III. ApplicationFirst Coat

A.

Check surface for flash rusting. After abrasive blasting, the surface can flash rust due to high humidity or salts on the surface. Linings applied over a rusted surface will fail prematurely. Check surface for moisture. Do not apply linings if the surface is damp. This usually happens when the surface is below the dew point. Linings applied over moisture will not adhere.

B.

Chevron Corporation

100-33

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Fig. 100-4

Inspection ChecklistPartial InspectionLevel 2 (2 of 2)

IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats

A.

Check recoat times observed. Most linings have a maximum and minimum recoat time. The times are dependent on the temperature; higher temperatures equal shorter times. The lining manufacturers data will give you the recoat time at a standard temperature. If your temperature is different, call the manufacturers representative. Check intercoat cleanliness. Make sure the first coat has not been contaminated before applying subsequent coats. Repeat Sections III & IV for every subsequent coat.

t t t

B. C.

V. Final Inspection A. Check appearance. Visually check for runs, sags, skips, etc. If the job looks good, then the contractor probably did a good job. If not, you might want to do some of the testing listed in Partial Inspection, Level 1. Check dry film thickness. While present, have the contractor calibrate his dry film thickness gage and randomly check the lining to see if it meets the specified dry film thickness. Final Cure. Check with the lining manufacturer on how long to wait before putting the tank or vessel in service. Circulating hot air through the tank or vessel will shorten the time. Verify all touch-up and repair work. There will usually be some touch-up or repair work, so verify that it has been done. Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO. 1. Verify compliance to the specification. 2. List work, if any, not in compliance and why.

B.

C.

t t t t

D. E.

163 Inspectors
To carry out a thorough inspection, the inspector may be a Company employee or a contractor but must be trained, experienced, and familiar with a variety of coating methods and equipment. Whether full- or part-time, the inspector should participate in all inspections at the completion of the coating contract and must inspect the finished project before the end of the contractors guarantee.

Qualifications
Full-time Inspector. A qualified, full-time coatings inspector must have one of the two backgrounds below: Certified and experienced. National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)-certified Level III Experience inspecting tank and vessel coatings

November 1998

100-34

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Uncertified, trained, and experienced. No certification Some industry-accepted training At least five years of verifiable experience inspecting coatings on tanks and vessels

Example: Industry training coating courses are offered by KTA-Tator, S.G.Pinney, or Bechtel. Part-time Inspector. A qualified, part-time inspector must be: Familiar with the different methods of inspection Capable of identifying potential problems and analyzing results Experienced in coating inspections

This inspector may be A qualified third-party inspector An experienced Company inspector An engineer familiar with coating inspections

Responsibilities
Full-time inspector. The full-time inspector reviews the project prior to start up and is present whenever the fabricator is working offsite or the contractor onsite and during hold points in the project, normally: Prior to starting work After preparing the surface Prior to applying each coating Following application of the final coating Following the final cure

Part-time inspector. The part-time inspector must be available to examine the coating during the project's hold points.

Guidelines for all Inspectors


The inspector: Should remain unchanged for the duration of the project Must be able to reject work on any area which satisfies neither the specification nor good practice Should not relax the requirements in the specification without written instructions from the Company's representative Should conduct business in a professional manner at all time and:
Chevron Corporation

Follow positive inspection methods Practice diplomacy with coatings applicators and production personnel
100-35 November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Interact with the foreman on all matters concerning coatings applicator and work practicesnot supervising coatings applicators directly Anticipate problems; initiating preventive action

Must have a reasonable period of time to review and become familiar with the specifications, contract documents, and the worksite before the project begins

Note Familiarity with the worksite means learning about the accessibility to and condition of the structure for the coating project.

Evaluation Reports
The Company's representative should prepare an evaluation report about the inspector's work.

164 Monitoring Progress


The time it takes a coatings applicator to move from one operation to another affects the cost of a project.

Initial Setup Time


The first transition period begins when the coatings applicators start work and ends when they begin the first daily activity; usually blasting, coating, or rigging. If a coatings applicator consistently requires more than the allotted time to set up, the inspector should investigate and take appropriate corrective action.

Transition Times
Transition time may demonstrate the foreman and crew's effectiveness and the overall organization of the operation. Example: If an eight-man crew has one hour of excessive transition time, the effect is equal to an additional eight-and-a-half manhours for the project. See Figure 100-5.
Fig. 100-5 Transition Times for Coating Crews Exceeds Normal Transition By 30 Minutes 20 Minutes 5 Minutes (each refill) Total Additional Man Hours 4 2.5 2(1) 8.5

Activity Setup Blowdown Paint Pot Refill

(1) Based on 30 gal (114L) with two 5-gal (19L) setups

November 1998

100-36

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

165 General Inspection Procedures


See the Quick Reference Guide of this manual for information about ordering inspection tools and standards.

Daily
The following should be completed on a daily basis: Conduct pre-inspection of work area before blasting and coating, checking for protection of equipment, inaccessible areas, and hazardous areas Meet with the foreman of the coatings applicators to plan daily work schedule, discuss positive aspects and potential problem areas of project, compare paperwork Coordinate work with production activities Order materials on timely basis Check contractor's equipment Check work and safety practices for compliance Ensure that work area is square and clean Prepare and submit reports; report to the Company's representative, as required

Before Surface Preparation


Surface preparation is critical to any coating project. Faulty surface preparation is estimated to contribute to 75 to 80 percent of all premature failures of coatings. Example: Surface preparation factors that affect the life of the coating include: Residues of oil or grease Residues of chemical salts, rust, and loose or broken mill scale which lead to early failure Tight mill scale, which leads to longer term failure, and surface condensation Defects found before or after surface preparation

Before surface preparation begins, the inspector should: Examine surfaces to decide how much preparation is required; good lighting during examination is very important Record the condition of steel surfaces and include all information on such defects as rolling laps, cracks and pitting State the condition of surfaces other than steel Check for protection of equipment, inaccessible and hazardous areas

Chevron Corporation

100-37

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Weather Conditions. The weather required for abrasive blasting is the same as for coating. To ensure that rust does not form on the abrasive-blasted surface before a coating is applied, specify that the area blasted with abrasive be no larger than can be coated within the same day or within eight hours of blasting. The inspector should: Determine the weather window needed to prepare the surface and apply coatings Check the weather forecast Read the coating data sheets for acceptable temperature and humidity ranges

Air Compressors for Blasting. Air compressors for blasting should supply oiland water-free air at the correct pressure. The inspector should check the compressor regularly (daily, unless tests show the equipment to be in good working order) by releasing air into a white cloth and checking it for moisture or contamination. If surface cleaning is poor or proceeding slowly, the inspector should: Test the nozzle's air pressure by inserting a hypodermic needle air-pressure gage into the hose as close to the nozzle as possible Check the nozzle with a nozzle-throat gage to ensure that the orifice is the proper diameter Not rely on pressure readings at the compressor as these differ from nozzle pressure due to pressure loss in the hose. Typically, 100 psig is required at the nozzle to obtain adequate cleaning and productivity.

Abrasive material. Abrasive material should be clean, dry, and the correct type and size for the specific work. The inspector should ensure it meets these criteria.

After Surface Preparation


The inspector should check all surfaces when the preparation is completed and immediately before coatings applicators apply any coating. The surface must meet the preparation requirements for the specified coating system. The inspector should judge the preparation quality: Of hand-cleaned steel against the relevant SSPC (Steel Structures Painting Council) standard Of blast-cleaned steel against the relevant SSPC or NACE standard By visual comparison against the Swedish standards, NACE Pictorial Standards, or the SNAME (Society of Naval and Marine Engineers) standards

The inspector should measure the roughness of the surface to ensure that the blast profile complies with the specifications. Note Testex Press-o-Film Replica Tape with a spring micrometer is the best way to measure surface profile.

November 1998

100-38

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Before Applying Coatings


The coatings applicator arranges for repair and reblast of all surface defects exposed by preparation before applying coating. The Companys engineer should review and approve the repair method. Coating Supplies. The inspector should check supplies at the jobsite to ensure that: The correct coating is on hand Sufficient quantities are available The shelf life is not exceeded The correct thinners are available for thinning the coating material, if required, and for cleaning equipment Storage conditions are adequate

Method of Application. The coating contractor is usually free to choose the method of application; however, it must comply with one of the manufacturer's recommended procedures. If there is doubt, the Company's representative should require the contractor to run a test, proving that the coating film of the proposed method complies with the specification. The inspector should be present during tests and should judge the results. Mixes, Proportions, Incubation. Before the coating is applied, the coating inspector should ensure that: All coatings are properly mixed Multi-component coatings are in the correct proportions Proper incubation periods are met

Note Inadequate mixing or improper proportioning of multi-component coatings can cause soft spots which may dry a slightly different shade of color.

During Coating
The inspector should check that each layer of a coating system meets the specifications for: Coating thickness General quality of the coating, such as hardness, freedom from pinholes, or sags Dry film thickness (DFT)

The coatings applicator should: Thin the coating according to the supplier's data sheets Check viscosity before applying thinned coatings Check the coating's film thickness with a wet film thickness gage immediately after applying it

Chevron Corporation

100-39

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

The coating contractor must know the thickness of films specified by the manufacturer. The specifications usually give normal DFT and place a limit on maximum thickness; some give maximum and minimum values. Although coating manufacturers specify only DFTs, inspectors should: Use wet film measurements for control during actual application Multiply wet film thickness by the volume percent solids of the coating; the result gives the actual DFT of the coating Measure the thickness of wet-coating films with comb gages A representative from the Company, not the contractor, should approve gages for measuring dry film thickness. The coatings applicator should calibrate the gage daily according to the National Bureau of Standards' Calibration Standards. If films are not the correct thickness, the coatings applicator must adjust both the technique and equipment appropriately to meet the specification and to avoid rework. Note Refer to industry standard SSPC-PA2, Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness With Magnetic Gages.

Five Critical Subjects of a Final Inspection


The five critical subjects in the final inspection of a coating project are appearance, dry film measurement, curing tests, touch-up and repair verification, and inspection records. Appearance. The appearance of a coating can highlight problems with aesthetics or suggest probable, premature failures of the coating. The inspector can assure that there are no runs, sags, blistering, or pinholes by checking the appearance of the coating. Dry Film Measurement. The inspector must measure the dry film thickness to ensure that coatings applicators have applied the specified proper amount of coating. Curing Tests. Surface temperature, ambient conditions, coating formulation, and film thickness affect the curing rate. Laboratory testing of coating chips is the only true means of verifying cure. Field techniques include the following: Solvent rubOn epoxy coatings, the inspector rubs the surface of the coating with a clean cloth saturated in a strong solvent, such as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). If the material is mixed and cured properly, no color will transfer to the cloth. If the coating is mixed or cured improperly, it will redissolve and the color will transfer to the cloth. Do not use the solvent rub test for alkyds and vinyl.

Caution

November 1998

100-40

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Sandpaper testThe inspector abrades the coating with fine sandpaper. If properly cured, it produces a fine powdery residue; if not, a slightly tacky coating remains on the sandpaper. Hardness testThe inspector checks the coating's cure with a Barcol hardness tester or pencil hardness tester by: Exerting a light, perpendicular pressure on the instrument which holds a hardened steel indentor, ground to microscopic accuracy. Reading the spring-loaded indentor's level of penetration directly from a scale's dial which is divided into 100 graduations. On soft materials, this device takes the highest reading because cold flow permits the spring-loaded indentor to continue penetrating. It is available in several models, according to the relative hardness of the test material.

Thumbnail test (can the coating be scraped or removed?) - Popular with experienced inspectors, the thumbnail test is an effective means of determining the need for more qualitative testing methods.

Touch-up and Repair Verification. The inspector verifies all touch-up and repair work and includes this information in the final report. Inspection Records. The inspector gives copies of all records to the Company's representative and completes the following: Daily, written reports of all items checked and verifying that the coating project complies with any specifications, giving reasons for any work that does not A final report not only giving comments on repairs, overall assessment of the project, and ideas for improvement, but also with all daily reports attached

Both the Company's representative and the inspector should sign the final report.

166 Specific Inspection Procedures


Downhole Tubular Coatings
The inspection section of specification COM-MS-4732 contains the recommended inspection program for coatings projects involving downhole tubulars. Those who need assistance interpreting the specification or have any questions pertaining to the specification should contact the Company's coating specialist listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

Internal Coatings
In addition to the general inspection procedures, the following items apply to internal coatings. Temperature and Humidity. Weather conditions are critical to the application and curing of coatings. The inspector must make sure the surface is dry and temperature is above the dew point to avoid condensation. Almost all internal coatings cure by a chemical reaction which produces heat and will not cure properly if the

Chevron Corporation

100-41

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

ambient temperature is too low. The guidelines for temperature and humidity in COM-MS-4738 are acceptable for most internal coatings, but always check the manufacturers instructions too. The inspector must read and then record atmospheric conditions in the daily reports to verify that no moisture is present on the surface to be coated. Film Thickness. Inspectors measure dry film thickness (DFT) with a magnetic filmthickness gage or a Company-approved equivalent. They should check film thickness of each coat and the final thickness of the coating. Each coat should be within the specified range because an extra heavy coat (applied to correct another coats insufficient thickness) may crack or cure improperly. The inspector should ensure that the coatings applicator repairs any defects after applying each coat.

Caution

Using a subsequent coat to cover defective areas is unacceptable.

Pinholes and Holidays. The inspector must examine 100 percent of the finished coating for pinholes and holidays. Check thin films (1 to 20 mils) with a low-voltage (67-volt), sponge holiday detector, which sounds an alarm if the fluid in the sponge comes in contact with the underlying steel. Check thick-film coatings (20 to 200 mils) with a high-voltage (nondestructive voltages of usually 100 to 150 volts per mil) holiday detector. This voltage gives the spark enough energy to jump across the gap between the coating surface and the underlying steel if a holiday exists, but not enough energy to break through the coating.

Most coating resin materials (epoxies, isopolyesters, vinyl esters) have a dielectric strength of 300 to 350 volts per mil. It is important to have sufficiently high voltage to bridge the pinhole's air gap to the steel substrate without burning through the solid coating. The voltage recommendations of the coating suppliers are normally acceptable. Note If a final wax or gel coat is required, the inspector should carry out the holiday test and require coatings applicators to make any repairs before the final coat is applied. This requirement prevents the wax or gel coat from covering up possible holidays in the underlying coats. If the coatings applicators make any repairs after applying the wax or gel coat, they must remove that coat and re-apply it after completing the necessary repairs. Water Test. Scheduled after the voltage test, the water test involves filling the tank with water (sometimes salt water) and leaving it for several days. After the tank is drained, rust spots on the coating reveal pinholes. The test is more complete than the voltage test because water touches all surfaces of the tank; the low-voltage sweeper may miss some parts. Note The Company runs the water test infrequently as it is expensive and time consuming.

November 1998

100-42

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

Testing for Final Surface Cure. The inspector must test the final surface cure of laminates with a Barcol hardness tester and an acetone wipe test. This requirement is particularly important for isopolyester and vinyl ester resins which will not fully cure without a wax coat. Note The coatings applicator must sand off the wax layer to obtain an accurate test because full surface curing is essential for the coating to have its optimum chemical resistance.

Offshore Coatings
The inspection process for offshore coatings is detailed in specification COM-MS-4771. Those who need assistance with interpreting the specifications or have other questions pertaining to the specification should contact the Companys coating specialist (see the Quick Reference Guide).

Pipeline Coatings
There are many different types of pipeline coatings, each with many completely different properties and application procedures. The Company therefore recommends following the inspection procedures written as part of the various specifications for each type of coating system. Those who need assistance with interpreting the specifications or have other questions pertaining to the specification should contact the Companys coating specialist.

Caution Due to the environmental risk associated with the failure of a pipeline coating, the Company recommends following the most complete inspection program available, which includes having a full-time, qualified inspector.

167 Instruments, Tools, and Equipment


The inspector must have available all of the instruments, tools, and equipment necessary to perform the inspection tasks properly. The following is a list of coating tests and test tools: Ambient Coating Condition PsychrometerFor determining temperature, humidity, and dew point at the jobsite

Surface Temperature GageFor measuring the temperature of steel

168 Protecting the Companys Equipment


Many of a project's methods, costs, and problems are related to protecting the Company's equipment. The following are simple, efficient, and cost-effective procedures for protecting common equipment items. The inspector must monitor these procedures closely and ensure the coatings applicators perform them before and throughout blasting and coating operations.

Chevron Corporation

100-43

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Wrapping Lights
Problem: Solution: Problem: Solution: Protective light lenses are sensitive to overblast and overspray. Wrap in plastic sheeting and duct tape. Sheeting melts on the protective lenses. Wrap lenses in chicken wire before wrapping in the sheeting. This will prevent sheeting from melting and provide more permanent protection for the entire job.

Plugged Drains
Problem: Solution: How to prevent sand from clogging drains while allowing small amounts of water to drain through when raining or when washing area. Stuff filter media (woven polyester fibers, and adhesives for filtering air intakes on engines) into the drain and tie to the cover with a piece of manila twine. Drains surrounded by troughs. Can coatings applicator remove sand without shoveling out each trough? Lay a sheet of filter media over the trough in addition to plugging the drain.

Problem: Solution:

Protecting Sensitive Equipment


A common misconception is that, during dry blasting, you cannot filter air intakes on compressors and other engines; therefore, costly wet blasting is necessary. Problem: How to prevent sensitive equipment from the contamination of blasting by taking oil samples, installing filter media, and installing filters. Solution 1 Oil Samples: 1. Before blasting operations begin, take an oil sample from each engine and send it to a lab for analysis to identify any previous sand or other particle contamination. When blasting has started, take an oil sample from each engine at least every two weeks for the duration of the project to identify any potential problems and allow time for corrective action before any major damage occurs.

2.

Solution 2 Filter Media: 1. Install filter media (to trap particles of five microns or less) with the adhesive side on the outside to catch small abrasive and dust particles and to prevent the unit from sucking the sticky side into the primary filters. Ensure coverage of all possible air passageways into the equipment, covering each corner and edge of the filter housing. Install two layers of media, where possible, to ensure 100 per cent filtration at all times and to eliminate unnecessary downtime during blasting. Change the

2. 3.

November 1998

100-44

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

100 General Information

outer layer only; leave the inner layer to filter dust during the several-minute changeout process. 4. Monitor the filtration closely to ensure that it is adequate and installed properly.

Containment Screens
Problem: Solution: Isolate particular areas to keep the remainder of a facility clean during blasting (reduces cleaning time). Strategically position containment screens, usually square or rectangular polypropylene solid or mesh screens of various sizes from 40 ft. 40 ft., to collect spent blast abrasive, dust, and airborne particles of coating.

Protection from Overblast


Problem: How to reduce overblast significantly (and premature failure of coatings) with proper blasting and coating techniques and preventive wrapping and shielding.

Solution 1 Keep your work area square means completely blasting and Squaring Work coating an entire group of items without having to return to the Area: area for additional blasting. Requires proper planning, thorough inspection, and precise instructions to blasters. Note Items in square work area include the tops and bottoms of all piping, braces and stiffeners, the interior of the wide flange beam webs and flanges, and the bottom side of the beam flanges. Solution 2 Blasting Procedures: Re-sweep before squaring work area after carrying out several days of rough blasting with appropriately sized blast nozzles and abrasive. Proper blasting technique ensures the blast nozzle is pointed away from previously coated surfaces and toward the surfaces to be blasted, especially during touch-up feathering and spot blasting.

Note Rough or high-productivity blasting calls for larger nozzles, orifice sizes of 5/16 inch or larger venturi; spot and touch-up blasting require smaller nozzles, 3/16 inch or smaller, with straight-bore orifices. Solution 3 During blasting and coating, wrap to protect all items that will Protective Wrap-neither be blasted nor coated. The cost of the labor and materials ping: necessary to add protective wrapping results in a far superior job and minimizes costs for rework of prematurely failed areas.

Common Shielding
Plastic sheeting, tarpaulins, and burlap sacks are some of the more common shielding materials. Problems: Plastic sheeting is susceptible to overblast damage.

Chevron Corporation

100-45

November 1998

100 General Information

Coatings Manual

Tarpaulins are expensive and damage easily. Burlap holds blowdown abrasives which could fall on cleaned areas.

Solution: Rubber sheeting and plywood. Both have distinct advantages over common shielding. Rubber Sheeting. Although the initial cost of rubber sheeting is relatively high, $3 to $4, per linear foot ($8 to $10 per linear m) for a 36-inch (90 centimeter) wide section, its purchase is justified because of its many advantages. One-eighth-inchthick (three-millimeter thick) rubber sheeting is Pliable Works into tight spaces on vessels Wraps around piping and flanges

Resilient, so that abrasive Simply bounces off Causes little damage to sheeting

Easy to cut as needed Re-usable

Plywood Sheeting. Normally, most coatings applicators do not use plywood to its full potential. Plywood makes: Good flooring material in the mixing area to protect areas such as platform decks from coating spillage Dividers for several men working in a confined area. Drill holes around the perimeter for air circulation and observation, then stand plywood boards upright in a zigzag manner to help keep the boards upright. A suspended ceiling to protect overhead items from overblast and overspray. Tie sections together to form the ceiling.

170 References
1. Chevron Corporation. Corrosion Prevention Manual. Chevron Research and Technology Company. Richmond, CA, January, 1994.

November 1998

100-46

Chevron Corporation

200 Environment, Health & Safety


Abstract
This section discusses considerations for coating projects involving environment and health, and includes standards and practices for lead and volatile organic compounds, surface preparation processes such as abrasive blasting, and proper disposal of wastes from coating projects. Information about workers' safety which focuses on the responsibilities of both the Company and contractors' personnel when working on Company projects is also provided along with descriptions of coating-related hazardsfire, explosion, and equipmentand their prevention. Contents 210 211 212 213 220 221 222 223 230 Environment & Health Air Quality Lead in Coatings Volatile Organic Compounds Safety Workers' Safety Fire and Explosive Hazards Equipment Hazards References 200-21 200-17 Page 200-2

Chevron Corporation

200-1

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

210 Environment & Health


The vehicles of many coatings described in this manual contain organic solvents which are volatile and are released to the atmosphere as the coating dries and cures. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set standards limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (solvents) that coatings may contain. These standards are not uniform throughout the U.S.; urban areas have the most stringent requirements. As a result of these regulations, manufacturers are developing new technologies and alternative products. Currently, they are taking two approaches: water-based coatings and high-solids coatings. To date, evaluations of these compliance coatings show their performances to be definitely inferior to existing products, with the exception of some higher-cost highsolids coatings. The Company now applies some high-performance, high-solids coatings that could substitute for other regulatory-restricted coatings. To help establish a history for new compliance coatings, it would be helpful if all users would: Keep records of their durability, application characteristics, and compatibility with existing coatings Report findings to the coating specialist and CRTC's Materials and Equipment Engineering group (see list of Company contacts in the Quick Reference Guide)

211 Air Quality


Coatings containing solvents contribute to air pollution during application and drying. It is important, therefore, that those who specify, purchase, or apply coatings know the air pollution-control regulations for the local area.

Background
In 1963, the U.S. Congress passed the first regulatory Clean Air Act. Subsequent amendments created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the power to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The Clean Air Act also required each State to create its own State Implementation Plan (SIP). The plan must ensure that all areas of the State meet the national standards. As motor vehicle exhaust and solvent evaporation are two of the biggest contributors to air pollution, the strictest regulations affect densely populated areas. (Many rural areas can meet the national air quality standards without regulation.) Direction. Air-pollution-control regulations are becoming more restrictive and widespread. In some areas, the sale or use of non-compliant coatings can result in fines of up to $1000 for each day of violation. Also, for those who knowingly continue to violate the law, the penalty can escalate to $25,000 a day.

September 1996

200-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Note Several good sources of information about those regulations are local enforcement agencies, coating vendors, coating contractors, and CRTC's coating specialists. Contact information for all except local agencies is listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

Blast Cleaning
For dry, unconfined, blast cleaning, consider health and environmental safety restrictions when selecting the type and brand of abrasive. Many sand abrasives contain free silica, which, upon prolonged inhalation, can cause silicosis, a condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs that results in shortness of breath. For this reason, regulations often limit the acceptable amount of free silica in abrasives. Example: The Richmond Refinery limits free silica to 1 wt percent which eliminates the use of sand abrasive but not most grit, slag, and shot abrasive. Some abrasives cause a fine dust to form a dust cloud which some government agencies classify as visual-smoke pollution. Example: The State of California Air Resources Board (CARB) restricts the amount of fine particles in abrasives both before and after blasting.[1] Certain California counties also restrict the type of abrasives. Abrasives are tested in accordance with California Test Method No. 371-A, Method of Test for Abrasive Media Evaluation, and must meet the following criteria: Before Blasting: <1 wt percent of abrasive smaller than No. 70 U.S. Sieve size After Blasting: <1.8 wt percent of abrasive smaller than 5 microns

Figure 200-1 lists the dust factors of several abrasives.

Potentially Harmful Ingredients


Many coating ingredients are toxic and potentially injurious to human beings. While the human body may withstand small quantities of these substances for a relatively short time, continuous exposure is harmful. Through continued exposure to some materials, such as isocyanate in urethane coatings, it is possible for a person to become so sensitized that subsequent contact with small amounts of the substance may cause a strong reaction. Some materials, such as lead, have a cumulative effect so that exposure over a long time builds up the toxic level in the body until illness results. Toxic materials may be present in the form of vapor, dust, or spray mist and may enter the body by ingestion, breathing, or absorption through the skin. Examples: Toxins are found in lead or heavy metal-bearing pigments (common in industrial primers), solvents such as benzene and methanol, and vehicles composed of epoxies, urethanes, amines, and polyesters.

Chevron Corporation

200-3

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Fig. 200-1

Properties of Several Abrasives Used in Air-Blast Equipment Abrasive Dust Factor High High High High Very low Very low Very low Very low Very low Very low Very low Very low Very low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Free Silica Content > 90% > 90% > 90% > 90% None None None None None None None None None > 90% < 5% < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% Abrasive Mesh NBS Sizes 20/40 16/30 12/25 10/20 40 25 18 16 12 20 18 16 14 8/30 12/40 12/40 8/40 10/50 16/30 20/40 16/50 Average Height of Profile (Mils) 1.5 1.9 2.5 2.8 1.3 3.3 3.6 4.0 8.0 1.8 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.8 2.5 1.5

Sand, very fine Sand, fine Sand, medium Sand, large Steel grit No. G-80(1) Iron grit No. 50(1) Iron grit No. 40(1) Iron grit No. 25(1) Iron grit No. 16(1) Steel shot NO. S-170(1) Iron shot No. S-230(2) Iron shot No. S-330(2) Iron shot No. S-390(2) Flint sand Granite sand Garnet sand(1) Slag Slag Slag Slag Slag

(1) Only used in blast rooms and cabinets so abrasive can be contained, recycled and reused. (2) Generally used in automatic blast cleaning facilities using centrifugal wheels.

While protective clothing reduces hazards from dust and spray, vapors are harder to control. All solvents vaporize in air, but the degree of toxicity varies with the type of solvent, temperature, degree of confinement, and amount of ventilation. OSHA sets permissible exposure limits for many materials.[2] A permissible exposure limit (PEL) is defined as the maximum-permitted, eight-hour, time-weighted, average concentration of an airborne contaminant in ppm in air.[3] Adequate ventilation is essential to operate within these values. Figure 200-2 shows the PEL for commonly-used solvents in the coating industry.

September 1996

200-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Fig. 200-2

Flammable and Toxic Properties of Commonly Used Solvents (1 of 2)


Flashpoint F of Open Cup Explosive Limits % of Volume in Air Lower Upper Toxicity P.E.L.(1), PPM in Air

Alcohols Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Normal Propyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Secondary Butyl Alcohol Normal Butyl Alcohol Cyclohexanol 60 60 96 55 74 115 154 6.0 3.3 2.6 2.5 1.7 1.7 36.5 19.0 13.5 200 1000 200 400 150 50 50

Polyols Ethylene Glycols, Vapors Propylene Glycol Dipropylene Glycol 240 215 260 3.2 2.6 12.6 100 100 100

Esters Ethyl Acetate Isopropyl Acetate Normal Propyl Acetate Isobutyl Acetate Secondary Butyl Acetate Normal Butyl Acetate Amyl Acetate 30 60 65 105 89 105 80 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.1 15.0 15.0 11.5 7.8 8.0 400 250 200 200 150 150 100

Ketones Acetone Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) Diacetone Alcohol Cyclohexanone Diisobutyl Ketone (DIBK) Methyl Iso-Amyl Ketone (MIAK) Isophorone Ethyl Butyl Ketone 15 35 75 155 129 115 110 205 115 1.1 2.9 1.8 1.2 13.0 11.5 8.0 1000 200 100 50 50 50 100 5 50

Miscellaneous Active Solvents Tetra Hydro Furan (THEF) Dimethyl Formamide Ethyl Ether Isopropyl Ether 6(2) 153 -40 1.8 36.5 2.0 11.8 200 10 400 250

Chevron Corporation

200-5

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Fig. 200-2

Flammable and Toxic Properties of Commonly Used Solvents (2 of 2)


Flashpoint F of Open Cup Explosive Limits % of Volume in Air Lower Upper Toxicity P.E.L.(1), PPM in Air

Aliphatic Petroleum Napthas Hexane Rubber Solvent Heptane VM&P Naptha Mineral Spirits(3) Stoddard Solvent Kerosene(3) Pentane 0 0 25 54 110 105 140 -55 1.0 0.9 1.4 6.0 6.0 8.0 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 6.9 6.1 6.0 6.0 100 400 400 300 200 200 100 600

Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Benzene Toluene Xylene Hi-flash Coal Tar Naptha Styrene Monomer 5 41 81 100 106 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.1 8.0 6.7 5.3 6.0 6.1 10 100 100 100 100

Terpene Hydrocarbons Gum Turpentine Steam Distilled Turpentine 93 91 100 100

Chlorinated Solvents Carbon Tetrachloride Dichloroethyl Ether Ethylene Dichloride Methylene Chloride, Technical None 131 59 None 6.2 None 15.9 None 200 None None None None

Glycol Ethers Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether Ethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether 120 115 100 185 25 115 100 100

(1) Permissible exposure limit per OSHA General Industry Safety Order Title 8, Table AC-1 (2) Closed Cub (3) OSHA gave no date. This date is from Chevron's Materials Safety Data Sheets No. 38 for Kerosene and No. 59 for Chevron 350 Thinner (Mineral Spirits).

September 1996

200-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

212 Lead in Coatings


Lead is a basic chemical element (Pb) that: Exists as a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure Can combine with other substances to form many lead compounds, such as those found in lead-based coating (LBC) Has been used in coating for many years to improve its effectiveness

Alternative primers are, however, more common today than LBC. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Lead Paint Act of 1971 has determined a coating to be lead-containing if the dried coating contains more than 0.06 percent lead by weight. In most Company facilities, specially trained and equipped contractors work in large lead-abatement construction projects with potentially high exposures to lead. The Company's employees are usually involved in short-duration maintenance tasks such as welding equipment with LBC or grinding and chipping to remove LBC from equipment before welding or applying new coatings. Other activities can be a source of lead exposure. Abrasive-blast cleaning of steel tanks and other structures with LBC generates high levels of dust. Welding, cutting, and torch burning equipment coated with LBC may cause lead fumes. Spraying LBC to recoat surfaces generates an LBC mist.

Health Hazards
Lead adversely affects numerous body systems after periods of exposure from as short as days to as long as several years. Exposure to Lead. Human beings can inhale and absorb lead from dust, fumes, or mist through the lungs and upper respiratory tract. Inhalation of airborne lead is generally the most significant source of occupational lead absorption. People can also ingest lead and absorb it through their digestive systems. Consequences of Exposure to Lead. A significant portion of the lead inhaled or ingested reaches the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, lead circulates through the body and is stored in various organs and body tissues, affecting the nervous system, blood system, and kidneys. Chronic overexposure to lead also significantly impairs the reproductive systems of both men and women. Children born of parents exposed to excess levels of lead are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders, or die during the first year of childhood. Some commons symptoms are listed in Figure 200-3.

Chevron Corporation

200-7

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Fig. 200-3 Anxiety

Alphabetic List of Common Symptoms from Overexposure to Lead in Coatings Insomnia Loss of appetite Metallic taste in mouth Muscle and joint pain or soreness Nervous irritability Numbness Pallor Weakness

Colic with severe abdominal pain Constipation Dizziness Excessive tiredness Fine tremors Headache Hyperactivity

Test Methods
In Company facilities, conduct surveys to identify and quantify LBC in major equipment such as storage tanks, reactors, vessels, and even pilings. An inventory of leadcoated equipment could help to save time and money, protect Company and contract workers, and reduce Company liabilities. Both laboratory and field tests may then determine whether or not lead is present in the coatings. Note See the Quick Reference Guide of this manual for a list of some laboratories that analyze coating and air samples for lead. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. A common laboratory test for lead in coatings is Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). AAS requires scraping a coating chip sample (e.g., about 0.5 square centimeter or the size of a dime) and sending it to a laboratory for analysis. The lab scrapes the surface down to the matrix material (i.e., bare metal, wood) because the analysis is based on weight. Processing time normally takes a few days unless the sample is rushed. The AAS method expresses results as weight-to-weight percentage of lead in the dry coating. Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer. A non-destructive fieldtesting method, the portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrum Analyzer, detects lead in the coating (including all layers of coating and the primer) and expresses the lead concentration in milligrams of lead per square centimeter (mg/cm2) of coated surface. The analyzer displays the result within a minute.

Caution Because these instruments have a radiation source, only trained and licensed users may operate them. Note For information about the XRF spectrum analyzer, contact CRTC's Occupational Safety and Health Team. Chemical Spot Tests. Field-run chemical spot tests provide only qualitative results. These tests may, however, be useful as a screening tool in conjunction with the other test methods.

Caution Because the results are not as accurate as those from the AAS and XRF methods, chemical spot tests offer a much higher risk of false positives and negatives.

September 1996

200-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Exposure Standards and Assessment


The OSHA Construction Lead Interim Final Rule (29 CFR 1926.62) establishes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3) averaged over an 8-hour period, and an action level of 30 g/m3 averaged over an 8-hour period. Note The action level triggers requirements for exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, and training. This rule applies to construction, alteration, or repair, including coating and decorating This rule includes, but is not limited to, removing or encapsulating materials containing lead. For certain tasks, OSHA requires the employer to assume employees are exposed to lead over the PEL until exposure monitoring shows otherwise. Monitoring Requirements. OSHA requires exposure monitoring initially: For each job classification In each work area Either for each shift or for the shift with the highest exposure level

Note The samples must be full-shift personal samples and representative of daily exposures. Interim Protective Measures. As noted, for certain tasks, OSHA requires the employer to assume employees are exposed over the PEL until exposure monitoring shows otherwise. These tasks, and their assumed exposure level, are shown in Figure 200-4.
Fig. 200-4 LBC-Removal Tasks by Exposure Levels. OSHA Construction Lead Interim Final Rule (29 CFR 1926.62) LBC-Removal Tasks
3

Exposure Level Above the PEL and not in excess of 500 mg/m (10 times the PEL):

Manual demolition of structures Heat-gun applications Power-tool cleaning with dust-collection systems Spray coating with LBC Lead burning Use of lead-containing mortar Power-tool cleaning without dust collection systems Rivet busting Cleanup activities where dry, expendable abrasives are used Moving and removing abrasive-blasting enclosures Abrasive blasting Welding, cutting, and burning on steel structures

Above 500 mg/m3 and not in excess of 2,500 mg/m3 (50 times the PEL)

Above 2,500 g/m3

Chevron Corporation

200-9

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

The following interim protective measures are required for these three groups of LBC-removal tasks: Personnel must wear appropriate respirators, personal protective clothing and equipment The employer must provide hygiene facilities, biological monitoring, and training

In many cases for jobs of short duration, exposure monitoring can demonstrate that a respirator with a lower protection factor can be used. Figure 200-5 summarizes the Company's lead-exposure monitoring data for LBC. This information can help determine what level of respiratory protection may be needed. Exposure monitoring often demonstrates that a respirator with a lower protection factor is adequate for projects of short duration.
Fig. 200-5 Summary of Coating-Related Occupational Lead Exposures at Chevrons Facilities
Number of Short-Term Air Samples (< 2 Hours) 13 Exposure Range of Short-Term Samples < 1 to 140 Geometric Mean of Short-Term Samples 15 Number of Long-Term Air Samples (> 2 Hours)(1) 23 Exposure Range of Long-Term Samples < 1 to 40 Geometric Mean of Long-Term Samples 4

Description of Lead-Related Jobs or Tasks Welding on metal parts or equip-ment which most likely contained some leadbased paint. In some cases, the paint may have been removed prior to the welding. Short tasks of chipping or buffing to remove old paint from flanges or other equipment before applying new paint or before welding. Torch burning, arc gouging, and cutting up scraps during demolition of tanks, vessels and towers. Abrasive blasting to remove old-leadbased paint. The air samples were collected outside the blasting hood or helmet. Abrasive blasting to remove old leadbased paint. The air samples were collected inside the blasting hood or helmet to assess workers actual exposure to lead dusts. Sand-blasters helpers maintain and position blasting equipment and carry out other miscellaneous tasks. Laborers and helpers remove post-blast grits and clean up the blasting equipment.

< 1 to 27

69(2)

<1 to 770

140

17(3)

6 to 9,200

130

< 1 to 44

< 1 to 41

13

< 1 to 140

(1) Exposures Expressed as 8-Hour Time-Weighted Averages (TWA) in g/m3 (For Exposure Monitoring Samples Collected Between January, 1984 and August, 1993) (2) Among the 69 long-term samples, 42 showed TWA exposures in excess of the OSHA PEL of 50 g/m3 for lead. Only 3 of the 69 samples (4.3 percent), however, exceeded 500 (g/m3. On a 95 percent confidence level, therefore, a half-face HEPA respirator (suitable up to 500 g/m3) can provide adequate protection for these demolition tasks. (3) Although 1 of the 17 samples showed TWA exposures at 9,200 g/m3 , statistically, that sample can be classified as an outlier. During abrasive blasting, therefore, the commonly used, supplied, air-abrasive, blasting respirators (with loose-fitting hood or helmet, operated in a continuous-flow mode) can provide adequate protection.

September 1996

200-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Caution This information is not a substitute for conducting site-specific exposure assessments.

Methods of Compliance
The Company's project engineer must establish a written compliance program prior to each project in which workers' exposure may exceed the PEL. The compliance program must provide for frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment by a competent person. Note A competent person is one who has both of the following:

Ability to identifyin the surroundings or working conditionsexisting and predictable lead hazards that are hazardous to workers Authority to take prompt, corrective measures to eliminate those hazards

Written Programs. Written programs should include the following: A description of each activity during which lead will be emitted Specific plans for achieving compliance, including engineering plans and studies if engineering controls are required Information on the technology which will be used to meet the PEL Air monitoring data that documents the source of lead emissions A detailed schedule for implementing the program A work-practice program, outlining all regulations for protective work clothing and equipment as well as guidelines for housekeeping and hygiene in the facility An administrative control schedule for job rotation, if needed The details of any arrangements among contractors (on multi-contractor sites) identifying the person responsible for compliance and informing affected employees of potential exposure to lead

Respiratory Protection. Personnel must wear respirators under any of the following circumstances: When the exposure exceeds the PEL If an employee requests a respirator As an interim protection until exposure levels are assessed

Note Select respirators based on the airborne concentration of lead, according to Figure 200-6. In the absence of site-specific exposure-monitoring data, always assume exposures for arc gouging, torch burning, and abrasive blasting to exceed 2,500 g/m3. Example: A supplied-air respirator, operated in pressure demand or other positivepressure mode, is required to protect workers performing arc gouging, torch burning, and abrasive blasting.

Chevron Corporation

200-11

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Fig. 200-6

Respiratory Protection for Lead Aerosols Required Respirator (1) Half mask air purifying respirator with high efficiency filters, (2), (3) Half mask supplied air respirator operated in demand (negative pressure) mode. Loose-fitting hood or helmet-powered air-purifying respirator with highefficiency filters.(3) Hood- or helmet-supplied air-respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode; e.g., type CE-abrasive-blasting respirators operated in a continuous-flow mode. Full facepiece air purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters.(3) Tight fitting powered air purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters.(3) Half mask or full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in demand mode. Half mask supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive-pressure mode. Full face piece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive-pressure mode; e.g., type CE abrasive blasting respirators operated in a positive-pressure mode. Full facepiece SCBA operated in pressure demand or other positivepressure mode.

Airborne Concentration of Lead or Condition of Use Not in excess of 500 g/m3

Not in excess of 1,250 g/m3

Not in excess of 2,500 g/m3

Not in excess of 50,000 g/m3 Not in excess of 100,000 g/m3

Greater than 100,000 g/m3 unknown concentration or fire fighting

(1) Respirators specified for higher concentrations can be used at lower concentrations of lead. (2) Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations. (3) A high-efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) means a filter that is 99.97 percent efficient against particles of 0.3 micron size or larger.

The Company's data in Figure 200-5 suggests that a half-face air purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is adequate for arc gouging and torch burning; while the commonly used supplied-air abrasive-blasting hood or helmet (operated in a continuous-flow mode) is sufficient for the task of abrasive blasting. Along with some site-specific local data, refer to the data in Figure 200-5 to select appropriate respiratory protection equipment for workers. Protective Clothing & Equipment. Personal protective equipment is required as follows: For exposure to lead above the PEL and lead compounds that may irritate skin or eyes As interim protection until an exposure assessment is completed

September 1996

200-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Protective work clothing and equipment which prevent contamination of workers and their garments include such items as: Coveralls or full-body work clothing Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable coverlets Face shields and vented goggles

The regulations prescribe methods for cleaning, laundering, or disposing of all protective clothing. Engineering, Work Practice, and Administrative Controls. Engineering, work practice, and administrative controls help to reduce and maintain employees' exposure to or below the PEL. Examples: Engineering controls include sealed containment structures with negative pressure dilution ventilation, power tools equipped with dust collection shrouds exhausted through a HEPA vacuum system, and vacuum blasting. Examples: Work practice controls include housekeeping to remove accumulations of lead dust, and personal hygiene. Examples: Administrative controls include scheduling workers' tasks to minimize exposure levels, and worker rotation. When all feasible and instituted controls are insufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PEL, then use respirators to supplement the work operation. Hygiene Facilities. Employees may not bring food, beverages, tobacco products, and cosmetics to the job site where lead is above the PEL. In addition, they must have clean change areas, shower facilities, and lunchroom facilities or eating areas. Medical Surveillance. Figure 200-7 shows the type of medical surveillance required for various levels of exposure.
Fig. 200-7 Medical Surveillance Based on Level of Exposure Level of Exposure Occupational exposure to lead on any one day at or above the action level Performing trigger tasks(2) during initial exposure assessment Program of routine blood tests made available to employees Full medical surveillance program, including annual medical exams Remove employee from exposure to airborne lead that exceeds the action level Description of Medical Surveillance (1) Blood sampling and analysis for initial exposure assessment

Exposure to lead at or above the action level for more than 30 days a year Blood level exceeds 40 g/dl if the exposure is or may be at or above the action level for more than 30 days a year Routine and follow-up test for blood lead levels exceed the removal criteria of 50 g/dl

(1) A licensed physician must perform or supervise the performance of all medical examinations. (2) See Figure 200-4 for trigger tasks.

Chevron Corporation

200-13

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Employee Information and Training. Employees must receive appropriate training if they will be exposed to lead or lead compounds at or above the action level. Training includes subjects such as: Health hazards Warning signs and labels Contents of the lead standard Work operations Respirators Medical surveillance Engineering controls Compliance plans

A Word About Contractors. Typically, independent contractors remove LBC from the Company's facilities for specific projects. These contractors should: Receive most or all of their directions from the contractor's personnel Follow the contractor's procedures Use the contractor's equipment

Information in this section is offered as a basis for a pre-project discussion about contractors' lead protection programs. Recommendations for a Contractor's LBC- Removal Project within the Company. The Company representative on the project should: Require that the contractor meet all Federal, State, and local requirements concerning lead Ensure that the contractor has a competent inspector (as defined in this section) Request that the contractor demonstrate that all of the contractor's employees have received appropriate training and are included in a contractor-administered, medical-surveillance program (if necessary) Work with the contractor to ensure that all applicable permits, notifications, and waste manifests are in order and that the contractor disposes of leadcontaining wastes properly

Caution If the contractor's employees are found to be out of compliance with the lead standards, treat this condition as a breach of contract and discontinue work until the contractor remedies the situation.

Environmental Disposal Guidelines


Federal and State regulations classify hazardous wastes as those substances that are ignitable, corrosive, or toxic. Waste and water regulations specifically restrict the disposal of lead-containing waste and wastewater. Some unused coating and solvents may qualify for disposal as hazardous wastes.

September 1996

200-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Environmental regulations vary among states and may be more restrictive than Federal regulations. Discuss specific regulations that may apply to your waste disposal circumstances with the local environmental compliance specialist. As a minimum, Federal regulations will require the following: Lead contamination found in the soil may require additional investigation and clean-up. Wastewater disposal criteria will be different at each facility depending on the conditions in the facility's wastewater-discharge permit. Hazardous wastes must be treated before disposal, depending on the waste and the State's requirements.

Note Some States have additional restrictions on disposal of waste contaminated with lead even when it is not a hazardous waste.

Caution

Diluting waste to remove hazardous characteristic(s) is prohibited.

Threshold of Lead Toxicity as Hazardous Waste. A waste exhibits the characteristic of lead toxicity when a TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) analysis indicates Pb 5.0 mg/ l (ppm) as a measure of leachable lead after extracting the sample with acid. Handle and dispose of a waste that exceeds this threshold as a hazardous waste.

Caution California has an additional analytical criterion that classifies a waste as hazardous with either of the following: Pb 1000 mg/kg (by a total analysis) Pb 5.0 mg/l (by a leachable analysis similar to TCLP)

Figure 200-8 is a summary of Federal Hazardous Waste classification criteria that may apply to lead-contaminated coating wastes. It describes criteria for classifying a waste as hazardous both by lead toxicity and by listed solvent content. Additional State waste classification codes or criteria may also be applicable.
Fig. 200-8 Summary of Criteria for Classification as Federal Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Threshold 5.0 mg/l by TCLP method < 10 percent in spent solvent from degreasing < 10 percent in spent solvent < 10 percent in spent solvent EPA Waste Code D008 F001 F003 F005

Constituent Lead Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, or chlorinated fluorocarbons Xylene, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzene, ethyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, n-butyl alcohol, cyclohexanone, or methanol Toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, isobutanol, pyridine, benzene, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-nitropropane
Notes:

1. Additional State waste classification codes or criteria may also be applicable to wastes from LBC.

Chevron Corporation

200-15

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Waste Sources and Alternatives


A variety of waste streams generated during lead abatement might become lead contaminated. Consider the effect of environmental constraints on the project's potential wastes. Examples: Lead-contaminated waste streams may include abrasive media, coating chips or dust, cleaning materials or stripping solvents, rags, wash water, solid debris, protective clothing and equipment, and containment tarpaulins. Source Reduction. From the standpoint of source reduction, determine if leadcontaminated coatings must be removed or encapsulated. Overcoating may serve to: Prevent further deterioration of lead-contaminated coatings Allow lead-contaminated coatings to remain in place Reduce exposure from the removal-and-disposal activity

Handling. Two handling techniques help to reduce the amount of waste that must be treated as hazardous. Segregate wastes to reduce the quantity of hazardous waste. Several types of grit recycling equipment can separate coating chips from blast media. Minimize the contamination of other materials with lead-contaminated waste. Containment tarpaulins or enclosures used to control airborne dust also keep coating chips out of surrounding soil.

During a coating project, some processes generate hazardous wastes. Chemical stripping produces a solvent waste that may need to be handled as a hazardous waste. Wet-abrasive blasting or high-pressure water creates a lead-contaminated wastewater stream that is not permitted in some wastewater systems.

Treatment. If treatment is necessary before disposal, the lead-contaminated waste is usually solidified or mixed with cement at the disposal facility. This treatment reduces its leachability. Reclamation and Disposal. Be sure to dispose of all wastes in a Companyapproved facility for either hazardous or non-hazardous wastes. Most lead-abatement work generates hazardous waste. Often the greatest liability from waste disposal, however, comes from industrial waste in poorly operated, nonhazardous-waste facilities. Equipment that is dismantled and sold as scrap can present a liability similar to disposal. Reclamation sites have been the source of the Company's greatest off-site environmental liability. Arrange for contracts involving the sale of scrap metal or surplus equipment to include many of the requirements of the Company's standard environmental services agreements. Local contracts group or legal advisors can help negotiate these terms in agreements with a reclaimer.

September 1996

200-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Abrasive-blasting waste may be a hazardous solid waste, especially from surfaces coated with LBCs. Arrange to dispose of these wastes in appropriate sites such as California's Class I (hazardous-waste landfill) sites. There are two choices for small amounts of waste: Test the waste and dispose of it in an appropriate, Company-approved facility Do not to test the waste but dispose of it in a Class I site

The cost is about $500 to run the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test, Method 1310, for hazardous metals such as lead and chromium and organics such as pesticides and herbicides. [4]

Caution

Always test large amounts to determine the proper disposal site.

213 Volatile Organic Compounds


The vehicles of many coatings discussed in this manual contain organic solvents that are volatile and are released to the atmosphere as the coating dries and cures. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are reported in grams/liter, and the Company expects the EPA's regulatory limit to be at or below 340 g/l for coatings. Where applicable, the VOC is noted beside each brand of coatings on the system data sheets (in the Quick Reference Guide); those marked with a bullet comply with the anticipated regulatory limit; but all have less than 420 grams/liter VOC in the can. The VOC is also listed in the Glossary of Acceptable Brands (Quick Reference Guide).

Caution Thinning a coating with solvent increases its VOC level. Be sure to follow the coating manufacturers' directions for thinning. Note Check local standards for current VOC limits and consult the manufacturer's product data sheets before applying any coating.

220 Safety
221 Workers' Safety
In general, the Company and its contractors are responsible for the safety of their respective employees. Normally, the employer who creates a hazardous working condition is responsible for correcting it. We should not, however, practice an absolute hands-off policy towards a contractor's safety performance. The Company's representatives have a duty to inform and warn contractors of any known safety hazards, health exposures, or environmental concerns. To minimize the Company's liability, at a minimum: Make sure the equipment to be coated is in a safe condition before turning it over to the contractor; or

Chevron Corporation

200-17

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

Inform the contractor in writing of hazardous conditions that may be present and of safety procedures and equipment that are necessary; and Require that the contractor's personnel follow general safety rules, such as wearing hard hats, safety glasses, and long sleeves.

Example: Richmond Refinery requires that the contractor follow the refinery's General Instructions and Safety Practices Guide. Other refineries have similar rules. The Company's Loss Prevention Guide No. 25 covers all aspects of Company/ contractor relationships except specific circumstances for temporary workers. Review the Company's safety policy with contractors and have it available for contractors' reference. These safety requirements, based on expert knowledge and specific OSHA requirements, serve as minimal guidelines for work on the Company's facilities and supplement the contractor's own safety program. In general, it is primarily the contractor's responsibility to: Assure safety of the application personnel Know the potential hazards of the materials and equipment being used Take proper steps to avoid these hazards

Example: The contractor is responsible for providing proper equipment for the safe application of coatings and proper clothing to protect personnel from ingesting and inhaling toxic chemicals or from absorbing them through the skin. The contractor is also responsible for proper disposal of the coating, cans, and solvents.

222 Fire and Explosive Hazards


In general, coating and coating components are highly flammable and, in some concentrations, explosive. In Figure 200-2, there is a listing of flashpoints and explosive limits for solvents commonly found in coatings. Note Flashpoint is the explosive limit of a material.

Flashpoint: A measure of flammability, flashpoint is the average temperature at which the vapor pressure above a liquid is high enough to form a combustible mixture with air. This mixture will ignite if exposed to flame. Explosive Limits: A measure of explosion potential, explosive limits are the percentages of a material in a volume of air above and below which no explosion will occur. The critical range is considered to be between the lower and upper limits for a given material. Some materials will flash or explode upon ignition if there is just the right amount of them in a volume of air. If there is not enough of the material, it will not support combustion; if too much, there is not enough air for combustion.

September 1996

200-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Preventing Fires and Explosions


The following fundamental techniques are intended to prevent fire and explosions: Prevent fires by keeping a material well below its flashpoint and by isolating it from every possible source of ignition. Prevent explosions with proper ventilation to keep the vapor concentration below the lower explosive limit.

Note OSHA requires sufficient ventilation to keep the concentration of vapors below 20 percent of the lower explosive limit.[5] The Richmond Refinery further limits the concentrations to less than 10 percent.[6]

Abrasive Blasting
During abrasive blasting, sparking is a potential fire hazard. There are three possible sources of sparks: Abrasive striking metal surface Frictional heating of surface during blasting Build up of static electricity charges due to flow of abrasive through blasting equipment

Tests have shown that sparks from the first two sources do not contain enough heat energy to ignite flammable vapors. If, however, equipment is improperly grounded, sparks from the third source can ignite vapors.[7, 8] To reduce the risk of fire during abrasive blasting, stipulate that, before a coating project begins, the contractor must: Bond and ground all blasting equipment and the surface being prepared Check every connection to assure it is properly bonded and grounded

See also the Company's Fire Protection Manual.[9]

Internal Coatings
Refer to both OSHA 29 CFR 1910 and manufacturers' product data sheets when working with internal coatings.[10] Many internal coatings contain flammable vapors or vapors that irritate eyes or breathing or both. Workers should follow these basic rules when using internal coatings: Keep coatings away from heat, sparks, and flames. Apply coatings only with adequate ventilation, appropriate respiratory devices, and other protective equipment.

Explosive Mixtures
In addition to the potential hazard of a coating, some coating components can be highly explosive if mixed improperly.

Chevron Corporation

200-19

September 1996

200 Environment, Health & Safety

Coatings Manual

When preparing catalyzed polyester and vinyl ester coatings for application, combine three ingredients: the polyester or vinyl ester resin, the promoter, and the catalyst.

Caution If promoter and catalyst come in direct contact, flash explosions result; therefore, follow this sequence carefully, regardless how much you are preparing: 1. 2. 3. Mix the resin and promoter thoroughly. Insufficient mixing of the promoter and resin can leave pockets of promoter and cause explosions. Add the catalyst slowly. Mix completely.

Frequently, to avoid the potential of explosion, manufacturers sell pre-promoted polyester and vinyl ester (i.e., the promoter and resin are mixed at the factory). However, these mixtures have a shorter shelf life.

Caution It is crucial to follow the manufacturer's recommendations when applying these types of coatings.

223 Equipment Hazards


Serious injury may result from improper or careless use of high-pressure equipment, ladders, scaffolding, scrapers, and other coatings applications. Most equipment hazards can be avoided by using common sense.

Ladders and Scaffolding


Ladders and scaffolding must meet the guidelines in the Company's Safety in Designs manual.[11]

Aluminum Equipment
One potential danger with aluminum equipment involves coatings containing chlorinated solvents. Solvents such as 1,1,1-trichlorethane and methylene chloride can promote corrosion of aluminum. If the reaction takes place in enclosed equipment such as coating pumps or heaters, pressure can build up quickly and result in ruptures.

Caution Avoid aluminum equipment when applying coatings which contain chlorinated solvents. Unfortunately, aluminum is very common in spray equipment for coatings.

High-pressure Liquid Sprayers


Another potential equipment hazard involves high-pressure liquid sprayers (airless). The spray from this equipment can penetrate skin.

Caution

Handle spray equipment with care as improper use can kill.

September 1996

200-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

200 Environment, Health & Safety

230 References
1. 2. CARB. Letter to R.D. Sweeney. Materials Laboratory File N21.01. Chevron Corporation, December 11, 1980. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA General Industry Safety Orders, Title 8, Section 5155, p. 432.262-432.270.12. United States Government Printing Office. Washington, 1995. . Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA General Industry Safety Orders, Title 8, Section 5155, p. 432.259. United States Government Printing Office. Washington, 1995. Environmental Protection Agency. Test Method for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods SW-846. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA General Industry Safety Orders, Title 8, Section 5416, p. 526.6.5. United States Government Printing Office. Washington, 1995. Chevron Corporation. Richmond Refinery Operating Standard R9920. Richmond, CA. Bradley, H.P. Tanks Can Be Sandblasted Safely While in Service. Petroleum Refinery. January 1961. Lankford, J. Leon. Sandblasting Safety Guide for Petroleum Storage Tanks. American Painting Contractor. Vol. 20, No. 4. August 1980: pp. 2-9. Chevron Corporation. Fire Protection Manual. Chevron Research and Technology Company. Richmond, CA, December, 1994.

3.

4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA 29 CFR 1910. United States Government Printing Office. Washington, 1995. 11. Chevron Corporation. Safety in Designs, Chevron Research and Technology Company, September, 1996.

Chevron Corporation

200-21

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection


Abstract
This section discusses the basics of coatings selection. Topics covered include: life expectancy, turn-around time, economics, and color. An important part of the selection process, factors that limit selection, is also discussed. For atmospheric, concrete, internal vessel, and coatings under insulation and fireproofing, the selection process is straightforward and is detailed in the Quick Reference Guide. For those surfaces and logistics requiring special consideration, there is also general information in the following sections of this manual: Section 600, Concrete Coatings Section 700, Downhole Tubular Coatings Section 800, Offshore Coatings Section 900, Pipeline Coatings

For assistance with specific projects involving those coatings, contact one of the Company's coating specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide. Contents 310 320 321 322 330 331 332 333 334 340 341 342 General Information Economics Initial Costs Lifetime Costs Color Federal and Industry Standards Color Systems for Company Facilities Safety Colors Company Identity Other Factors Affecting Selection Environmental Regulations Surface Preparation 300-18 300-11 Page 300-3 300-3

Chevron Corporation

300-1

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350

Permissible Application Methods Weather at the Application Site Service Temperature & Handling Substrate Supply of Coatings Performance & Long-term Aesthetics Generic Internal Coatings References 300-23

September 1996

300-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

310 General Information


An important element in any coating project is choosing the best coating system for the intended service. Among the considerations are the coating's life expectancy, exposure, maintenance, application, and turn-around time. Life Expectancy. One primary consideration for coating new construction is the longest possible service life. Cost of materials represents only 15 to 20 percent of the total cost of application. Exposure. The coating must be appropriate for its intended service conditions such as temperature and immersion. Maintenance. Because no one material is perfect nor can any be applied economically to perfection, choose coatings that are practical and economical to maintain (both immediately after application and well into the service life). Application. Coatings should be practical and economical to apply, should work with conventional or available equipment and technology, and should be compatible with a variety of other materials. Turn-around Time. Cure and recoat times needed before items are placed back in service are important considerations when selecting a coating. In the Quick Reference Guide, charts provide assistance with selecting the following coatings: Atmospheric Coatings (on- and offshore) Concrete Coatings (mild environment only) Coatings under Insulation and Fireproofing Internal Vessel Coatings

For help with specific coating situations involving such surfaces or logistics as offshore, concrete, downhole tubulars, and pipelines (both internal and external), contact the Company's Coating Specialists.

320 Economics
The information in this section comes from published references and local experience [1, 2, 3, 4]. While several coating systems may be acceptable for a given project, their costs and durabilities will vary. Choose the system that provides the lowest total cost to the Company over the life of the equipment.

Caution Do not fall into the trap of choosing coatings based on the cost per gallon regardless of the coating's life, cost per mil thickness, or drying time.

Chevron Corporation

300-3

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

321 Initial Costs


Percent Solids
Coverage is the main comparison in the percent solids. If one coating is 50 percent solids (i.e., 50 percent solvent, which will evaporate) and the other is 100 percent, the 50 percent solids will take twice as many gallons to cover the same area at the same thickness as the 100 percent solids. The 100 percent solids coating could cost twice as much as the 50 percent one and still be equal in true cost of materials.

Surface Preparation
A cleaner surface does not always require more work and cost more. A brushblasted surface is better and often cheaper than a hand-cleaned wire-brushed surface. A more expensive surface preparation often means a longer life for the coating system and may actually give a lower total cost for the coating system over the life of the equipment.

Drying Time
While application costs appear essentially the same, there are two points to consider: decreased productivity and ease of handling. Decreased productivity. There is decreased productivity with an alkyd which dries slowly. The coatings applicator must wait for one side of a pipe to dry before turning it over to finish coating it. A fast-drying inorganic zinc may actually save money. Ease of handling. Two coatings may not tolerate handling equally; one may be damaged more easily and require more touch up.

True Cost
Estimating the true cost of coating is not simple. Cost and practicality are two considerations, but there are other factors. See Figure 300-1. Note Careful consideration resulted in the coating systems found in the Quick Reference Guide of this manual.

322 Lifetime Costs


Preparing an economic analysis helps justify one coating system over another; however, this task can be quite complex and is therefore uncommon. Figures 300-2 through 300-7 give six examples of economic analyses chosen from the dozens of surfaces the Company coats: Tanks Piping PipingSurface Preparation Structural Steel

September 1996

300-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Fig. 300-1

Cost Factors to Consider for Coating Systems Task Consider Cost per square foot at specified thickness Paint loss Other Comments Varies with the percent of solids, the specified dry film thickness and the cost per gallon Typical 15 percent for flat surfaces to 30 percent or more for complex shapes

Materials Selection

Surface Preparation

Cleanliness vs. Life Wheelabrators may take only single pieces of pipe which then need to be welded and reblasted before painting

Application

Complexity of the paint Complexity of the shape Cost of access for final coats and maintenance Impact of curing time on the schedule

Single or multiple component? Flat tank surfaces or small piping? On ground, in the air, or offshore?

Fig. 300-2

TanksComparing Costs of Coating Systems

Chevron Corporation

300-5

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Fig. 300-3

PipingComparing Cost of Several Coating Systems

Fig. 300-4

PipingComparing Surface Preparation Costs of Several Coating Systems

September 1996

300-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Fig. 300-5

Structural SteelComparing Cost of Several Coating Systems

Fig. 300-6

Offshore PlatformsComparing Costs of Several Coating Systems

Chevron Corporation

300-7

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Fig. 300-7

Internal Coating for TanksComparing Costs of Several Coating Systems for Saltwater Immersion (80F)

Offshore Platforms Internal Coating

Each example shows the net cost of several coating systems where cost includes surface preparation, application, and materials. See the following resources: Figures 300-8, 300-9, 300-10 for cost analyses Figure 300-11 for coating life in various climates

In the six examples (Figures 300-2 through 300-7), the most cost-effective coating system is the one with the lowest, net, present cost at the design's projected life. Additionally: Consider systems with almost equal costs essentially equal. Base selection on non-quantifiable factors such as chalking resistance and expected level of maintenance. Consider the system with the longer life if you anticipate little maintenance effort.

September 1996

300-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Fig. 300-8

Surface Preparation Costs$/Sq. Ft. Cleanliness Abrasive Blast (Shop & Field) Wheelabrator (Shop)

Piping and Structural Steel SSPC SP3 SSPC SP7 (NACE 4) SSPC SP6 (NACE 3) SSPC SP10 (NACE 2) SSPC SP5 (NACE 1) Tanks SSPC SP3 SSPC SP7 (NACE 4) SSPC SP6 (NACE 3) SSPC SP10 (NACE 2) SSPC SP5 (NACE 1)
Source: Jeffco Painting & Coating, October 1994 Their prices are good engineering estimates for Northern California. Costs will vary by location. Estimates are based on 10,000 Ft2 of surface area.

.45 .60 .80 1.05 1.25

N/A N/A .40 .55 .60

.40 .50 .75 .90 .95

N/A N/A .35 .50 .55

Fig. 300-9

Application Costs$/Sq. Ft. Coating DFT (mils) Field-Applied Shop-Applied

Piping and Structural Steel One Part Primer (alkyd) Two Part Primer (epoxy) Zinc Rich Primer One Part Topcoat (alkyd) Two Part Topcoat (urethane) Tanks One Part Primer (alkyd) Two Part Primer (epoxy) Zinc Rich Primer One Part Topcoat (alkyd) Two Part Topcoat (urethane)
Source: Jeffco Painting & Coating, October 1994 Their prices are good engineering estimates for Northern California. Costs will vary by location. Estimates are based on 10,000 Ft2 of surface area.

2.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 2.0

.24 .32 .38 .22 .39

.21 .25 .30 .21 .35

2.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 2.0

.15 .20 .35 .15 .33

.14 .18 .25 .14 .32

Chevron Corporation

300-9

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Fig. 300-10 Cost of Materials Cost $/Sq.Ft. Primers Alkyd (off the shelf) Chlorinated Rubber Epoxy Epoxy Mastic Inorganic Zinc Self Cure Universal Primer Vinyl Zinc Rich Epoxy Intermediate Coats High Build Epoxy High Build Vinyl Vinyl Top Coats Alkyd (off the shelf) Chlorinated Rubber Coal Tar Epoxy (C200 version) Coal Tar Epoxy (Standard) Epoxy High Build Chlorinated Rubber High Build Vinyl Silicone Alkyd Urethane Vinyl .08 N/A .13 .12 .09 N/A N/A .17 .14 N/A 2 N/A 8 8 4 N/A N/A 2 2.5 N/A .09 N/A N/A 4 N/A N/A .08 N/A .09 .16 .21 .07 N/A .16 2 N/A 4 5 3 2 N/A 3 DFT (mils)

Includes 20% spray loss. Source: Jeffco Painting & Coating, October 1994. These prices are good for engineering estimates for Northern California. Costs will vary by location. Estimates are based on 10,000 Ft2 of surface area.

September 1996

300-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Fig. 300-11 Application Costs$/Sq. Ft. Moderate Coastal 5 7 25 Humid Coastal Offshore 2 4 20

Coating Alkyd Alkyd - Multi Mil SCIZ/HB Epoxy/Urethane SCIZ/HB Vinyl/HB Vinyl SCIZ/HB CHL R/HB CHL Rubber SCIZ/HB Epoxy/HB Epoxy SCIZ/Silicone Alkyd Vinyl - 5 Coat Epoxy/Alkyd with Brush Blast
Notes: SCIZ = Self cured inorganic zinc HB = High build

DFT 4 8 10

Dry Inland 7 10 30+

13 13 13 6 8 4.5

30+ 30+ 30+ 25 12 12

25 25 25 20 10 10

20 20 20 15 7 6

Assumptions
The analyses in Figures 300-2 through 300-7 are based on the following assumptions: Re-coating the equipment. Often this may not be true, and it would be better to choose a system with a longer life and pay a somewhat high cost. Coating primarily for aesthetics. Maintaining a good appearance as long as possible is one of the bases for selection.

Note Different assumptions could lead to different lowest-cost systems. There are many coatings systems which will do the job. No one system is perfect. Overall, there is more to gain by working on the quality of surface preparation and application than by working long hours to select optimum materials.

330 Color
This section guides you in choosing and matching paint colors for new and existing process plants and tanks. It also emphasizes the proper use of safety colors and Company Identity colors. Building interiors and equipment are not included in this section. The Corporation has chosen to update the Company color scheme to simplify the color palette and improve the compatibility of the colors in the palette. These changes are also discussed in this section.

Chevron Corporation

300-11

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Color selection is a management decision, but many facilities have adopted the color systems outlined below. Each system description has suggested uses for each color group to best match the facility's environment with color systems. If a local preference exists it shall take precedence over the color palettes described hereafter. When warranted, a qualified color consultant can be engaged to develop a specific color to blend with the surroundings at a particular site. This is especially encouraged where facilities will have special public impact. Use this approach with care as approval of more than one unique color for a given facility is rare.

331 Federal and Industry Standards


Chevron has adopted Federal Color Codes for the existing Company color codes and has adopted ANSI safety colors. The use of these known standards eliminates the need to send out color chips to equipment manufacturers and vendors. While these Federal colors do not exactly match the Company colors, weathering and aging preclude an exact match to existing equipment, even when using the Company's color chips. Federal Standard 595a Colors designates colors with a five-digit code. The first digit indicates the gloss, the second digit indicates the predominant color group, and the last three digits indicate the approximate order of increasing reflectance and are assigned non-consecutively. The codes for gloss and color group are: gloss: 1 = glossy 2 = semigloss 3 = flat (lusterless) color group: 0 = brown 1 = red 2 = orange 3 = yellow 4 = green 5 = blue 6 = gray 7 = miscellaneous (black, white) 8 = fluorescent

332 Color Systems for Company Facilities


The following subsections describe each color system, their associated component colors, and how to select and specify those colors for plants and equipment.

Color Systems
For new plants the Company most often uses either Pastel or Silver/Gray color systems, depending on the climate and surrounding environment. For special situations the Company uses only the Aluminum and Black colors.

September 1996

300-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Pastel. The Pastel color systems are used in moderate and warm climates, where they are compatible with the environment and the visual setting. Pastel-A. Use where the plant is viewed against or within surrounding land forms with little green vegetation. The Pastel-A system consists of: Desert Sand/MojavePrimary Color for the body of the plant including columns, vessels, exchangers, on-plot pipeways and pipeway supports; control houses; office buildings. Mojave is the new primary color for the Pastel - A scheme. As Desert Sand weathers and ages it becomes a pinkish color. A new color, Mojave, was chosen that will alleviate this problem so all new plants shall be painted with Mojave as the Primary Color. RedwoodTrim Color for structural steel, platforms, machinery, pumps, compressors and trim on control houses and office buildings. Warm BlackDark Color for stacks, furnaces, and flares. Dawn White/WhiteLPG Sphere and Line Color. Dawn White may be used for painting tanks in a setting where tanks are predominantly silhouetted against a hazy sky.

Pastel-B. Use where the plant is viewed against or within surrounding land forms with green vegetation. The Pastel-B system consists of: Palm GreenPrimary Color for the body of the plant including columns, vessels, exchangers, on-plot pipeways and pipeway supports; control houses; office buildings. Vista GreenTrim Color for structural steel, platforms, machinery, pumps, compressors and trim on control houses and office buildings. Warm BlackDark Color for stacks, furnaces, and flares. Dawn White/WhiteLPG Sphere and Line Color. Dawn White may be used for painting tanks in a setting where tanks are predominantly silhouetted against a hazy sky.

Gray/Black. The new Gray/Black color system is a consolidation of the old Chevron Silver Gray, Aluminum/Black, and Black, color systems. The uses are the same. Use the Gray/Black system where pastels are not compatible with the environment, generally in colder climates and bleak industrial settings that are without greenery much of the year. Use aluminum paint as the primary color in plants containing mostly aluminum jacketed vessels and lines or stainless steel equipment. Pastels may be used selectively in this system to relieve monotony. Use black as the primary color for plants (such as asphalt plants) in which colors are not practical. Use adjacent to water, offshore, or where the plant is viewed against the sky. The Gray/Black system consists of: Dark Silver Gray/AluminumPrimary Color for the body of the plant including columns, vessels, exchangers, on-plot pipeways and pipeway supports; control houses; office buildings.

Chevron Corporation

300-13

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Steel BlueTrim/Accent Color for structural steel, platforms, machinery, pumps, compressors and trim on control houses and office buildings. Warm BlackDark Color for stacks, furnaces, and flares. Dawn White/WhiteLPG Sphere and Line Color. Dawn White may be used for painting tanks in a setting where tanks are predominantly silhouetted against a hazy sky.

Plants
New Plants. Choose Company-approved colors when painting new plants. However, if the new plant is an addition to an existing plant, you may want to paint it to match the older surrounding plants or equipment. If you are painting a new plant and choose to use the Pastel-A scheme, Mojave becomes the Primary Color for that scheme. If painting to match an existing plant that is of the Pastel-A scheme, use Desert Sand. Existing Plants. Normally we do not maintain painted surfaces in existing plants except to prevent corrosion, or where public appearance is important, or for identification. Don't change paint color unless complete repainting of a piece of equipment is necessary. When making minor modifications use the existing color from the old Company color palette for touch-up painting. When making significant modifications use the new Company color system. Choose an appropriate color system from the Chevron Color Chart in Appendix B if complete repainting is deemed necessary.

Tanks and LPG Vessels


Where law dictates the color of tankage, as in some non-U.S. locations, it shall take precedence over the Company guidelines given here. Tanks. The Company paints non-insulated tanks. Although insulated tanks do not require it, sometimes they are painted for aesthetics and to match other noninsulated tanks which may be adjacent. Usually you will choose a color to blend the tank with its surroundings. However, factors such as the service a tank is in, its physical condition or its location may cause you to choose colors other than the primary colors named above. Plant related tankage should be painted the primary color of the selected color system. When completely repainting an older tank, consider using colors from the Company's current list of approved colors. Insulated Tanks. Tanks finished off with cement board sheets (Asbestocite, etc.) need not be painted, but all edges and sides of sheets should be primed before they are installed, to permit later painting if desired. Tanks with aluminum-sheathed insulation need not be painted. If desired, the aluminum weather jacketing may be purchased precoated in appropriate colors or anodized. LPG Vessels. Paint new and existing vessels Aluminum or Dawn White as appropriate to the surroundings.

September 1996

300-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Color Matching
Paint fades over time, and new paint made to match the original color chip will not match the faded, older paint. For most onplot equipment this mis-matching is acceptable. For structures and equipment in public view, more accurate matching is required. Exact Match Not Required (Both New and Old Facilities). When ordering paint to match most onplot buildings, tanks, equipment, safety indicators, etc. use the Federal Color Codes (the 5-digit numbers on the Chevron Color Chart in Appendix B) or the Chevron Color Chips. If necessary, additional Company color chips can be obtained by calling CRTC Technical Standards. Exact Match Required. Where an exact match of old, faded paint is critical, the color chips given in this manual may not be accurate enough. For precise match, it is best to use a chip of the actual paint to be matched. Compare colors carefully. The same paint formulation under different light sources looks different (this is called metamerism). Colors must be examined under the expected type of light source. The angle of illumination, the angle of viewing, and the amount of gloss affect color appearance. It is difficult to match gloss paints with flat paints.

Color Selection
Principals in Color Selection. Follow two principals when choosing colors: the color system should be compatible with the surroundings and be economical to apply and maintain. The goal is to harmonize cleanly with the surroundings, to avoid or minimize visual impact where possible, and elsewhere to make an appearance that is acceptable and interesting. Be mindful of economics where trim colors are used. Trim colors should be used primarily on equipment that can be shop painted like railings. Minimize the use of a second color except where the contrasting accent is of real importance to the overall appearance. The cost of masking or other costly preparations should be weighed against the importance of accenting.

Color Codes
The Company's standard colors are listed in Figure 300-12 Chevron Color Names and Corresponding Federal Color Codes. When writing specifications or purchase orders, always use the color code. The codes for Company Identity Colors are given in Figure 300-13, Company Identity Color Codes. Federal Standard 595a Colors should be referenced in specifications using Federal Color Codes. Also, ANSI Z53.1-1979 Safety Color Codes for Marking Physical Hazards should be referenced when safety colors are specified. The Chevron Color Chart in Appendix B shows the actual colors corresponding to the Federal Color Codes. This page is provided only for visual reference and should not be used for color matching. The Chevron Color Chips that follow the chart and should be used for color matching.

Chevron Corporation

300-15

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Fig. 300-12 Chevron's Standard Color Names and Corresponding Federal Color Codes Chevron Color Name Desert Sand Redwood Mojave Palm Green Vista Green Dark Silver Gray Light Silver Gray Aluminum Warm Black Dawn White Fig. 300-13 Company Identity Color Codes Company Color Name Black Beige Dark Gray Light Gray White (off-white) Green Gold Chevron Red Chevron Blue Company Code BK-10 BR-440 GY-210 GY-450 WH-740 GR-110 GO-110 RE-370 BL-370 Federal Color Code 20450 20140 20372 24373 24172 16307 16440 17178 17038 27722

333 Safety Colors


The Company uses color to identify emergency safety equipment, hazardous equipment and conditions, and toxic or corrosive chemicals. Local, state or Federal regulations take precedence over the common usage listed in Figure 300-14. See also ANSI Z53.1 - 1979 Safety Color Codes for Marking Physical Hazards.

334 Company Identity


Some colors (i.e., Chevron Red and Blue) are associated with the Company's identity and are not normally part of the color systems. Company Colors should only be used after consultation with the Company Identity Center of the Public Affairs Department. The Company Identity Center maintains color chips for the Identity Colors and may be reached at CTN 894-0260.

September 1996

300-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Fig. 300-14 Safety Color Codes for Marking Physical Hazards ANSI STD 2531-1979 Safety Red Fire protection lines Emergency stops and switches Designation of danger Safety Orange Mechanical and electrical hazards Noise hazard Safety Yellow Chemical hazard Piping with toxic or corrosive material Designation of caution Safety Green Locations of emergency safety equipment Containers for emergency equipment (special breathing apparatus). Piping for potable water and respirable air Designation of safety instructions Safety White Lines used for vacuum Designation of safety information Delineation of aisles, traffic passageways, housekeeping or cleaning equipment. Chevron's Other Color Designations Yellow and Black Uses Fire protection apparatus and equipment

Uses Physical hazards (obstructed access clearances, stumbling and tripping hazards). Yellow and black may be checkered, stripes, or other distinctive combination. Radiation hazards (older purple on yellow may continue to be used until replaced. Special meaning in railroad area for warning against starting, use of, or movement of equipment.

Black on Yellow

Blue

Chevron Corporation

300-17

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

340 Other Factors Affecting Selection


There are many other factors that may affect the selection of a coating ranging from environmental regulations to internal coatings, as detailed below. For specific information or assistance with the effect of any of these factors on a particular coating, contact the manufacturer or the Company's coating specialists (both of whom are listed in the Quick Reference Guide).

341 Environmental Regulations


Regulations may limit the kind of surface preparation or coatings for a given project. If a local area regulates solvent emission from coatings (see Section 200), then a high-performance system may be required. Note Depending on the brand, some alkyds may be VOC compliant.

For standard-performance coatings in areas with VOC regulations, consider waterborne inorganic zinc primers (System 1.3.1) as a substitute for the more expensive high-solids, solvent-based inorganic zinc primers (System 1.3). See the Quick Reference Guide for system data sheets.

Caution

Do not make this substitution for high-performance coatings.

342 Surface Preparation


No other factor influences the performance of a coating as much as surface preparation. The optimum preparation for many services is white metal blast; however, this method is not always allowed, particularly if the abrasive might affect equipment operating nearby. In these cases, a compromise between desired performance and practicality must be reached. Coatings differ widely in their ability to adhere to a poorly prepared surface. If abrasive blasting and pickling is infeasible, select a coating that tolerates existing surface conditions. Example: You could specify a specially formulated high-performance coating, such as aluminum flake-filled epoxy mastics, for wire-brushed steel surface. Note 1: Tests on brush-cleaned steel show that these mastics perform better than oil-modified alkyds, formerly the coating chosen for these circumstances. Note 2: Pickling means dipping the steel in acid to remove mill scale.

Blasting Prohibited
If blasting is prohibited for surface preparation, there are essentially two choices for coating over hand-prepared surfaces: No VOC requirementsalkyd systems

September 1996

300-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

VOC compliancehigher performance, more costly, surface-tolerant epoxy mastics (including aluminum filled) System 1.8 or 1.81

Caution Specify a blasted surface preparation for high-temperature services; an IOZ cannot be used without blasting.

Drying Time
Coatings vary widely in drying time. When choosing a coating, therefore, consider the drying time of the proposed coating as a factor in the time allotted to the project. Drying time is given on manufacturers' data sheets. Quick Drying. For more than one coat per day, choose coatings that dry by solvent release, such as vinyls, acrylics, and chlorinated rubber. For second and third coats in the same day, choose catalytic-setting coatings if the weather is not too cool. Slow Drying. Oxidizing (air-drying) coatings such as alkyds can take from hours to days before it is possible to recoat or handle them. Drying vs. Performance. Compare the materials cost with the cost of waiting for the coat to dry. A fast drying (but more costly) primer such as a self-cured IOZ may allow high enough productivity to make it the more economical choice. See also Initial Costs at the beginning of this section of the manual.

343 Permissible Application Methods


Some locations prohibit spray application because of overspray damage to nearby objects. At such locations, choose a coating for brush or roller application instead of spray only such as vinyls and lacquers.

Recoating & Maintenance


When planning to recoat, verify that the old and the new coatings are compatible. See the Coating Compatibility Chart in the Quick Reference Guide. If it is possible that a surface will need frequent recoating for maintenance, the work involved in recoating should also be considered. Note A harder-to-recoat system may be justifiable if it lasts significantly longer than a system that is easily recoated. Easy to Recoat. Solvent cures, aliphatic urethanes, and chalks are easily recoated. Solvent Cures Coatings that cure by solvent evaporation, such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers, are easy to recoat because the topcoat's solvent bites into the old coating.

Chevron Corporation

300-19

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Aliphatic Urethanes The result of the Materials Lab tests show that aged aliphatic urethanes recoat easily without blasting.

Chalks Coatings that chalk with age, such as alkyds and epoxies, frequently need only washing before recoating if the surfaces are rust free.

Difficult to Recoat. Some epoxies, urethanes (particularly aromatic urethanes), baked phenolics, and other resins can cure to such a hard, solvent-resistant film that recoating is difficult. Often, a brush blast (lightly blast) of the old films to roughen the surface before recoating must be specified.

344 Weather at the Application Site


Weather conditionssuch as high humidity, cool or cold temperatures, very dry weathercan all drastically affect curing. It is important that the coating specified for a given site can cure properly under existing weather conditions. Example: The 40F to 50F temperatures in Scottish fabrication yards prevented curing of the epoxies that were specified initially for the Ninian offshore platforms. In this case, chlorinated rubber was chosen as a substitute because it is more tolerant of cool temperatures. Cold weather adversely affects curing for most coatings. If the temperatures are expected to fall below the recommended curing temperature, specify that the crew heat the substrate, usually with internal heaters, so that it is above the low-temperature limit. Note As a rule of thumb, consult the coating manufacturer if the temperature is expected to fall below 60F during curing. Other difficulties involving weather are as follows. Some coatings absorb too much water and blush if the humidity is above about 80 percent; however, self-cured IOZs can tolerate up to 95 percent humidity. Some vinyls and chlorinated rubbers can soften in hot climates to the extent that handling can damage them. Post-cured IOZ is water soluble and, before it cures, will wash off in rain.

345 Service Temperature & Handling


Maximum allowable temperatures vary widely among coatings. Any non-standard operations such as steamout may cause high temperatures for even a short time. All high-temperature service coatings require an inorganic zinc (IOZ) primer. IOZ is gray; therefore, to change the color:

September 1996

300-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Specify a topcoat of the desired color Seek an exemption for the topcoat. (For assistance, contact the local area's environmental specialist.)

Specify a blasted surface preparation for IOZ which as a prime coat: Gives excellent service Performs well in a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions Resists handling damage very well Is not expensive

For shop-primed equipment subject to handling damage (pipe, structural steel), IOZ is by far the best choice. In many of the Company's environments, IOZ does very well alone (without a topcoat). If color is not a concern, consider specifying one coat of IOZ.

346 Substrate
Non-ferrous Metals or Concrete
For non-ferrous metals or concrete, there are special considerations such as primers. Under most circumstances, do not coat stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as galvanized, aluminum, copper, and lead because these substrates resist atmospheric corrosion quite well without coating. Even a well-chosen coating applied properly will not adhere well to these substrates and will soon require recoating. To coat these metals, be sure that the primer: Adheres to the metal surface Does not react with the metal surface Is compatible with the finishing coat

Note Before being coated, these metals may need pre-treating with an adhesionpromoting product.

Carbon and Stainless Steel under Insulation or Fireproofing

Caution Under insulation or fireproofing, DO NOT USE zinc-rich primers (inorganic or organic) even if they are topcoated. Zinc protects carbon steel by being more active than the steel and corroding first, such as in galvanizing. At temperatures around 170F, however, the zinc reverses polarity; and the steel corrodes. In solutions containing soluble chloride and sulfur salts, zinc corrodes very rapidly, even at ambient temperature. When exposed to hot and wet conditions, zinc reverses polarity, dissolves too rapidly, and is not very resistant to hot water when formulated with a silicate binder.

Chevron Corporation

300-21

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

Caution As manufacturers' data sheets normally give temperature resistance to dry heat, do not refer to that resource to select coatings for under insulation or fireproofing. The service-temperature recommendations in the coating system number selection chart (in the Quick Reference Guide) for coatings under insulation and fireproofing give actual steel temperatures and not design temperatures. Note Although a vessel is designed to operate above 300F, the steel temperature may never reach 300F in actual operation.

347 Supply of Coatings


Two-hundred gallons is the minimum most manufacturers will supply for special orders. For small projects, therefore, select and specify off-the-shelf coatings which are available in sufficient quality and quantity. On large projects, consider using suppliers who are not local to the jobsite if they have lower prices and a good reputation for service and acceptable quality.

348 Performance & Long-term Aesthetics


High-performance Coating Systems
Compared to standard-performance coatings, high-performance coatings: Are necessary for severe exposures such as those in chemical plants Provide longer life and better aesthetics (generally higher gloss) Cost significantly more Are more difficult to apply Serve as the Company's Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)-compliant system

Standard-performance Coating Systems


The standard performance coating systems consist primarily of alkyd coatings which: Are inexpensive Are easy to apply Serve well in most of our inland and mild environments Can be applied, if necessary, over surfaces which are only hand-prepared (not blasted)

Long-term Aesthetics
Sunlight, in particular ultraviolet light, can cause a coating to chalk, fade, or yellow. Where long-term color retention and appearance are important, choose a topcoat more resistant to sunlight.

September 1996

300-22

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

300 Coatings Selection

Aliphatic urethanes have the best weathering characteristics; they neither chalk nor fade. Alkyds yellow and chalk slowly over time. Epoxies chalk rather rapidly in comparison to alkyds, but that chalking does not adversely affect their corrosion resistance.

349 Generic Internal Coatings


To get a good, effective, internal tank or vessel coating is one of the most challenging tasks facing coatings applicators. Poor application, not materials, is the primary cause of premature failures. As a result, Chevron strongly recommends specifying a good inspection program, from pre-bid meeting to final acceptance of the coating system. See Section 150 of this manual. When planning a project of internal coatings, consider the effects of potential business interruption, storage of toxic material, environmental hazards, and leak detection. Business Interruption. Is the tank or vessel scheduled for coating an integral part of the plant's operation? Can we take it out of service to repair a premature coating failure without shutting down the plant or reducing its production significantly? Toxic Material Storage. Is the stored product a toxic or hazardous material? Is the stored product regulated by any environmental agency? What are the consequences of a leak? Potential Environmental Hazards. Is the tank or vessel located near an environmentally sensitive or populated area? Examples: Rivers, lakes, bays, schools, homes, and shopping malls. Would leaking product damage the aquifer? Is there adequate secondary containment to protect the environment? Leak Detection. Is there any leak detection system? How quickly would we detect a leak? Would a small leak go undetected for any length of time?

350 References
1. 2. 3. Roebuck, A. H. and G. H. Brevoort. Materials Performance. In 1988 Paint and Coatings Selection and Cost Guide. June, 1988: p. 29. Weismantel, Gay E., ed. Paint Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. Sweeney, R. D. Materials Laboratory File N30-PRCP. Chevron Corporation, June 7, 1983.

Chevron Corporation

300-23

September 1996

300 Coatings Selection

Coatings Manual

4. 5.

Sweeney, R. D. Materials Laboratory File N30-RLOP. Chevron Corporation, August 30, 1983. Konet, R.R. Coatings Costs. In Materials Division File 6.25, Chevron Corporation, September, 1988.

September 1996

300-24

Chevron Corporation

400 Surface Preparation


Abstract
Normally, the coating system dictates the method and amount of surface preparation. The life of a protective coating is directly related, however, to how well it adheres to the surface. Good adhesion, in turn, occurs when the surface has been prepared properly for coating. Surface preparation includes anticipating and stipulating corrective actions for potential problems and removing mill scale, rust, dirt, oil, loose paint, markings from crayons or spray paint, and other foreign materials. In contrast to the 2 to 5 percent of coating failures due to improper coating selection [1], 70 to 90 percent of coating failures result from inadequate surface preparation.[2, 3] These failures can be reduced by specifying appropriate methods, standards, and inspection for surface preparation. There are several methods of surface preparation for steel and other metal substrates. Not all methods for surface preparation fit all situations: some methods are very expensive and very slow, to the point of delaying operations. Others might adversely affect the environment. While the information in this section applies to the surface preparation of steel and other metal substrates only, there is also information about preparing special surfaces in other sections of this manual: Section 600, Concrete Section 800, Offshore Section 900, Pipeline Page 400-3

Contents 410 411 412 420 421 422 423 424 Surface Preparation in General Shop versus Field Surface Preparation Fabrication Details Methods of Surface Preparation Chemical Cleaning Dry-abrasive Blasting Air-Abrasive Wet Blasting Water Blasting

400-4

Chevron Corporation

400-1

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

425 426 427 430 431 432 440 450 451 452 460 470

Mechanical-abrasive Blasting Power and Hand Tools New Technology Standards & Specifications Written Standards Visual Standards Selection Criteria Preparing Steel Substrates Immersion Service Non-immersion Service Preparing Other Metal Substrates References 400-18 400-19 400-14 400-15 400-12

September 1996

400-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

410 Surface Preparation in General


Surface preparation is the act of conditioning a substrate to receive a particular coating that will protect it from its environment. The two main components of surface preparation are cleanliness and surface profile.

Cleanliness
Probably the most important aspect of surface preparation, cleanliness involves removing all foreign objects such as oil, grease, dirt, loose paint, and mill scale to allow good adhesion of the coating. Improper adhesion is the major cause of premature coating failures. The more severe the environment, the cleaner the substrate must be. To measure cleanliness, the inspector compares the cleaned substrate to a set of visual or written standards, or both. Note Of the many industry standards, the most common are those developed by the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). See the Quick Reference Guide.

Surface Profile
Surface profile is the result of an abrasive media hitting a surface at high velocity from a mechanical apparatus or high-pressure air. The type of surface profile relates to the abrasive media's velocity, mass, and shape. In Section 200, Figure 200-1 shows a relationship between the abrasive in air-blast equipment and the surface profile. Also called anchor pattern, surface profile is the peak-to-valley height of the microscopic roughness caused by abrasive-blast cleaning. A profile is necessary to achieve full adhesion of the coating to the steel; but, if it is too high, a profile can cause holidays in thin coating systems. A proper profile is a compromise between the pattern needed for adhesion and the height the coating system can cover. Note As a rule of thumb:

For a primer with a dry film thickness of less than 8 mils, the profile height should be about half the thickness. For thicker primers, such as self-priming laminate systems, the profile should be at least 3.5 mils.

Profiles below 1.5 and above 4.0 are difficult to achieve. Profiles are specified in the system data sheets in the Quick Reference Guide and in coating manufacturers' data sheets.

411 Shop versus Field Surface Preparation


In general, shop blasting is superior to field blasting. Some advantages of shop blasting are as follows:

Chevron Corporation

400-3

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Superior surface preparation Shop blasting usually produces an SSPC-SP10 finish instead of the field-achieved SSPC-SP6. (Figure 400-1 describes these surface preparation standards.) Often, shops prime the blasted surfaces to prevent rusting or contamination.

Reduced potential for contaminating surrounding areas such as when field blasting tanks in operating areas or near streets Lower costs of blasting and priming No delays due to weather

412 Fabrication Details


Before the surface preparation begins, inspectors should look for fabrication details that will cause problems with either the coating's application or performance. Examples: Skip welds, deep stencil marks, sharp edges, weld spatter, bolting. NACE RP0178-91 is a good source of information about such problems.[4]

420 Methods of Surface Preparation


There are various methods and levels of intensity of surface preparation. The choice depends on several factors: the type of structure and its exposure, the quality of the coating, and the initial condition of the surface. Among the methods discussed in this section are chemical cleaning, dry-abrasive blasting, air-abrasive wet blasting, water blasting with abrasive injection, mechanicalabrasive blasting, power-tool cleaning, hand-tool cleaning, and new technology. Figure 400-2 compares the various methods and their production rates.

421 Chemical Cleaning


Chemical cleaning is the removal of oil, grease, salts, dirt, and other contaminants with steam, solvents, detergents, chemicals, etc. See Figure 400-3 for a list of typical contaminants and corresponding surface treatments. Coatings applicators must remove these contaminants before beginning any blastcleaning operation to prevent their being worked into the steel surface and causing premature coating failures. The Steel Structures Painting Council has an excellent standard, SSPC-SP1, for the chemical cleaning of structures. [5]

September 1996

400-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

Fig. 400-1

Surface Preparation Specifications and Standards

Chevron Corporation

400-5

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Fig. 400-2

Methods of Surface Preparation and Their Production Rates Production Rate(1) in Ft2/Hr 200 20 200 600

Blasting or Cleaning Method Blasting Dry-abrasive Pressure Dry-abrasive Vacuum Wet-abrasive Pressure Water, High Pressure (3000 psi)

Comments Best and most common method of surface preparation. Equally as good as pressure, but very slow. Good method; wet surface can cause problems with adhesion. Good method for preparing any sound, existing coatings for topcoating with a surface-tolerant epoxy. Removes existing coatings; does not create a surface profile. Good method; wet surfaces can cause adhesion problems. Very good method but only in shop for new construction. Good method but slow; on horizontal, flat surfaces rate can be much higher. All methods can remove coatings in sensitive areas; but they do not create surface profiles. Both can remove coatings in sensitive areas; but neither creates a surface profile. Can clean to bare metal with a surface profile SSPC-SP11; but production drops to 20 sq. ft/hr. Mainly for cleaning small or hard-toreach areas on existing structures.

Water, Ultra High Pressure (10,000 psi) Water, Abrasive Injection Mechanical, Stationary Machine Mechanical, Portable Machine New Technology (Ice, CO2, Baking Soda, Plastic Abrasives) New Technology (Infra-red), Peelaway Strippers Cleaning Power Tool

200 200 500 50 20

10

100

Hand Tool
Notes:

50

1. Production rates are approximate and vary with surface conditions (mill scale, coated, rusted, etc.) 2. Production rates reflect the normal level of surface cleanliness required by the method for non-immersion service on both new and existing structures.

September 1996

400-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

Fig. 400-3

Surface Preparation: Using Chemicals to Remove Contaminants Method Wipe with solvent-soaked rags Wash with high-pressure fresh water or detergent. Rinse with fresh waster and dry thoroughly before coating. Scrub with solution of bleach and water in ratio of 1:3. Rinse with fresh water and dry thoroughly.

Contaminant Oil, grease Dirt, dust, salts

Mildew

422 Dry-abrasive Blasting


There are two types of dry-abrasive blasting methods: pressure and vacuum system. Note For immersion service, Chevron recommends only these two types of dryabrasive blasting.

Dry-abrasive Blasting under Pressure


The most common method of surface preparation, dry-abrasive pressure blasting has the productivity and ability to produce an excellent surface condition for coating. Dry-abrasive pressure blasting is a process during which high-pressure (100 psi) air hurls abrasive media against the substrate. Note While people refer to this process as sandblasting, that term is incorrect unless sand is the abrasive medium. Dry-abrasive blasting not only cleans the surface but also produces a wide range of surface profiles.

Dry-abrasive Blasting with Vacuum System


Dry-abrasive blasting with a vacuum system keeps the abrasive within a hooded enclosure. This method produces the same level of cleanliness and surface profile as dry-abrasive blasting under pressure and also: Shields the surrounding area from flying abrasive and dust Does not disturb adjacent machinery or workers Recycles its abrasive and produces less waste than dry-abrasive blasting under pressure

The disadvantages of air-abrasive blasting with a vacuum system are as follows: Its cleaning speed is slow The surface is not visible to the operator It uses an expensive, recyclable abrasive The hood enclosure must always be held against the surface

Chevron Corporation

400-7

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

For stainless-steel substrates in non-immersion service, this is one of the best methods of surface preparation available; but it is very slow and limited basically to small areas in sensitive locations that cannot be pressure blasted.

423 Air-Abrasive Wet Blasting


Air-abrasive wet blasting is very similar to dry-abrasive blasting except that a stream of water surrounds the abrasive. The advantage of this method is that, while the water does not improve the cleaning, it reduces the formation of dust while not noticeably reducing production rates. Normal reduction in dust can be as much as 50 to 75 percent. Water pressures range from 3,000 psi to 30,000 psi. Note In this manual, Chevron has designated pressures under 10,000 psi as highpressure water blasting and pressures 10,000 psi and above as ultra-high-pressure water blasting. The main disadvantage of this method is that it leaves moisture on the surface which, without a corrosion inhibitor added to the blast water, can cause rusting.

Caution Corrosion inhibitors must be compatible with the coating system selected and must be added according to manufacturers' recommendations; otherwise, the inhibitors will cause coatings to fail prematurely. Air-abrasive wet blasting should be used in situations where heavy dust is intolerable.

424 Water Blasting


Water blasting cleans the surface with a stream of high-pressure water. This method does not, however, produce its own profile; but it can remove an existing coating from a structure and expose the previous surface profile. Example: 10,000 psi are necessary to remove existing coatings or loose mil scale. The disadvantages are that water blasting: Does not produce a surface profile Leaves the surface wet so that the coatings applicator must add the proper proportion of rust inhibitors compatible with the coating to prevent premature failure of the coating

High-pressure Water Blasting (3,000 psi)


If the existing coating system still has a sound primer with less than ten percent rusting, high-pressure water blasting should be the first alternative for surface preparation of stainless steel substrates in non-immersion service. When high-pressure water blasting, the coatings applicator: Washes the surface with high-pressure water

September 1996

400-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

Vacuum blasts or power-tool cleans any rusted areas left after cleaning the surface Gives the bare steel areas an extra coat of surface-tolerant primer

The coatings applicator topcoats the cleaned surface with five to seven mils of surface-tolerant primer, Systems 1.8 or 1.8.1. (See system data sheets in the Quick Reference Guide.) Leave these primers without a top coat; but, for added protection and gloss retention, topcoat them with two to three mils of polyurethane finish, Systems 2.15 or 2.15.1. This high-pressure (3,000 psi) method removes loose coating, dirt, and other material. Its production rate is approximately three times faster than abrasive blasting to SSPC-SP6. The advantages are that, by leaving the existing tight coating, surface preparation time and initial cost are reduced. The disadvantage is a shorter life for the coating system. For several years, the coating industry has been testing this method with good results. As yet, there is no sufficiently long-term data to support the theory that this method will last the more than ten years of an abrasive-blast system. Note The Company has conducted some laboratory tests on six brands of surfacetolerant coatings. Although the results are based on a preliminary evaluation, all six coatings performed equally well. See Figure 400-4.
Fig. 400-4 Tested and Acceptable Surface-Tolerant Coatings Brand Amerlock 400 Amerlock 400L Carboline Devoe Carbomastic 15 Carboline 801 Bar-Rust 235 Bar-Rust 239
Note: Coatings are listed in alphabetical order and do not suggest ranking. All listed coatings ranked equally well in testing.

Manufacturer Ameron

Ultra-high-pressure Water Blasting (over 10,000 psi)


Specify ultra-high-pressure water blasting for surfaces that: Need all the coating removed Cannot use any abrasive-blast method (wet or dry)

Its production rate is similar to all of the abrasive pressure blasting methods.

Chevron Corporation

400-9

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Water Blasting with Abrasive Injection


Water blasting with abrasive injection thrusts abrasive into a stream of high-pressure water at the nozzle. This method does produce a surface profile but at a much slower production rate than dry-abrasive blasting. Wet blasting with abrasive injection has the same problem with the potential for corrosion as wet blasting and also solves that problem with inhibitors. Use this method for reducing dust.

425 Mechanical-abrasive Blasting


There are both stationary and portable mechanical-abrasive machines. In both cases, a rotating wheel centrifugally hurls abrasive on the surface at a high velocity. As in dry-abrasive blasting, these methods clean the surface and produce a variety of surface profiles.

Stationary Machines
Usually found only in fabrication shops, large machines blast clean a wide variety of irregular and complex shapes. Operated properly, these machines can achieve the same surface cleanliness and profile as dry-abrasive blasting but at a lower cost. For new construction, consider having a fabrication shop prepare the surface and prime the steel.

Portable Machines
Because of their size, portable machines are normally used on horizontal surfaces primarily for surface preparation of concrete or steel floors. They have difficulty reaching corners, fillets, or irregular areas. They are, however, found on the jobsite. Portable machines are designed to contain all of the dust, abrasive, and contaminants. With properly operated portable machines, therefore, workers need neither special protective clothing nor containment screens.

426 Power and Hand Tools


Power and hand tools produce a poor surface for coating; however, they are used for repairing small, hard-to-reach areas. Another important reason for using power or hand tools is to clean the rusted areas of a structure while leaving most of its coating intact.

Caution With these methods, select a surface-tolerant primer to improve coating life.

Power Tools
There are three basic categories of power tools for cleaning, all of which clean the surface and produce a surface profile but not to the quality of abrasive blast cleaning:

September 1996

400-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

Impact cleaning tools such as chipping hammers, scaling hammers, and needle guns Rotary cleaning tools using three types of cleaning media: nonwoven abrasive, wire brushes, and coated abrasive Rotary impact tools operating on the same principle as the other impact tools cutting, and chippingand using three types of cleaning media: cutter bundles (or stars), rotary hammers, and heavy duty rotary flaps

Hand Tools
As the name implies, this method involves cleaning with hand tools and is the least desirable method, being one of the slowest and least effective. Examples: Wire brushes, abrasive pads, scrapers, chisels, and knives.

Caution When cleaning stainless steel with carbon steel wire brushes, the brush wires can come loose and stick in the steel at welds, crevices, and flanges, where they start a corrosion cell.

427 New Technology


Several new methods exist for cleaning steel substrates. While most are either in the development stage or very expensive, they may be useful when normal methods of surface preparation are not feasible. The following discussion details the more promising techniques.

Blasting with Ice, CO2 Pellets, and Baking Soda


Initially developed for the U.S. Navy to descale ship hulls and remove paint from aircraft, these blast media work with equipment similar to the common abrasiveblast method. The main difference is the blast media. The advantages of ice, CO2, pellets, and baking soda blast media are that: They create very little toxic waste or dust plumes Used properly, they can remove paint or other materials from delicate equipment CO2 pellets are non-conductive and have cleaned operating electrical equipment

The main disadvantages of ice, CO2 pellets, and baking soda as blast media are that: They have very low production rates They do not produce a surface profile CO2 pellet blasting can cool a steel substrate to subzero temperatures

Plastic Blasting
Similar to common abrasive blasting, plastic pellets are the blast medium. To date, the aircraft industry is the only user; and they remove paint from airplanes with this method. It produces negligible toxic waste or dust plumes.

Chevron Corporation

400-11

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Its biggest disadvantages include: Low production rates No surface profile Ineffective at removing thick layers of epoxy coatings

Infra-red Light
Still under development and expensive, the concentrated infra-red light heats the coating to combustion without affecting the substrate. This method does, however, have some interesting properties as it: Removes coatings by the layer or all at once Leaves a small pile of ash as its only waste

Consider this method under the special circumstance of removing one layer of a multi-layer coating.

Peel-away Stripper
Designed to remove lead-based coatings (LBC), this industrial-strength, alkalinebased stripping material is sprayed on the substrate. Coatings applicators then power wash or scrape off the coating. Note Brush blasting is recommended to remove any vestiges of the stripper before recoating. Consider this method as a means of removing LBCs but not for removing general industrial coatings. Because of the containment costs involved when abrasive blasting LBCs, however, this stripper can be very cost effective. The cost of removing the waste stream is the main disadvantage of this method.

430 Standards & Specifications


To ensure proper surface preparation, there are two important references: written and visual descriptions of surface cleanliness and profile. Of the written and visual standards available for surface preparation, those described below are easiest to understand and follow.

431 Written Standards


The Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) has published surface preparation specifications that are widely accepted by the coating industry.[5] The specifications define degrees of abrasive blasting, solvent cleaning, and hand- and powertool cleaning. Because of the chronological order of definitions for surface preparation standards, the SSPC numbering system is not consistent with the logical order of degrees of cleanliness.

September 1996

400-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

Examples: SP-10 (near white) is better than SP-6 (commercial) but not as good as SP-5 (white). The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) adopted the SSPC definitions for abrasive blasting, but renumbered them to improve their organization and our retention of them. [6] Figure 400-1 gives numbers and short descriptions of the SSPC and NACE specifications, along with corresponding Canadian, Swedish, and British standards. Note Although NACE adopted the SSPC abrasive blasting description, they did not adopt the specifications for solvent, hand-tool, or power-tool cleaning.

432 Visual Standards


When specifying abrasive-blast cleaning, supplement written definitions with references to visual standards. Although there are several standards, some are better than others.

Caution Do not substitute pictorial standards for a complete surface-preparation specification, because the pictorial standard is based upon appearance only and does not consider other factors such as surface profile, removing contaminants, cleaning procedure, and re-rusting. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) has published very good, color, pictorial standards for abrasive blasting.[7] A copy of these standards is appended to this manual. They are extremely useful, as they take into account the effect of various original conditions on the appearance of the blast cleaned surfaces. The SSPC and ASTM adopted visual surface-preparation standards developed in Sweden.[8] These standards, referred to as SSPC-Vis1 and ASTM D2200-85, are not included in the manual. Instead, Chevron prefers the use of the SNAME standards, which are more complete and convenient. NACE also sells visual standards in the form of plastic coated pieces of steel which have been prepared to degrees of cleanliness corresponding to NACE Surface Preparation Specifications 1 through 4. Again, these comparative samples are extremely useful in the field and are available from NACE. (See listings of resources in the Quick Reference Guide.) Brush blast, commercial blast, near-white metal blast, and white metal blast are represented in all of the above visual standards. Variations in shade, tone, color, pitting, mill scale, etc., are due to the original condition of the steel surface. Consider and compensate for these variations when comparing the surface to the visual standards.

Chevron Corporation

400-13

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

440 Selection Criteria


To select the most appropriate method of surface preparation, consider the type of coating material now on the surface (e.g. lead-based), toxic wastes, the new coating system that will be applied, cost, and sensitive areas.

Presence of Lead-based Coatings (LBC)


Answers to the following questions will help select the most cost-effective method of surface preparation for a coatings project. If LBC's are present, do they need to be removed? What are the containment costs? Is the condition of the LBC good enough to be encapsulated?

Toxic Waste
The following questions highlight reasons for producing low amounts of toxic waste. What are the disposal costs for toxic waste? Is there a possibility of contaminating nearby rivers, streams, lakes, or other environmentally sensitive areas?

New Coating System


The coating system is one of the most important items to consider when selecting a method of surface preparation. In this manual, the system data sheet (in the Quick Reference Guide) for each coating lists the recommended method of surface preparation and the anchor pattern. Another source of information about the level of cleaning and the surface profile is the manufacturers' data sheet.

Costs
Short- versus long-term costs can also dictate the method of the surface preparation. Is it more important to reduce today's cost by selecting a surface preparation method that could lead to early repair or replacement of the coating? Is it better to spend more money today on premium surface preparation and have the coating system last longer?

See also Economics in Section 300 of this manual.

Sensitive Areas
Sensitive equipment or other items in the vicinity of the jobsite may influence the choice of surface preparation. Examples: The possibility of abrasive-blast media entering the air intakes of rotating equipment or potential over-blasting of nearby automobiles.

September 1996

400-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

450 Preparing Steel Substrates


451 Immersion Service
Immersion service needs the best possible surface preparation because it is usually the most severe service for a coating system.

New & Existing Construction


For both new and existing surfaces in immersion service, Chevron recommends: Dry-abrasive blasting as the only method of surface preparation for immersionservice coatings SSPC-SP5 (white metal blast) for surface cleanliness

Caution Some coating manufacturers will accept SSPC-SP10 (near white metal blast) which Chevron finds unacceptable. The blast medium is the only change recommended for these surface-preparation methods. If contaminated substrates can turn the blast medium into a toxic waste, there are two possible solutions: Select an abrasive medium with the lowest concentration of contaminates that are regulated in the local area. If low enough, the contaminates from the blasting operation may not make the blast medium a toxic waste. If the preceding solution will not work, consider a recycled abrasive-blast system, usually a combination of steel shot and grit. Because the abrasive is cleaned and reused, the only waste produced is the material removed from the substrate which can be as much as one-tenth of normal dry-abrasive blasting.

Caution Recycled abrasive blast systems are very expensive because workers use them when working in contained areas with abrasive that must be collected and cleaned. When working on a coatings project that may involve these systems, initiate a cost analysis to weigh the cost of waste disposal against the cost of a recycle system. Note For coating projects in California, recycled blasting systems are becoming more common as the cost of waste disposal increases.

Existing Construction
Tanks which have been in service and are corroded may need a considerable amount of patching to restore the bottoms or shells to an acceptable condition before applying an internal coating. Plug welding, weld overlaying, or patching with plate are all acceptable, depending on the size of the area to be repaired. Stipulate that all surfaces be ground smooth and all sharp corners rounded off (minimum radius: one-eighth inch) to allow good coating coverage. Note This requirement applies to all areas of the tank, not just to repairs.

Chevron Corporation

400-15

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Pitted areas may be repaired either by welding or by filling with putty as described below.

Caution If coatings applicators are not going to carry out the restoration, one of them should be made responsible for ensuring that the restoration is completed properly before they begin abrasive blasting. Solvent cleaning prior to abrasive blasting is very important for tanks that have been in service; otherwise, an oily residue remains after blasting and causes problems with coating adhesion. Remove other types of residue such as soluble salts with a water or detergent wash before blasting. Soluble salts can cause the coating to blister; osmotic pressure causes water to diffuse through the coating more rapidly, to dilute the salts. Repairing Pits with Putty. A smooth surface is necessary to achieve a coating of uniform thickness; however, the thicker the coating, the less sensitive it is to small irregularities in the surface. For thin-film coatings, even small pits can become sites of early failure. It is very important to fill sharp, pitted areas properly. Note Surfaces roughened by relatively uniform corrosion may be acceptable without any putty. The shape of the pits is the most important factor when determining the need for filling. Do not fill wide, shallow pits with rounded edges. Always fill narrow, deep pits with sharp edges. Note It is usually easier to fill all the pits rather than to decide which ones to fill and which ones not to fill. The coatings applicators should grind and round off sharp corners or edges before abrasive blasting. They should also apply an extra coat over these areas and over all welds to prevent thin spots. Rivet seams require a coat of seam sealer to fill in all the gaps around the rivets. Spray-applied glass-flake coatings are generally less sensitive to small irregularities than thin-film coatings. Trowel-applied glass-flake coatings are so much thicker that the coatings applicator needs to fill only relatively large pits. Laminate coatings are much more sensitive at corners and edges than at small pits, because the fiberglass mat cannot conform to sharp changes in direction. The application details in Section 14 of Specification COM-MS-4738 require a gradual slope or radius at all direction changes. Fill the larger pits to provide a smooth working surface for the coating; a rough surface causes many up-turned fibers which the coatings applicator must sand before applying the final layer. Putties and sealers are specified on the system data sheets in the Quick Reference Guide.

September 1996

400-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

452 Non-immersion Service


New Construction
Whenever possible for new construction in non-immersion service, choose a surfacepreparation system that produces a surface profile and cleanliness equal to or better than SSPC-SP6 (commercial blast). This means dry-abrasive or mechanicalabrasive blasting methods.

Caution Some coating manufacturers claim that SSPC-SP2 or SP3 (hand- or power-tool cleaning) is sufficient for their coatings; however, experience has shown that improved surface cleanliness can increase the life of a coating from 50 to 100 percent. Most fabrication shops have stationary and portable mechanical-abrasive machines, capable of preparing a surface for coating at one-third the cost of field preparation.

Caution The only disadvantage with shop blasting is that the steel substrate will rerust if not primed immediately. If the specified coating system includes an IOZ primer, have it applied in the shop immediately after blasting. IOZ primers are very durable and will resist the abuse of shipping and installation. Other primers (alkyds, epoxies, urethane, etc.) are not as durable as IOZ and require a considerable amount of touch up after shipping and installation. The amount of touch up may be equal to or greater than the savings from shop blasting. If the new steel has tightly adhering mill scale, it might be cost effective to have it shop blasted and primed with a one-mil-thick, fast-dry, shop primer to prevent rerusting. After shipping and installation, a light abrasive blast will remove the shop primer. Depending on the original condition of the steel substrate, this approach could be more economical than the field blasting necessary to achieve the specified anchor profile and cleanliness.

Existing Structures
Surface preparation is extremely important; in some cases, the life of the coating has doubled as a result of changing the preparation from power-tool cleaning (SP3) to abrasive blasting (SP6). For the best, long-term, coating performance, complete surface preparation by dryabrasive blasting to a cleanliness of SSPC-SP6 (commercial blast) for existing structures in non-immersion service. Blasting in the field can be very expensive or impossible, however, so Chevron recommends several alternative methods: high-pressure water blasting, dry-abrasive vacuum blasting, hand- and power-tool cleaning, air-abrasive wet blasting, and water blasting with abrasive injection, ultra-high-pressure water blasting, and new technology.

Chevron Corporation

400-17

September 1996

400 Surface Preparation

Coatings Manual

Each of these methods is described in another part of this section. See also Figure 400-2 for a list of all methods of surface preparation, production rates, and other comments.

Alternative Methods of Surface Preparation


If dry-abrasive blasting is not feasible and an alternative is necessary, study the project to find the answers to questions about the conditions and restraints, such as: What is the condition of the existing coating? Is the coating system exposed to a mild or severe environment, i.e., desert or heavy industrial? How long must the coating system last? Can the coating system be easily repaired? Is it more cost effective to save money today through less surface preparation and accept a shorter coating life? Is it more cost effective to spend the extra money today for surface preparation that will give the longest coating life? How does waste disposal impact coating costs? How will surface preparation impact surrounding equipment? How will surface preparation impact the environment?

460 Preparing Other Metal Substrates


Galvanized Iron and Steel
Galvanizing offers sufficient protection from atmospheric corrosion so that coating is unnecessary and is generally for aesthetics. Because there are chemical and physical differences between galvanized steel and bare steel, special surface preparation is necessary to establish a good bond between the galvanizing and the coating. This surface preparation consists of two steps: 1. 2. A solvent cleaning to remove oil An application of a vinyl butyral wash primer (System 1.7) prior to topcoating

For rusted or previously painted galvanized steel, the coatings applicator should solvent clean and then wire brush the surface to remove deposits before applying the wash primer.

Uncoated Stainless Steel


Uncoated stainless steel does not need coating for corrosion protection. If coated for aesthetics or protection from chloride attack, the surface preparation is the same

September 1996

400-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

400 Surface Preparation

as for carbon steel; however, blasting is only needed to produce an anchor pattern, not to remove rust.

All Previously Coated Surfaces


Previously coated surfaces need proper preparation for good coating performance. Generally, brush-off blasting is sufficient: For surfaces with spot rusting or flaking, peeling, or blistering coating To roughen hard or glossy surfaces to obtain good adhesion

470 References
1. Griffiths, J. Dave. Coatings Application: Is Compromise Necessary Between Manufacturers' Recommendations and Repair Yard Practice. Shipcare and Maritime Management. May 1980: pp. 27-30. Weismantel, Guy E. Paints and Coatings for CPI Plants and Equipment. Chemical Engineering. April 20, 1981: pp. 130-143. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Causes and Prevention of Coatings Failures. NACE Publication 6D170. Item 54192. March 1979: pp. 32-36. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Fabrication Details, Surface Finish Requirements, and Proper Design Considerations for Tanks and Vessels to be Lined for Immersion Service. NACE RP0178. 1991. Steel Structures Painting Council. Surface Preparation Specifications. January 1971. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Standards of Task Group T-6 G-2, November 17, 1962. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Abrasive Blasting Guide for Aged Coated Steel Surfaces, Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-21. New York, April 1986. Swedish Academy of Sciences. Photographic Standards, 1967 ed.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

Chevron Corporation

400-19

September 1996

500 Application
Abstract
Second only to surface preparation, the method of applying a coating determines its performance and ultimate life. [1] During a project, coatings applicators must mix and thin materials properly, allow them to cure, and store them according to manufacturers' guidelines. See Section 200 for the safety factors affecting coating projects. Contents 510 511 512 513 520 521 522 523 524 525 530 540 Methods of Application Spray Roller Brush Other Factors Affecting Application Handling Selection of Coatings Applicators Structure and Surface to be Coated Multiple Coats Weather and Atmospheric Conditions Touch Up Reference 500-10 500-10 500-5 Page 500-2

Chevron Corporation

500-1

September 1996

500 Application

Coatings Manual

510 Methods of Application


The most common methods of application are spray, roller, and brush, each offering advantages and disadvantages and each requiring particular equipment and techniques. These methods affect not only the film thickness (Figure 500-1) but also the loss per gallon. With any method, coatings applicators can lay on a coating too thickly, causing it to sag or run. Only with a brush or roller, however, can they spread coatings too thinly.
Fig. 500-1 Average Film Thickness by Type of Tool Average Film Thickness (DFT) 2 mils 3 mils 0.5 to 20 mils

Tool Brush Roller Spray

To calculate the theoretical coverage of a coating, use the following equation, based on the film thickness and solids content: 1604S T.C. = -------------t
(Eq. 500-1)

where: T.C. = theoretical coverage, square foot/gal. S = solids content, volume percent t = desired film thickness, mils Actual coverage, however, may be 10 to 50 percent less than theoretical coverage when allowing for application technique (amount of overspray), surface roughness, and spills. Brushes have the lowest loss per gallon for a given coating; rollers, slightly higher. Losses from spray application depend on the type of surface, the type of gun, and the skill of the operator Airless spray guns are capable of producing only slightly higher losses than rollers. While some air-atomized, external-mix guns lose up to 20 percent of coating in overspray, a typical loss value for airless spray on the smooth surface of a steel plate is 15 percent.

511 Spray
Spray guns and associated equipment vary physically but operate similarly. The spray system atomizes the coating and deposits it on the surface. Common types of

September 1996

500-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

500 Application

spray systems include internal and external mix, airless, hot, electrostatic, and catalyst-and-resin sprays. See Section 200 of this manual for hazards associated with spray equipment. Coating applicators can minimize overspray by working parallel to the surface without any arcing motion. For areas that forbid sprays because of historical property damage from overspray, specify specially formulated coatings for roller or brush. Advantages: The fastest and most cost-effective method of application; in general, about twice as fast as roller application and four times faster than brush coating The most efficient method for large areas Effective at creating a uniform appearance and thickness Capable of achieving the desired total thickness in fewer coats than with roller or brush

Note Because each coat is a labor- and cost-intensive step, applying fewer coats reduces the total cost of a coating system. Suitable for certain coatings, including vinyl, lacquer, multimil alkyd enamel, and those specially formulated for spray application

Disadvantages: Spray equipment needs special care not only during operation but also for its maintenance. There are filters to clean, and fine orifices to keep open as some coatings cure quickly in the hose and form solid plugs, shutting down the work. The most frequent problems come from misusing equipment.

Note As coatings applicators own their spray equipment, however, they take great pains to keep it operating at maximum efficiency. Overspray means that fine particles of coating are blown into the air and do not strike the object to be coated. Overspray: Represents a loss of 20 percent or more material on small objects such as pipes Produces a rough, sandy appearance if dry overspray blows on a freshly coated surface Constitutes a potential hazard to health, fire, and property

Example: Overspray of zinc primers on stainless steel has the potential to cause liquid-metal embrittlement.

Chevron Corporation

500-3

September 1996

500 Application

Coatings Manual

512 Roller
There are many types of rollers and roller covers: From hand dip to pressure feed From one-inch to 16-inches wide With naps up to two-inches thick

The most common rollers have a simple handle with a metal roller core and a removable cover. Some can accommodate extension handles. Roller covers are made of lamb's wool, mohair, Pronel, Dynel, and other synthetic fibers. Note Cover material must be compatible with the coating being applied. See Figure 500-2.
Fig. 500-2 Recommended Roller Covers Resistance Most solvent-resistant fiber Comments Mats badly in water; not for water-based coatings Excellent for polyester resins Mohair Dynel, Pronel Good water resistance Excellent water resistance and fair solvent resistance Good for synthetic enamels and other smooth finishes Not for ketones or styrene solvents Not for lacquers, vinyls, or polyester coatings which dissolve the fibers. Dynel, an acrylic, is most popular for general-purpose rollers

Roller Cover Lamb's Wool

Advantages: Little training is necessary for coatings applicators. Rollers can produce an orange-peel appearance. Rollers with long handles attached can reach high places without scaffolding. Roller coating is relatively fast, at least twice as fast as brushing, especially if the substrate surface is rough. Compared to spraying, rollers produce less splatter or overspray.

Disadvantages: Rollers are inefficient for small jobs since they hold too much coatingup to one-half pint. Roller application is only about half as fast as spraying.

September 1996

500-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

500 Application

Rollers are more difficult to clean than brushes and, if used improperly, can produce overspray. Coating applicators tend to select thick naps (the fiber length on the surface of roller) which hold more coating and can produce bubbles on the applied coating. If the coatings applicator re-rolls the coating to eliminate the bubbles, the resultant film may not meet the specified minimum thickness. Any contract with a coating supplier should specify the required nap size.

Note

513 Brush
Brushes come in many shapes and sizes, designed for specified applications. More importantly, bristles come in a variety of types, both natural and synthetic. Highquality brushes have flagged bristle tips, enabling them to hold more coating and resulting in finer bristle marks on the surface. Specify a bristle compatible with the coating. Advantages: For primer coats, brushing improves the coating-to-surface bond, especially if the substrate is rough, dusty, or slightly contaminated. Brushing requires a minimum of tools. Often, a brush is the only practical tool for corners, edges, odd shapes, trim, and small areas. For small shapes or if spraying requires excessive protection for surrounding areas, brushing can be faster than spraying.

Disadvantages: Brushing is usually the slowest application method for large areas. Brushing produces a non-uniform film and often such defects as brush marks, laps, sags, and runs. The wide variety of brushes and levels of the coatings applicators' skills produce an inconsistent quality of coating.

520 Other Factors Affecting Application


From the standpoint of safety when working with coatings, either: Make sure the equipment to be coated is in a safe condition before turning it over to the contractor, or Inform the contractor in writing of hazardous conditions that may be present and of safety procedures and equipment that are necessary.

See also safety information in Section 200 of this manual.

Chevron Corporation

500-5

September 1996

500 Application

Coatings Manual

The following factors can affect the application of a coating: handling, coatings applicators, structure and surface, multiple coats, geographic weather, and atmospheric conditions.

521 Handling
Among the elements involved in handling a coating are mixing, thinning, drying, curing, and storing the material.

Mechanical Mixing
Coatings applicators should mix coatings mechanically, even small amounts of viscous coatings, mastics, and catalyzed coatings with small quantities of catalyst. Mechanical mixing is fast and efficient. Among the other reasons for mixing coatings are to: Ensure homogeneity for single-component coatings such as alkyds which can settle and thicken during storage Achieve proper cure and performance of coatings with two or more components

Caution Coating applicators should not mix coatings manually because serious problems can occur if multiple-component coatings are not mixed mechanically and completely.

Thinning
To ensure compatibility between a thinner and coating, select both products from the same coating manufacturer and follow the manufacturer's directions about amounts and procedures. Reasons for Thinning. Thinning is necessary: To spray some coatings that are supplied in the viscosity range for roller or brush During cold weather, when coatings can thicken

Disadvantages of Thinning. Thinning has the following disadvantages: A thinned coating deposits fewer coating solids per square foot, resulting in thinner films and the possibility of needing more coats than an unthinned coating. Excessive thinning causes coatings to run and sag and catalytic-cured coatings to crack.

Drying & Curing


Plans for a coating project must include the amount of time needed for drying before handling the surface or returning it to service and for curing the coating. Drying. Drying times vary considerably. The following factors affect drying time; some can be controlled to reduce drying time.

September 1996

500-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

500 Application

Coating Type and Manufacturer Temperature Humidity Ventilation Film Thickness

If necessary, specify specially formulated, quick-drying coatings. Curing. Complete curing is essential before putting coatings into service in areas of immersion or exposing them to chemicals or foot traffic. After mixing and before applying some high-performance two-component coatings, such as epoxies and urethanes, specify that the coatings applicators allow an incubation period for these materials to begin curing. Applied too early or too late, the coatings will cure improperly. Note As curing time varies among coating types and brands, always follow the manufacturer's instructions for curing.

Storing Coatings

Caution Follow the manufacturers' recommendations to avoid such problems as coating curdling, gelling, and skinning. Store the coating in a protected area, such as a building, to shield it from extremes of temperature and humidity. Check the shelf life of any coating before applying it and do not use a coating older than its recommended life.

See also Section 800 of this manual for information about storing coatings for offshore projects.

522 Selection of Coatings Applicators


Coatings applicators and coatings contractors have the most influence on a coating's quality. A poor or inexperienced coatings applicator can ruin a coating project or, at best, achieve mediocrity. Evaluate coatings applicators carefully before selecting one. Questions that should be answered are: Does the applicator have experience with the Company's projects locally? If so, attempt to locate the foreman to discuss this person's performance. Does the applicator have experience in other industries? If so, contact engineers or maintenance supervisors in these industries for references. Does the applicator have the proper equipment for the job?

Chevron Corporation

500-7

September 1996

500 Application

Coatings Manual

Do coating manufacturers know and recommend this applicator? Manufacturers have a vested interest in having their products applied properly. Is the applicator currently working on a job that you could visit? If so, ask the owner's engineers if they are satisfied with this coatings applicator's performance.

After the coatings applicator is selected, he should choose the coating method after considering several factors: Type of structure and surface to be coated Type of coating, the coating thickness, losses, and coverage Weather conditions expected during application

523 Structure and Surface to be Coated


The structure itself is another factor in determining the best coating method because of its: Size and shape Accessibility of its components Service Location relative to other structures (roads, parking lots, furnaces, electric lines) Geographical location (level, hilly, mountainous terrain, near water)

Other important factors in application include the type of material to be coated and the extent of surface preparation. See Figure 500-3.
Fig. 500-3 Recommended Coating Methods by type of Surface Surface Cyclone fence Hand-cleaned or rusted Large, rough Large, flat Masonry, stucco, concrete Metal Piping Abrasive blasted Small x x x x x x x x x x Brush Roller x(1) x x x x x x(2) x x Spray

(1) Unless special electrostatic equipment is available. (2) Usual method

September 1996

500-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

500 Application

524 Multiple Coats


When planning a project with multiple coats, choose the most efficient method for multiple-coat applications and the coating formula with a high content of solids to reduce the number of coats needed for the desired thickness of film. Note While multi-mil alkyds can be four mils in one coat, normal alkyds need two coats to achieve that thickness. Thick coatings are hard to roll or brush.

525 Weather and Atmospheric Conditions


Coatings Formulation
Coatings are often formulated to work well in the manufacturer's geographical area but may have problems elsewhere. Coatings formulated for a cool or coastal area may prove unsatisfactory when applied in a hot, dry, or high-altitude area. Leafing problems of metallic pigmented coatings are associated with environmental changes. Manufacturers recommend a range of the atmospheric conditions for applying coatings.

Atmospheric Conditions
Atmospheric conditions for coatings include temperature, humidity, and wind. Temperature. If the temperature is too low (less than 50F), most catalytic coatings do not cure; air-dry coatings are hard to apply and dry slowly. In hot weather or strong sunlight, coatings may dry too rapidly for entrapped solvents to escape, producing defects such as blistering, cratering, wrinkling, and overspray marking. Many catalytic-curing coatings will not cure in damp weather. Humidity. Coatings applied over damp surfaces will peel and wrinkle.

Caution Never apply coatings under the following conditions: Over damp surfaces When relative humidity exceeds manufacturer's written recommendation When surface temperature is less than 5F above the dew point

Wind. High winds/drafts increase overspray and the danger of damage to nearby objects. Dust and sand blown on freshly coated surfaces mar the coating finish or form defects where coating deterioration may begin.

Chevron Corporation

500-9

September 1996

500 Application

Coatings Manual

Caution

Do not apply coatings in strong winds or drafts, especially by spraying.

530 Touch Up
Touch up is important for newly coated or installed items after welding activities are completed. Generally, welding, shipping, and handling damages the coating on new structures. Weld burns and cable scars need prompt attention to prevent unnecessary metal loss on damaged areas. It is important to protect the weld and damage areas from corrosion while the degree of rusting is still minor. Delays can be costly due to expanding undercreepage of the existing coats and worsening degree of corrosion around the damaged areas. A relatively minor touch-up operation in the beginning can turn into a sizable project in just a few years. An increase in costs up to 20 percent per year over the original cost are possible when including the associated costs for an increased work scope, additional labor time, and materials.

540 Reference
1. Weismantel, Guy E. Paints and Coatings for CPI Plants and Equipment. Chemical Engineering. April 20, 1981: pp. 130-143.

September 1996

500-10

Chevron Corporation

600 Coating Concrete


Abstract
This section focuses on basic projects for coating concrete. Topics covered include: the most suitable coatings and coating systems, how to assess and repair the concrete surface, and issues peculiar to coating concrete. Before preparing the surface, it may be necessary to repair common, non-structural damage to the concrete such as holes and cracks. For structural repair of concrete, which is beyond the scope of this manual, contact the Company's civil and structural engineers. When selecting a concrete coating, it is important to know its intended exposure, such as environment, temperature, and immersion. The selection guides and data sheets for coating concrete in mild environments are available in the Quick Reference Guide. For critical projects, consult one of the Company's coating specialists (also listed in the Quick Reference Guide). From the standpoint of application, there is no one standard technique because of the complexity of this surface. While general information is offered in this section, specific assistance is available both from manufacturers and the Company's coating specialists. Contents 610 611 612 613 620 621 622 630 631 640 641 Coating Concrete in General Existing Structures or New Construction Engineering Assistance Reasons for Coating Concrete Descriptions of Coatings for Concrete Coatings Coating Systems Selection Defining Conditions Assessing and Repairing Concrete Assessing the Surface 600-10 600-9 600-4 Page 600-3

Chevron Corporation

600-1

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

642 650 651 652 653 660 661 662 670 680

Repairing Non-structural Damage Surface Preparation Pre-application Requirements Precleaning Mechanical and Chemical Cleaning Application Recommended Process Reviewing an Application Procedure Inspection References 600-23 600-25 600-22 600-21

September 1996

600-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

610 Coating Concrete in General


There are many factors to consider at the outset of a concrete coating project. Some factors are: Whether or not the structure is existing as that affects the level of surface preparation required The level of engineering assistance necessary for the project The reasons for coating concrete which fall basically into two categories: practical maintenance and safety regulations

611 Existing Structures or New Construction


Because of the extra surface preparation required, an existing structure is usually more difficult to coat than a new structure. Existing structures may require: Removal and repair of corroded or damaged concrete Repair of corroded reinforcing bars Repair of existing cracks Removal of two to three inches of contaminated concrete

These repairs may involve rebuilding the structure with either fresh concrete or an epoxy polymer material. During initial design, review all potential problems with coating or lining a new structure. If new construction is designed to accept a coating or lining, the coating will cost less and will be less likely to fail prematurely.

612 Engineering Assistance


Coating or lining concrete has so many variables that this section cannot cover all of the possible situations. This section represents an overview of the information required to coat or line concrete. Before coating or lining a concrete structure, evaluate the difficulty of the project and, for critical projects, contact the Company's coating specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide. Example: One criterion for a critical project is that a premature failure could seriously affect the Company.

613 Reasons for Coating Concrete


Practical maintenance, safety, and complying with regulations are the main reasons for coating concrete.

Chevron Corporation

600-3

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Practical Maintenance and Safety


The following discussion details reasons for coating concrete on the basis of practical maintenance and safety. Protection from the environment. One of the most important factors in selecting a coating system is its environment: exposure to temperature, physical abuse, and immersion service. Concrete may require protection from its environment in API separators, sulfur pits, pump bases, floors, or other primary containment. Protection from wear. One of the main uses of coatings for concrete is to protect floors from wear. There are coating systems designed for foot, light vehicular, and heavy equipment traffic. Maintenance. Because concrete is a porous material, it retains dirt and stains easily. Coating concrete can reduce significantly the cost of routine cleaning. Safety. Non-slip or skid resistant coatings are available for traffic safety on concrete.

Regulations
In addition to practical maintenance, existing regulations require owners to protect concrete with coatings and linings. A discussion of some regulations follows. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), owners must install secondary containment, such as impoundment basins, for aboveground tanks that store hazardous wastes. While concrete is one of the most cost-effective materials for this service, RCRA does not consider concrete a material suitable for containing hazardous wastes unless it is coated or lined. Example: An impoundment basin is one form of secondary containment. Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Congress mandated that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study the need for regulating aboveground petroleum storage tanks. This impending regulation could result in the Company having to line or provide secondary containment for all petroleum storage tanks. It is also possible that State and local environmental agencies might create and enforce equal or more stringent regulations for secondary containment. Regardless of current regulations, consider coating concrete wherever it is necessary to contain or exclude fluid.

620 Descriptions of Coatings for Concrete


While there are many resins available for coating concrete, none are perfect. Selection depends on the coating's environment and exposure to corrosive media, temperature, and physical abuse. When several resins are equivalent, then cost and ease of application become the selection criteria.

September 1996

600-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Listed in alphabetical order, the five major resins for coating concrete structures are: epoxy, isophthalic polyester, novolac epoxy, polyurethane, and vinyl ester. General information about some of these resins is also available in Section 100 of this manual. The four main systems for coating concrete are as follows: non-reinforced thin film, flake-reinforced, glass-flake laminate, and elastomeric polyurethane. As most coating systems for steel are equally suitable for concrete, see Section 100 of this manual for general information about non-reinforced, thin-film, and glassflake-reinforced coatings.

621 Coatings
Epoxy
Epoxy resins are the most common, thin-film coatings for concrete. Advantages: Very good resistance to bases and many solvents Good adhesion to concrete and are easy to apply

Disadvantages: Poor resistance to acid unless modified by a phenolic

Isophthalic Polyester
There are two major classes of polyester resins, but the Company uses only isophthalic which is the main resin in laminate-reinforced systems. Advantages: Corrosion protection Least expensive resin

Disadvantages: Poorer resistance to chemicals than other resins

Epoxy Novolacs
Novolacs are second generation epoxies with greater cross-linking density. Advantages: Greater resistance to chemical attack and high temperatures than all other epoxies

Disadvantages: More expensive and less flexible when compared to standard epoxies

Chevron Corporation

600-5

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Polyurethane
There are literally thousands of polyurethane formulations from hard roller-skate wheels to elastomeric materials with the elasticity of rubber bands. Advantages: Through its wide variety of formulations, polyurethane can have many different properties. Chemical, abrasion, and impact resistant Tensile strength Elasticity

Note Because increases in one property mean decreases in another, many elastomeric polyurethanes are not as chemically resistant as the more rigid polyurethanes. Disadvantages: Some elastomeric formulations are not very resistant to chemicals.

Vinyl Ester
A reaction product between polyesters and epoxies, vinyl ester shares many of the attributes of polyesters. Advantages: Resistant to acid Resistant to solvent attack Resistant to high temperatures

Disadvantages: More costly than an isophthalic polyester or normal epoxy

622 Coating Systems


Thin Film
Thin film is only 10 to 20 mils thick and contains no flakes, fibers, or laminates for reinforcement. Usually, this coating has some inert fillers such as silica or carbon to reduce shrinkage during cure and to improve resistance to abrasion. A thin-film system needs two or three coats: a primer/sealer and one or two high-build topcoats. Recommended dry film thickness (DFT) is 15 to 20 mils, with thicker DFT for more severe services. Advantages: Low cost due to use of the least amount of material, no expensive hand work required, and easiest to apply

September 1996

600-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Disadvantages: Thinness of film which leads to lack of resistance to abrasion, severe chemical attack, and physical abuse Unreinforced film which means it will not bridge existing cracks

Uses: Mild service conditions Splash or spillage environments Temporary service

Flake-reinforced
The flake-reinforced coating system is the most common system for concrete. Flake-reinforced coatings come in both spray- or trowel-applied formulae. Spray is generally applied in two 15 to 20 mil (DFT) coats for a total of 30 to 40 mils (DFT). Trowel applied, with a larger reinforcing flake size, is generally applied in two 30 to 40 (mil) coats for a total of 60 to 80 mils (DFT). Advantages: Excellent properties for most environments Better than thin film at resisting chemical attack (parallel flakes reduce the coating's permeability) and physical abuse by abrasion Cost less than laminate systems

Disadvantages: Rolling is necessary for each layer of either formula so that the flakes lie parallel to the surface.

Caution Although some manufacturers claim their spray formulae are self leveling and do not require rolling, always roll this coating to improve its properties. Flake-reinforced Sprays. The flake-reinforced spray is applied much like a thinfilm system. Advantages: Twice the thickness of thin films; covers a more uneven surface than thin film

Disadvantages: Because they require rolling and extra material, these sprays are marginally more expensive than thin films but not as costly as the trowel-applied formula.

Chevron Corporation

600-7

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Trowel-applied Flake-reinforced Coatings. Advantages: More resistant to chemical attack, abrasion, and physical abuse than either the flake-reinforced spray or thin-film systems

Disadvantages: Application considerably more difficult and time consuming than either the flake-reinforced spray or the thin-film systems; hand smoothing and then rolling is necessary to orient the glass flakes

Glass-flake Laminate
Laminate-reinforced systems are applied by hand in alternating layers of resin and glass mat. These coating systems: Generally have three layers of resin and two layers of fiberglass mat Have a total thickness is 80 to 125 mils May require a special surfacing veil and final resin topcoat for some of the more aggressive services; chemical glass or polyester are the most common surfacing veils.

After inspecting the completed laminate system, apply a final 10 mil (DFT) resin coat without which the surface would remain tacky and lack optimum chemical resistance. With epoxy resins, this coat gives additional protection from chemical attack and is called a gel coat. With polyester and vinyl ester resins, the final coat is a 90/10 mixture of resin and wax. Advantages: For severe applications Adds structural strength Best chemical, wear, and impact resistance

Disadvantages: Hand-applied, laminate-reinforced coatings are by far the most expensive

Elastomeric Urethanes
Elastomeric urethanes, developed as internal coatings for tanks, are thicker than most non-reinforced coatings (30 to 60 mils or more). Applied in one coat, these tough, rubbery coatings are suitable for certain special applications but are not among the standard systems because the Company has limited experience with them. There are two types of elastomeric systems: textile-reinforced and non-reinforced, both of which can be applied at 40 mils (or greater) DFT.

September 1996

600-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Advantages: Depending on their formulation, elastomeric systems can have very good resistance to impact, abrasion, and wear. Because they are elastomeric, manufacturers also claim they can bridge cracks.

Caution While the claim about bridging cracks may be true to some extent, be certain to design and specify proper repair of all cracks and joints before coating. Disadvantages: All elastomeric systems have a modified polyurethane resin which makes the system more expensive than some flake-reinforced and thin-film systems. Polyurethanes are very moisture sensitive during application.

630 Selection
For definitions of environment, physical abuse, and exposure, see Figures 600-1 through 600-5. See the Quick Reference Guide for selecting concrete coatings in mild environments. For coating concrete in moderate-to-aggressive conditions, contact the Company's coating specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide.
Fig. 600-1 Definitions of Environment, Physical Abuse, and Exposure for Concrete Coatings Environment < 140F, mild acids, bases, solvents < 140F, strong acids, bases, solvents > 140F, strong acids, bases, solvents N/A N/A Physical Abuse No coating loss due to abrasion; possible light foot traffic. No physical impact on coating. Moderate coating loss due to abrasion, light equipment wear. Possibility of impact on coating. Severe coating loss due to abrasion, heavy equipment wear. Definite potential for impact on coating. N/A N/A N/A Exposure

Description Mild

Moderate

N/A

Aggressive

N/A

Continuous Intermittent

Exposed to the corrosive medium for longer than 24 hours. Exposed to the corrosive medium for less than 24 hours usually splash or spillage that is cleaned up within 24 hours

Chevron Corporation

600-9

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

631 Defining Conditions


Before calling the Company's coating specialists, know the following information about the conditions anticipated for the concrete coating. Refer to Figure 600-1 for definitions, and also Figures 600-2 through 600-5 Environment. To what temperature and corrosive media is the coating exposed: aggressive, moderate, mild? Physical Abuse. To what extent is the coating exposed to abrasion such as from foot traffic, light cleaning, automobile traffic: aggressive, moderate, mild? Exposure. Is the coating exposed to chemicals continuously or intermittently?
Fig. 600-2 Coating Recommendations for Continuous Immersion

640 Assessing and Repairing Concrete


All concrete must be clean, dry, and in sound condition to receive a coating or lining system. While this surface may be easy to achieve with new construction, it may be expensive for existing structures. Before concrete can be prepared to accept a coating, ensure that the substrate: Is properly cured and dry. The coatings applicator should tape a black plastic sheet over the substrate and check for moisture after 24 hours (ASTM D-4263). Has a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi

September 1996

600-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Fig. 600-3

Coating Recommendations for Continuous Immersion Service

Recommendation #1: Use a laminate reinforced system to resist physical abuse and chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy novalac or vinyl ester resin. Because of the severe service obtain the assistance of a specialist knowledgeable in repairing and coating concrete. See the Quick Reference Guide for a list of recommended specialists. Recommendation #2: Use a flake reinforced system to resist chemical attack and the reduced physical abuse. A laminate system would work here but at twice the cost. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a novalac epoxy or vinyl ester resin. Because of the aggressive corrosive media, obtain the assistance of a specialist knowledgeable in repairing and coating concrete. See the Quick Reference Guide for a list of recommended specialists. Recommendation #3: Use a flake reinforced system to resist chemical attack. Even with the mild physical abuse do not use a thin film system. The thicker flake reinforced system is required to resist the severe environment. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a novalac epoxy or vinyl ester resin. Because of the aggressive corrosive media, obtain the assistance of a specialist knowledgeable in repairing and coating concrete. See the Quick Reference Guide for a list of recommended specialists. Recommendation #4: Use a laminate reinforced system to resist physical abuse. A flake reinforced system would be adequate to resist the chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed

with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Obtain the assistance of a specialist in coating concrete. By evaluating specifics of your project, he may be able to recommend a flake reinforced system instead. Depending on the size of your project this could result in considerable cost savings. Recommendation #5: Use a flake reinforced system to resist the chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, epoxy novalac, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #6: Use a flake reinforced system to resist the chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, epoxy novalac, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #7: Use a laminate reinforced or a textile reinforced urethane system to resist the physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a polyester, epoxy, or modified urethane resin. Recommendation #8: Use a flake reinforced or a textile reinforced urethane system to resist the physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a polyester, epoxy, or modified urethane resin. Recommendation #9: Use a flake reinforced or a textile reinforced urethane system. Because this is immersion service, use a reinforced system. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a polyester, epoxy or modified urethane resin.

Chevron Corporation

600-11

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Fig. 600-4

Coating Recommendations for Intermittent Immersion/Splash/Spillage

Has a surface strength of at least 200 psi. To measure the surface strength, the inspector or Company's representative should attach a metal piece to the concrete with adhesive and measure the force needed to remove it (ASTM Standard Method M-4541). Has a uniform surface free of excessive defects and laitance. To finish new concrete, the coatings applicator should smooth once over the surface with a wood float and then use a steel trowel.

Note Laitance is the film caused when a water-rich cement rises to the surface during finishing. Remove this 5- to 50-mil-thick film before applying any coating.

641 Assessing the Surface


New Structures
During the initial design of a new structure, investigate potential problems involving coatings or linings to reduce costs and premature failures. If laid properly, new concrete requires only cleaning of surface dirt, oil, laitance, etc., before abrading. There may, however, be other items to consider such as vibration, agents and slivers, and curing.

September 1996

600-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Fig. 600-5

Coating Recommendations for Intermittent Immersion Service

Recommendation #10: Use a laminate reinforced system to resist the physical abuse and chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Depending on the type of physical abuse, a flake reinforced system could be used. This should be confirmed with someone experienced with coating concrete. Recommendation #11: Use a flake reinforced system to resist the chemical attack and the reduced physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #12: Use a flake reinforced or thin film system to resist the chemical attack. The selection of reinforced or thin film will depend on the amount of mild physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #13: Use a laminate reinforced system to resist the physical abuse and chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Depending on the type of physical abuse, a flake reinforced system could be used. This should be confirmed with someone experienced with coating concrete. Recommendation #14: Use a flake reinforced or thin film system to resist the chemical attack. The selection of reinforced or thin film will depend on the amount of moderate physical abuse. The resin

selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #15: Use a thin film system to resist the chemical attack. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy, novalac epoxy, or vinyl ester resin. Recommendation #16: Use a laminate reinforced or a textile reinforced urethane system to resist the physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a polyester, epoxy, or modified urethane resin. Depending on the type of physical abuse, a flake reinforced system could be used. This should be confirmed with someone experienced with coating concrete. Recommendation #17: Use a flake reinforced or elastomeric urethane system to resist the moderate physical abuse. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be a polyester, epoxy, or modified urethane resin. Depending on the type of physical abuse, a thin film system could be used. This should be confirmed with someone experienced with coating concrete. Recommendation #18: Use a thin film or elastomeric urethane system. The resin selection should be reviewed with the coating manufacturer to ensure it is resistant to the corrosive media. It will probably be an epoxy or modified urethane resin.

Chevron Corporation

600-13

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Vibration. Vibration consolidates the concrete but can also cause water and air bubbles to move out to the face of the form, resulting in tiny voids or holes in the concrete surface. Before coating or lining concrete, fill all holes, including those opened during surface preparation. Agents and Slivers. Many forms are built with commercially available plywood or wood planks. When removed, these forms may leave other materials in the concrete such as release agents that facilitate the removing forms, or large slivers of wood. Remove these materials, then repair and smooth the area before coating it. Curing. Unless the concrete cures properly, it may crack; if so, repair all cracks before coating or lining.

Existing Structures
Attacked by chemicals, contaminated by hydrocarbons, and damaged by mechanical means, existing concrete may require extensive repairs and surface preparation. A careful inspection should determine whether or not the existing concrete is structurally sound. Corrosion. Depending on the amount of corrosion in the steel reinforcement, the concrete will require the following: Corroded - Coating or cathodic protection in aggressive environments Severely corroded - Replacement of steel reinforcing and the affected concrete or epoxy-polymer material

Contamination. Depending on the level of contamination, concrete that has been exposed to oils or other impurities may require high-pressure detergent-and-water cleaning. It also may require replacing as many inches of concrete as necessary to remove the contaminants.

642 Repairing Non-structural Damage


There are several common kinds of non-structural damage to concrete, such as cracks, holes, expansion joints, and drain and pipe penetrations.

Cracks
Among the choices for repairing concrete based on the size and activity (still moving) are the following: Filling them with a sealer Making them into expansion joints Filling them by pressure injection

Begin with the basic procedures for filling concrete cracks, regardless of size.

September 1996

600-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Basic Procedure for All Cracks. To repair all cracks, begin by: 1. 2. Blowing any standing water out of the crack Removing oils or chemicals in the crack

Caution Do not inject solvents into cracks to remove oils or chemicals because this process actually dilutes the contaminants and carries them further into the concrete surface. Instead use an injection grout that will solubilize the oils and water, bond to the concrete, and cure with suitable properties for the intended purpose. Continue the repairdepending on the size of the crackby following the steps either for small or for large cracks, below. Additional Steps for Small Cracks. alternatives. Alternative One: Filling with Sealer 1. 2. 3. Grind the crack into a V shape with an opening that is a minimum of -inch wide at the surface of the concrete. Pour or trowel the sealing grout into the crack. Scrape off excess grout. To repair small cracks, there are two

Alternative Two: Creating Expansion Joints. Convert small cracks into expansion joints, which allow concrete to expand and contract with changes in temperature or movement of the substrate. See Figure 600-6, Detail C. This figure also covers corrosion control of floor-to-wall expansion joints and floor-to-wall control joints. As they are highly susceptible to premature failures, design expansion joints carefully - to 1-inch wide and as shown in Figures 600-6, 600-7, and 600-8. Note Figure 600-7 shows sealant system for corrosion control in mild environment; Figure 600-8, for more severe environments. The steps for creating expansion joints are as follows: 1. Place sufficient joint material between the concrete surfaces to allow the closed-cell foam-backing rod to come within - to 1-inch of the concrete surface. Pour or trowel on a flexible joint sealant to bring the joint up to the level of the concrete surface. Place 2-inch-wide, vinyl, electrical tape over the joint to provide a bond breaker. Place a -ounce glass mat, saturated with resin, over the tape. Apply the corrosion coating system over the mat.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Chevron Corporation

600-15

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Fig. 600-6

Corrosion Control Treatment of Sealed Expansion Joints, Control Joints, and Cracks in Concrete Foundations

Additional Steps for Large Cracks. To repair larger cracks, fill them by pressure injection. The steps for pressure injection are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Grind the crack into a V shape. Select an appropriate size of copper tubing. Drill holes along the crack 1/8-inch larger than the tubing and to the depth of desired penetration. Insert the tubing into the crack. Grout the crack on the surface to seal it and hold the tubing in place.

September 1996

600-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Fig. 600-7

Corrosion Control Treatment of Exposed Expansion Joints in Concrete Integral with Monolithic Floor/Lining System

6. 7. 8. 9.

Install a grease fitting in the first tube when the grout is cured. Inject grout into the tube with a pump. Allow the grout to flow out of the next tube until the color approaches the original mixture to ensure removal of all contaminants. Repeat the process, filling all tubes.

Holes
This section provides information on filling both small and large holes. Small Holes. During blasting, air pockets open in or just below the surface of most formed concrete. There are two mixes for filling these holes.

Chevron Corporation

600-17

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Fig. 600-8

Corrosion Control Sealing of Expansion Joints, in Concrete Integral with Monolithic Floor/Lining System

Resin-based material is the Company's preferred method of repair. Some are powders mixed with the primer and trowel applied which gives a smooth surface for good coating adhesion. Others are epoxy grouts. Portland-cement materials require expert installation and generally need an additive to reduce shrinkage during cure and to improve adhesion to the old surface. The problems with this cement are that it does not bond well to cured concrete; does not cure well in thin layers; and usually leaves a carbonate layer on the surrounding concrete which can, if not removed, cause coating failures.

September 1996

600-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

Large Holes. There are two main choices of fill for larger holes, both of which need special handling: Concrete - Undercut the hole to guarantee mechanical bonding or apply a chemical bonding agent. Compatible resinous grout - Treat forms with a release agent for easy removal. As formed resinous grouts usually cure with a glazed surface, abrasive blast or grind this glazing to roughen it to ensure that the coating adheres well.

Drain and Pipe Penetrations


Drain and pipe penetrations are almost as vulnerable to failure as expansion joints. Usually, they are not concrete and have very different thermal coefficients of expansion. Improper design can cause leaking at the penetrations. For drains, see Figure 600-9. Figure 600-10 shows details of installing a corrosioncontrol system for pipes.
Fig. 600-9 Floor System Termination at Floor Drain

Chevron Corporation

600-19

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Fig. 600-10 Corrosion Control Treatment of Pipe Penetration through Concrete Wall or Floor

In either case: 1. 2. 3. Dig a groove -inches wide and -inch deep around the drain or pipe penetration. Fill the groove with sealant. Butt the corrosion control system against the sealant for mild environments or extend it to the drain cover in more aggressive environments.

September 1996

600-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

650 Surface Preparation


The life of a coating is directly related to surface preparation. After designing joints and penetrations and repairing all cracks, holes, and other defects, establish the method of surface preparation necessary to clean away all loose concrete, oil, grease, dust, laitance, grime, and other foreign materials. There are several methods of surface preparation for coating concrete. The mechanical methodsabrasive blasting, scarifying, and blastrackingproduce the best surface for coating adhesion.

651 Pre-application Requirements


See Assessing and Repairing Concrete (above) for the four conditions required of a concrete substrate to be ready to accept a coating.

Caution Do not accept broom finishing as it can leave an irregular surface with excess laitance; and, in the case of air-entrained concrete mixes, it can open large holes at the surface.

652 Precleaning
To preclean a concrete surface, follow the ASTM D4258 method: 1. Remove: 2. Dirt and caked grease manually or with an acid wash Grease and oils with low-foaming detergents Animal fats or vegetable oils with saponifying agents

Patch test to determine the best cleaning procedures for the surface.

Clean or remove the surface until it meets the pre-application requirements.

653 Mechanical and Chemical Cleaning


Abrasive-blast Cleaning
Abrasive-blast cleaning is the Company's preferred method of surface preparation. Note There is additional information about abrasive-blast cleaning in Section 400; and, although that section relates to surface preparation for steel substrates, some details are applicable to concrete. Advantages: Gives high production rates for all surface configurations Leaves an excellent surface condition for coating

Chevron Corporation

600-21

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Disadvantages: Creates excessive dust and waste material as the abrasive breaks down

Blastracking
Blastracking is similar to abrasive blasting but uses metal shot instead of abrasive Advantages: Produces comparable surfaces to abrasive blasting with less dust and waste material

Disadvantages: Restricted to horizontal surfaces because it is a fairly large machine

Scarifying (Air Hammer)


Scarifying is often the alternative when field or other conditions prevent blasting of concrete surfaces. Note A scarifier is an apparatus with steel hammers that hit a surface, removing loose material. Advantages: Produces an acceptable surface with less clean-up, set-up, and dust.

Disadvantages: Produces a rougher surface than abrasive blasting.

Acid Etching
Acid etching is the least acceptable cleaning method, but may be used if needed. The steps for acid etching are: 1. 2. Mix one part of concentrated hydrochloric acid with two parts water to form the etching solution. Brush the solution on the concrete.

Caution If the etch does not produce a 60-grit, sandpaper-like profile, repeat the etch. Diluted acid permeates the concrete surface dissolving salts and other contaminants. There is, however, an undesirable side effect; as it dries, the acid deposits the contaminants on the surface, adversely affecting the bond between the coating and the concrete.

660 Application
Because of the complexity of coating concrete and the different systems and resins available, it is impossible to have one uniform application procedure.

September 1996

600-22

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

661 Recommended Process


The recommended application process is to: 1. Select the coating system and resin. Either refer to the Quick Reference Guide (for mild environment) or obtain the assistance of the coating manufacturer and the Company's concrete coating specialist (for other environments). Request detailed application procedures from the manufacturer for the coating selected. Review application procedures with the coatings applicator and the coating manufacturer, resolving differences until the procedure is acceptable to all.

2. 3.

662 Reviewing an Application Procedure


Here are some points to consider when reviewing or writing an application procedure: Many concrete coating systems require a primer for optimum application results. The temperature of concrete slabs should be between 50F and 85F when coating; the slab's temperature must be 5F above the moisture dew point. For optimum results from the application: Apply the primer coating out of direct sunlight. Apply the primer and topcoat when the slab's temperature is cooling rather than rising.

An order of cost (low to high) for coating systems is thin films, flakereinforced films, and laminate-reinforced films. An approximate order of cost (low to high) for resins is as follows: polyesters, epoxies, novolac epoxies, vinyl esters, and polyurethanes. Epoxy resins are the easiest to apply, followed by novolac epoxy, polyester, polyurethane, and vinyl ester. Polyester and vinyl ester require a final wax coat (mixture of wax and resin) to obtain full surface cure. Thicker is not always better. All coatings and linings have a maximum allowable thickness.

670 Inspection
Inspection is an integral part of the quality of a coatings project. The following references offer guidance about the degree of inspection needed and how to select a quality inspector.

Chevron Corporation

600-23

September 1996

600 Coating Concrete

Coatings Manual

Coatings Manual, Section 100 The inspection procedures for steel can be used for inspecting concrete, in most cases.

National Association of Corrosion Engineers RP0288, Inspection of Linings on Steel & Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials D453786, Procedures to Qualify and Certify Inspection Personnel for Coating Work in Nuclear Facilities. (Good information about qualifying any coating inspector.)

Some construction details in concrete may need particular attention from the inspector.

Concrete-to-Steel Interface
In addition to penetrations, other potential concrete-and-steel interfaces need coating. See Figure 600-11, Detail A, for one example of sealing a pedestal/pipe stand in a concrete pit.
Fig. 600-11 Corrosion Control Treatment of Steel-to-Concrete Interface

September 1996

600-24

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

600 Coating Concrete

680 References
The following publications give additional information for repairing and coating concrete. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Practice for Surface Cleaning Concrete for Coating (R 1992). ASTM D4258. 1983. . Standard Practice for Abrading Concrete (R 1992). ASTM D4259. 1988. . Standard Test Method for Indicating Moisture in Concrete by the Plastic Sheet Method (R 1993). ASTM D4263. 1993. . Standard Practice for Determining Coating Contractor Qualifications for Nuclear Powered Electric Generation Facilities. ASTM D4286. 1990. . Standard Guide for Establishing Procedures to Qualify and Certify Inspection Personnel for Coating Work in Nuclear Facilities. D4537. 1991. . Standard Test Method for Pull-off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers. ASTM D4541. 1995. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Monolithic Organic Corrosion Resistant Floor Surfacing. NACE RP-03-76. . Inspection of Linings on Steel and Concrete. NACE RP-02-88. . Linings for Concrete Surfaces in Non-Immersion and Atmospheric Services. RP-0591-91.

Chevron Corporation

600-25

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings


Abstract
In this section, there is general information about coatings and liningsselecting, purchasing, handling, installing, and operating guidelinesdrawn from field experience, industry publications, and vendors. Internal coatings and linings are two choices for preventing corrosion in the steel base metal of downhole equipment. Internal coatings enhance the flow of fluids and may help prevent the build up of paraffin. Linings can salvage tubing. The purpose of a coating or lining for downhole equipment influences both its selection and the means of achieving the desired performance. Connections are an important consideration. For downhole tubing in oil and injection wells, the American Petroleum Industry's (API) eight-round connections are commonplace, coated routinely, and difficult to install holiday free A high-integrity internal coating may be more difficult to achieve on premium connections and typically requires more intensive evaluation and attention. Consider selecting connections designed specifically for IPC and lined tubing. See also Section 120 of this manualfor information on inspections and inspectors, including specific procedures for downhole tubingand the Quick Reference Guidefor contacting Company's coating specialists, who are a primary resource for these specialty coatings and linings. Contents 710 711 720 721 722 723 730 731 Coated Tubing Versus Linings Wells Suitable for Coating or Lining Descriptions Coatings Linings Connections Selection Economics 700-10 700-4 Page 700-3

Chevron Corporation

700-1

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

732 740 741 742 743 750 751 752 760 761 762 763 770 780

General Guidelines Application Steps in Application Holiday-free Coated Tubing Used Tubing Handling Coated or Lined Tubing Coated Tubing Lined Tubing Installation Coated Tubing and Accessories Guidelines for Installing IPC Accessories Guidelines for Installing Lined Tubing Guidelines for Well Operation References 700-19 700-21 700-16 700-13 700-12

September 1996

700-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

710 Coated Tubing Versus Linings


Coated tubing, commonly called internally plastic-coated (IPC) tubing, has liquid or powder coating applied to the inside diameter (ID) to a thickness of 5- to 30-mils dry film thickness (DFT). The coated surface reduces the frequency of corrosion-related failures by a factor of five (average). IPCs limit damage to local areas, avoid expensive fishing jobs, and increase the percentage of salvageable tubing. Note Fishing jobs refers to retrieving parted tubing.

Plastic-coated tubing may also reduce rig time. Corrosion can thin the walls of uncoated tubing so badly that multiple parting failures occur when tubing is pulled during workovers. One hundred percent holiday-free coated tubing adds about ten percent to the cost of a coating project but is justified for the following: Waterflood, water-disposal, and CO2 wells Corrosive services when anticipating long life and expensive rework

Lined tubing has much thicker internal-corrosion barriers which, with one exception, are physically inserted into the tubing. The exception is cement lining which is spun centrifugally on the ID surface. Linings offer truly holiday-free systems.

711 Wells Suitable for Coating or Lining


The following types of wells are suitable for coated or lined tubing: Wells that produce a separate water phase. At 25 to 50 percent watercut, a well usually becomes corrosive. Note Watercut is the percentage of water to total fluids produced, such as oil plus water. Marginal wells. Wells in these circumstances may not justify a workover. While installing a coated tubing string may allow depletion of reserves, an uncoated string may fail before reserves are depleted. Note A succession of joints of tubing makes a string of tubing.

Waterflood or water-disposal wells. Gas-condensate and high GOR (gas/oil ratio) wells. Gas wells are usually corrosive, particularly when producing connate water. Note Connate water is defined as water trapped in a rock matrix.

Gas-lift wells with high-watercut. The well is especially susceptible to corrosion if the gas contains carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide. Note Gas-lift wells are those into which we inject gas to lift the oil out of the reservoir.

Chevron Corporation

700-3

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Offshore wells. Wells located in remote or offshore areas make workover and chemical treatment expensive. The cost of a coated string is usually a fraction of the cost of a well or workover.

Caution Because the constant rubbing damages the coating/lining, wells using sucker-rod pumps for artificial lift are not typically considered candidates for coatings or linings.

720 Descriptions
All coatings are available as 100 percent defect (holiday) free; however, damage may occur during handling, installing, and well operations. For maximum corrosion protection, coated tubing may need a suitable corrosion inhibitor.

721 Coatings
Thin-film coatings are generally 5 to 9 mils DFT; thick-film coatings generally 10 to 30 mils DFT. See Figure 700-1.
Fig. 700-1 Properties of Coatings Chemistry Phenolic Modified Phenolic Epoxy-Phenolic Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy-Cresol-Novolac Nylon Type Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Powder Powder Powder Thickness (mils) 59 59 59 815 1220 1220 1225

Phenolics
The Company has the longest history with phenolic coatings. Advantages: Resistant to chemical attack (from pH 2 to pH 12) Withstand temperatures up to 300F or higher

Disadvantages: Brittleness which limits their usefulness in preventing corrosion Limited DFT; not to exceed 9 mils DFT as brittleness worsens Gas-decompression problems, especially above 7,000 psi and if the coating is thick Susceptibility to mechanical damage from hitting or bending the pipe

September 1996

700-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Uses: As a primer under other thicker, more flexible coatings In high-temperature environments

Note Phenolics may be the only available coating material that can withstand very high temperatures. Primarily for flow enhancement

Caution When using phenolics for corrosion control, consider a corrosioninhibitor-injection program to protect the steel in areas of coating damage.

Modified Phenolics
Modified phenolics were developed to overcome the blistering of phenolics in highpressure gas wells. Decompressing high-pressure gas caused straight phenolics to blister because the gas could not escape from the coating fast enough. Modified phenolics contain calcium silicate to enable them to outgas more quickly. Advantages: More resistant to decompression damage than straight phenolics High temperature, chemical, and H2S/CO2 resistance similar to the straight phenolics

Disadvantages: Brittleness

Epoxy Phenolics
Adding epoxy to the phenolics reduces the brittleness of the coating. Advantages: Improved flexibility Improved alkali resistance Temperature resistant to about 250F (some brands, even higher)

Disadvantages: Reduced temperature and chemical resistance Reduced acid resistance Susceptible to mechanical damage or defects from handling, installation, and operations such as wirelining

Caution Consider applying corrosion inhibitors to protect steel exposed by damaged coatings.

Chevron Corporation

700-5

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Modified Epoxies
Two types of modified epoxies are discussed below: powder-applied and cresol-novolac. Powder-applied epoxies. Powder-applied epoxies are more flexible and tougher than liquid-applied epoxies, which are being phased out in the industry. Advantages: Temperature limit of about 150200F Good chemical resistance to both acids and alkalis

Disadvantages: Somewhat brittle Corrosion inhibitors necessary if primarily for corrosion control

Cresol-novolac-modified epoxy. Adding cresol-novolac to epoxy results in cresol-novolac-modified epoxy or epoxy-cresol novolac. To optimize overall performance, vendors have varied the amount of cresol-novolac for chemical resistance and flexibility. The propensity for mechanical damage may limit this coating's usefulness in service. Advantages: Greater chemical resistance than straight epoxies Temperature resistant to approximately 250F

Disadvantages: Brittleness increases in relationship to increased chemical resistance

Nylon
Nylon is a relatively new coating for downhole tubing and accessories. A thermoplastic, rather than the thermoset of most IPCs, nylon has superior flexibility. Advantages: Easy to apply One hundred percent holiday free Good chemical resistance up to about 180F Very flexible and durable

Disadvantages: Extremely poor resistance to damage from wire-line tools Deterioration from acidizing when HCI above 15 percent or for extended periods

Uses: Excellent for a low-temperature line pipe (small diameter) in corrosive service

September 1996

700-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

722 Linings
Linings are holiday-free systems and have thicker internal corrosion barriers than coatings. Except for cement, which is spun centrifugally on the ID surface, all linings are physically inserted into the tubing. The four lining materials presently available are cement, fiber-glass, PVC, and polyethylene. Suppliers are also investigating other materials such as carbon fiber. See Figure 700-2.
Fig. 700-2 Properties of Linings Lining Cement Fiberglass PVC Polyethylene Thickness (mils) 150210 6080 6080 130150

Cement
Cement lining has been available for many years. Advantages: Cost effective Resists chemicals Withstands normal handling and installation Tolerates wireline work

Disadvantages: At a thickness of 150 to 210 mils, cement causes a significant reduction of the tubing ID. Acids (HCl and mud acid) can damage cement. Special additives are available to improve the acid resistance of cement.

Note

The weight of the cement limits the depth at which it can be used, with a practical limit of about 10,000 feet. For wells between 7,000 and 10,000 feet deep, the weight of the cement can influence tubing selection. The temperature limit is about 300F, primarily because of the plastic inserts installed in the connections. Availability may be a problem in remote areas.

Uses: Holiday-free service in injection wells or non-rod-pumped producing wells

Chevron Corporation

700-7

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Good choice for salvaging used tubing

Fiberglass
Fiberglass-lined tubing is made by inserting a fiberglass tube of an aromatic aminecured epoxy inside the steel tube and then filling the annular space between the two with cement grout. The resulting liner is about 60 to 80 mils thick. Advantages: Holiday-free service Chemical resistance up to a maximum operating temperature of 350F

Disadvantages: Some ID reduction Additional restrictions at flares on tubing ends

Uses: Primarily in injection wells Good service in non-rod-pumped producing wells Good choice for salvaging used tubing

PVC
PVC-lined tubing is similar to fiberglass-lined tubing, with either a cement grout or an adhesive between the PVC and the steel tube. The thickness of the liner is 60 to 80 mils. Advantages: Holiday free

Disadvantages: ID reduction Unsuitable for gas wells (the risk of liner collapse from gas permeation) Unsuitable with solvents (such as paraffin cutting agents)

Uses: Most suited to water injection wells up to about 150F Good choice for salvaging used tubing

Polyethylene
Polyethylene-lined tubing is a recent development and has little proven field experience. The polyethylene liner is swaged down and pushed or pulled through the tubing. It then re-expands into the tubing, leaving the polyethylene liner in compression. The end of the liner is molded to fit within the connection J area. The coating industry is addressing concerns about gas permeation, softening at maximum service temperature, and connection integrity.

September 1996

700-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Check with the CRTC's coating specialists (listed in the Quick Reference Guide) for the latest information on the status of polyethylene linings. Advantages: Extremely rugged Holiday-free and mechanical-damage-free service

Disadvantages: Significant ID reduction (150 mils thick) Temperature limit of about 150F Concerns about gas permeation Softening at maximum service temperature Concerns about connection integrity

Uses: Most suited to water injection wells up to about 150F Good choice for salvaging used tubing

Carbon Fiber
An ultra-high-temperature carbon-fiber liner and premium connection system is presently undergoing testing. This product may have a working temperature of up to 450F.

723 Connections
Most downhole tubing in oil wells and injection wells have API eight-round connections. They are easy to coat but difficult to install 100 per cent holiday free. Premium connections may be more difficult to coat internally.

Coated Tubing Connections


There are basically two approaches for coating tubing with API eight-round connections: Coat the exposed threads on the coupling ID with Ryton (the best-known method). Select specially made couplings that have a Teflon or reinforced-elastomer insert in the J-section.

Some premier connections with external torque shoulders do not require torque gages for make up. Both couplings use a marking system to make up the coupling to position; they may also solve the following problems: Turbulent flow or sand-impingement damage at the J-section Moderate wirelining Failed Ryton-coated couplings

Chevron Corporation

700-9

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Advantages: Connection with a flush ID instead of the discontinuous J-section in standard API eight-round couplings Better seal Protection for the coating on the pin-ends in the J-section from wireline tool damage

Disadvantages: Cost about three times as much as a standard coupling

Lined Tubing Connections


Each lining has a different technique for protecting the coupling and pin-ends. For cement-lined tubing, polypropylene inserts are cemented into the end of the tubing; and pin-ends are embedded in an acrylic putty. For fiberglass- and PVC-lined tubing, a nitrile rubber ring is fitted between the two pin-ends. For polyethylene-lined tubing, an integral portion of polyethylene covering the pin faces mates when connected.

Premium Connections
Non-API premium connections are highly specialized. Evaluate their suitability for coating or lining on a case-by-case basis with the connection manufacturer and the coating or lining applicator. Some premium connections may be unsuitable for holiday-free coating application. Surface preparation (e.g., abrasive blasting), coating, and make-up procedures must comply with the connection manufacturer's recommendations.

730 Selection
For help in selecting coatings or linings, contact the coatings specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

731 Economics
Costs for coated or lined tubing and accessories vary significantly depending on the size of the order, the location of the job, market conditions, and other factors.

Purchasing Guidelines
For coated tubing and accessories, refer to Specification COM-MS-4732, Oilfield Tubular Goods and AccessoriesInternal Coating Application.

September 1996

700-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

For cement-lined tubing, refer to API RP 10E There are no Company or industry specifications for purchasing cement-lined or fiberglass-lined tubing. Industry participants purchase these products from major suppliers and accept their specifications. See the Quick Reference Guide for a list of suppliers.

For PVC-lined tubing, refer to API Specification 15LT There are no Company or industry specifications for purchasing polyethylenelined tubing.

732 General Guidelines


In this manual, there are only general guidelines for selecting coatings and linings as it would be impossible to cover every conceivable well condition.

Environmental or Operating Conditions


In some situations, downhole environmental conditions or planned operating criteria and procedures preclude effective use of coatings or linings. In such circumstances and if corrosion is anticipated, the only alternatives may be to install either bare-steel tubing with corrosion inhibitors or alloy tubing.

Influences of Materials on Selection


Coating names are often different in the US market and overseas; some coatings with the same name exist but may be a modified version. Manufacturing space and equipment limit some manufacturer-owned application facilities so that they cannot apply their full product line of coatings. As few applicators offer cement linings in the US, the limitations of local applicators' facilities influence the choice of coating system.

Assistance
For guidance on selecting coatings and linings, consult the Company's coating specialists (listed in the Quick Reference Guide). The following databases are also available: Company-purchased database of ARCO's lab test of coated tubing The Company's field-experience database The Company's lab-test database

The Company's databases are updated periodically to reflect the latest experiences with tubular coatings and linings. Please send relevant field experience or lab test information to the Company's coating specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

Chevron Corporation

700-11

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

740 Application
See Figure 700-1 which lists common coatings for tubing.

741 Steps in Application


To apply coatings, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Bake at about 700F to burn off oil and loosen scale. Abrasive-blast the surface to white-metal finish (NACE No. 1 or SSPC-SP 5). Apply primer, if appropriate, and cure. Apply the coating. 5. 6. 7. 8. Apply multiple coats of liquid coating with a spinning spray head. Apply powder coatings with a vacuum or blow-in process, from one or both ends of the tubing.

Bake at about 400F to cure the coating. Visually inspect the coating; check thickness. Holiday test. Install couplings and thread protectors.

742 Holiday-free Coated Tubing


Refer to Figure 1 of Specification COM-MS-4732 and follow this procedure to guarantee 100 percent holiday-free coatings: 1. 2. 3. Round the end of the threaded tube to a smooth radius. Coat and holiday test the end of the tubing to the first major thread. Repair any holidays according to the specification.

743 Used Tubing


Use any of the existing linings (see Figure 700-2) rather than coatings for used tubing. Fiberglass lining can bridge small holes in steel pipe (up to about -inch in diameter) and withstand pressure up to several thousand psi. Polyethylene liners also have this capability but to a lower pressure. Because coatings are relatively thin, they are not as effective for protecting used tubing if the ID surface is roughened from corrosion. Thick-film powder-applied coatings, especially nylon coatings, are better than thin-film coatings for recoating corroded used tubing. It is possible, however, that both types of coatings may fail to cover all peaks or bridge all gaps or pits on severely corroded steel surfaces. As a result, these uncoated or unbridged areas become exposed to the corrosive environment and cause premature failure of the coating and the steel.

September 1996

700-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

The roughness of the surface (and not necessarily the depth of corrosion) determines the difficulty in applying a good coating. A uniform 50 percent wall loss from generalized corrosion is easier to coat than a wall loss of only 5 percent covered with sharp-edged pits. To determine whether or not the tubing is NSC (Not Suitable for Coating), the coatings applicator should inspect each length of tubing after cleaning and blasting and again after coating and holiday testing.

750 Handling Coated or Lined Tubing


751 Coated Tubing
Because of the brittle nature of coatings, damage to coated tubing and accessories is virtually inevitable with the possible exception of those coated with nylon. The guidelines in this section are intended to minimize damage to plastic coatings from handling, installation, and well operations. Minimizing coating damage prolongs tubing life by decreasing both the number and extent of locations subject to corrosion attack and the number of locations that need protection from corrosion inhibitors. As long as defects are small (i.e., the coating is not coming off in large chunks or sheets), the life of a coated tubing string can be significantly longer than a baresteel string. Proper handling of IPC tubing and accessories prevents or minimizes damage to the coating, metal, and threads. Excessive bending, deflection, or impact can damage the coating.

Caution Do not place clamps, hooks, bars, rods, or other foreign objects inside the tubing or other coated equipment. Either make drifts or rabbits from rubber, plastic, or wood, or rubber- or plastic-coat them. The tubing must be free of debris that could damage the coating during drifting. Note Drifting means testing the tubing for roundness; rabbits help test for and clear obstructions in the tubing. The coatings applicator spreads API-modified thread compound (or alternative thread compound, when specified) on exposed threads with a soft-bristle brush (not a wire brush) to clean threads or apply thread compound. The coatings applicator also installs closed-end plastic or steel-reinforced plastic thread/end protectors, which remain in place during handling, storage, and transportation.

Storing Coated Tubing and Accessories


Note the following guidelines when storing coating tubing and accessories. Guidelines for Yard Storage. Rack the tubing to prevent excessive bending and damage during loading and unloading.

Chevron Corporation

700-13

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Place pipe racks on stabilized soil. Do not pyramid-stack (cradle) tubing. Support tubing by three evenly spaced pipe racks that keep the pipe at least 18 inches above the ground. Place bolsters (hardwood stripping) between pipe layers, perpendicular to the pipe. Align bolsters vertically one above the other and directly over the pipe racks. Place stripping on the racks to prevent direct contact between the pipe and pipe rack. Install chocks (about one- or two-inch wood or plastic blocks) at both ends of each bolster to keep the pipe from moving. Do not stack pipe higher than ten feet. Rack the pipe with all couplings at one end. Stagger adjoining lengths about the length of the coupling. Store IPC accessories on wood pallets, concrete pads, or other suitable installations that keep the accessories off the ground. Apply an external protective coating to control external corrosion. Inspect tubular goods (both IPC and non-IPC) stored outside at least every six months to check for detrimental external attack from atmospheric corrosion. Coastal areas may require more frequent inspection.

Guidelines for Job- or Wellsite Storage. Store IPC tubing on properly loaded flatbed trailers, wooden sills, or prefabricated steel pipe racks. Do not use old drums or other thin-walled materials as pipe racks. Use proper pipe chocks on both sides of the bottom tier to prevent rolling. Do not stack pipe higher than five tiers (layers). Do not stack other equipment on top of racked IPC tubing. Do not use racked tubing as a workbench. Rack tubing with the couplings facing toward the well. Store IPC accessories on wood pallets, concrete pads, or other suitable installations that will keep the accessories off the ground.

Loading and Unloading Tubing. Do not allow IPC tubing to drop or experience long, fast rolls.

September 1996

700-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Do not use cheaters to move or roll the pipe. Do not strike the pipe with any metal object.

Transporting Coated Tubing


Note the following guidelines when transporting coated tubing. In General. Rack IPC goods for transport to prevent excessive bending and damage during loading and unloading. Do not pyramid-stack (cradle) them. Load and unload tubing carefully, supporting each piece firmly and gently lifting or gradually rolling them down sills. Avoid high-speed rolling to protect the coating and the threads. Do not hoist tubing from a single point. Use nonmetallic slings when loading or unloading with cranes; do not use spreader bars. Select forklifts with forks of sufficient spread to avoid excessive bending of the pipe. Never insert pry bars or similar objects inside the pipe.

Guidelines for Trucking. Use flatbed trailers. Do not use pole trailers. For Range 2 or longer tubing, use at least three bolsters on the truck bed and between layers. Align bolsters vertically. Use nonmetallic tiedowns for accessories. Load tubing with all couplings facing the same direction. Re-tighten tiedowns to remove slack due to settling after traveling a short distance. Add bolsters if more tiedowns are needed. Do not pull tiedowns so tight that they bend or bow the tubing or accessories.

Guidelines for Rail Transport. Transport IPC goods and accessories in open gondola cars, following rules of American Association of Railroads (AAR). Secure the load according to AAR rules to prevent coating damage when in transit or from excessive bending with bolsters, stakes, headers, high-tension banding. Do not allow the height of the load above the car floor to exceed ten feet.

Chevron Corporation

700-15

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

Guidelines for Sea Transport. Do not store IPC goods in or near bilge water, chemicals, or other corrosive materials. Prevent excessive bending or coating damage in transit with proper dunnage, such as bolsters, stakes, headers, high-tension banding, and clips.

752 Lined Tubing


Most of the information about handling coated tubing also applies to lined tubing. While linings (especially polyethylene linings) are generally more rugged and damage-resistant than coatings, they must still be handled with care. Treating lined tubing in the same manner as bare-steel tubing can ruin a potentially holiday- and damage-free installed tubing string. The following are key points about coated tubing that also apply to lined tubing: Keep protectors in place until the pipe is about to be made up. Do not remove thread protectors when the pipe is being hauled or handled. Do not insert bars, hooks, or any unloading tools inside the pipe. Do not drop the pipe or turn it loose to roll on the sticks. Do not hit the pipe with a hammer or other metal object, or in any way subject the pipe to impact.

API RP 10E also gives guidelines on handling cement-lined tubing.

760 Installation
761 Coated Tubing and Accessories
Arrange to have a vendor's representative present. Visually inspect IPC tubing before running. Reject joints with damage to coating, metal (body, upset, or coupling), or thread. Remove the thread protectors for the inspection and then reinstall them, leaving them on until ready to make up the connection.

Pick up the tubing gently with the rig. Assign a person to tail the rigged tubing to the derrick.

September 1996

700-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

762 Guidelines for Installing IPC Accessories


Visually inspect IPC accessories before installation. Unless impractical, reject pieces with coating, metal, or thread damage. Remove the thread protectors to inspect the threads, and then reinstall them.

Leave thread/end protectors in place until immediately before make up of the connection. Visually inspect the threads again after removing the protectors. Clean and lubricate (re-dope) the threads in a way that will not damage the coating. Apply thread compound.

For connection make up, use equipment and follow procedures to protect coating. Do not use pipe wrenches. For threaded connections, use large contact surface-area tongs, wrenches, and backups. Start the make up of the connections by hand, and then follow with the tongs in low gear.

The guidelines for proper make up of API and premium connections for tubing also apply to accessories. For drift bars or rabbits, use wood, plastic, or hard rubber or plastic- or rubbercoated. Do not use steel, aluminum, or other metal drifts. Verify that the drift diameter is correct. Refer to API RP 5A5, Section 4.8, for verification of procedures and recommended drift diameters.

For both running and pulling pipe, use elevators, slips, and tongs (including backups) that have 360-degree wrap-around surface-contact areas. Ensure that the equipment is in good condition and the proper size to grip the tubing. Repair or replace any equipment showing excessive wear or sharp contact surfaces. Slip-and-tong damage (e.g., crushing) can crack the coating.

Note

Leave the thread protectors on until the pipe is vertical, and you are ready to stab the joint. When tubing is being pulled, install the thread protectors immediately after breaking each stand or joint.

Chevron Corporation

700-17

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

After removing the thread protector, clean and lubricate (re-dope) the threads, being careful not to damage the coating. Use a soft-bristle brush to clean connections. Never use a wire brush. Visually inspect each pipe end again and reject damaged joints.

Always use stabbing guides to prevent damage to the coating on the pin end. Stab each connection with a properly sized rubber, plastic, or plasticcoated stabbing guide. Lower the tubing into the stabbing guide slowly to prevent coating or thread damage.

Start tubing make up by hand; then use the tongs in low gear, at less than 25 rpm. Use backup tongs during make up, set only on the box. Do not use pipe wrenches for make up. Do not use slips for back up.

To ensure contact of the pin and the coating in the standoff area of the coupling, make up API connections properly. Unless an alternate procedure is required, make up API connections to position while monitoring the torque to API specifications. Expose no more than 1 threads after make up. Use a torque gage that reads directly in ft-lbs. Calibrate the torque gage every three months.

Make up premium connections according to the connection manufacturer's written recommendations. Stop travel of the IPC string completely before setting the slips. Lower the string gently into the slips. Do not strike the pipe with any metal object (e.g., a hammer or pipe wrench) even when breaking out connections. Do not allow the pipe to hit any metal object (e.g., the mast). To pull the tubing and set it in stands in the derrick, install thread protectors on the pin-ends or place a resilient pad or carpet on the rig floor to protect the coated end of the tubing while it rests on the rig floor. If we are to lay the tubing down through the V-door, install thread protectors on all pin-ends.

763 Guidelines for Installing Lined Tubing


The guidelines for installing coated tubing also apply to lined tubing. Linings are generally more damage-tolerant than coatings; however, mishandling can cause damage that will spoil an otherwise holiday-free, damage-free tubing string installation. Key points are noted or repeated below:

September 1996

700-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Arrange to have a supplier's representative on site during installation. Always use a stabbing guide. Run power tongs at low speed. This is especially critical when: The pin-end starts to contact the corrosion barrier ring (CBR) on fiberglass- or PVC-lined tubing. The pin contacts the plastic insert on cement-lined tubing.

Follow the supplier's instructions to insert CBR, Permitek, and so on. For linings with a CBR, run a properly sized (nonmetal) drift through each made-up joint to ensure proper clearance through the CBR. When running cement-lined tubing, use a sinker bar to smooth out the acrylic putty applied to the plastic insert in the box end. When pulling lined pipe, install a thread protector before laying the pipe on a rack or standing it on end. Do not stand lined pipe on endnot even on a cushioned matwithout thread protectors in place. Do not hammer on the pipe to loosen collars.

API RP 10E also has installation guidelines for cement-lined tubing, similar to those listed above.

770 Guidelines for Well Operation


The following guidelines are based on the National Association of Corrosion Engineer's (NACE) recommended practices for coated tubing, many of which also apply to lined tubing. Note Lined tubing is more common in injection wells rather than in producing wells.

Caution At times, it is impossible or impractical to follow the guidelines given below. If so, expect damage to the coating and premature failure of the tubing. Even when following these guidelines, expect some damage to the coating. Clearly identify those wells with coated or lined tubing and coated accessories in the well files, in workover procedure sheets, and at the wellsite. Include the coating/lining type and installation date. Make personnel aware that the well has coated or lined tubing so that they take proper precautions. Use rod guides in rod-pumped wells. When practical, install IPC tubing following completion of wireline work, perforating, cementing, etc.

Chevron Corporation

700-19

September 1996

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

Coatings Manual

When a workover requires fishing, squeezing, drilling, or caustic or acid treatments, pull the IPC tubing and use a work string, if possible. Do not use a coated string as a work string if that string is later intended to be production or injection tubing in a corrosive well. If caustic or acid treatments through the IPC tubing are unavoidable, use the lowest possible concentrations of acid or caustic and minimize contact time with the coating. Do not shut in wells with unspent acid or caustic in the tubing. Consult the coating/lining manufacturer or the coatings applicator for information about coating chemical resistance. Keep records in the well file of chemical treatments through coated or lined tubing and accessories.

Because severe corrosion can occur at locations of major coating damage caused by wireline tools, avoid wirelining through IPC tubing. (Using a work string may save your coated tubing.) If wireline work through IPC tubing is unavoidable, follow these procedures: Inform the wireline operator that the well has coated tubing. Use streamlined wireframe tools, sinker bars, and rope sockets with smooth, padded contours. Do not use angular or sharp-edged tools. Use single-strand, coated, nonbraided wireline. If you must use braided line, make sure it does not have splices or burrs, which tear the coating. Keep wireline speedsboth going into and coming out of the holeat less than 100 feet per minute. The Company recommends a reduced speed of 50 feet per minute. Maintain a stiff line with weight on the indicator. Do not let the tool free-fall. Provide special protectionsuch as elastomeric shrink sleeves or plastic coatingfor fishing necks, pressure bombs, temperature tools, etc. Use sufficient stand-off pieces in the tool string. Avoid knuckle joints, knuckle jars, tubing end locators, wireline grabs, explosive jars, paraffin cutters, or scrapers. Use swaging tools rather than gage cutters. If possible, avoid swabbing through IPC tubing strings. If unavoidable, swab as slowly as possible because the swab itself is usually braided line. (Using a slick line would be better.) Swabs should be flexible, fabric-reinforced, or all rubber; they should not be wire-reinforced. Use double cups or double mandrels, or both. Try to avoid downhole caliper surveys. If unavoidable, use calipers with feelers designed not to cut, mill, or damage the coating.

If possible, avoid coil tubing workovers in coated tubing. If unavoidable, use plastic or aluminum centralizers and carefully manipulate the coil tubing. Do not use aluminum with acid or caustic because it will corrode severely.

September 1996

700-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

700 Downhole Tubular Coatings & Linings

When hydrotesting IPC tubing, advise the testing company that the well has coated tubing. Obtain special hydrotest tools with rubber-encapsulated parts (seal rings). As an alternative, consider external pressure-testing devices. With coated tubing and accessories in gas service, depressure at a rate no greater than 2,000 psi per hour. Train crews involved in drilling, workover, pulling, wireline, and other field work in the proper handling of coated or lined tubing and accessories. Films, seminars, and other aids are available in the industry, and vendors are generally willing to provide training.

780 References
1. 2. 3. 4. Boyd, J.L. and Al Siegmund. Plastic Coated Tubular Goods: Proper Selection, The Key to Success. NACE Paper 214: Corrosion 89. L. J. Klein. Database Package: Coatings for Downhole Tubular. CRTC Materials Engineering File 6.30. Chevron Corporation. March 5, 1990. Mitchell, R.K., Coated Tubular Testing, Field Test Results, Hobbs Division, June 18, 1987 and August 27, 1987. Strickland, L.N., Mitigation of Tubing and Mandrel Failures in High Volume Gas Lift Oil Wells, Thompson Field, Ft. Bend, TX. NACE Paper 70: Corrosion 1992. Turnipseed, S.P. Internal Plastic Coatings Qualification Tests: Interim Report. Chevron Corporation. April 15, 1992. . Final Report. Chevron Corporation. December 16, 1992. American Petroleum Industry. Recommended Practice for Application of Cement Lining to Steel Tubular Goods, Handling, Installation and Joining. API RP 10E. Washington, DC. . Specification for PVC Lined Steel Tubular Goods. API 15LT. Washington, DC. . API RP 5A5, Section 4.8, National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Care, Handling, and Installation of Internally Plastic-Coated Oilfield Tubular Goods and Accessories. NACE RP0291. 1991.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. . The Application of Internal Plastic Coatings for Oilfield Tubular Gords and Accessories. NACE RP0191-91. 1991.

Chevron Corporation

700-21

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings


Abstract
The primary objective of any offshore coatings program is to preserve the structural integrity of platforms and producing facilities by preventing metal loss using highquality protective coating systems coupled with systematic and routine maintenance. Offshore coatings are very similar to high-performance (onshore) coatings in terms of selection, surface preparation, application, and inspection. This section contains information that is unique to offshore coatings programs. For basic coatings information that is applicable to offshore work, refer to the following sections in this manual: Section 50, Using This Manual Section 100, General Information Section 300, Coatings Selection Section 400, Surface Preparation Section 500, Application

To select offshore coating systems, refer to the Quick Reference Guide. Contents 810 811 812 820 821 822 823 824 830 831 832 840 In General Background Information Comparing Off- and Onshore Coatings Quality Control Design Solutions Platform Maintenance Project Planning [1] Protecting Coatings Materials & Equipment Offshore [1] Protecting Human Health & the Environment Typical Hazards Offshore Environmental Issues Selection 800-20 800-18 800-3 Page 800-3

Chevron Corporation

800-1

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

850 860

Surface Preparation References

800-20 800-21

September 1996

800-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

810 In General
As there are many similarities between offshore and high-performance onshore coatings, the focus of this section is on the aspects of coatings projects unique to offshore structures.

811 Background Information


Offshore structures and wharves represent a very severe, if not the worst, coating service. Coating systems are selected to balance service life, and assure ease of maintenance, local availability, quality, and suitability for application under prevailing climatic conditions. The relative importance of these factors differs from location to location.

812 Comparing Off- and Onshore Coatings


Offshore coating systems are comparable to onshore high-performance systems, except that frequent wetting and high humidity make some upgrading necessary offshore. Example: Splash-zone areas subject coatings to intermittent immersion. Mechanical equipment, valves, pumps and motors are a particular problem offshore if manufacturers of these items coat them with materials adequate for inland or coastal environments, but which fail quickly offshore. Normally, you can purchase larger pieces of equipment and custom-fabricated equipment, such as compressors and vessels, with the Company's coating system already applied. The Company highly recommends doing so. It is generally not economical, however, for the equipment manufacturer to offer custom coatings for commodity items such as pumps or motors. Therefore, apply the complete system at the fabrication yard according to the Company's specifications.

820 Quality Control


High-quality and cost-effective coatings are essential, but much more difficult to achieve offshore than onshore. Offshore, there are some adverse factors over which you have little or no control; but you can recognize them and reduce their effects with good planning.[1] Some of these factors are: Adverse weather conditions Simultaneous operations with other platform activities Limited availability of transportation Substrate surfaces that are deeply pitted and contaminated by soluble surface salts

You can reduce the costly re-work of prematurely failed coatings by promoting quality control and quality assurance during fabrication. To perform work offshore

Chevron Corporation

800-3

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

costs approximately ten times as much as the same work in fabrication yards. Design solutions are, therefore, key considerations for offshore coating projects.

Maintenance
An effective maintenance program for offshore coatings begins with comprehensive quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) when applying the initial coating during fabrication. Ensuring that the fabrication yard has applied the coating properly and according to specifications allows you to: Obtain a high-quality coating that contributes to the maximum service life of the platform and equipment Reduce future expenditures for field maintenance

New Construction
For new construction, the offshore QA/QC program is a team effort among the project engineers, contractors, coating suppliers, third-party inspectors, and inhouse coating personnel. A system of checks and balances, this QA/QC program makes certain thatregardless of the size of the projectthe services of all participants fulfill the requirements of the specification.

The Successful Project


A successful project includes quality control, particularly as it relates to the following items (discussed below): Design Solutions Platform Maintenance Project Planning Protecting Materials & Equipment Offshore

The remaining essential elements of a successful project are surface preparation (discussed below) and application (Section 500 of this manual). One definition of a successful project is that all the work meets the specification at the lowest cost possible, with no accidents, minimal turnover of personnel, and within budgetary constraints.[1]

821 Design Solutions


Good design can minimize and repair defects in fabrication and therefore reduce the costs of future coating maintenance by reducing areas which lead to the failure of a coating and resulting corrosion damage. Good design also reduces the cost of current coating projects by correcting problems before or during surface preparation that will improve the ease and efficiency of application. The basic principle of corrosion-resistant design is to keep structures as simple as possible and reduce the surface area to be coated as much as practical. Balance these considerations against necessary engineering requirements for safe and effective service regardless of the coating problems.

September 1996

800-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Detailed below are problems and solutions for the following design issues: beams, congested and inaccessible areas, decks, elevated structures, sharp edges, stainless steel bands and tubing, surface laminations, welds, and u-bolts.

Angle, Channel, H- and I-Beams


Problem: The angles and edges on these basic structural shapes cause many problems. They often receive inadequate dry film thickness (DFT) because proper spray technique is hard to achieve in these areas. The web/flange interface is also a difficult area to coat. Most high-performance coatings exhibit considerable surface tension upon drying which can cause the coating to pull away from corners. These areas are also susceptible to dry spray and overspray which break the bond between the applied coating and the substrate. As flat surfaces generally allow proper application technique, they receive better deposits of film. Note For a proper spray technique, hold coating guns perpendicular to substrates, approximately eight to ten inches from the surface. Solution: To achieve adequate film on angles and interfaces of all hard-to-coat areas, specify a brush coat (extra coat) of the first intermediateusually of contrasting colorover the primer before applying the remaining coats.

Congested and Inaccessible Areas


Problem: Congested and inaccessible areas are primary contributors to coating failures and increased costs of maintenance. Problems begin at the fabrication yard and continue throughout the life of the platform. These areas are extremely costly because space restrictions: Limit movement of the coatings applicators Prevent many items from receiving adequate coating Cause the work to proceed slowly Contribute to the high risk of substandard coatings as adequate coating coverage is difficult to achieve

Congested and inaccessible areas are the first to fail, requiring more frequent maintenance cycles at escalated costs. Many congested areas involve production equipment and piping, which are the most critical items on the platform. Example: Inaccessible areas that seldom receive adequate coating protection include: Non- or skip-welded back-to-back angles Box beams Through-deck piping surrounded by pollution rings, and under-deck piping

Maintenance of under-deck piping is costly as it requires erecting a scaffold for all work, including routine, non-destructive testing.

Chevron Corporation

800-5

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Solutions: The following solutions are intended to reduce coatings problems in congested/inaccessible areas: Do not design, if at all possible, any structure with items that are congested and inaccessible. Route all piping at least six inches above solid decks. Design pollution rings to include at least a six-inch clearance from throughdeck piping. Do not design box beams and back-to-back angles, if possible. (If back-to-back angles are necessary, specify seal welds.)

DecksDiamond Plates
Problem: Any of the following problems can occur with diamond deck plates: Rust may form at the peak of elevated diamonds where the coating is sheared by equipment placed on or dragged across the surface. The angles of the diamonds can trap moisture and salt, causing the coating to undercreep to the flat area of the plate. Entire decks begin to rust and coatings de-laminate. This often requires 100 per cent blasting as surface preparation to remove the lifted coating. Diamond decks can become expensive to maintain in terms of time and abrasive to blast each elevation from different angles to remove loose scale and oxidation. Diamond decks can require up to two times the amount of coating for flat plate because of the greater surface area.

Solution: Install flat plates whenever possible. The service life of a coating is longer on flat plates than on diamond deck plates.

DecksSolid
Problem: Depending on their height above water, solid decks need recoating every three-to-five years. Solid deck coatings are expensive to maintain in terms of time, labor, equipment, and materials needed to blast and coat both the top and underside. Solution: The following are two suggested solutions:

Install galvanized grating, which performs well except at waterlines. (This is the standard on most of the Company's platforms.) Service life at the 10-foot level is about four-to-five years. Install fiberglass grating, which has given excellent results at several of the Company's locations after 12 years of service.

Caution Although environmental and containment concerns restrict grating decks, install them whenever possible.

September 1996

800-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Solid decks are used around production equipment to prevent spills into the water. Grating decks are used on the bottom levels of the platform where water could cause a solid floor to be slippery. Solid floors are typically used on the upper decks where crew living quarters are located.

Elevated Structural Members at +10-foot Level


Problems: The waterline is the most corrosive and most difficult area to maintain on the platform. Structural members (horizontals and diagonals that are close to the water) are more susceptible to corrosion and are more expensive to maintain than higher ones. Boat landings present major problems. In the Company's older designs, boat bumpers also serve as support members and are usually installed on three sides of the platform. The bumpers' elevations range from five-to-eight feet above the tidal area. The bottom third is in water much of the time and is covered with marine growth so that only the top portion is accessible for blasting and coating. Boat bumpers are in congested areas with vertical members spaced every several feet. Adequate blasting and recoating is possible only for the top portion; and, at best, those areas require extensive recoating at least every five years.

Solutions: The following solutions are designed to reduce maintenance of +10-foot areas. Design +10-foot areas as high as possible from the tidal zone and minimize the surface areas of boat bumpers. Include horizontal members 15 feet above the tidal area (as compared to older ones, which are 5-to-8 feet above the tidal area). Keep the size and number of boat bumpers to a minimum.

Note Surveys indicate that the service life of coating systems on newer designs is at least double the service life of older designs; service life of bumpers is unchanged. Analysis of past coating jobs on deep-water four- and six-pile platforms indicates that coatings of elevated designs are completed in half the number of days of lower designs, resulting in substantial savings of maintenance costs.

Sharp Edges
Problem: Sharp edges left on overlapping plates or edges by shearing or cutting will cause coatings to fail, almost without exception. Surface tension and shrinkage during curing pulls the coating away from the edges, leaving areas of low DFT or holidays (or both). Additional film defects occur when, as is normal, the crew applies the coating on tangent to the edges rather than perpendicularly.

Chevron Corporation

800-7

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Solution:

To achieve the best protection, the design should stipulate:

Grinding the edges smooth or increasing the thickness on the edge areas (or both) to help achieve the best protection Applying an additional coating to the edge before each coat, followed by the normal coating that is extended over the edge with several inches of overlap

Stainless Steel Bands/Tubing


Problem: Stainless-steel bands, holding emergency shut-down (ESD) tubing in place on vessels and piping, are primary causes of corrosion damage. The protective coating on vessels and piping is usually damaged during installation when the bands are crimped to the item. The remaining bands eventually rub off the coating. Any small coating defect causes dissimilar metal action between the bands and the carbon steel substrate. Pitting begins in a relatively short time after moisture and salts are trapped at the interface. Stainless-steel tubing produces similar results. Solution: To prevent pitting, specify bands with neoprene or similar lining and elevate tubing from the substrate on either rubber or Teflon blocks.

Surface Laminations
Problem: Difficult to coat, surface laminations include sharp, jagged protrusions with gouges and voids on the undersides. Solution: To facilitate applying the coating, the design should stipulate grinding/ removing laminations before abrasive blasting and coating.

WeldsFlux
Problem: Highly alkaline and hydroscopic, residual weld flux eventually delaminates from the surface, causing blistersthe site of early coating failurein the coating. Solution: To help prevent residual weld flux from delaminating, the design should stipulate removing weld flux before abrasive blasting and coating.

WeldsRough
Problem: Surface irregularities on rough welds make it difficult to apply coatings in a continuous film, free from voids and pinholes. Small defects in a coating allow moisture to penetrate to the surface, causing localized corrosion cells. These cells, combined with the weld's being a heat-affected area, accelerate the corrosion rate. Solution: To achieve a smooth surface without voids and pinholes, the design should stipulate grinding all rough welds before coating.

WeldsSkip
Problem: Skip welding is a common technique for reinforcing areas where a continuous weld is not necessary. It is impossible to coat the resulting crevices between the welds at the interfaces of the metal piecesadequately.

September 1996

800-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Example: On offshore platforms, constant vibration can cause the coatingbonded at the interfacesto rub off and the surface to accumulate moisture and salt deposits, which accelerate corrosion rates. Solution: For coated surfaces which are exposed to vibration, specify continuous seal welds instead of skip welds.

WeldsSplatter
Problem: Weld splatter is small balls of metal that adhere to the surface. The applied coating literally flows off the splatter, leaving exposed areas which eventually undercreep to the coated item. Small crevices also develop around the bases of the splatter, creating voids where coatings cannot penetrate. Coating applied to weld splatter will eventually fail. Solution: To prevent splatter from exposing areas of surface and causing crevices in the coating, the design should stipulate removing weld splatter before blasting and coating.

U-bolts
Problem: Galvanized or cadmium-plated u-bolts which support piping on metal supports cause damage to the coating when subjected to platform vibration and other movement. The rubbing action results in metal-to-metal contact which causes pitting. Solution: To prevent pitting, specify neoprene-coated u-bolts with neoprene pads or Teflon blocks on the support bracing to prevent metal-to-metal contact.

822 Platform Maintenance


Long-range planning optimizes overall expenditures and timing in the following ways: Distributes expenditures over the life of the platform Keeps facilities in good condition by arranging for appropriate levels of maintenance Reduces the need for major maintenance (50 percent top to bottom) in a given year Limits the need for major coating projects toward the end of a platform's producing life Realizes savings by reducing platform downtime and preventing premature failures from corrosion

A maintenance program should begin as soon as a platform is in service. As a platform nears the end of its producing life, critical cost factors such as time, labor, equipment requirements, materials, etc. become increasingly important, sometimes over-shadowing service life.

Chevron Corporation

800-9

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Work Priorities
The priorities of platform maintenance change as service conditions change, often being revised several times over the producing life of a platform. Setting work priorities for an offshore coating project involves the following factors which are also important when assessing a coating to determine repair procedures and costs: Coating type and existing condition Percentage of surface breakdown Degree of corrosion Type of item (structural or equipment)

Condition of the Existing Coating. Judge the corrosion on structural members and equipment to establish priorities, define the scope of work, and forecast expenditures. Severity of Corrosion and Recommended Repairs. The following examples are typical offshore coating failures and recommended repair procedures. Zinc/epoxy/urethane systems tend to be brittle, to chalk, and to exhibit topcoat delamination from the zinc primer. Corrosion, usually local during early failure mode, tends to undercreep the epoxy topcoats by sacrificial action of the zinc primer. Limit maintenance to selective spot blasting and coating with compatible epoxy and urethane topcoats before the system is badly damaged. Otherwise, the surface may need complete blasting and recoating. Solvent-based vinyl coating systems tend to remain soft and flexible, with relatively good adhesion. Most vinyl coating failures are the result of osmotic blistering (water penetrating to the substrate), mechanical damage or application defects such as holidays (breaks or flaws) in the wash primer, low dry-film thickness (DFT), and overblast damage. Corrosion is usually uniform over a larger surface area, but pitting is not as severe as with zinc/epoxy/urethanes. Vinyls are easy to spot blast, sweep, and topcoat with other vinyl systems because solvents redissolve easily, allowing for easy tie-in or adhesion of the new coating to the existing coating.

Operating Service of Equipment and Structural Items. For cost-effective coatings maintenance, avoid complete top-to-bottom work by developing evaluationand-ranking criteria for platform items such as those shown in Figure 800-1. In this figure, priorities are determined by varying degrees of coating breakdown and rust and by safety, type of service, and location of the item. Safety and Environmental Concerns. Normally, safety-related items such as vessels, piping, stairwells, and heliports take priority over others when coating and corrosion are equal. Adequate wall thickness, however, is always an overriding concern. If wall thickness of a given item does not meet minimal requirements, replace that item. For more information, refer to Protecting Human Health & the Environment later in this section.

September 1996

800-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Fig. 800-1

Sample Platform Survey Report


Major Date 9/1/95 Location Typical Platform Monopod Wellguard Capacity Crane 30 tons Capacity Quarters 15 man Priority Percent Breakdown A0 to 10 B11 to 25 C26 to 40 D41 to 60 Fover 60 1Work in 1 year 2Work in 2 years 3Work in 3 years 4Work in 4 years

Platform type (check one)

Satellite 8 Pile Job type (check one)

MW Caisson 4 Pile Deck Boat Condition Evaluation Scale

SW Caisson 3 Pile Heliport size 20/60

1Light rust only 2Light to medium rust 3Light to medium scale 4Light pits/light scale 5Light pits/medium scale 6Light pits/severe scale 7Medium pits/medium scale 8Severe pits/severe scale 9New construction item Item 1. Heliport a. Top b. Underside 2. Top Deck Level a. Deck Plates b. Escape Capsule Davit c. Skid Beams d. I-Beams/STR. MEM e. Grating Areas 3. Under Top Deck a. Overhead Piping b. New 2" Fuel Gas Lines c. Vessels d. Top Deck Supports e. I-Beams f. Grating 4. Under Superstructure 5. Risers 6. Waterline ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE Galvanized ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE Polyester ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE ZN/EP/URE Galvanized Polyester ZN/EP/URE Coating Type

Condition

Priority

Est. # Days

Comments Condition warrants work in near future

C5 B2

1-2 3

6 N/A No work needed this year; fair condition; no estimate needed Coating undercreepage and delamination

D7 A9 C6 A1 F8

1 1 1-2 4 1

10 3 5 New addition; welds need touchup Severe impact damage on topsides; severe scale under flange; needs work soon Looks good; no est. required Several sections need changeout schedule for welding 14 4 Coating in failure mode; needs work New items - welds need TU and remainder needs spot blast and paint Good shape; no work needed Ditto Ditto Needs changeout 3-4 years 14 Coating undercreepage; scale on beams & piping Looks good; no est. required 21 Severely corroded; needs work ASAP

C5 A-9-2 A1 A1 A1 B2 C5 A1 F8

1 1 4+ 4+ 4+ 3-4 2-3 4 1

Chevron Corporation

800-11

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Remaining Life of the Facility. See Figure 800-2.


Fig. 800-2 Priority 1 Coating Maintenance Items Based on Facilitys Life Expectancy and Existing Condition
Based on Life Expectancy & Existing Condition Priority 1 Items All primary safety items, including process vessels, interconnecting piping, risers, stairwells, walkways, and heliports Structural items such as waterline members, decking, I-beams, support trusses, plate girders, and legs Long Term (7+ years) C4 or worse Medium Term (5-7 years) C5 or worse Short Term (less than 5 years) D7 or worse

D5 or worse

D7 or worse

Defer until the facility depletes, is sold, or changes to another category.

Recommend plugging and abandoning or selling any property that does not meet the economic criteria to perform the necessary maintenance to operate safely. In all cases (except for certain short-term properties), touch up bare welds and scar damage on new installation items. Before deferral, if conditions equal or exceed C4, or if the items integrity is in question, verify by non-destructive evaluation (x-ray or ultrasonic testing) that the remaining wall thickness of vessels, piping, and structural steel remain within safe operating limits.

Prevailing Economic Conditions. Coating maintenance programs vary depending on the prevailing economy. Protective coating maintenance programs are vulnerable during difficult economic conditions. A selective deferral strategy: Postpones non-critical, borderline work and concentrates on critical work Reduces overall expenditures in the short term and in locations that have a number of platforms and facilities Allows spot maintenance on more platforms (providing adequate levels of maintenance levels, although less than desirable in some cases)

The disadvantages of selective deferral are that deferred items: Continue to deteriorate Cost more to repair after several years because of additional mobilization costs, inflation, and increased work scope

Favorable economic conditions may justify greater expenditures: Accomplishing more work on necessary items, including those deferred from previous periods Reducing the number of spot-maintenance cycles

Forecasting Work
A forecaster needs the following information to prepare budgets, project future work, and make adjustments: Both short- and long-term field economic strategies Conditions of the platform

September 1996

800-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Historicaltiming and quality of the previous coating Currentexisting coating system, service conditions, comprehensive annual or bi-annual topside coating surveys about the platform's current condition

Often, you need to prepare a pre-project survey before you can establish detailed work and coating schedules and arrange for equipment and personnel.[4] See Figure 800-1 for forecasts; Figure 800-3 for pre-job planning.

Background Information for Forecasting


For onshore projects, effective quality control during fabrication helps to ensure the longest service life from the initial coating work (exceeding offshore work by 25 to 30 percent). Achieving the same degree of quality offshore is difficult because the surface becomes contaminated by salts, oils, grease, or pitting, and access to work items is limited. The higher the quality of each fabrication, the longer the coating lasts. A long-lasting coating minimizes future work and lowers cost. Structural members and piping at the +10-foot waterline areas and superstructure undersides generally require more frequent maintenance intervals (every five to seven years) than upper elevations for the following reasons: Coating damage can be severe due to high levels of exposure to saltwater, spray, and salt deposits. The waterline area is subject to wave action, floating debris, and damage from the impact of cargo and crew boats. Production risers at the +10-foot level are more critical than structural members because of high operating pressures, product volume, and potential for pollution. Metal loss of 40 mils or more per year can occur near the waterline.[3]

Elevated structural members, piping, and other items may require maintenance intervals of 7 to 12 years. Mechanical damage occurs in coatings of high-traffic, high-impact areas such as helidecks and production decks, requiring maintenance intervals of 5 to 7 years.

Annual Surveys
Survey reports provide information on the conditions of a platform, enabling the forecaster to: Adjust forecasted expenditures Establish priorities for specific tasks over the next three-to-five years Provide options for scheduling critical or deferring non-critical tasks Optimize expenditures by scheduling tasks appropriately Estimate the cost of projects

Chevron Corporation

800-13

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 800-3

Questionnaire for Pre-Job Platform Inspection Offshore Coatings Category/Item Yes No Comments

Percentage of Coating Breakdown and Severity of Corrosion Do the platform and equipment items need to be spot or 100% blasted & painted? Are there any severely corroded items that need changeout? What is the condition of the clamps and u-bolts? What is the condition of sight glasses, valves, etc.? Type of Existing Paint System What is the general condition of the coating? Is the specified system compatible? Can this system be feather-edged and tied into the new system? Do any items need specialty coatings (e.g. hot or submerged equipment & piping?) Platform Layout Is there sufficient space for equipment and supplies? What type of rigging will be required? Are there any special considerations for rigging? What is the cranes capacity? What is the fuel capacity? Are there sufficient living accommodations for the crew? What is the potable water capacity? Is the platform a high traffic area? Platform Equipment Setup Do any equipment items need filtration or wrapping? Is any shut-in time needed for blasting and painting? If so, what is the estimated down time? Do any areas require wrapping for overblast and overspray prevention? Are there any drains which need plugging? Are there any special safety concerns (e.g. hot piping, confined spaces, fall hazards)? Are there any sweating lines which will require shut-in for blasting and painting?

September 1996

800-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Candidates for conducting annual surveys include NACE International Certified Coating Inspectors who have a sound working knowledge of offshore coatings operations, coating systems, and general corrosion principles and who can assess platform conditions, priorities, and estimates. A thorough survey includes the following information: Platform type (major, satellite, multi- or single-well caisson, or other) Number of piles Crew set-up needed for proposed work (e.g., deck crew, boat crew, jack-up barge) Heliport size and weight limitations Capacity of the crane Capacity of quarters Coating system on specific areas/items Coating condition on specific areas/items Work priority (estimated time of next maintenance work) Estimated number of days required General comments (e.g., change-out items, type of crew base camp set-up, type of surface preparation, coating required) A comprehensive pictorial of each platform to document items that may soon require attention Figure 800-1 is a typical completed survey report form.

823 Project Planning [1]


Of the key considerations in project planning, there are two of special interest to offshore coating projects: Pre-inspecting the Platform Coordinating Jobs

Pre-Inspecting the Platform


Pre-inspecting the platform helps to determine work and coating schedules and assists in overall project coordination. The following tasks should be part of a prejob inspection: Inspect the platform to determine the specific job scope and plan for personnel and equipment set-up. Consult platform operators about operating routines and production equipment, preferably with the designated inspector and crew foreman present. Check the platform and its operating equipment.

See Figure 800-3: Questionnaire for Pre-job Platform Inspection.

Chevron Corporation

800-15

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Coordinating Jobs
Job coordination is a cost-saving practice that eliminates unnecessary downtime, keeps the coatings applicator on a favorable work routine, and helps prevent potential problems. For example, offshore platforms have logistical limitationseach flight and supply boat run adds to the job costso forethought results in a much smoother project. Schedule flights and supply runs: To minimize transportation costs In the morning, to minimize disruption of coating operations during critical project phases in the afternoon

Ensure that the inspector and crew foreman maintain updated and accurate inventories of material and anticipate needs for materials. In addition: Replenish fuel and water on each boat run. Maintain ample supplies of abrasive and coatings in the event of extended periods of bad weather.

Transition timesduring which the coatings applicators change from one operation to anothercan also make a significant difference to the cost of a project. See Section 100 of this manual.

824 Protecting Coatings Materials & Equipment Offshore [1]


The condition of abrasives and coating materials affects the service life of applied coatings. Offshore, abrasives and coatings are subject to a harsh environment baked in sun, flooded in high seas, contaminated by saltwater, banged, broken, or dropped. As these materials also have unique transportation requirements, take special precautions to preserve their integrity. Proper handling and storage are high priorities. Realize short-term savings by replacing bad material infrequently (including reducing downtime while waiting for re-supply and additional boat runs). Handled and stored properly, the materials stay in good condition and result in long-term savings from the increased service life of the coating.

Abrasives
For high-production blasting, large-volume bulk blast pots require massive amounts of abrasive. A typical, high-production, 100-per-cent blasting needs 25 to 30 tons of workboat-transported abrasive weekly. Good planning is essential to maintain sufficient quantity on board. It is important to store the abrasive in bulk containers to keep it dry and uncontaminated. Each bulk container holds about two tons of abrasive and may be any of three major kinds: vinyl, disposable bulk bags, or metal hoppers. The first two are most common.

September 1996

800-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

Follow these procedures to keep bags safe and functional: Check for damage before and after each use. Look for wear and for holes in the sides, tops, or funnels. Note any missing or worn tie ropes on the top and bottom funnels. Replace as necessary. Report all damaged bags to the appropriate authority. Remove damaged bags from circulation until repaired; or, if disposable bags, discard altogether. Prepare accurate use-and-damage reports for each bag. Identify the number of uses for disposable bags by coating a slash or mark on the outside. Do not use disposal bags more than the recommended number of times. Transport and store both empty and full bags on pallets to prevent contamination by seepage. Store empty bags away from sunlight and in a dry place. Immediately after emptying, fold the ends of the bags inward, roll lengthwise, and tie each bag separately with manila twine. Tie a bundle of bags to a pallet for shipment.

Coatings
Coating containers begin to deteriorate from sunlight and salt as soon as they arrive at the shorebase. Proper storage of coatings is essential because coatings must be mixable, sprayable, and free from contamination. Follow these procedures for storing coatings: Store coating cans in a well-ventilated area. Keep cans away from direct sunlight in a coating-storage building dockside, and in the shade at the job site. Store cans on pallets. They should not come into direct contact with solid decks (which can reach 130F in summer months) and should not sit in salt water for extended periods of time during shipping. Do not cover coating cans with tarpaulins during hot months; the oven-like effect literally cooks the material. Maintain tight inventory control. Keep cans in one area; do not allow them to be scattered around the platform. Rotate the coating stock weekly. Apply the coating material as soon as possible after opening a container. Remove coating residue from empty cans before disposing of them.

Chevron Corporation

800-17

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

Dispose of empty coating cans by removing the bottoms, crushing the cans, and tying them in bundles to save trash basket space and minimize handling time after removing cans from the work site. Store empty cans separately from regular trash because they will probably require special handling for disposal. Ensure that the proper Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and Hazardous Material Shipping Manifests accompany the coating at all times.

Equipment
Nav-aid lights make the platform visible to boat traffic at night. They need protection from overblast or overspray because even small amounts distort the light beam and affect visibility. Even minor damage to these lenses requires costly replacement. During a coatings project, crews must cover and uncover these lights. To cut costs of material and manpower, they can use a cylinder-shaped cover of chicken wire wrapped with plastic. These covers are inexpensive, easy to install and remove, and durable. For additional information about protecting the Company's equipment, see Section 100 of this manual.

830 Protecting Human Health & the Environment


Workers' safety and the environment are among the foremost concerns of any coatings project. General information on these subjects is provided in the Section 200 of this manual, however, there are some special considerations for offshore work.

831 Typical Hazards Offshore


Many hazards are associated with offshore coatings activities, some with job-site conditions that change daily. In general, offshore safe practices for coatings projects should include: Ensuring that the Company's representative has a good understanding of offshore work processes, equipment set-up, and potential hazards [2] Choosing contractors who specialize in offshore coatings work and who have high-quality safety and training programs, good equipment, and competent personnel[2]

Some typical hazards offshore are offloading equipment and supplies; lead and other regulated, hazardous, heavy metals in the existing coating; and scaffolding.

Offloading Equipment & Supplies


Offloading equipment for a crew of 8-to-10 workers takes up to 12 hours and requires about 60 lifts from a cargo boat. Equipment can include 750-CFM or larger air compressors, 8-ton bulk abrasive blast pots, air-volume tanks, scaffolding,

September 1996

800-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

hoses, 4,000-pound bulk-abrasive bags, cargo baskets filled with coating materials, portable bunkhouses, or galley buildings.[1] Concern. Transferring equipment, material, and personnel from the cargo boat safely

Factors to Consider. Weather and sea conditions Qualifications of coatings applicators (should be rigger-certified) Qualifications of the crane operator and boat captain Organization and coordination of the loading activities Level of communication among all involved, especially the crew foreman, crane operator, hook-up personnel on the boat and the platform, and the boat captain

Lead and Other Regulated, Hazardous, Heavy Metals


Exposure to elevated levels of lead/heavy metals can have adverse and chronic effects on the human central nervous and reproductive systems. Concerns. The degree of lead/heavy metals in coating systems on offshore platforms Workers' exposure to elevated levels of lead/heavy metals when removing the coating with abrasive blasting, hand tools, or power tools

Safe Practices. Inform the contractor of any potential for exposure to lead/heavy metals to ensure that the contractor provides necessary monitoring and appropriate protection for workers as mandated by OSHA, 29 CFR 1926.62, 1926.63, and 1926.55. The Company's representative should contact local ES&H authority for guidance and assistance. Determine the exposure level from workers' personal monitors worn in a particular work area or platform. Require a degree of protection for workers corresponding to the level of exposure. (Workers' protection includes respirators, protective clothing, and changeand-wash facilities.)

Refer to OSHA guidelines about lead in industrial protective coatings [5, 7].

Scaffolding
Crews often perform blasting and coating from scaffolding. Cable scaffolding is generally set up for work on deck undersides (under heliports and superstructures. Cable scaffolding consists of 1- by 16-foot wooden timbers or aluminum boards

Chevron Corporation

800-19

September 1996

800 Offshore Coatings

Coatings Manual

tied by manila rope to cable strands. Cable clamps and net hooks secure the cables and nets. Concerns. Possibility of falling from scaffolding above deck, under the superstructure, or at the +10-foot waterline level Inadequate offshore scaffolding techniques

Safe Practices. Require that personnel wear full-body harnesses to prevent back injury in case of a fall.[2] Ensure that rigging follows accepted practices of five cablestwo to support the timbers, two to support the nets, and one as a safety line for safety lanyards. Secure cables with double cable clamps; position the live end on the U-bolt side of the clamp. Do not use old, rusted cables. Do not splice cables.

832 Environmental Issues


Environmental issues have a significant effect on offshore coatings programs as regulatory agencies become increasingly concerned about offshore activities. Many operators are reviewing their onshore programs and adopting applicable environmental protection practices for offshore work. Those responsible for overseeing coatings activities should be thoroughly familiar with the applicable laws to ensure that the Company is operating in compliance with them. Local environmental, safety, and health specialists are a good resource of information about environmental protection offshore.

840 Selection
See the Quick Reference Guide for the selection process and selection guides for offshore coating systems.

850 Surface Preparation


Achieving the surface preparation outlined in the Company's specification is crucial.[8] While this is really no different than for any other coating job, the greater expense of offshore repairs makes it even more important to pay close attention to this vital part of a coatings job.

September 1996

800-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

800 Offshore Coatings

860 References
1. Conlin, T.M. Fundamentals of Offshore Coating Operations: It's the Little Things that Really Make the Difference. Journal of Protective Coatings & Linings, Vol. 7, No. 9. Steel Structures Coating Council. September 1990. Loss Prevention Guide No. 25 - Health, Environment & Loss Prevention. Chevron Corporation. May 1991. Munger, Charles G. Corrosion Prevention by Protective Coatings. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. 1986. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. NACE Coating Inspector Training and Certification Program - Session 1, Organizational Development Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas: 1982. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910/1926, U.S. Department of Labor, 1991 and 1993. Roebuck, A.H., T.M. Conlin, and Durwood Broussard. Offshore Coatings Work. Proceedings of Steel Structures Coating Council. 1991. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1926.62, Construction Industry Standard. United States Government Printing Office. Washington: 1995. Chevron Corporation. Specification COM-MS-4771 Offshore Structures Coatings. Coatings Manual Chevron Research and Technology Company. Richmond, CA: January, 1995. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA 29 CFR 1926.63. United States Government Printing Office. Washington: 1995.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

10. . Special Edition of the Federal Register. OSHA 29 CFR 1926.55 United States Government Printing Office. Washington: 1995.

Chevron Corporation

800-21

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings


Abstract
This section contains general information about external and internal pipeline coatings. External pipeline coatings are described in figures which highlight the definition, recommended services, and other key elements of a coating. Quality control is viewed from the standpoint of specifications, planning (based on a coating's service conditions, durability and resistance, construction factors, and application factors), and inspection. The selection section covers new construction and rehabilitation coatings. Pipe is coated or lined internally to prevent corrosion or to increase flow rates by reducing friction losses. In some cases by installing linings through existing piping, a corroded line which would otherwise have to be replaced can be salvaged. In this section, the term, coatings, means the relatively thin paint, while linings are much thicker cement or plastic. Field-applied means applying a lining or coating to an existing pipeline. Internally coated pipe is the main issue, with linings introduced only in terms of alternatives to internally coated pipe. Both linings and coatings can be shop- or field-applied. For general information about: Surface preparation, see Section 100. Environment, health, and safety as they relate to coatings, see Section 200. The economics and colors of Company coatings, see Section 300.

For more detailed information about cement- and plastic-lined pipe, refer to the Company's Pipeline and Piping Manuals. Contents 910 920 921 922 930 931 Pipeline Coatings in General External Pipeline Coatings Selection Quality Control Internal Pipeline Coatings Shop-applied Internal Pipeline Coatings 900-54 Page 900-3 900-3

Chevron Corporation

900-1

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

932 933 940

Field-applied Internal Pipeline Coatings Weld-joint Application & Inspection References 900-59

September 1996

900-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

910 Pipeline Coatings in General


The information in this section about pipeline coatings is general in nature. For assistance with specific projects, contact the Company's coating specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

920 External Pipeline Coatings


The figures at the end of this section describe external coatings, both pipeline and girth-weld protection. These figures highlight the definition, recommended services, status, maximum service temperature, surface preparation, application, thickness, small repairs, handling/storage, protection, discussion, brands, and references of these coatings. Quality control is viewed from the standpoint of specifications, planning (based on a coating's service conditions, durability and resistance, construction factors, and application factors), and inspection.

921 Selection
There are numerous factors to consider when selecting a pipeline coating. Figure 900-1 is a selection flowchart for choosing an appropriate mill-applied coating. Figure 900-2 lists recommended external pipeline coatings for new construction projects. The coatings in Figure 900-2 are listed in order of preference. Figure 900-3 compares advantages and disadvantages of several types of external pipeline coatings. For detailed information on various types of coatings, consult Figures 900-4 through 900-21. Splash-zone Coating for Offshore Platform Risers. See Figure 900-22 for operating temperatures of splash-zone coatings for offshore platform risers. Valves, Fittings, Tie-ins. Their unique shape makes valves, fittings, tie-ins, and other buried objects of irregular geometry hard to coat. As FBE is a shop-applied coating, choose a spray or hand-applied coating from the list in Figure 900-23 Pipeline Fitting & Valve Coating Systems. Protection. Girth Weld See Figure 900-24 for a list of generic coatings for girth-weld protection. Figures 900-4 through 900-21 contain more detailed information on girth weld protection for specific coatings. Rock Choose any acceptable rockshield material (Tuff-N-nuff, Ametek, Rock Shield, Armor Rock) to protect coatings from mechanical damage from rocks or backfill in a ditch. The rock protection is: Wrapped around the pipe and bound with plastic straps

Chevron Corporation

900-3

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Installed just before the pipe is put into the ditch Perforated to prevent cathodic shielding

See also comments about rock protection in the Protection portion of Figures 900-4 through 900-21. Construction Boring

Topcoat FBE with Protegal UT 23-10 or Powercrete to give the coating added protection from damage during slick-bore construction, particularly where rocks in the soil may abrade the FBE. Both Protegal and Powercrete have greater abrasion resistance than FBE coatings.
Fig. 900-1 Mill-Applied Coating Selection Flowchart

September 1996

900-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-2
Rank 1.

Recommended External Pipeline Coatings for New ConstructionRanked in Order of Preference (1 of 2)


Buried Onshore Line Subsea Line Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer Higher service temperature to 230F Moisture resistant Field experience currently limited Hydrocarbon damages outer plastic jacket Elevated Temperature Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer(2) Higher service temperature to 230F Moisture resistant Field experience currently limited Hydrocarbon damages outer plastic jacket In-plant Short Buried Lines(1) Liquid Epoxy Some have same chemical and temperature resistance as FBE Also can be field applied; so, suitable for high and ambient temperature lines, especially for in-plant lines Cure can be up to 24 hours before service, per temperature during application

Extruded Plastic with FBE Service temp. to 200F All soils except hydrocarbon contaminated Coating thickness per pipeline's operating temperature

2.

FBE Service temp. between -76F and 200F All soils Coating thickness per use

FBE Higher service temperature to 200F Coating thickness per temperature

FBE(3) Service temperature up to 200F(4) Coating thickness per temperature

Plastic-backed Tape Wraps Mixed success with butyl adhesives as most are: Not resistant to hydrocarbons Poor resistance to soil stress and pipe movement Not applied generally under ideal conditions Least cost, easy to apply

3.

Extruded Plastic with Butyl Rubber or Asphalt Adhesive Very economical Service temp. to at least 100F, some to 180F Suitable for low-soil stress areas Not resistant to hydrocarbons

Coal-tar Enamel Service temp. 140F Good if selected and applied correctly Hard to handle: brittle when cold, soft when hot

Extruded Plastic with Butyl Rubber Adhesive Very economical Service temp. to maximum of 180F Suitable for low-soil stress areas

4.

Coal-tar Enamel Service temp. 140F Good if applied correctly Hard to handle: brittle when cold, soft when hot

Tape Wrap(5), (6) Low soil-stress areas Select only specialty, high-temperature tape wraps for service over 140F(7) Not resistant to hydrocarbons

Chevron Corporation

900-5

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-2
5.

Recommended External Pipeline Coatings for New ConstructionRanked in Order of Preference (2 of 2)

Tape Wrap(7) For low-soil-stress areas Not resistant to hydrocarbons

Concrete (Weight) CoatingNormally, we apply a concrete (weight) topcoat to FBE and other offshore coatings for negative buoyancy and coating protection. For small-diameter lines, FBE does not need protection; therefore, extra steel can provide negative buoyancy. A weighted topcoat not only protects coal tar from UV rays before we lay the pipeline but also prevents handling damage. See the CRTC Pipeline Manual for additional information about concrete (weight) coatings. Extruded PlasticContinuous plastic coating (either polyethylene or polypropylene) is extruded on a pipe at elevated temperatures. There are two distinct subcategories of coatings: plastic coatings with a soft-extruded-butyl rubber of flood-coated-asphalt rubber-mastic adhesive, and plastic coatings with a cured-hard-epoxy adhesive. Sometimes, a copolymer adhesive bonds the plastic outer layer to the epoxy inner layer. There are also two methods of extruding the plastic coating portion of the coating system: a side or T-shaped die, or a crosshead or circular die [3]. (1) The cost of materials is proportionally higher than for a large project. Weigh the cost against the importance of the pipeline, its access, its location (populated area vs. wilderness), and soil conditions. Lower costs of future repairs or refurbishing may offset the initial expense of high-quality coatings. (2) For abrasion protection against thermal expanding and contracting of elevated temperature lines, increase the thickness of the polyethylene or polypropylene coating. (3) FBEs permeability to water increases with temperature; but this problem has been solved to date by increasing the thickness of the FBE according to service temperature. Consider the cost of the increase in thickness. (4) Currently, FBE is the only economical line coating for temperatures over 180F. Aramco has successfully pushed FBE to 225F (22 mils) in sandy soil; but, the coating softens notably above 210F. There is a cohesion failure if a knife can remove the coating. Company recommends only three brands for service over 150F: Nap-Gard (7-2501 and 7-2504), Valspar D1003, and Scotchkote 206N based on field experience and test data. (5) Company recommends only shop-applied Rayclad 120 for protecting new pipelines. (6) The high cost of good-quality, high-temperature, tape wraps restricts them to large-radius bends. (7) Check the service history of non-specialty tapes for service temperatures above 100 F. Manufacturers often overstate the upper limits.

September 1996

900-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-3

Advantages and Disadvantages of External Pipeline Coatings (1 of 2)


Coating Advantages 25+ years experience Low current required for cathodic protection Good resistance to cathodic disbondment -40F to 200F temperature range Available in all pipe sizes Excellent hydrocarbon resistance Not susceptible to cathodic shielding Excellent adhesion to steel Continuous coating Temperature resistance up to 200F Spray or hand apply in field Good chemical resistance Use for odd shapes Can be applied while pipe is in service Low current required for cathodic protection Minimum holidays on application -40F to 180F temperature range Self-healing adhesive Wide range of sizes Excellent adhesion to steel Continuous coating High initial costs for small diameter pipe Susceptible to cathodic shielding Do not use on spiral-welded pipe Hard to handle when warm Susceptible to damage from thermal expansion and contraction Cannot be used on bends Limited hydrocarbon resistance Limited hydrocarbon resistance Limited experience with high temperature service Long cure time (minutes to 24 hours) May need near white blast surface Expensive Disadvantages Near white metal surface preparation required High application temperatures Thinnest coating Difficult to apply holiday free Difficult to apply consistently

Fusion Bonded Epoxy

Liquid Epoxies (Thermosets)

Extruded Plastic with Butyl Rubber Adhesive (Pritec)

Extruded Plastic (Mapec, Elf Atochem, and Himont FBE/PE or PP brands)

15+ years experience Minimum holidays on applications Low current required for cathodic protection Excellent adhesion to steel -40F to 180F temperature range Continuous coating Wide range of pipe sizes Low water absorption 200F + temperature resistance Low water absorption Coating for girth welds and shop bends is the same as for lines Minimum holidays on application Low current required for cathodic protection Excellent adhesion to steel Excellent adhesion FBE to PE or PP Continuous coating

Extruded Plastic (Du Val FBE/PE or PP)

Limited experience (less than 5 years) High cost Girth welds difficult to coat Coating damage hard to patch but progress is being made

Chevron Corporation

900-7

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-3

Advantages and Disadvantages of External Pipeline Coatings (2 of 2)


Coating Advantages 29+ years experience Minimum holidays on application Low current required for cathodic protection -40F to 160F temperature range Disadvantages Minimum adhesion to steel Do not use above ground Limited storage life Tears in jacket can go length of pipe Adhesive flows at low temperatures Poor hydrocarbon resistance Susceptible to cathodic shielding Hard to handle when hot Susceptible to cathodic shielding Poor coating-to-coating bond at overlap Must be applied at proper tension Susceptible to soil stresses Temperature limited Non-continuous coating Poor service history Carcinogenic fumes when applied Poor UV resistance Cracking problem below 32F Soft when hot (100F) Poor hydrocarbon resistance

Extruded Plastic, Asphalt Adhesive (Plexco, Bredero Price, and Shaw)

Tape Wraps (services < 140F)

30+ years experience Easy to apply Can be used for bends Can be used to coat all sizes of pipe Can be applied to pipe while in service

Coal/Tar Enamel

65+ years experience Minimum holidays on application Low current required for cathodic protection Good resistance to cathodic disbondment Good subsea experience with weight coating Available for all sizes of pipe

Fig. 900-4
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingAsphalt Wrap Coatings


Asphalt wrap coatings consist of filled, air-blown, asphalt enamel that is reinforced with asphalt-embedded glass cloth or felt and covered with felt
coating thickness ( mils )

Holiday Detection
1250

Note: Lower holiday detection voltages may be required to prevent coating damage.
Recommended Service Status

Caution

The Company no longer recommends this coating because of its poor service history.

In the recent past, no-one has applied asphalt-wrap coatings; therefore, pipeline grades of asphalt are no longer available in the United States. Asphaltic wraps have a poor service history and are susceptible to hydrocarbon attack and general deterioration in the ground. The Company has deleted the standard drawing for these wraps from the Piping Manual because these coatings are now obsolete.

Small Repairs

Choose an asphalt-based mastic to patch an asphalt (P-2) wrap.

Caution

Coal-tar mastics usually are not compatible with asphalt coatings.

The American Asphalt Institute had a classification system for coding asphaltic pipeline coatings that they have discontinued. P-2 identified the number of wraps and type of asphalt. this system of classification was similar to the NAPCA (National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators) system in which TGF-3 is an example for coat-tar-enamel pipe coating.

September 1996

900-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-5
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingAsphalt Mastic (1 of 2)


Somastican asphalt masticis a tar-like mixture of Inert mineral fillers - 13 per cent Sand aggregate - 64 per cent Fiberglass fibers - 0.1 per cent Asphalt binder

Recommended Service Status Max. Service Temp

Offshore and onshore ambient-temperature lines where hydrocarbon-soaked soils are not present. Limited availability and marketing have affected Somastic's popularity. Field experience has found manufacturers temperature limits to be very optimistic.

Caution

The Company does not recommend Somastic for temperatures above 140 F.

Surface Prep

Abrasive Blast Other

Holiday Detection
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Application

Heat and mix Somastic ingredients Continuously extrude the mixture over primed pipe to form a thick, seamless coating Whitewash the black mastic to prevent its softening and aging in sunlight

Girth-weld Coating Thickness Small Repairs Melt Somastic chips and pour the fluid into a mold that compresses the hot mixture around the girth weld. Taper the Somastic joint coating at the ends to accept heat-shrink wraps for coating the girth welds.

> 250 mils Heat-shrink sleeves UT.

Caution

Select mastics that are compatible with asphalt for repairing coating damage. Coal-tar mastics are usually incompatible with asphalt coatings such as Somastic.
Aboveground Storage Limit: One year

Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance

UV Resistance: Poor See also Advantages and Disadvantages under Discussion below.

Chevron Corporation

900-9

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-5
Discussion

Description of External Pipeline CoatingAsphalt Mastic (2 of 2)


Three grades of Somastic are currently available, differing in chemical makeup of the asphalt and temperature ratings. Somastic I - 120F Somastic II - 150F Somastic III - 190F

Choosing a higher grade (higher temperature limit) decreases flexibility at low temperatures. Service History Originally developed in 1922 by Standard Oil Company of California, Somastic has been selected for offshore and high-temperature onshore service. Its thickness and toughness make it especially resistant to mechanical damage; however, Somastic will fail in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. FBE has replaced asphalt enamels because of poor performance. FBE and Pritec have replaced it as an onshore hot-oil pipeline coating because Somastic has performed poorly in this service. Most of Somastic's failures occur at elevated temperatures. One of these failures occurred at the Company's Hawaii Refinery on a 180F line; however, the Company and other operators have had many successful Somastic applications at long-term ambient temperatures. Several failures have also occurred on hot-oil pipelines in California. Poor quality control inspection during pipeline construction or incompatible mastics may have caused some failures of Somastic-coated girth welds. Advantages A good coating with a long service history Adheres well Flexible Good resistance to impact, penetration, and cathodic disbonding Not always available Susceptible to hydrocarbon attack Brittle when cold (< 40F) Soft when hot Heavy (expensive to ship) Not performed well as a hot-oil pipeline coating

Disadvantages

As asphalt-wrap coatings absorb water, there have been questions about applying Somastic offshore. Water absorption could increase the current requirements for cathodic protection and cause a coating failure. Shell Oil recently reported that one of their Somastic-coated offshore pipelines was only 5 percent bare after 20 years of service. At present, there is no evidence that Somastic coatings are unsuitable for offshore service. Girth-weld Coating Heat-shrink sleeves (Taper Somastic coating transition area to 45 degree angle.) Brands Somastic I and III. Currently available only from Bredero Price International (formerly Energy Coating) in Harvey, Louisiana. See Also NACE International Standard RP-0276 (Discontinued)

September 1996

900-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-6
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingCoal Tar Enamel (1 of 2)


Coal-tar enamel is a hot, shop-applied, black tar-like coating of iron-mill-coke byproducts. It is layered with inner or outer wraps (or both) of glass fiber or asbestos felts. On subsea lines with concrete (weight) coatings. For onshore lines, operators are replacing coal-tar enamels with FBE and extruded plastic; offshore, coal-tar is very popular. 140F Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP6 Other

Recommended Service Status

Max. Service Temp Surface Prep

Holiday Detection Application

12,000 to 18,000 volts Although we can field- or shop-apply coal-tar enamels, field application is rare because of problems with inadequate pipe surface preparation, inspection [8], and air quality when melting the coating. The coating mill sprays or pours heated coal-tar enamel (400F) on a pipe primed with coal-tar primer. Simultaneously, they layer two or three glass-fiber, felt-reinforcement wraps that improve the coating's strength, uniformity, and resistance to soil stresses and mechanical damage.

Caution
Thickness 156 mils

Solvent emissions during application can be an environmental problem.

The total thickness of the coating including the outer wrap is about 100 mils. Typically ranges from 62 to 188 mils. Small Repairs The following repair methods are acceptable in the United States, except melted enamel which is prohibited in some states with strict air quality regulations. The melted enamel repair is expensive and is only warranted if there are many repairs. Coal-tar mastic Cold- or hot-applied tape made for coal tar (must first remove the damaged coal-tar enamel completely) Melted coal-tar enamel is granny ragged (the process followed to handwrap hot coal-tar enamel on the bottom half of the pipes surface) or poured into a mold formed around the pipe

Caution

Make all mastic repairs with a coal-tar mastic because asphalt mastics are incompatible with coal-tar coatings.

Many gas-transmission pipeline operators do not approve of any mastics as this substance has failed in service, allowing corrosion to develop. Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Aboveground Storage Limit: Six months + Protection For an outer coating, we recommend fiberglass filler mat and a felt or kraft paper (or both) outer wrap. The outer wrap protects the coal tar from mechanical damage when it is soft. Coating applicators usually give the pipe a reflective outer coating of kraft paper, whitewash, or white emulsion to protect it unless it is concrete (weight) coated. Any of these outer coatings will reduce the temperature of the coal tar to a minimum in the sun and protect it from UV rays. Hydrocarbon Resistance: Poor

Chevron Corporation

900-11

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-6
Discussion

Description of External Pipeline CoatingCoal Tar Enamel (2 of 2)


Choosing mineral rather than asbestos felts affects both the cost and the quality of the coating. Mineral felts are generally comparable with asbestos and cost more as they come from eastern Canada. Regardless, select mineral felts because repairs to coal-tar-enamel lines with asbestos felts would be more costly due to asbestos-handling procedures. Service History Coal-tar enamels have been popular for over 70 years. For offshore service, coal-tar enamel is common as 33 percent of the companies responding to an Oil and Gas Journal survey [9] report using it. For more than 20 years, Aramco has applied coal tar enamel successfully offshore [10]. While this coating has also been applied successfully onshore, it is hard to handle, becoming brittle at about 40F and soft above about 90F. The concrete-weight coating applied over the coal tar for subsea applications protects the coal tar and eliminates the handling problem.

Girth-weld Coatings

Shrink wraps or cold applied tape wraps.

Note: The materials of heat-shrink wraps are generally more expensive than cold-applied tape, but heatshrink wraps are quicker to apply and less sensitive to an inexperienced worker. Heat-shrink wraps also reduce the possibility of water ingress as it eliminates the overlap inherent with cold-applied tape wraps.
Brands The coating material is available from Reilly Tar and Chemical Corp., but the number of coal-tar coating applicators is decreasing because of strict air quality regulations. Per NAPCA specifications, CUSA production typically orders this coating system as TGF-3. Companys Pipeline Manual for information on weight coatings NAPCA Bulletin 1-65-94 Recommended Specification Designations for Coat Tar Enamel Coatings(1) NAPCA Bulletin 2-66-94 Standard Applied Pipe Coating Weights for NAPCA Coating Specifications (1) NAPCA Bulletin 3-67-94 External Application Procedures for Hot Applied Coal Tar Coatings to Steel Pipe(2) NAPCA Bulletin 6-69-94-1, Suggested Procedures for Hand Wrapping Field Joints Using Hot Enamel.(3) AWWA Standard C-203 COM-MS-5006, Coal-tar Enamel Corrosion Coating of Submarine Pipelines, in this manual for application specifications Application specifications for coal-tar enamel and concrete (weight) coatings in Figure 900-21: Coating Specifications for Buried Pipelines.

See Also

(1) Chevron USA follows these specifications when ordering coal-tar-enamel coatings (2) Chevron USA Production typically follows this specification when ordering coal-tar-enamel-coated pipe. (3) Although this NAPCA specification is for coating girth welds, we follow the same technique for making repairs with hot coal-tar enamel.

September 1996

900-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-7
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingCoal Tar Epoxies


A two-part liquid epoxy compound containing coal-tar pitch Refurbishing old pipelines, girth weld coatings, tie-ins, valves, and fittings.

Recommended Service

Caution
140F

Unsuitable for hot-oil pipelines.

Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep

More commonly used as a tank lining, coal-tar epoxy has seen limited use as a buried pipeline coating system; however, most coal-tar epoxies are incompatible with cathodic protection current.

Abrasive Blast SSPC SP-10

Caution
Other Holiday Detection
1250

Any less than SSPC SP-10 for buried pipeline may result in cathodic disbondment.

coating thickness ( mils )

Application

Spray, brush, or roll Cure time: Very slow

Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance

16-20 mils Patch with same material per manufacturers guidelines Cathodic Disbonding A zinc primer may improve resistance to cathodic disbonding of the coal-tar epoxy's outer layer. Applying high-built coal-tar epoxies in two coats increases resistance to cathodic disbondment. Soil Stress & Hydrocarbon Resistance: Excellent

Discussion Girth-weld Coatings Brands

Applied correctly, coal-tar epoxies are excellent coating systems for buried pipelines; but they are unsuitable for hot-oil pipelines. International Tarset Maxi-Build 7080 and Corroguard EP are the only coal-tar epoxies currently recommended, but there are many other coal-tar epoxies on the market that make excellent buried pipeline coatings. NAPCA Bulletin 14-83-94, External Application Procedures for Coal Tar Epoxy Protective Coatings to Steel Pipe

See Also

Chevron Corporation

900-13

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-8
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingCold-Applied Tapes (1 of 2)


There are two types of tape wraps: hot- and cold-applied. Hot-applied wraps generally have a higher bond strength. Cold-applied tapes can be field- or shop-applied by machine or by hand. Cold-applied tape wraps are: Continuous strips of a plastic-backing material, either polyethylene (PE) or polyvinylchloride (PVC) Coated with a butyl-rubber adhesive (Polyken or Tapecoat) or modified bituminous compound (Polyguard RD-6) Spirally wound on primer-coated pipe

Recommended Service

Tapes are still viable because otherwise we cannot accomplish the following tasks economically: Repairing damaged coatings (FBE, extruded plastic, and coal-tar epoxy) Coating bends that cannot be FBE coated in the field Refurbishing old lines that must stay in service Refurbishing short new lines in dry, low-soil-stress areas more economically than with extruded plastic or FBE

Caution Because PVC embrittles badly and shrinks at temperatures of 104 F or higher, we recommend PE for all tape applications [6, 7].

Caution

Our experience does not substantiate manufacturers' claims that cold-applied tapes are suitable for hot-oil pipelines.
Introduced about 40 years ago [5] as an over-the-ditch system, tapes replaced coal-tar enamels and asphalts that required heating. The tape on thousands of miles of pipe has given mixed results and is now being replaced with extruded plastic or FBE as the main mill-applied coating for pipelines.

Status

Max. Service Temp

Elevated-Temperature Service Most high-temperature tape systems are hot-applied tape systems. The temperature limits of coldapplied tapes, depending on the manufacturer, include: 140F for most polyethylene-backed tapes with butyl adhesives 150F for polypropylene-backed tape with bituminous compound (Polyguard RD-6) Above 140F for specialty tapes

A cold-applied tape may suffer thermoshock when raised to the service temperatures of hot-oil pipelines. Surface Prep Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-2 Other While an abrasive blasted surface is ideal, coatings applicators most often field-apply tapes, making surface preparation difficult. Over-the-ditch cleaning machines have rotating wire brushes to clean the pipe ahead of primer application. Power tools are essential if cleaning by hand. There are coatings with minimum sensitivity to surface preparation. Holiday Detection Application 3000 to 8000 volts per manufacturers guidelines Whether mill- or field-applied: Prepare the pipe surface Apply a primer Spirally apply one layer of tape Spirally apply one or more offset layers of tape over the first.

When wrapping the tape around a pipe, there are three critical elements for success: pipe surface preparation, tape tension, and amount of tape overlap. (Check with the tape manufacturer for recommendation). In a two-layer system, it is also important to stagger the overlaps of each tape layer so that water has no direct path to the pipe surface. Before applying the first tape layer, the coating applicators tape any weld seams (girth and longitudinal) that are not flush with the surface of the pipe. This base layer of tape prevents the spirally applied tape wrap from leaving a void at the weld seam that may become filled with moisture and create a shielded corrosion cell. The primer causes a chemical reaction in the adhesive, which helps bond the adhesive or compound on the inner layer of tape to the pipe's surface, thus increasing its bonding strength. In a two-layer system, the first layer of tape provides corrosion protection; the second, and any subsequent layers, provide mechanical protection for the first layer.

September 1996

900-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-8

Description of External Pipeline CoatingCold-Applied Tapes (2 of 2)


The outer wrap (or rock shield) over the tape system must be bonded or not bonded to the tape depending upon the recommendation of the tape manufacturer. Non-bonded outerwraps create a slip plane between the inner and outer wraps that helps protect the inner wrap from soil stresses. A nonbonded outerwrap may cause a cathodic protection shielding problem if it is a solid plastic coating. Shop-applied tapes outperform field-applied tapes because quality control and inspection are easier in the coating mill. To improve field application of cold-applied tapes, relatively small and lightweight wrapping machines are now commercially available that are power or hand operated. They can also be equipped with a constant tension brake system to provide uniform tension across width of rolls and through its entire length.

Application (continued)

Thickness

Varies with coating system. The average thickness (not including a rock shield or outer wrap) of a two-layer tape wrap is about 70 mils; of a single-layer tape system, 50 mils.

Small Repairs

Generally, coating applicators repair tapes by taping over the damaged tape or by using a mastic. In the Northwestern Business Unit, Chevron Pipe Line has been successful with Tapecoat's 10/40W system using a one-inch overlap. UV and Hydrocarbon Resistance: Poor Service History Many early tapes Were applied with poor surface preparation, no primer, no tension, and no protective overwrap Failed in service Have given tapes the reputation of being poor pipeline-coating systems

Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion

Advantages Cold-applied tapes are easy and inexpensive to apply in the field. If applied properly and used in the proper environment, cold applied tapes are an acceptable pipeline coating. Tapes are still viable because of the tasks listed under Recommended Service, above. Disadvantages Tapes may encounter problems in long-term service, because of improper application, service conditions, pipe diameter, or product design. As they are not a continuous coating, the tape's overlaps greatly increase the chance of water penetration. Also, the overlaps may bond poorly, catch on the soil (stress), and pull open. The Company has not verified the suggestion that some new tapes have resolved these problems. Some tapes are pressure sensitive (Tek-Rap, Royston) and depend primarily upon mechanical means, memory, to keep the overlaps closed. If outside forces such as soil stress disturb this memory, the tape may loosen. Too much or too little tension during application can cause a coating failure from loss of memory. For protecting buried pipelines, pressure-sensitive tapes are not as desirable as tapes with an adhesive that bonds at overlaps to the pipe's metal surface and the coating. Most failures of tapes occur on large-diameter pipe (greater than 12 inches in diameter). Soil stress becomes a greater problem as the pipe's diameter increases because the soil has more coating surface area to grab. Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also For coating-mill-applied tape wraps (through 12 inches in diameter), shrink sleeves or hand-wrapped tape Tapecoats 10/40W, Polyken, Polyguard RD-6 NAPCA Bulletin 16-94, External Application Procedures for Plant Applied Tape Coating to Steel Pipe NAPCA Bulletin 6-69-94-9, Suggested Procedures for Coating Field Joints, Fittings, Connections, and Pre-fabricated Sections Using Tape Coatings

Chevron Corporation

900-15

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-9
Definition

Description of External Pipeline CoatingExtruded Plastic with FBE or Liquid Epoxy Primer (1 of 2)
Continuous plastic coating (either polyethylene or polypropylene) with an epoxy primer. Buried onshore and offshore pipelines up to 200F. Although this coating system is quite new to the United States, it has been available in Europe for a long time. Himont, DuVal, and Elf Atochem are the suppliers; Bredero Price (formerly Encoat) has two coating mills that apply this coating in the United States. Himont, an Italian company, is forming an alliance with 3M and Shell Chemical to enter the U.S. pipecoating market. DuVal is an alliance between Du Pont Canada and Valspar. Du Pont Canada and Shaw manufacture polyethylene three-layer systems in Canada. Shaw's has a liquid-epoxy primer.

Recommended Service Status

Max. Service Temp

Caution

200F Polypropolene; 180F Polyethylene

We do not recommend polypropylene for service temperatures above 200F without additional laboratory or field testing.
Other: Blast clean the pipe and then transfer it to the extrusion line.

Surface Prep Holiday Detection

Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP10

1250

coating thickness ( mils )

Application

To produce a bonded, overlapped coating to a specified thickness: Apply an epoxy primer with or without a co-polymer adhesive (Mapec, Himont, Du Pont Canada, DuVal, Elf Atochem). Immediately extrude overlapping layers of melted plastic on the pipe, followed by water quenching.

Apply Shaw YJII by the crosshead-extrusion process over a liquid-epoxy adhesive layer; apply other coatings with the side-extrusion process over an FBE primer. Quality control standards are more rigid for multi-layer coating systems such as DuVal, Himont, Du Pont Canada, and Elf Atochem as the adhesive (FBE) must still be tacky when we apply the plastic topcoat.

Caution

Thickness

Applying the topcoat:

Too quickly results in improper curing of the FBE and poor bonding to the pipe's surface. Too slowly may produce an improper bond between the plastic and FBE layers.

The thickness of the plastic topcoat may be 1.5 to 3 mm or more depending upon the pipe's diameter and the service requirements. DuVal has a standard 14-mil thickness of FBE as compared to the 75 to 125 microns in the three-layer systems. Elf Atochem: 59 to 118 mils; DuVal: 20 to 45 mils.

Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion

Heat-shrink sleeves Aramco has had good experience with Mapec, which is reportedly easier to ship and handle than FBE. UV Resistance: Excellent See also Discussion below Considered the best pipeline coating system available. Company has limited experience with it. Resistance and Strength Extruded plastic coatings generally have good impact strength, resist water penetration well, and do not shrink at elevated temperatures. Physical properties of polyethylene vary with density, high-density polyethylene having superior resistance to impact and moisture. The shear strength of butyl or asphalt adhesives is poor and decreases substantially with increases in temperature [4]. This situation allows the pipe to move inside the coating during thermal expansions and contractions and subjects the outside of the coating to soil stresses. The resulting problems are loss of adhesion, wrinkling, and, eventually, exposed steel. The adhesives in Elf Atochem, Himont, Du Pont Canada, DuVal, and Shaw YJII coating systems have greater shear strengths and temperature resistance than butyl or asphalt adhesives. Mapec gave excellent results in the early 1980's testing, but did not equal thick FBE in hot (250F) subsea testing in the late 1980's [15].

September 1996

900-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-9

Description of External Pipeline CoatingExtruded Plastic with FBE or Liquid Epoxy Primer (2 of 2)
Operating Temperatures Service Temperatures < 150F Acceptable30214 Mapec's low-density polyethylene plastic. Service Temperature of 180F Uninspected but in service (Shaw YJII and a thermo-insulation outer jacket. /DuVal polypropylene with no thermo-insulated outer jacket Chevron Canada Resources has a hot-oil pipeline operating at 180F, which is coated with Shaw YJII and a thermo-insulation outer jacket. The girth welds were coated with liquid epoxy and Raychem high-temperature heat-shrink sleeves. To date, this pipeline has not been inspected and has been in service for four years. The Chevron Pipe Line Western Business Unit has DuVal polypropylene on a hot-oil pipeline operating at 180F. This pipeline has no thermo-insulated outer jacket, has not yet been inspected, and has been in service for about two years. They experienced quality control problems during the coating's mill- production run and when CCSI field coated the girth welds. While Mobil Pipeline reports that most of these problems have been corrected, a British Petroleum project also had quality control problems in South America during 1993-94. Elf Atochem's coating system has three plastic (polyolefin) top coats that they rate for the following service temperatures: Low-density polyethylene (-40 to 149F) Medium-/high-density polyethylene (-40 to 167F) Polypropylene (-4 to > 212F)

Discussion (continued)

Caution We do not recommend DuVal Polypropylene for service temperatures above 200 F without additional laboratory or field testing.
Du Pont Canada and Valspar rate their DuVal Polyethylene at a maximum operating temperature of 180F and their DuVal Polypropylene at a maximum operating temperature of 230F. Layers Because of higher costs of materials, two-layer coatings (e.g., DuVal) are more expensive than threelayer systems (e.g., Mapec, Elf Atochem, Du Pont Canada, and Himont). Valspar is considering changes for DuVal to bring its maleic anhydride content nearer the levels of three-layer coating systems. DuVal must have the proper concentration of maleic anhydride to bond the two layers to each other. Bredero Price (formerly Encoat) performs a test on DuVals raw, modified, plastic material to verify that there is a proper concentration of maleic anhydride. The middle adhesive layer of the Elf Atochem multilayer system bonds the top plastic and FBE layers with maleic anhydride and other chemicals such as terpolymer of ethylene and acrylic ester. DuVal and Elf Atochem coatings are not as easy to apply as other pipeline coatings such as FBE and Pritec. Although it is possible to field-apply a two-layer system over girth welds, field conditions can make it difficult to achieve a quality coating. Girth-weld Coatings Brands Induction-heat-applied FBE and plastic is recommended. Shrink sleeves

Many pipeline operators are using Himont, DuVal, and Elf Atochem polypropylene coating system at operating temperatures up to 230F on both offshore and onshore pipelines. The Company has limited experience with this coating system at temperatures above 200F. We do not recommend Elf Atochem Polypropylene or DuVal polypropylene for service temperatures above 200F without additional laboratory or field testing.
The following systems offer superior performance often equal to or better than FBE alone at a premium price. Mapecs low-density polyethylene plastic is acceptable for maximum service temperatures of 150F. The Mapec, Du Pont Canada, Himont, DuVal, and Elf Atochem systems have an FBE primer, and either a polypropylene or polyethylene jacket. Shaw YJII has a liquid-epoxy primer with a polyethylene outer jacket. The Mapec, Du Point Canada, Himont, Shaw YJII, and Elf Atochem systems bond the epoxy and outer plastic with a copolymer adhesive The DuVal system has an adhesive copolymer incorporated in the plastic top coat formula. CAN/CSA-Z245.21-M92 LAssociation Francaise De Normalization NF A49-710 Mobil Pipeline Specification CM-251-880

Caution

See Also

Chevron Corporation

900-17

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-10 Description of External Pipeline CoatingExtruded PlasticCrosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive (1 of 2)
Definition Recommended Service Continuous plastic coating (either polyethylene or polypropylene) extruded on a pipe at elevated temperatures. Onshore pipelines operating below 160F where FBE is uneconomical or unavailable. Prices and the performance of the systems (particularly at higher temperatures) vary substantially. See Discussion below Status Max. Service Temp Extruded polyethylene and polypropylene coatings of various costs and qualities are very popular and readily available in the United States and Canada. Varies with manufacturer. Onshore, < 160F. (100F for some brands) Surface Prep Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-6 Other Holiday Detection
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Application[3]

The crosshead extrusion method involves: Flooding the pipe with a hot asphalt-rubber adhesive Passing the pipe through a wiper ring to maintain a nominal ten-mil adhesive thickness Passing the pipe through the center of the crosshead die where the plastic is uniformly extruded in a cone shape around the pipe Water quenching that causes the plastic to shrink tightly to the adhesive and pipe

Caution Caution
Thickness Small Repairs 35-70 mil Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance

Unlike side-extrusion, crosshead extrusion limits size of pipe diameter. Never apply soft adhesives to spiral-welded pipe.

Heat-shrink sleeves Tapes, if soil stress not a problem

Above-ground Storage Limit: One year Disbonding Tests of the early 1980's show differences in adhesive strengths and resistance to cathodic disbonding. Plexco and Encoat (now Bredero Price International) were not as good as Pritec (extruded plastic with butyl rubber mastic) and Mapec (extruded plastic coating with FBE primer). [2, 4, 13, 14]. Recently Bredero Price (Encoat) improved the mastic in its Entec coating. Plexco will supply a superior mastic if requested. UV Resistance: Fair. The orange (polypropylene) and yellow (polyethylene) coatings do not resist UV damage well. They became brittle and cracked when stored for a year in the Californian sun. (This is not a problem with Yellow Jacket). Impact, Moisture, Shrink, and Temperature Resistance Extruded-plastic coatings generally have good impact strengths, resist water penetration well, and do not shrink at elevated temperatures. Physical properties of polyethylene vary with density, high-density polyethylene having superior resistance to impact and moisture. Polypropylene offers superior temperature resistance in hot-oil pipeline service, but the mastic has the lowest temperature limit.

September 1996

900-18

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-10 Description of External Pipeline CoatingExtruded PlasticCrosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive (2 of 2)
Discussion Costs Wide range in costs. The former X-Tru-Coat coatings (Plexco Plexguard, Bredero Price (Encoat), Entec, Shaw Yellow Jacket, and Shaw Black Jacket) are inexpensive and work well at ambient temperatures [12]. Temperature A Company product, the Plexco coating is very economical. Chevron Canada Resources reports that the high-temperature grade of Yellow Jacket (maximum 185F limit) works well at 140-160F. Although current Plexco and Bredero Price (Encoat) literature places maximum temperature limits of 140F (polyethylene) to 170F (polypropylene), be cautious with these products in temperatures above 100F without additional testing or documented high-temperature field experience. Yellow Jacket should work up to 160F, based on the Canadian experience. Black Jacket is a new coating with a mastic superior to Yellow Jacket, but the Company has no experience with Black Jacket. Strengths The shear strength of hot-melt-asphalt adhesives is poor and decreases substantially with increasing temperature [4]. This situation allows the pipe to move inside the coating during thermal expansions and contractions and subjects the outside of the coating to soil stresses. The resulting problems are loss of adhesion, wrinkling, and, eventually, exposed steel. Girth-weld Coating Brands Heat-shrink sleeves The crosshead extrusion method was formerly licensed under X-Tru-Coat but current brands are Bredero Price (Encoat) Entec, Shaw Yellow Jacket and Black Jacket, and Plexco (Plexguard). Shaw, Bredero Price (Encoat), and Plexco apply this coating system. See Also The former X-Tru-Coat coatings (Plexco Plexguard, Bredero Price (Encoat) Entec, Shaw Yellow Jacket, and Shaw Black Jacket) are inexpensive and work well at ambient temperatures [12]. The Plexco coating is very economical. Chevron Canada Resources reports that Yellow Jacket works well at 140-160F. NAPCA Bulletin 15-83-94, External Application Procedures for Polyolefin Pipe Coating Applied by the Cross Head Extrusion Method of the Side Extrusion Method to Steel Pipe ANSI/AWWA C215

Chevron Corporation

900-19

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-11 Description of External Pipeline CostingExtruded PlasticSide-Extruded Polyethylene with Butyl-Rubber Adhesive (1 of 2)
Definition Recommended Service Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep Continuous plastic coating (polyethylene) with butyl rubber adhesive. Onshore pipeline operating below 180F rather than FBE for cost or supply reasons Bredero Price (Encoat) applies Pritec at several coating mills in the United States. 180F Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 Other: Blast clean the pipe and then transfer it to the extrusion line. Holiday Detection
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Application

The side-extrusion method produces a bonded, overlapped coating to a specified thickness and involves: Running a rotating pipe past the extrusion die at the side of the pipe Applying a butyl-rubber-adhesive mastic Immediately extruding overlapping layers of melted plastic on the pipe, followed by water quenching

Caution
Thickness

Never apply soft adhesives to spiral-welded pipe.

Typically, plastic top layer is 40 mils, but it can be up to 240 mils. Offshore, Pritec has been applied at a nominal thickness of 15 mils for the butyl rubber layer and 60 mils for the polyethylene layer. See Protection, Rocks, below. Patches work well and are cheaper than shrink wraps but be sure that the edges of a patch adhere tightly to the surface. Coating Removal With a knife, scribe the area to be removed, freeze the coating with CO2 or liquid nitrogen, and jerk the coating off quickly. (In cold weather, it may be possible to remove the coating without artificial cooling.)

Small Repairs

Handling/Storage

Aboveground Storage Limit: One year Ship all plastic coated pipe with rubber spacers between (or 5/8-inch rope rings around) the pipes to prevent rubbing when the pipe is not nested. When nesting the pipe, use padded skids and handle the coated pipe with padded equipment and slings. Cinch-lifting methods apply a torque force to the coating and can damage it.

Protection/Resistance

Disbonding Pritec's polyethylene coating system has significantly superior adhesion and resistance to cathodic disbonding because of the butyl-rubber adhesive [2,4]. Pritec is specified by its mastic and polyethylene thickness; e.g., Pritec 10/40 is 10 mils of adhesive and 40 mils of PE. While Bredero Price, Inc., recommends Pritec 10/40 up to 180F, CRTC's M&EE Unit has run cathodic disbonding tests that show thicker coatings being more resistant to disbondment [2]. Pipe Supports As polyethylene expands and contracts with temperature changes much more than steel, the supports for the pipe and welded line can damage the coating. On the Rangely CO2 line, gunny sacks full of pine needles or sawdust provided the best support, while rubber strips or tires and sand bags did not work well.[4]

September 1996

900-20

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-11 Description of External Pipeline CostingExtruded PlasticSide-Extruded Polyethylene with Butyl-Rubber Adhesive (2 of 2)
Protection/Resistance (continued) Rocks Backfill with soil or sand as Pritec 10/40 does not resist the impact of rock. Be careful of rocks protruding from the side of the ditch that would damage the coating as the pipe is being lowered into the ditch. Increase the thickness of the polyethylene layer from its normal 40 mils to 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 mils when expecting rocky backfill to prevent damage to this coating. From experience, the Company and others have learned that Pritec 10/40, a common choice, may not be thick enough in a rocky or high-soil-stress environment. UV Resistance: Excellent Hydrocarbon Resistance of butyl rubber mastic & heat-shrink sleeves: Lacking Impact, Moisture, Shrinkage Extruded-plastic coatings generally have good impact strengths, resist water penetration well and do not shrink at elevated temperatures. Physical properties of polyethylene vary with density, high-density polyethylene having superior resistance to impact and moisture. Discussion Shear Strength The shear strength of butyl-rubber adhesives is poor and decreases substantially with increasing temperatures [4]. This situation allows the pipe to move inside the coating during thermal expansions and contractions and subjects the outside of the coating to soil stresses. The resulting problems are loss of adhesion, wrinkling, and, eventually, exposed steel. Girth-Weld Coating Brands See Also Shrink sleeves Entec Pritec 10/40 Girth-weld Protection Coatings, Figures 900-19 to 900-21 NAPCA Bulletin 14-83-94, External Application Procedures for Polyolefin Pipe Coating Applied by the Cross Head Extrusion Method of the Side Extrusion Method to Steel Pipe NACE International RP0185 COM-MS-5005, Side Extruded Plastic/Butyl Rubber Adhesive Line Pipe Corrosion Coating, in this manual

Chevron Corporation

900-21

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-12 Description of External Pipeline CoatingFusion-Bonded Epoxy (1 of 3)


Definition Recommended Service A thermosetting powder sprayed on a hot pipe. The heat melts the powder and causes chemical reactions, converting the epoxy into a hard, continuous coating. Onshore and subsea pipelines Drilled crossings (Pipe pushed through drilled hole under river or road.) Field joints and fittings up to 200F

Choose FBE over all other coatings for buried onshore lines. Status Currently, FBE is one of the most widely-used pipeline coatings. Many applicators are available worldwide. Its cost is significantly lower now because of its popularity and the reduced level of pipeline construction. 150F to 200F depending on coating. Currently, FBE is the only economical coating to withstand pipeline temperatures up to 200F. Surface Prep Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 Near-white Finish Other: Pretreat with phosphoric acid or a chromate surface to enhance FBE/pipe bond, if necessary. Both pretreatments are recommended especially for pipeline operating temperatures > 150 F. Heat surface 425F to 475F

Max. Service Temp

Caution
Holiday Detection Application

Keep the preheat below 500 F to prevent possible changes in properties of the pipe.

125 volts/mil When the surface reaches the specified temperature, apply the FBE powder by one of these methods: Electrostatic spraying (pipe, elbows, or tees) Dipping the part (elbows or tees) in a bed of (fluid) powder

The heat already in the steel is normally sufficient to cure the coating; if not, heat it again, depending on coating thickness, pipe-wall thickness, and type of epoxy powder. Thickness Depends on the pipeline's service. Rules of thumb Small Repairs Subsea or dry lines: (150F, 14 mils (min.) > 150F, 30 mils (min.) River /drilled crossings; highly irrigated / continuous wet-and-dry areas; or areas with agricultural chemicals: (150F, 20 mils (min.) > 150F, 30 mils (min.)

Melt-on Patch Stick Thermoplastic materials that soften with increasing temperature, the patch stick is a quick, effective repair method; but, if applied improperly, the patch falls off. To check the bond, pick at the repair with a knife.

Caution

Do not use patch sticks on pipelines operating at > 100 F.

Two-part Epoxy Patching Compound Thermoset that does not soften when heated, the two-part epoxy chemically decomposes when heated above a certain temperature but can match the temperature limits of the FBE. A much-higher-quality coating that has properties closer to FBE than the patch stick, two-part epoxy has a relatively long cure time (from 30 minutes up to 24 hours, depending on the pipe's temperature); and so contractors do not like it.

Note: For large repairs, use heat-shrink sleeves if soil conditions permit.

September 1996

900-22

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-12 Description of External Pipeline CoatingFusion-Bonded Epoxy (2 of 3)


Handling/Storage Aboveground Storage Limit: Two years Handling Move FBE-coated pipe carefully with padded equipment or wide slings. Separate coated pipe that is to be stacked with: Nylon rope rings for small-diameter thin-wall pipe Rubber spacers for heavy pipe

Caution
Storage

Do not use rubber spacers with lightweight pipe Lightweight pipe cannot compress rubber spacers, and the stack of pipe will become unstable.

Stored FBE pipe has Protection/Resistance Relatively good UV resistance, losing about one mil per year from UV chalking. A tendency to blister if stored in humid sea air for over a year without protection from the atmosphere

UV Protection Excellent; protect pipe if it is to be stored in hot, humid, sea-air areas (e.g., climate similar to Gulf Coast) for more than six months. Concrete (Weight) Coating Apply concrete (weight) coating by one of two methods: compression coating or impingement. Compression coating involves rotating the pipe above a conveyor belt while the belt compresses concrete on the pipe. The rotating pipe moves perpendicularly to the conveyor during the application.

Note: This process is preferred because it does not damage the coating.
Impingement involves spraying the concrete on the pipe after applying an intermediate coating to protect the corrosion coating from the sprayed concrete.

Note: Typically we should apply a barrier coating or increase the FBE thickness to 30 mils or more to avoid creating holidays in coating during the impingement process.
Cathodic Disbonding At thicknesses greater than 15 or 16 mils, Aramco has found significant improvement in FBE's resistance to ambient-temperature cathodic disbondment. Aramco specifies 17-22 mils thickness because they have regions where power supplies do not exist and they often try to throw cathodic protection down the line to these spots. Moisture-resistant Pipeline Coatings While all pipeline coatings absorb moisture during service, plastic coatings do so less than FBE coatings. Multi-layer coatings are designed with an epoxy as a primer and a plastic topcoat. Increasing the thickness of FBE for hot-oil pipelines does decrease the moisture absorption rate but creates other problems such as higher cost and reduced flexibility. Suitable for a pipeline operating temperature of up to 200F, thicker coatings of FBE do not appear practical for higher operating temperatures. Lower-moisture-absorbing FBE coatings do exist, but many are inflexible and unacceptable for pipe that may be field bent. British Gas Pipeline in the United Kingdom uses 3M's Scotchkote 226N. The claim is that this coating has a greater resistance to moisture absorption than Scotchkote 206N. As this coating system became commercially available only recently in the United States, there is limited information about it.

Chevron Corporation

900-23

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-12 Description of External Pipeline CoatingFusion-Bonded Epoxy (3 of 3)


Discussion Bends Bends are not easy to coat with FBE. There are two possibilities: Heat bends with induction coils and hand spray them in a shop. Coat bends that are small enough in a bed of (fluid) powder.

In order of preference, options for coating bends in the field are two-part liquid epoxies or tape wraps. High-temperature Pipeline Coatings High-temperature pipeline coatings for hot-oil service need a pipeline coating for a wet-soil environment at operating temperatures over 200F. Existing FBE coatings cannot meet this need. Although both DuVal and Elf Atochems polypropylene coatings claim to have operating temperatures up to 230F, there is limited field experience with these coatings. It seems unlikely that any polypropylene coating can survive at continuous operating temperatures over 210F.

Caution! Presently, the Company does not recommend any polypropylene pipeline coating for operating temperatures more than 200 F without additional laboratory testing or field experience.
Nap-Gard's new FBE coating may be suitable for hot-oil service temperatures over 180F. This coating is the first dual or polymer-powder-modified FBE coating system [24]. The FBE primer is Nap-Gard 7-2501. The water-penetration-resistant FBE topcoat, Nap-Gard 7-2504 (also called Nap-Gard Gold) will bond directly to steel pipe. Any FBE-pipe-coating mill can apply this system which is easier to apply than any existing multi-layer coating system.

Caution

The Company does not recommend the Nap-Gard 7-2501/7-2504 coating system for operating temperatures over 180 F without additional laboratory testing or field experience.

In California, Shell Pipe Line applied FBE with Pritec as an outer jacket for hot-oil service. This may be the first multi-layer coating system of this type in the USA. The Pritec protects the FBE from moisture, but the Pritec mastic is the weak link in this multi-layer coating system.

Caution
180 F.
Girth-weld Coating

The Company does not recommend using FBE with Pritec for operating temperatures over

Induction, heat-applied FBE is the best. Liquid epoxies may be used. Heat-shrink sleeves acceptable in low-soil-stress areas.

Caution
Brands

In hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, use FBE or liquid epoxies.

By Temperature > 150F: 3M Scotchkote 206N, 3M Scotchkote 226N, Valspar D1003LD, Josun D1003LD, Nap-Gard 7-2501, and Nap-Gard 7-25014 > 180F: Nap-Guards new FBE coating (7-2504) may be suitable for hot-oil service.

Multi-layer Brands DuVal, Elf Atochem, Himont, Mapec, Du Pont Canada, and Shaw YJII See Also COM-MS-4042 for specifications about purchasing and installing FBE-coated pipe. Extruded plastic film for information about multi-layer coating systems with epoxy primers Companys Pipeline Manual for additional information about concrete (weight) coatings. AWWA C213 NAPCA 12-78-94 CAN/CSA Z245.20-M92

September 1996

900-24

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-13 Description of External Pipeline CoatingHot-Applied Tapes


Definition Depending on its type, a hot-applied tape is coated on a pipe that is either Recommended Service Status Max. Service Temp Heated in a furnace Heated with a torch or the tape itself may be heated with a torch

The Company has very limited experience with hot-applied tape systems; therefore, we cannot report any field experience or provide much detail about them. 160F Raychem states that Rayclad 120 accepts a temperature of 248F (120C).

Caution
Surface Prep Holiday Detection Application Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Other

The Company has no experience with Rayclad 120 and gives it a temperature rating of 200 F until there is additional data from laboratory testing or field experience.

Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-3 10,000 to 18,000 volts Coating applicators can use torches for field-installing hot-applied tapes such as Raychem Flexclad and Canusa Wrapid tape. > 27 mils Heat-shrink sleeves or tape UV Resistance: Poor Soil-Stress/Hydrocarbon Resistance Raychem Flexclad and Canusa Wrapid tapes have better soil stress resistance than cold-applied tapes, but they have poor hydrocarbon resistance Disbonding Initially, Polyken Synergy had problems with thermoshock that caused the coating system to disbond in service. Coating applicators using Synergy report a solution: preheat the tape before applying it to the pipe's surface.

Discussion

Advantage Tend to resist soil stresses better than cold-applied tapes. Disadvantage More expensive than cold-applied tapes. In General Polyken Synergy is less expensive than FBE, about the same cost as Pritec, and more expensive than Plexguard and Entec. It has no marketable characteristics that make it superior to existing mill-applied coating systems. Synergy has to be mill applied, and it cannot be applied by a portable coating plant due to its thermoshock problems.

The Company does not recommend Polyken Synergy because we carried out all of our laboratory testing on thermoshocked samples that failed. CRTC's M&EE specialists will reconsider Synergy if it passes testing by an acceptable independent coating laboratory or if pipeline operators report favorable field experience after five years of service.
A high-temperature, hot-, mill-applied tape that other pipeline operators report to be successful is Raychem's Rayclad 120. A portable coating mill helps coating applicators to apply this tape properly in the field. Raychem Rayclad 120 have radiation-crosslinked hot-melt adhesives and polyethylene-based backings. The fact that the polyethylene plastic is radiation-crosslinked gives it greater temperature resistance and lower moisture-absorption rates than other non-radiated plastic tapes. The radiation-crosslinked hotmelt adhesives have lower moisture absorption, higher temperature resistance, and higher bond physical properties than the non-radiated mastics of other hot- and cold-applied tape systems. Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also Examples of heat-applied tapes are Canusa Wrapid Tape, Raychem Flexclad, Polyken Synergy, and Raychem Rayclad 120.

Caution

Chevron Corporation

900-25

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-14 Description of External Pipeline CoatingPetrolatum and Petroleum-Wax Tapes


Definition Petrolatum tape, a synthetic fiber, is coated with petrolatum compound containing inert fillers and thermal extenders. Petroleum wax tapes are petrolatum-based corrosion-preventative waxes, impregnating a synthetic fabric backing, and applied over a petroleum-wax primer. Coating pipes in the splash zone underneath wharves Field coating irregularly shaped, buried, pipe fittings (i.e., valves, ties, bends, etc.) Protecting transition zones where buried piping comes above ground Coating buried pipe in areas where soil stress is not a problem Filling shorted pipeline road casings (petroleum wax)

Recommended Service

Note: Excellent for fittings and irregular shapes as long as soil stress is not a problem.
Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep This specialty pipe coating has proven very successful for specific applications for over 50 years. 135F Abrasive Blast Other Holiday Detection Application Use wet spronge jeep Hand apply Brush or wipe the surface clean of dirt and all other foreign matter Apply a thin film of primer Apply the wax tape

Caution
Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance 45 mils

If the pipe's surface is wet, rub and press the primer to displace the moisture and ensure that the primer is adhering to the pipe's surface.

Patch with same material per manufacturers guidelines UV Resistance: Good Hydrocarbon Resistance: Poor Add a rock shield material to protect the coating from penetration by rocks or soil-stress activity. Without a rock shield, add special backfill (sand) to a minimum thickness of six inches (150 mm).

Discussion

Advantages Conforms to irregular shapes No drying or curing time required before backfilling Easy application with minimum surface preparation Easily removed Can be applied over wet surfaces Excellent resistance to moisture absorption

Disadvantages Low soil-stress resistance; not recommended for soil-stress areas. Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also Major manufacturers include Trenton, and Denso North America, Inc. Recently, Tapecoat introduced some petrolatum products.

September 1996

900-26

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-15 Description of External Pipeline CoatingPhenolic Epoxies


Definition A solvent-free, ultra-high-build, high-solids content, amine-cured, phenolic epoxy A solvent-free epoxy requires no evaporation in the curing process and has advantages for elevated temperature service because it is not as susceptible to solvent retention, which can cause the coating to break down on high-temperature lines [22]. Recommended Service Field- or mill-applied coating system for high-temperature pipeline service

Caution

The Company has no experience with this coating system; it is included here as an introduction only.
In Australia, Vessey Chemical manufactures Vepox CC703, reportedly an excellent high-temperature pipeline coating. Coating mills apply other phenolic-epoxy systems as a powder similar to FBE. This coating system is rehabilitating Australian high-temperature gas pipelines with operating service temperatures as high as 248F (120C).

Status Service Temp Surface Prep

Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 with surface profile of 70-100 microns Other

Holiday Detection Application Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion

Vendors recommendation. May field apply this coating system with conventional spray equipment using premixed material or with airless spray equipment [22]. Bends Phenolic epoxies are superior to FBE in temperature resistance, but typically we cannot field bend them. Coatings applicators can field coat field bends with a liquid-phenolic epoxy.

Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also

Chevron Corporation

900-27

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-16 Description of External Pipeline CoatingPolyester Epoxies


Definition Recommended Service Flake-reinforced polyester epoxies are two-part liquid-epoxy coatings. Refurbishing old pipelines, tie-ins, valves, and fittings.

Caution Caution
160F

Where hydrocarbon contamination or soil stress present, use cold-applied tapes. Polyester epoxies are not recommended for hot oil pipeline service.[22. 23]

Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep

Although this coating has had limited pipeline use because of the high cost of raw materials, it is an excellent coating system for pipeline valves both atmospheric and buried.

Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 Other

Holiday Detection Application

4,000 volts Spray, brush, or roll Very slow cure time

Note: Spray recommended; brush acceptable for patching small areas.


Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also 35-40 mils Patch with liquid epoxy per manufacturers guidelines. Polyester epoxies have excellent resistance to UV, hydrocarbon, and soil stress. Master Builder's Ceilcoat Flakeline 251 is one recommended brand, but other excellent polyester epoxies are available.

September 1996

900-28

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-17 Description of External Pipeline CoatingPolyurethane (1 of 2)


Definition The reaction of isocyanates with hydroxyl-containing compounds makes the resins in polyurethane coatings. Two types of urethanes are available for buried pipelines: elastomeric and highly crossed linked. Elastomeric PolyurethaneGenerally has tensile and elongative properties, producing elongation in excess of 20 percent. Highly Cross-linked PolyurethaneMolecular cross linking takes place in a thermoset material during cure. High cross-linked materials generally have better resistance to chemicals; lower crosslinked materials have lower resistance to chemicals but often have very high elongation. Moisture-cure PolyurethaneSingle component, generally TFT, systems applied in thin-film depositions; rely on a level of moisture for curing. Single-component PolyurethaneBase and activator exist as mix; remain fluid until applied. Dual- or Plural-component PolyurethaneSeparate base resin and an activator are mixed just before applying. All services up to temperature limits of the coating system Refurbishing old pipelines where hydrocarbon contamination or soil stress prevent use of cold tapes Field recoating pipelines Mill-coated protection for FBE-coated pipe from construction damage during boring or as a rock shield

Other forms include Recommended Service

Caution Caution
Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep

Do not select elastomeric polyurethane as a primary pipeline coating Not recommended for hot-oil pipeline service

Under the tradename, Protegal, TIB Chemie makes most polyurethane coatings applied during pipeline rehabilitation projects. Others are Madison Chemical's Corropipe and Valspar's Valpipe 100.

Caution
Other

Not recommended currently for service temperatures above 180 F [22].

Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-5

Holiday Detection Application

125 volts per mil of coating thickness Type of Polyurethane Moisture-cure single-component polyurethanes: brush or roll on the pipe's surface.

Caution
Method

TDI, an isocynate, makes it dangerous to spray moisture-cure polyurethanes.

Dual-component polyurethanes: spray for major projects; brush or roller for spot touchup and small repairs to coatings; also, trowel.

Spray: Typically, coating applicators spray dual-component polyurethanes on a pipe's surface with special plural-component equipment that helps combat difficulties with temperature and ensures better adhesion. Brush, trowel, roller: Cure time of dual-component polyurethanes is typically longer when it is applied this way. Tack-free condition is normally 30 minutes to 4 hours depending on ambient temperatures; hot air accelerates the cure cycle.

Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Resistance

25-30 mils Use manufacturers recommended polyurethane patching material See Discussion below. UV & Hydrocarbon: Excellent See also Discussion below.

Chevron Corporation

900-29

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-17 Description of External Pipeline CoatingPolyurethane (2 of 2)


Discussion Most moisture-cure polyurethanes are Slow in curing

Caution

The curing process combines with oxygen in the atmosphere; do not use in production runs.
Sensitive to high-low humidity Lower in mechanical/abrasive resistance than dual-component polyurethanes, FBE, and liquid epoxy coatings Not high build and several coats (4-6 mils) needed to reach the desired total thickness Higher moisture-absorption rates than highly crossed-linked polyurethanes Higher mechanical/abrasive resistance that may make them desirable as rock shields for other pipe coatings.

Elastomeric polyurethanes have

Advantages The high solids, high build, and fast cure properties make dual-component polyurethane suitable for pipeline-rehabilitation projects. Highly crossed-linked polyurethanes have low rates of moisture absorption. The exothermic nature of the iso/polyol reaction allows us to spray aromatic polyurethanes at temperatures as low as -20F (-29C) and as high as 140F (60C). While cure time is temperature dependent, urethanes are less temperature dependent than other systems such as liquid epoxies. To accelerate cure time, normal practice is to pre-heat the pipe to 180F in the mill; to 150F by induction coil in the field. Disadvantages Existing pipe-coating mills are not equipped to apply this coating system economically. Dual-component polyurethanes require special, plural-component, heated, spray equipment that has a pot life of less than 30 seconds. Service History In Texas, some major, large-diameter, gas-transmission pipelines were recoated with TIB Chemie's Protegal. Soil stresses had damaged the original asphalt or coal-tar enamel. There has been no report of any coating failures to date. Girth-weld Coating As we typically field-apply polyurethane, the coating applicators coat the girth-weld and joint surfaces at the same time. They may coat girth welds at coating transitions with cold-applied tapes or heat-shrink sleeves. TIB Chemie Protegal UT32-10, Madison Chemical Corropipe, Valspar Valpipe 100

Brands See Also

September 1996

900-30

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-18 Description of External Pipeline CoatingThermoset Epoxies


Definition Recommended Service Status A two-part, liquid, thermosetting compound that cures without heat. Liquid epoxies are good for repairing FBE coatings and for refurbishing old pipelines, girth-weld coatings, tie-ins, valves, and fittings. Two-part liquid epoxies have worked well in accelerated laboratory tests and in limited field use. Both Hempel Epoxy 8553 and Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 passed CRTC's hot-subsea-coating test. Previously, only 20+ mil-thick FBE coatings passed it consistently. The hot-subsea-coating test subjects a coated pipe to 250F internal temperature and -0.90 volts of cathodic protection while the pipe is suspended in 65F sea water for 90 days. Aramco is replacing tape wraps with Hempel Epoxy 8553 as their primary refurbishing and tie-in coating. They apply the coating to a 20-25 mil thickness in two coats. Max. Service Temp 225F

Note: Aramco has had success applying Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 to 200F lines in operation.
Surface Prep Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 Other Holiday Detection Application 125 volts/mil Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Spray, brush, or roll Can be field applied Cure time very slow

20-30 mils Patch with Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 per manufacturers guidelines. The tape wrap or membrane in Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 gives the coating added strength and resistance to abrasion. High-temp (225F) Hydrocarbon & UV Resistance: Excellent Chemical Resistance: Good

Discussion

Advantages Because it is a thermoset, this epoxy does not soften with temperature; but, it has chemical, temperature, and mechanical properties similar to FBE. Tape We can apply Hempel Epoxy 8553 either alone or with a tape wrap (Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553).

Girth-weld Coatings Brands See Also

Hempel Epoxy 8553 and Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553

Chevron Corporation

900-31

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-19 Description of External Pipeline CoatingGirth-Weld ProtectionHeat-shrink Sleeves (1 of 2)


Definition Recommended Service Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep Shrink sleeves are tubes or wraparound strips of a heat-shrinkable backing of cross-linked polyethylene. The backing has either a butyl-rubber adhesive or a semi-crystalline adhesive. Field joints, tie-ins, small pipeline recoating jobs, and mechanically damaged mill-applied coatings Heat shrink sleeves are readily available from manufacturers in pre-sized or bulk (cut-to-fit) packages. Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-3 for most sleeves. Refer to manufacturers guidelines. Other Holiday Detection
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

or Vendors recommendation Application Basic Prepare the surface (minimum: clean with hand power tools). Bevel the edge of the pipeline coating (only for thick coatings such as coal-tar enamel and asphalt mastic). Position the shrink sleeve. Apply heat by torch or induction, depending on the adhesive. Place tubes loosely on the pipe near the girth-weld area before fit-up and welding. Apply tubes over the girth-weld area as soon as possible after welding is completed because adhesive is exposed to the atmosphere. Apply the strips any time after welding is completed and before the pipe is buried. Wrap the strips around the field joint until the ends overlap. Seal the overlapping seam with a strip of the coating. Apply heat to shrink the coating into place.

Tubes

Strips (Wraparound sleeves)

Caution
Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance

Aramco uses induction coils to apply heat shrink wraps at a rate of 120 per day.

Consult the manufacturer for instructions on application procedures.

70 to 80 mils

Shrink sleeves are thick, therefore, abrasion resistant. When heated, the adhesive melts and the polyethylene backing shrinks. This forces the adhesive to flow into the irregularities of the area to be coated. The shrunken wrap is an abrasion-and- penetration-resistant coating. CRTC's Materials and Equipment Engineering group conducted dragging tests to simulate an offshoretow installation. The leading edge peeled and eroded, and tape wraps failed at overlaps because every protruding surface eroded. Because of these tests, the Company bonded a sacrificial half-sleeve in front of the actual shrink sleeves of a Pritec-coated offshore line. The Company installed this pipeline successfully, despite dragging it across an ocean floor. See also Disadvantages and Selection in Discussion, below.

September 1996

900-32

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-19 Description of External Pipeline CoatingGirth-Weld ProtectionHeat-shrink Sleeves (2 of 2)


Discussion Advantages Quick and easy to apply, requiring a minimal surface preparation and skill Service temperature ratings between -30F and 230F Compatible with FBE, extruded plastic, tape wraps, coal-tar enamels, asphalt mastics, liquid epoxies, and polyurethane coatings. The polyethylene backings expand when exposed to hydrocarbons. A torch, required for the applying the wraps, can damage the primary coating. Some heat shrink sleeves have low resistance to damage from soil stress.

Disadvantages

Selection

Choice of Adhesive: The adhesive establishes two categories of temperature limits for sleeves, each having specific characteristics:
150F or lower: typically a butyl-rubber adhesive which Can flow when heated by torch which causes no damage to the PE backing or line coating. Generally changes color at the proper temperature, allowing less-experienced workers to apply the sleeves properly. 150F or higher: typically a semi-crystalline adhesive which Needs greater heat to melt the adhesive than butyl-rubber adhesives. Needs induction coils for a more even, consistent heat and to prevent damage to the pipeline coating and sleeve from the flame of the torch. Torches are also acceptable for heating the pipe. The properties of the adhesive may also affect the sleeve's selection: Semi-crystalline or hot-melt adhesives have good physical properties and bond strengths but generally have poorer resistance to cathodic disbonding than butyl-rubber adhesives. Butyl-rubber adhesives are generally more susceptible to soil stresses but have a higher resistance to cathodic disbonding.

Other Selection Factors: The choice of sleeve may also depend on the pipe's size, construction schedule, and the experience of the people applying it.
Wraparound Less costly No time constraints for application (can apply after creating any weld) Bulk, cut-to-fit sizes Tube Must place loosely over pipe before creating weld Only for 3/4-inch- to 12-inch-diameter pipe Quicker and easier to apply than wraparound sleeves Superior to wraparound because there are no seams Brands In the U.S., the Company usually selects Raychem and Canusa sleeves. Other brands currently available are UBE Industries, Ltd., Tokyo and Nitto Electric Industrial, Ltd. For DuVal, Himont, and Elf Atochem polyethylene girth welds, there are heat-shrink sleeves compatible with the coating and rated for the operating temperature of the pipeline. Canusa has developed a multilayer heat-shrink sleeve for coating the girth welds of multi-layer coatings such as Shaw YJII, Mapec, Himont, Elf Atochem, and DuVal. Raychem is developing heat-shrink sleeves for polypropylene pipe coated with Elf Atochem, Himont, and DuVal brands. See Also

Chevron Corporation

900-33

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-20 Description of External Pipeline CoatingGirth-Weld Protection CoatingInduction Heat-Applied FBE
Definition Recommended Service Status Max. Service Temp Surface Prep Applying FBE to the girth-weld area by induction heat To protect girth welds of FBE- coated pipelines Common on large projects, critical lines, and high-temperature lines. It was expensive, but the cost now nearly equals heat-shrink sleeves due to improved application techniques on large projects. Abrasive Blast SSPC SP-10 Near-white Metal Finish Other After welding, clean the pipe chemically and then blast it to SSPC SP-10. Brush blast the field joint and two inches of FBE on either side of the joint to clean and roughen the coating's surface.

Caution
Holiday Detection Application

Proper surface preparation is critical to this type of coating. Also, protect the pipe's surfaces from high humidity, rain, or surface moisture [9, 11].

125 volts/mil Induction heat the weld zone to approximately 500F (depending on the coating manufacturer's specifications). Immediately apply the FBE powder so that residual heat in the pipe cures the coating. A motorized unit, called a powder application ring, sprays the powder on the joint as the sprayer rotates around the pipe.

Caution
Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion

Do not force cool or quench, which means that the pipe must be out of service during the coating process to prevent cooling too quickly.

Advantages Induction heat-applied FBE is the best girth-weld area protection coating for FBE-coated pipelines because it is the same material as on the pipe's joint. Disadvantages Application requires abrasive blasting and accurate heat control. It is sensitive to environmental effects such as humidity.

Brands

Commercial Resins Company, Commercial Coating Services Incorporated (CCSI), and Pipeline Induction Heat Ltd. (PIH) are among the contractors who have equipment and trained personnel for field applying FBE over pipeline girth welds. Figure 900-3 Advantages and Disadvantages of External Pipeline Coatings

See Also

September 1996

900-34

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-21 Description of External Pipeline CoatingGirth-Weld ProtectionInduction Heat-Applied Plastic with FBE Primer
Definition Recommended Service Induction heat-applied plastic with FBE primer is a field-applied process for coating EPHA girth welds. For joints coated with extruded plastic with hard adhesive (EPHA) In EPHA, hard adhesive is liquid epoxy or FBE primer. Status Common on high-temperature pipelines Coating the girth welds on pipe joints coated with Elf Atochem, Himont, and DuVal polypropylene is difficult; however, Raychem is developing a heat-shrink sleeve for coating girth welds on these joints. Max. Service Temp Surface Prep Vendors claim up to 230F. Abrasive Blast: SSPC SP-10 Near-white Metal Finish Other: Chemical cleaning and blasting to an SSPC SP-10 Holiday Detection Application Heat the weld and adjoining FBE coating from 438F to 463F with an induction coil. Apply the FBE powder to the heated surface. Apply the top, plastic layer(s), at the proper time, over the FBE primer.

Note: Post heating of the plastic layer may be required depending upon the coating thickness
Timing Requires excellent timing when applying the plastic layer over the FBE layer. Thickness Small Repairs Handling/Storage Protection/Resistance Discussion Advantage The best girth-weld protection for EPHA- coated pipelines because it is the same material as the pipe joint Disadvantages Brands Requires abrasive blasting Requires accurate heat control; otherwise, the joint coating near the girth-weld may become damaged Requires excellent timing during application Is sensitive to environment, such as humidity Too quick: improper curing of the FBE and poor bonding to the pipe's surface Too slow: improper bonding between the plastic and FBE

There are two companies experienced with applying specific brands of these coatings: Commercial Coating Services Incorporated (CCSI) with DuVal Pipeline Induction Heat Ltd. (PIH) with DuVal, Himont, and Elf Atochem

See Also

Chevron Corporation

900-35

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-22 Operating Temperature for Splash-Zone Coating for Offshore Platform Risers
Temperature Below 140F Up to 180F Up to 250F Coating Sprayable (Tidegard 171) Vulcanized Neoprene Monel Sheathing

Fig. 900-23 Pipeline Fitting and Valve Coating System


Generic Type Coal Tar Epoxy Coating Name Tarset Maxi-Build 7080 Du Val Max Svc Temp F 14 Holiday Detector Voltage 300 V Coating Thickness (Mils) 16-20 Surface Prep SSPC SP-10 Hydrocarbon Resistant Yes Soil Stress Resistant Yes

Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) Heat Shrinkable Tape

200
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

20-45

SSPC SP-10

Yes

Yes

Scothkote 206N Canusa Wrapid Tape

200

125 V/Mil

14-30

SSPC SP-10

No

Yes

135
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

>27

SSPC SP-3

No

No

Heat Shrinkable Tape

Raychem FlexClad

135
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

>27

SSPC SP-3

No

No

Petroleum Tape Polyester Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Thermoset Epoxy Wax Tape

Denso HT Flakeline 251 Protegal UT 32-10RG Protegal UT 32-50RG Protegal UT 32-10 Valpipe 100 Madison Corropipe 2TX Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8533 Trenton #1 Wax

120 160 180 180 135 160 135 225 120

use wet spronge jeep 4000V 150 V/Mil 150 V/Mil 150 V/Mil 125 V/Mil 125 V/Mil 125 V/Mil use wet spronge jeep

45 35-40 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 20-30 70-90

SSPC SP-2 SSPC SP-10 SSPC SP-5 SSPC SP-5 SSPC SP-5 SSPC SP-5 SSPC SP-5 SSPC SP-10 SSPC SP-2

No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

September 1996

900-36

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-24 Generic Coatings for Girth Weld Protection


Suggested Coating Material for the Girth Weld Preferences Original Coating Asphalt Enamel Joining Coating Asphalt Enamel FBE EPSA Polyester Epoxy Tape Coal Tar Enamel Coal Tar Enamel FBE EPSA Asphalt Enamel Polyester Epoxy Tape EPHA EPSA EPHA EPSA EPHA Polyester Epoxy Tape FBE FBE EPSA EPHA Polyester Epoxy Tape Tape Note: Tape 1 Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Tape Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Tape EPHA Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Heat Shrink Wrap Tape FBE Heat Shrink Wrap FBE Heat Shrink Wrap Tape Tape Heat Shrink Wrap Tape EPHA Polyester Epoxy Heat Shrink Wrap Tape Liquid Epoxy Tape Liquid Epoxy Tape Heat Shrink Wrap Tape Tape Tape Tape Coal Tar Epoxy Tape Tape Tape Polyester Epoxy Coal Tar Epoxy Tape Asphalt Enamel Tape Liquid Epoxy Coal Tar Enamel Coal Tar Enamel Mastic 2 Asphalt Enamel Tape Tape Tape Polyester Epoxy Liquid Epoxy Asphalt Enamel 3 4 5

EPSA = Extruded Plastic with Soft Adhesive EPHA = Extruded Plastic with Hard Adhesive

Note:

Chevron Corporation

900-37

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Rehabilitation Coatings
There are two ways to refurbish an old line: replace the pipeline or remove the old coating and recoat. Replacing the Pipe (Coating the Transition Girth Welds). Consider cold-applied tapes or heat-shrink sleeves to coat tie-in girth welds because these coatings are compatible with almost all coating systems. Note Tie-in girth welds connect the replacement section of pipe to the existing pipe. If soil stress is not a problem, apply either heat-shrink sleeves or cold-applied tape to girth welds on the tie-in (coating transition). If soil stress is a problem, apply heat-shrink sleeves on the tie-in. If the soil has hydrocarbon contamination, select FBE-coated pipe over extruded plastics. Avoid heat-shrink wraps or cold-applied tapes on the girth welds, and select liquid epoxy for the girth welds of the pipe replacement. If there is both soil stress and hydrocarbon contamination, select liquid epoxy rather than cold-applied tapes or heat-shrink sleeves. Replacing the Coating. Pipeline recoating may be carried out in-the-ditch or overthe-ditch. Note In-the-ditch means that the pipeline is neither removed from its site nor from service and may still be under pressure. Over-the-ditch means that the pipeline is taken out of service and the pipe removed from the ground.

Caution While recoating a pipeline that is under pressure, follow all pipeline safety guidelines. Be aware that machinery for recoating pipe may be unsafe for a pressured pipeline. When replacing the coating, grit or sand blast to remove the old one completely if local air quality regulations permit. If the old coating system contains asbestos, follow special asbestos-handling procedures such as work wet, use plastic containment, and wear special protective clothing. Asbestos-containing coatings include Somastic, most asphaltics such as P2, Modified P2, P3, and P4 Wraps, and coal-tar enamel. Note To identify asbestos-containing coatings on Company pipelines, research construction records and pipeline inventory line sheets for coating information. CRTC's M&EE Unit has project files that may also contain information about pipeline coating projects. For the latest information about asbestos-removal techniques for pipelines, contact Chevron Pipe Line Company's Health, Environment, & Loss Prevention personnel.

September 1996

900-38

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Caution Government regulations about removing asbestos vary across the United States and change periodically. Review the current asbestos-removal regulations before starting a pipeline-rehabilitation project. Selecting the Coating. Factors involved in choosing a field-applied rehabilitation coating system include consideration of the following: Soil Temperatures Operating temperature of the pipe Temperature of the pipe during recoating Dew point temperature during coating

See Figure 900-25 for a brief description of field-applied, pipeline coating systems for rehabilitating pipelines. The coating systems are listed in order of preference.

922 Quality Control


Among the elements of quality control for external pipeline coatings are specifications and standards, planning, service conditions, durability and resistance, construction factors, application factors, and inspection.

Specifications and Standards


The following figures list specifications to help ensure the success of an external coatings project. Coating Specifications for Buried Pipelines (Figure 900-26) Industry Standards for Pipeline Coatings (Figure 900-27)

Planning
There are many factors involved in planning an external coatings project for pipelines. The main ones are as follows: Service Conditions Maximum continuous service temperature Soil conditions Accessibility of the line for field application and repair

Durability and Resistance of Coatings Durability Chemical Resistance Ultraviolet (UV) Resistance Resistance to Mechanical Damage Resistance to Temperature Cathodic Shielding and Disbonding

Chevron Corporation

900-39

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-25 Field-Applied Rehabilitation Coating Systems in Order of Preference


Rank 1. Liquid Epoxies Excellent resistance to chemicals and temperatures 2. Poor (long) cure times Dust and insects can contaminate this coating while it is curing, causing holidays Poor choice during winter, more practical during ideal dry summer weather Brush, roll, or spray with standard spray equipment For all services: thermoset and phenolic Not for hot-oil pipelines: polyester and coal-tar epoxies For temperatures up to 220F: phenolic and some thermoset epoxies System

There are basically four types of liquid epoxies: coal-tar, thermoset, phenolic, and polyester epoxies.

Polyurethane Excellent resistance to chemicals and temperature Preferred over liquid epoxies for faster cure time Summer: Fast-cure urethane coatings may be buried within 15 minutes Winter: Fast cure urethane coatings can take from one to five hours to cure enough for burial, depending on the method of application Spray with required, heated, plural-component, spray equipment For temperatures up to 180F

3.

Hot-Applied Wraps and Tapes(1) Recoating for short sections of pipe Needs a rock shield in high-soil-stress environment Too labor intensive for rehabilitating major pipelines Low resistance to hydrocarbon not for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils Available as high-temperature heat shrinkable wraps and tapes May not be applied to pipelines in service if flowing product prevents pipe surface from being heated properly

4.

Cold-Applied Tapes(1) Very economical Needs proper tension during application Needs an outer wrap of rock shield in high-soil-stress areas Low resistance to hydrocarbon and temperature

(1) If this coating fails, it may cause a shielded corrosion cell, creating a corrosion leak on a cathodic protected pipeline

September 1996

900-40

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-26 Coating Specifications for Buried Pipelines


Coating Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) Spec Number(1) COM-MS-4042 09-AMSS-089 PA 131 P-I-002 Extruded Plastic PA 129 Spec Title Fusion Bonded Epoxy for External Coating Shop-Applied External FBE Coatings Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Line Pipe Corrosion Coating Fusion Bonded Epoxy Corrosion of Submarine Pipelines Extruded Polyethylene Corrosion Coating with Butyl Adhesive Shop-Applied Extruded PE External Coating System Side Extruded Plastic/ Butyl Rubber Adhesive Line Pipe Corrosion Coating Coal Tar Enamel Wrap Spec for TGF-3 Pipeline Coating Water Line Coal Tar Enamel Corrosion Coating Coal-Tar Enamel Corrosion Coating of Submarine Pipelines Pipe Weight Coating Pipe Weight Coating Quality Assurance Pipeline Continuous Concrete Coating Polymer Cement Barrier Coating (over FBE Powder Pipe Coatings) Concrete Weight Coating for Submarine Pipelines Spec for Over-the-Ditch Application for Mainline Pipe and Facility Piping Polyethylene Tape Wrap with Butyl Adhesive Hand-Applied Pressure Sensitive Tape Wrap for Temperatures up to 55C (130F) High-Temperature Heat Shrink Sleeves Project Company's Standard Spec Aramco Spec Mesquite Pipe Line Project Western Producing Spec (Platform Gail) Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Aramco Mapec and Pritec Spec Company's Standard Spec Date Written 3/31/88 8/10/85 6/30/87 8/21/84 7/6/84

09-AMSS-090 COM-MS-5005

3/27/85 1996

Coal Tar Enamel

PA 171 NR-2510 PA 155 COM-MS-5006

Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Northern Producing Spec Point Arguello Pipeline Company Company's Standard Spec Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Sudan Petroleum Development Project Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Richmond Deep Water Outfall Project Rangely

1/3/85 9/17/87 12/20/85 1996 2/20/85 4/15/85 2/24/84 7/6/84

Concrete Weight Coating

PA 136 PA 176 PA 132

E-4512 Field-Applied Tape Wrap

9/23/86 2/26/85

PA 150 09-AMSS-095

Point Arguello Pipeline and Natural Gas Companies Aramco Spec

7/6/84 9/22/85

Shrink Sleeves

09-AMSS-096

Aramco Spec

9/22/85

(1) See CRTC's Materials Engineering File 6.55.70 Specifications PA Specifications were written by Chevron Pipe Line Company

Chevron Corporation

900-41

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-27 Industry Standards for Pipeline Coatings (1 of 2)


Spec. No. Description American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards RP 10E RP 5L1 FP 5L5 Application of Cement Lining to Steel Tubular Goods, Handling, Installation, and Joining Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe Recommended Practice for Marine Transportation of Line Pipe American Water Works Associated (AWWA) ANSI/AWWA C203 ANSI/AWWA C205 ANSI/AWWA C209 ANSI/AWWA C210 ANSI/AWWA C213 ANSI/AWWA C214 ANSI/AWWA C215 AWWA C602 CT Protective Coating & Lining for Stl. Water Lines Cement Mortar Lining for Steel Pipe 4" & Larger Cold-Applied Tape Coatings for Special Sections CTE for the Interior & Exterior of Steep Pipe FBE for the Interior & Exterior of Steep Pipe Tape Coating for the Exterior of Steel H20 Pipes Extruded Polyolefin for Exterior of Steel H20 Pipes Cement Lining Water Lines 4" & Largerin Place British Standard BS 4164 Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipelines, Enamel, and Tape Hot-Applied British Gas Standards PS/PA3 PS/CW1 BGC/PS/CW2 PS/CW3 PS/CW5 MR0274 PUB. 6H189 Painting at Site of New Components for Long Term Protection External Wrap of Line Pipe using Coal Tar Cold-Applied Wrapping Tapes & Tape Systems External Wrap Operations using Hot-Applied Bitumen Code of Practice for the Selection and Application of Field-Applied External Coating (Other than Resin) Material Requirements for Polyolefin Cold-Applied Tapes for Underground Submerged Pipeline Coatings A State-of-the-Art Report of Protective Coatings for Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Surfaces Under Insulation and Cementitious Fireproofing Canadian Standards CAN/CSA-Z245.20-M90 CAN/CSA-Z245.21-M92 External FBE Coating for Pipe External Polyethylene Coating for Pipe German Standards (DIN) DIN 30670 DIN 53516 Polyethylene Coating of Steel Pipes and Components Determination of Abrasion Resistance L'Association Franaise De Normalisation (AFNOR) Standard NFA 49-710 Steel Tubes External Triple-Layer Polyethylene-Based Coating Application by Extrusion NACE International Standards RP0169 RP0285 RP0181 RP0185 RP0188 Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems Liquid Applied Internal Protection Linings and Coatings for Oil Field Production Equipment Extruded Polyolefin Resin Coating Systems for Underground or Submerged Pipe Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of Protective Coatings

September 1996

900-42

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-27 Industry Standards for Pipeline Coatings (2 of 2)


Spec. No. Description NACE International Standards (continued) RP0190 RP0274 RP0490 RP0675 TM0170 TM0174 TM0175 TM0183 TM0185 TM0186 TM0375 TM0384 External Protective Coatings for Joints, Fittings, and Valves on Metallic Underground or Submerged Pipelines and Piping Systems High Voltage Electrical Inspection of Pipeline Coatings Prior to Installation Holiday Detection of Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Pipeline Coatings of 10 to 30 Mils (0.25 to 0.76 MM) Control of External Corrosion on Offshore Steel Pipelines Visual Standard for Surfaces of New Steel Airblast Cleaned with Sand Abrasive Laboratory Methods for the Evaluation of Protective Coatings used as Lining Materials in Immersion Services Control of Internal Corrosion in Steel Pipelines and Piping Systems Evaluation of Internal Plastic Coatings for Corrosion Control of Tubular Goods in an Aqueous Flowing Environment Evaluation of Internal Plastic Coatings for Corrosion Control of Tubular Goods by Autoclave Testing Holiday Detection of Internal Tubular Coatings of 10 to 20 mils (0.25 to 0.76 MM) Dry Film Thickness Abrasion Resistance Testing of Thin Film Baked Coatings and Linings using the Falling Sand Method Holiday Detection of Internal Tubular Coatings of less than 10 mils (0.25 MM) Dry Film Thickness National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators (NAPCA) Standards Bulletin 1-65-94 Bulletin 2-66-94 Bulletin 3-67-94 Bulletin 5-69-94 Bulletin 12-78-94 Bulletin 13-79-94 Bulletin 14-83-94 Bulletin 15-83-94 Bulletin 6-69-94-1 Bulletin 6-69-94-2 Bulletin 6-69-94-3 Bulletin 6-69-94-4 Bulletin 6-69-94-5 Designation for Coal Tar Enamel Coatings NAPCA Coating Specifications for Standard Applied Pipe Coating Weights External Application Procedures of Hot Applied Coal Tar Coatings to Steel Pipe NPACA Specifications for Pipeline Wrappers External Application Procedures for Plant-Applied Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) Coatings to Steel Pipe External Application Procedures for Coal Tar Epoxy Protective Coatings to Steel Pipe External Application Procedures for Polyolefin Pipe Coating Applied by the Cross Head Extrusion Method for the Side Extrusion Method to Steel Pipe External Application Procedures for Plant-Applied Tape Coating to Steel Pipe Suggested Procedures to Hand Wrap Field Joints using Hot Enamel Suggested Procedures for Coating of Girth Welds with Fusion Bonded Epoxy Suggested Procedures for Coating Field Joints, Fittings, Connections, and Pre-Fabricated Sections using Tape Coatings Suggested Procedures for Field Joint Application using Mastic Mix and Field Mold Suggested Procedures for Coating Field Joints using Heat Shrinkable Materials

Chevron Corporation

900-43

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Construction Factors Impact Resistance Flexibility in Cold Weather Field Repair Limitations of Temporary Storage Climate During Construction Project Construction Methods During Project

Application Factors Cost Site

Service Conditions
Note FBE has the widest range of operating temperatures, greatest resistance to chemicals and soil stress of all pipe-coating systems. Maximum Continuous Service Temperature Figures 900-23, 900-28, and 900-29 list information about service conditions of various field- or mill-applied coatings and coatings for fittings and valves. Soil Conditions (sand vs. clay, wet or dry, hydrocarbon or other chemical contamination, pipe-soil stresses, soil resistivity data) Hydrocarbon or Chemical Contamination To combat hydrocarbon or chemical contamination, it is necessary to apply a pipe coating that is resistant to the chemicals in the soil. Soil Stresses Soil stresses occur mainly in clay soils; not usually in sandy soils. Soil stresses resulting from wet/dry or freeze/thaw seasonal cycles can, however, damage pipe coatings. Soil Corrosivity Typically, soil corrosivity increases with decreasing soil resistivity. In highly corrosive soils, you may need to apply a high-performance coating system to the pipe. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Activity Some pipe coatings, such as cold-applied tapes, have low resistance to bacteria-generated, chemical byproducts that are also corrosive to the steel pipe. Accessibility of the Line for Field Application and Repair Pipe laid under river crossings, offshore, or in other hard-to-access locations may need low-maintenance pipe coatings.

September 1996

900-44

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-28 Mill-Applied Pipeline Coating Systems (1 of 2)


Surface Prep Generic Type Asphalt Mastic Trade Name Somastic Type I Max Svc Temp. F 140
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Resistance Hydrocarbon No Soil Stress Yes

Holiday Detector Voltage

Color Black

SSPC SP6

Asphalt Mastic

Somastic Type III

140
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Yellow

No

Yes

Coal Tar Enamel

Reilly #230A Enamel

140
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Black

No

No

Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Adhesive Dual FBE

Shaw Black Jacket (Polyethylene)

150
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Black

No

Yes

Shaw Yellow Jacket (Polyethylene)

160
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Yellow

No

Yes

Encoat Entec (Polyethylene)

100
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Yellow

No

Yes

Encoat Entec (Polypropylene)

100
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Orange

No

Yes

Plexco Plexguard (Polyethylene) Plexco Plexguard (Polypropylene) O'Brien Nap-Gard Gold 7-2501 & 7-2504 Elf Atochem (Polyethylene)

100

10,000 V

Yellow

No

Yes

100

10,000 V

Orange

No

Yes

200

125 V/Mil.

Gold

10

Yes

Yes

Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer

180
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Black

10

No

Yes

Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer

Elf Atochem (Polypropylene)

200
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Gray

10

No

Yes

Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer

Du Val (Polyethylene)

180
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Blue

10

No

Yes

Chevron Corporation

900-45

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-28 Mill-Applied Pipeline Coating Systems (2 of 2)


Surface Prep Generic Type Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer Trade Name Du Val (Polypropylene) Max Svc Temp. F 200
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Resistance Hydrocarbon No Soil Stress Yes

Holiday Detector Voltage

Color Blue

SSPC SP10

FBE FBE FBE FBE Heat-Applied Tape

3M ScotchKote 206N O'Brien Nap-Gard 7-2501 Valspar D1003LD Lilly Pipeclad 1500 Raychem Rayclad 120

200 200 200 150 20


1250

125 V/Mil. 125 V/Mil. 125 V/Mil. 125 V/Mil.


coating thickness ( mils )

Green Red Beige Green Black

10 10 10 10 3

Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Heat-Applied Tape

Ygill

140
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

White

No

No

Side-Extruded Polyethylene with Butyl Rubber Adhesive

Pritec 10/40

180

14,000 V

Black

10

No

Yes

Durability & Resistance


Durability. Proper surface preparation is essential to prevent premature failure of coatings. Minimum specifications for the surface preparation of pipeline are listed in Figures 900-23, 900-28, and 900-29 for mill- and field-applied pipeline coating systems and for pipeline fittings and valve coating systems. See also the list of standards for surface preparation in Figure 900-30. In the Company's pipe-coating specifications, there are details about the quality control inspections necessary during the coating mill's production run. Chemical Resistance. Chemical resistance is important in a coating if: There was a spill where the pipe will be laid The location has a high potential for a spill

Figures 900-23, 900-28, and 900-29 give the rates of hydrocarbon resistance for various pipeline coatings. The rating for extruded plastic and tape wraps is based on the following: Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is more resistant than polypropylene which, in turn, is more resistant than polyethylene.

September 1996

900-46

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-29 Field-Applied Pipeline Coating System


Holiday Detector Voltage 125 V/Mil 4000V 3000V 150 V/Mil 150 V/Mil 150 V/Mil 125 V/Mil 200 V/Mil Surface Prep Color Gray White Black Black Black Red Gray Black Black
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Resistance Hydrocarbon Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Soil Stress Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Manufacturer Hempel Celcoat Porter Int'l TIB Chemie TIB Chemie TIB Chemie Valspar Madison Chemical Reilly Tar & Chemical

Trade Name Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 Flakeline 251 Tarset MaxBuild 7080 Protegal 32-10 Protegal 32-10RG Protegal 32-50RG Valpipe 100 Corropipe 2TX #230 A Enamel

Generic Type Thermostat Epoxy Polyester Epoxy Coal Tar Epoxy Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Polyurethane Coal Tar Enamel

Max Svc Temp F 225 160 140 135 180 180 160 140 140

SSPC SP10 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 6

Raychem

Flexclad

Applied Tape

135
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Black

No

No

Canusa

Wrapid-Tape

Applied Tape

135
1250 coating thickness ( mils )

Yellow

No

No

Tapecoat Tapecoat Tapecoat Polyguard Polyken Denso Trenton

10/40W H-50 CT RD-6 900 Series HT #1 Wax Tape

Cold-Applied Tape Cold-Applied Tape Cold-Applied Tape Cold-Applied Tape Cold-Applied Tape Petrolatum Tape Petroleum Wax Tape

120 120 120 120 120 120 120

8,000 V 6,500-8,500 V 7,000 V 3,000-5,500 V 10,000 V Wet Spronge Jeep Wet Spronge Jeep

Black Black Black Black White Brown Brown

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

No No No No No No No

No No No No No No No

Chevron Corporation

900-47

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-30 Standards for Surface Preparation


SSPC SP 1 NACE Internt'l Description Short Solvent Cleaning Long Removal of oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts, and contaminants by cleaning with solvent, vapor, alkali, emulsion, or steam. Removal of loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint to a degree specified, by hand chipping, scraping, sanding, and wire brushing. Removal of loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint to degree specified, by power tool chipping, descaling, sanding, wire brushing, and grinding. Removal of all visible rust, mill scale, paint, and foreign matter by blast cleaning by wheel or nozzle (dry or wet) using sand, grit, or shot. (For very corrosive atmosphere where high cost of cleaning is warranted.) Blast cleaning nearly to white metal cleanliness, until at least 95% of each element of surface area is free of all visible residues. (For high humidity, chemical atmosphere, marine or other corrosive environment.) Blast cleaning until at least two-thirds of each element of surface area is free of all visible residues. (For rather severe conditions of exposure.) Blast cleaning of all except tightly adhering residues of mill scale, rust, and coatings, exposing numerous evenly distributed flecks of underlying metal. Complete removal of rust and mill scale by acid pickling, duplex pickling, or electrolytic pickling. May passify surface. Canadian Foreign Standards Swedish British

SP 2

Hand Tool Cleaning

31 GP-401

St. 2 (Approx.)

SP 3

Power Tool Cleaning

31 GP-402

St. 3

SP 5

NACE #1

White Metal Blast Cleaning

404 Type 1

Sa. 3

BS 4232 First Quality

SP 10

NACE #2

Near-White Blast Cleaning

Sa. 2-1/2

BS 4232 Second Quality

SP 6

NACE #2

Commercial Blast Cleaning

31 GP-404 Type 2

Sa. 2

BS4232 Third Quality

SP 7

NACE #4

Brush-off Cleaning

31 GP404 Type 3

Sa. 1

Light Blast to Brush Off

SP 8

Pickling

Plastic coatings swell and eventually fail under prolonged exposure to hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons attack and dissolve the soft adhesive that holds plastic coatings to the pipe. Typically, soft adhesives have a lower resistance to hydrocarbon than the plastic jacket.

Ultraviolet (UV) Resistance. While all coatings degrade in sunlight, there are some practical solutions: To prevent degradation of coatings on pipes that are stored outside, whitewash the coatings if they have poor UV resistance.

September 1996

900-48

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Consult the manufacturer of the coating for recommended procedures for UV protection and for help with determining the condition of coated pipe already stored outside. If the degree of degradation is unknown in a stack of pipe, use unexposed pipe; as only the top and outside joints are exposed to UV rays. Plastic coatings, such as extruded and tape wrap, degrade in the sun, hardening and often splitting. Thermal expansion-and-contraction problems occur because plastic expands much more than steel. FBE coatings chalk in sunlight, but the chalk protects the coatings. Millage loss is only a problem when rain and wind remove the chalk steadily for a long time. FBE coatings can also blister if stored too long in hot, humid climates such as is found in the Gulf Coast.

For information about the outdoor storage life and UV resistance for external pipeline coatings, see Figure 900-31. Resistance to Mechanical Damage. Coated pipe is subject to damage during handling, shipping, installing, or servicing. As a result, consider taking these preventive measures: Make the coating thicker to improve its resistance to mechanical damage. Handle coated pipe with padded equipment, and stack and ship it with rubber spacers between each pipe. Set the spacers to separate the pipe far enough so that gravel and cinders thrown up from the road or rail tracks are not caught between pipes and abrade the coating. Consider wrapping the pipe in plastic or installing pillowed supports. Store the pipe on sand wind-rows and cover it with tarps.

See Section 921 of this manual, Selection, for information regarding Rock Protection. Cathodic Shielding. When a coating separates from a cathodically protected pipe, it can shield the pipe from the protection of the cathodic current. Significant localized corrosion occurs where earth or water (or both) becomes trapped between the separated coating and the pipe's surface. The current from cathodic protection does not increase to give a warning. The only way to determine the amount of corrosion on a cathodically shielded line is with metal-loss inspection tools which detect changes in the thickness of the pipe's wall. Note the following about cathodic shielding: Tape wraps are most susceptible because water has a greater chance of penetrating the overlaps (often poorly bonded and susceptible to soil stresses) and because they have high electrical resistivity. Water can seep under continuous, extruded plastic coatings at field joints or mechanically damaged areas.

Chevron Corporation

900-49

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Fig. 900-31 Pipe Storage and Ultraviolet (UV) Resistance


Generic Type Asphalt Mastic Coal Tar Enamel Coal Tar Epoxy Cold-Applied Tapes Somastic Reilly Tar and Chemical International Tarset Maxi-Build 7080 Tapecoat 10/40W, H-50, and CT Polyguard RD-6, Polyken 900 series Bredero Price Entec Plexco Plexguard Shaw Yellow Jacket and Black Jacket 3M 206N and 226N Nap-Gard 7-2501 and 7-2504 (Gold) Lilly Pipeclad 1500 Valspar-D1003LD Heat-Applied Tapes Multi-Layer Extruded Plastic with FBE Primer Canusa Wrapid Tape Raychem Flexclad Elf Atochem Du Val Himont Mapec, Du Pont Canada Denso MT Master Builder's Oilcote Flakeline 251 TIB Chemie Protegal UT32-10 Valspar Valpipe 100 Raychem Rayclad 120 Bredero Price Pritec Hempel Nap-Wrap Epoxy 8553 Trenton #1 Wax-Tape Poor Excellent 2 Trade Names Resistance Poor Poor Good Poor Storage Limit (Years) 1 1 1 Remarks Protect from sunlight. Protect from sunlight. Normally applied in ditch and immediately buried. Fair except for Plexco Plexguard, which may be poor. Excellent except in hot, humid sea atmospheres where blistering of coating occurs.

Crosshead-Extruded Plastic with Asphalt Mastic

Fair

Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE)

Excellent

Normally applied in ditch and immediately buried.

Petrolatum Tapes Polyester Epoxies Polyurethanes

Good Excellent Excellent

Use as an atmospheric pipe coating. Use as an atmospheric pipe coating. Use as an atmospheric pipe coating. Protect from sunlight. Use as an atmospheric pipe coating. Use as an atmospheric pipe coating.

Radiation Cross-Linked HeatApplied Tapes Side-Extruded Polyethylene with Butyl Rubber Mastic Thermoset Epoxies Wax Tape

Poor Excellent Excellent Good

1 1

The adhesive strength of FBE (also a continuous coating) is greater than its cohesive strength, resulting in complete rupture of the film rather than disbonding[1].

Note Adhesive strength means metal to coating; cohesive strength means coating to coating. Cathodic Disbonding. Excessive currents can cause free hydrogen to form at holidays. Hydrogen bubbles form on and break away from the exposed pipe metal,

September 1996

900-50

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

exerting high pressure between the coating and the metal. Pressure occurring under the edges of a damaged coating disbonds the coating from the pipe, exposing more metal. This phenomenon causes the rapid disbonding of an otherwise good coating. Note Excessive current are amounts that exceed the hydrogen-over-voltage potential. Note Holidays are minor areas of damagebreaks or flawsin an applied coating. Run a laboratory test to determine the relative resistance of a coating to cathodic disbonding. While it is often difficult to relate laboratory results to field conditions, this particular test is an excellent tool for judging whether or not some coatings, such as FBE, have been applied properly. Example: A 24-hour, 150F test for cathodic disbonding of FBE provides a good, quick check for undercure, under thickness, surface contamination, and poor surface preparation. Problems with the coating process show up as a sudden increase in the amount of coating that disbonds during the test. See also Section 6.0 of Specification COM-MS-4042.

Construction Factors
Impact Resistance. Pipe coatings with high impact resistance are less likely to be damaged during transportation and construction. In general, resistance to impact decreases in this order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Extruded plastics with hard adhesives FBE Extruded plastics with soft adhesives Asphalt mastics Coal-tar enamel

Flexibility in Cold Weather. Coated pipe is sometimes bent in the field in weather conditions that make coatings more brittle. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Pipe Bend Test shows that FBE and extruded-plastic coatings with hard adhesives have the widest temperature range during construction of all pipe-coating systems. Both FBE and extruded-plastic coatings with hard adhesives pass the CSA Pipe Bend Test as they can survive bending during typical Canadian winter weather. Coal-tar enamels can, however, soften in warm weather and fail during the field-bending process. Field Repair. Some pipe coatings are harder to repair in the field than others. FBE is the easiest to patch. While extruded plastics with hard adhesives can be difficult to repair, manufacturers are making progress with these coatings. For information about recommended field repair methods, contact CRTCs coating specialists (listed in the Quick Reference Guide) or review pipe-coating specifications.

Chevron Corporation

900-51

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Limitations of Temporary Storage. Most pipe coatings have maximum storage limits depending on the climate of the storage area. Storage is usually a problem only if the pipe is coated and stored for longer than one year before construction starts. Climate during Construction Project. The climate during the construction project may affect coatings. Some coatings, such as coal-tar enamels and asphalt mastics, become soft and difficult to handle during hot weather. See Flexibility in Cold Weather (above). Some field-applied coatings have temperature dependent cure times.

Construction Methods during Project. Coatings for pipe laid in the ditch need to be less abrasion resistant than coatings for pipes used in trenchless construction techniques such as slick-bore, drilled, or pushed methods.

Application Factors
The application factors that most often affect coating decisions are cost, site, and field support from the manufacturer and coatings applicator. Cost. The following project components affect cost: Size of project Coating materials Surface preparation Application Transportation Girth-weld coating (field joints) Field repairs

Balance the costs of the initial installation against the reliability expected. Select premium-quality coatings where failures are especially costly (e.g., subsea, congested areas, hard-to-access lines, and lines where leaks are intolerable). Consider that less-expensive coatings are generally poorer in quality and tend to fail prematurely, resulting in higher maintenance costs and possible early corrosion failure of the line.

In Figure 900-32, there is a list of approximate costs for the various pipeline coatings. The cost of transporting pipe from the mill to the ditch can become significant for heavier coatings such as coal-tar enamels and Somastic. Site. While shop-applied coatings are inherently of higher quality than field-applied coatings, their handling costs are generally higher, and they are susceptible to shipping damage. For large coating projects, consider setting up portable coating plants near the job site to reduce costs, time, and potential shipping damage. You should also ensure

September 1996

900-52

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Fig. 900-32 Costs (1988)External Pipeline Coatings


Coating Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) Extruded Plastic (Pritec brand) (Plexco P.E) (Plexco P.P) Coal Tar Enamel 0.39 0.42 0.45-1.00
(3)

Material(1) Cost/Ft2 $

Total Applied Ft(2) 0.38 0.41


(4) (4)

Comments 10 " OD 0.219" wall; 12 mil min. coating thickness 10 " OD 0.219" wall; 14 mil min. coating thickness 12 " OD 0.219" wall; 14 mil min. coating thickness 12 " OD 0.219" wall; 14 mil min. coating thickness KLMR line bid range, 16 mil avg., 14 mil min. of polyethylene, 18" OD, 0.250" wall, 80,000 feet of pipe KLMR line bid range, 10 mil adhesive, 40 mil of polyethylene, 18" OD, 0.250" wall, 80,000 feet of pipe 12 12 Wide variation is due to application and locale. The $1.00/ft2 is for the Richmond Effluent Project, 5960 feet of 36" OD pipe For 20 mils Does not account for overlap Does not account for overlap

0.36(4) 0.38
(4)

0.52-0.56 0.42-0.48

Liquid Epoxies (Thermosets) Tape Wrap; < 140F Raychem Hotclad Field Coating of Weld Joints Shrink Sleeves FBE Valves and Fittings Protegal 3210 Denso Tape Porter Tarset Hempel Epoxy 8553

0.66 0.80-0.90 1.40

2.00 30./weld

Includes delivery, cleaning, and application

6.00 0.65 0.24 0.66

25 mils Does not account for overlap 16 mils 20 mils

(1) Costs in this column where obtained from applicators without consideration of job size. These numbers do not take into account the cost of labor, surface preparation and plant location. (2) See Company's Cost Estimating Manual for additional cost information. (3) Material costs on small project of 16 mils; add 5 percent of cost for additional mils over 16. (4) Mesquite project; 168 miles of pipe.

that the pipe receives proper surface preparation and is neither dirty nor corroded when the coating is applied.

Caution Consider over-the-ditch applications only when refurbishing old lines that cannot be taken out of service or for new lines at remote locations. Field Support from Manufacturer and Coatings Applicator. If construction delays occur due to coatings problems, determine the level of field support received from the manufacturer or coatings applicator or both.

Chevron Corporation

900-53

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

Inspection
Refer to the coating specification for information about inspecting a given pipeline coating.

930 Internal Pipeline Coatings


Pipe is coated on the inside to prevent corrosion or to increase the efficiency of flow by reducing losses from friction. There are other alternativescement and plastic liningswhich are critiqued as a comparison to coatings in Figure 900-33 Internal Coating/Lining Alternatives for Pipelines.
Fig. 900-33 Internal Coating/Lining Alternatives for Pipelines
Material Cement Lining Recommended Services Produced water Salt water Almost always for new lines Advantages Thick, usually very reliable against water corrosion Limitations Joints are potentially a weak link, not good in many chemicals Min. pipe diameter: 2-3 inches Temp. approx. 250F Pressure approx. 5,000 psig. Velocity approx. 10 fps Typically comes in 20-ft flanged lengths Flange joints can leak Pipe diameter 1-16 inches Temp. approx. 200F (PPL) to approx. 500F (Teflon) Pipe diameter 3-16 inches (but larger sizes can be done) Temp. 200F Joints are potentially a weak link Relatively thin film (may give shorter, less reliable life) Good chance of field foul-ups Spotty history of quality control Relatively thin film (may give shorter, less reliable life) Approximate Cost(1) Shop = $1.60/ft

Plastic Liner (shop-applied)

Process chemicals

Excellent corrosion resistance to a variety of services

Include pipe and flanges = $80/ft (PPL) to $300/ft (Teflon)

Plastic Liner (field-applied) (HPDE) Coatings (shop-applied) Coatings (field-applied)

Produced water Salt water New existing lines Produced water Salt water Flow friction reduction Produced water Salt water Flow friction reduction New or existing lines

Very reliable Very few joints Can salvage existing lines Fair to good corrosion resistance Fair to good corrosion resistance

$9.20/ft

(1) Except as noted, costs are for lining an 8-inch pipe at the shop location. Pipe costs extra. Costs are for rough comparative purposes only.

Note For detailed information about lining pipelines, see also the Company's Pipeline and Piping Manuals. Shop- or mill-applied coatings control corrosion of known aggressive systems or help reduce friction. Field-applied coatings primarily extend the service life of pipelines by preventing additional damage from corrosion. If internal damage from corrosion results in an unacceptable operating pressure, replace the pipeline or install a plastic liner to increase the pipeline's maximum operating pressure (MOP).

September 1996

900-54

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

931 Shop-applied Internal Pipeline Coatings


This section discusses the following issues regarding shop-applied internal pipeline coatings: Quality control Coatings selection Surface preparation Application Inspection

Quality Control
Specifications. Although the Company does not have a specification for internal pipeline coatings, information is available from CRTC specialists in M&EE. Coating Quality. If holidays occur, you should not repair FBE coatings and liquid coatings with a primer but you must burn the material off and recoat. You can patch FBE and liquid-epoxy coatings that do not have primers by following the manufacturers' recommendations. If the specification requires a 100-percent-holiday-free coating, the coatings applicators must make the pipe smooth enough, clean enough, and capable of being coated to this requirement. The Company's representative is responsible for specifying proper surface preparation.

Coatings Selection
As liquid coating systems need a furnace bake, there is no known method to apply them to internal weld joints; therefore, there are two, basic, internal coating systems: heat-cured powder and baked-on liquid. Heat-cured Powder. The heat-cured powder is a thermosetting resin, applied by FBE process, with or without primer. Typically, select unprimed FBE for environments requiring improved flow efficiency or having mild internal corrosion, and primed FBE for environments with severe internal corrosion. Baked-on Liquid. Baked-on liquid may be epoxy, epoxy-phenolic, or possibly a polyurethane. For fresh water, saltwater, and production water at temperatures up to about 150F, select straight epoxies such as O'Brien NapGard, Scotchkote 134, Scotchkote 206N, and Scotchkote 150. For very corrosive environments with higher temperatures (200F to 400F), choose epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-modified phenolics. Note Phenolics tend to be brittle and will crack when bent.

For internal coating of girth welds in the field, the Company typically chooses Scotchkote 206N because it cures in less than one minute from the residual heat of the weld joint.

Chevron Corporation

900-55

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

The range for field-and-mill application of FBE is a 25- to 48-inch diameter and up to a maximum wall thickness of 0.750 inches.

Surface Preparation
All pipe needs the same surface preparation: cleaning and abrasive blasting, followed in some cases, by priming. Cleaning. Chemical treatment is the best cleaning method, but costly disposal is a factor. Thermal burnoff at 600F to 800F is particularly important for a heavy mill scale/rust. Abrasive Blasting. Suitable abrasive is necessary to obtain the desired anchor profile and a white metal (SSPC SP5) finish. Finish is checked visually with a highintensity light. Priming. In water service, internal FBE does not usually require a primer; however, you should alert the coatings manufacturer if the water is aggressive (contains CO 2 or H2S, is hot, or at high pressure).

Application
See the list of current contractors in the Quick Reference Guide.

Inspection
Virtually all shops inspect and test internally coated pipe, for holidays, adhesion, and bends. Holidays. The inspector checks 100 percent of the coating against an agreed-upon standard (e.g., 100 percent holiday free, or 4 holidays maximum per length of pipe). Typical voltage is 100 to 125 volts per mil of coating thickness. Adhesion. Typically, the inspector cuts an x pattern into the coating and prods it with a knife to check adhesion. The inspector conducts the test every two hours on the weld cutback area of a section of pipe that is left deliberately unmasked for this test. Bends. Typically, once per shift, often at a cool temperature, the inspector tests the flexibility of the coating by bending a strip of coated metal over a specified mandrel and checks it for holidays and cracks.

932 Field-applied Internal Pipeline Coatings


Liquid epoxy is the only internal coating that the Company field applies (in situ), generally for one or more of the following reasons: To prolong the life of a line For product purity To reduce friction loss

Brands of field-applied, internal pipeline coatings include Hempel 233U, Hempel 458U, Sigma In-Situ Pipecoating 15, Sigmaguard HTR.

September 1996

900-56

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

Factors affecting field-applied coating are its limitations, the coating contractors and applicators, acceptable brands, surface preparation, application, and inspection.

Limitations
Field application of internal pipeline coatings is less likely to produce pinhole-free coatings than shop-applied systems. Field application is also unsuccessful with slip-on flanges because the ID discontinuity at the pipe ends causes excess coating deposits which rapidly disbond in shingles to plug the line or create a site for corrosion.

Coating Contractors and Applicators


Select coating contractors and applicators carefully because they can have a profound affect on the success of a project. Improperly applied coatings may result in inadequately protected lines, delays in returning the line to service, and complete loss of the line. Before choosing a coatings applicator, review in detail the work history (resume) of the foreman and personnel proposed for the job. See the list of contractors who field-apply pipeline coatings in the Quick Reference Guide.

Acceptable Brands
Sigma Coatings In-Situ Pipecoating 15 and Hempel 233U have longer pot lives, but Sigmaguard HTR and Hempel 458U have better high-temperature resistance. All products have the same chemical resistance. Note For more detailed background on field-applied coatings, see the references at the end of this section [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21].

Surface Preparation
Prepare an internal steel pipe by cleaning it in one of two ways: Inhibited acid Abrasive blasting

Existing pipelines may also require initial cleaning by scraper pigs and with solvents.

Application
See list of current contractors for pipeline coatings in the Quick Reference Guide.

Inspection
Compared to shop-applied internal coatings, inspection of field-applied internal coatings is relatively crude. The inspector often visually examines a flanged, removable spool located near the middle of the line and also tests it for holidays and thickness. Video cameras allow full-length inspection of the line for pipe sizes as small as 10 to 12 inches in diameter.

Chevron Corporation

900-57

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

933 Weld-joint Application & Inspection


In Figure 900-34, Properties of Internal Pipeline Coatings, a method of weld-joint protection is recommended for each coating system, where applicable.
Fig. 900-34 Properties of Internal Pipeline Coatings
System Recommended Services Advantages Shop-Applied Heat-Cured Powder: Epoxy with Primer Sour water Wet sour gas (CO2 up to 10%) Inspection and disposal wells Produced water Fresh water Salt water (CO2 up to 10%) Good corrosion resistance Resistant to low concentrations of H2S Girth weld cannot be coated Low resistance to H2S Mechanical joints Limitations Weld Joint Protection

Epoxy without Primer

Can coat girth weld with crawler Fair corrosion resistance

8-inch pipe diameter: crawler < 8-inch pipe diameter: mechanical joints

Baked Liquid: Epoxy Produced water Fresh water Salt water Epoxy-Phenolic Sour water Wet sour gas (CO2/H2S) Good corrosion resistance Sizes up to 20 inches: very low flexibility Temp. 150F Cannot repair holidays Cannot bend Maximum pipe diameter: 20 inches Temp. 400F Cannot repair holidays Mechanical joints

Mechanical joints

Field-Applied In situ: Liquid Epoxy Sour water Produced water Fresh water Salt water Flow friction reduction Gas lines Good corrosion resistance High temp. service (+200F) Extends serviceable life of existing line High chance of foul-up if wrong contractor has job Does not apply

Application
The crawler is the method for applying internal pipeline coating systems. Mechanical joints are also available as an alternative for 2- to 12-inch-sized pipes. Crawlers. A self-propelled, in-line tool that performs a task under remote control, the crawler works in either field or shop. For the latter, that means that the shop can join pipe lengths to reduce the number of field-welded joints. Currently, the minimum pipe diameter for a crawler is ten inches. Some of the crawler's coating tasks are as follows: For non-primed FBE internal coatings, crawlers clean and coat the girth welds. After welding, an abrasive-blasting crawler travels through the pipe to clean the cutback area of weld splatter slag and to degloss the powder.

September 1996

900-58

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

An induction coil, applied to the pipe's exterior, heats the girth weld area and a powder-coating crawler then travels through the pipe.

There are basically two circumstances under which shop or field coatings applicators cannot use a crawler: The pipe requires a liquid primer or coating The pipe diameters are less than ten inches

Mechanical Joints. One alternative to the crawler is mechanical joints. There are at least a dozen mechanical joint systems that provide a continuous internal seal. Some, such as Crimp-Kote from Tuboscope Vetco International, are fully mechanical interference-fit joints. Some are elaborate mechanical sleeve systems, which may include welding. Most require special equipment for field installation. Mechanical joints are usually available in 2- to 12-inch sizes.

Inspecting Internal Pipeline Coatings


Inspection varies with the coating material and the application method. For information about inspecting internal pipeline coatings, contact CRTC's specialists listed in the Quick Reference Guide.

940 References
1. O'Carroll, B. M., The Performance of Pipe Coatings in Relation to Cathodic Protection, 5th International Conference on the Internal and External Protection of Pipes, Innsbruck, Austria, October 25-27, 1983. Materials Laboratory Report, 150F Cathodic Disbondment Tests of Pipeline Coatings, C.A. Shargay, September 17, 1982, File No. 6.55.5. Article, What's New in Distribution/Transmission Pipeline Coatings, Ron Sloan. Materials Laboratory Report, Rangley CO2 Pipeline Coating Tests, J. H. Kmetz, File: 6.55.75, December 21, 1984. Davis, J. A. and Thomas, S. J., Properties and Application Procedures for Polyethylene Tape Coating Systems, Pipeline, April 1985, p. 6. Materials Laboratory Report, Sudan Pipeline Coatings - Tape Wrap Tests, L. J. Klein, File 6.55.50. Materials Laboratory Report, Aramco Mastic Tape Tests, Final Report, C. A. Shargay, File 6.55.50, April 27, 1983. Choate, L. C., New Coating Developments, Problems, and Trends in the Pipeline Industry, Materials Performance, April 1975. O'Donnell, John P., Coal-Tar Enamel Resins: Most-Preferred Pipe Coating, Oil and Gas Journal, July 6, 1981.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Chevron Corporation

900-59

September 1996

900 Pipeline Coatings

Coatings Manual

10. Ward, D. K., Moore, D. E., and Hawkins, P. J., External and Internal Pipeline Coatings in the Arabian Gulf Area, 5th International Conference on the Internal and External Protection of Pipes, Innsbruck, Austria, October 25-27, 1983, Paper C3. 11. Chevron Pipe Line Company Memo, Field Joint Coatings from P. T. Groff to R. G. Lueders, July 1, 1987. 12. Memo to CRTC File, Bakersfield Experience with Extruded Plastic Control Pipe, E. H. Niccolls, File 6.55.15, May 24, 1990. 13. Materials Laboratory Report, KLM Pipeline Reclamation Trial Coatings, K. K. Kirkham, File 6.55.15, January 4, 1984. 14. Materials Laboratory Report, KLM Pipeline Reclamation Trial Coatings, B. J. Cocke, File 6.55.15, October 25, 1983. 15. Materials Laboratory Report, Hot Subsea Pipeline Coatings Disbonding Tests, N. E. Daley, File 6.55.30, December 27, 1988. 16. E.H.Niccolls, InSituInternalPipelineCoatings, Materials Laboratory File N28.15, July 17, 1981. 17. S. E. Pfeiffer, Fusion Bond Coated Girth Welds, External/Internal, Corrosion 83 Paper 117, NACE International. 18. P. J. Bryant, Internal In-Place Pipe Coating, Pipeline Gas Journal, Volume 214, Pages 17-18, February 1987. 19. S. V. Daily, An Alternative Surface Preparation Procedure for the Application of Internal In-Situ Pipeline Coating, Corrosion 88 Paper 308, NACE International. 20. S. Selinek, In Situ Internal Coating of PipelinesNorth Sea Experience, Corrosion 90 Paper 254, NACE International. 21. R. E. Carlson, Jr., Internal Lining of Pipeline Weld Joints, Material Performance, Volume 31, Number 9, pages 46-49, September 1992. 22. Dr. J. M. Leeds, A High-temperature (120C) Gas Pipeline CoatingRefurbishment Programme, Using High-solids Epoxy, Pipeline Risk Assessment, Rehabilitation and Repair Conference, Houston, Texas, May 20-23, 1991. 23. P. Barrien, S. E. McConkey, M. A. Trzecieski, Coating Evaluation Program for 116C Service Temperature, Corrosion 84 Paper # 358, NACE International, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 1984. 24. John Bethea and Adel Botros, A New Approach to Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coatings for Pipeline Protection, API Pipeline Conference, April 1994. 25. NAPCA Bulletin 1-65-91, Recommended Specification Designations for Coat Tar Enamel Coatings.

September 1996

900-60

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

900 Pipeline Coatings

26. NAPCA Bulletin 2-66-91, Standard Applied Pipe Coating Weights for NAPCA Coating Specifications. 27. NAPCA Bulletin 3-67-91, External Application Procedures for Hot Applied Coal Tar Coatings to Steel Pipe. 28. NAPCA Bulletin 6-69-90-1, Suggested Procedures for Hand Wrapping Field Joints Using Hot Enamel. 29. AWWA Standard C-203, Coal-tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipelines - Enamel and Tape Hot Applied. 30. AWWA Standard C-213, Fusion-bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines.

Chevron Corporation

900-61

September 1996

Quick Reference Guide


Contents Introduction Company Contacts CRTCs Coatings Specialist Facilities for Analyzing Lead in Coatings Coating Manufacturers Suppliers Steps to Coating System Selection System Number Selection Guide Atmospheric Coatings for On- & Offshore Coatings for Concrete Coatings Under Insulation & Fireproofing Internal Vessel Coatings Coating Compatibility Chart Coating System Data Sheets Available System Data Sheets System Data Sheets Acceptable Brands by Generic Classification Acceptable Brands by Manufacturer QR-11 QR-12 QR-7 QR-8 Page QR-2 QR-3

Chevron Corporation

QR-1

May 1998

Introduction

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Introduction
This Quick-Reference Guide from Chevrons Coatings Manual has been designed to give you easy access to the selection process for certain types of coating projects: Atmospheric (both on- and offshore) Concrete (mild environment only) Internal vessel Under insulation and fireproofing

By following the coating selection process, you will find a system data sheet which details the specifications and approved manufacturers for the coatings that fit your project. (See sample system data sheet below.) The design of the data sheet simplifies your preparation of a selection-and-specification package for a coating contractor: just photocopy the appropriate data sheet(s) and specification(s).
Sample of a System Data Sheet
Coatings Manual

SYSTEM DATA SHEET


Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | High-Temperature Silicone

Chevron Corporation

Two-Component Systems

2.4

Surface Prep:

SSPC-SP10 (NACE No. 2) Near-white blast finish.

Touch Up: Use pure silicone topcoat only, two coats.

Anchor Pattern: 1.5 - 2.5 mils Total DFT (min) 4.5 mils Coat, Generic Classification, DFT Manufacturer Ameron Ameron Ameron Carboline Carboline Dampney Devoe Hempel Hempel International PPG Industries Sherwin Williams Sherwin Williams Sigma Valspar Ameron Carboline Dampney Devoe Hempel Hempel International PPG Industries Sherwin Williams Sherwin Williams Sigma Valspar Product Designation Dimetcote 21-9 Dimetcote 6 Dimetcote 9 Carbozinc 11 Carbozinc 11 HS Thurmalox 245C Silicone Zinc Dust Primer Catha-Coat 304V Galvosil 1570.3 Galvosil 1578 Interzinc 311 Metalhide 1001 Primer 97-673/97-674 B69VZ1/B69VZ3/B69D11 Zinc Clad II B69V11/B69D11 Tornusil MC 58 7558 V13-F-12 PSX 892HS Thermaline 4631WB Thurmalox 230C* HT-12 5690 5691 Intertherm 230 Pittherm High Heat Silicone Aluminum 100-A-518 Black 880-B-001 Sigmatherm 5267 37-A-1 VOC (G/L) 293 500 506 515 264 413 336 340 520 530 397 312 462 528 324 324 108 360 572 400 586 612 554 420 514 600 599
By Max Svc Temp

PRIMER
Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc - Solvent Reducible 2.0 - 3.0 mils DFT

Keep inorganic zinc silicate mixed, using agitated pot while applying.

TOPCOAT
Silicone - High Temp Rated to 700F 1.5 - 2.5 mils DFT

Non-catalyzed silicones remain tacky until exposed to heat above 300F to 400F. * Thumalox 230C topcoat will go over ONLY Thurmaloc 245C Silicone Zinc Dust Primer.

VOC at or below 340 g/l is the anticipated regulatory limit. Check local standards for current VOC limits. Consult manufacturer's product data sheets for specific details about applying any coating.
May 1998

Last Update:

5/15/98

Page 15

Note The system data sheets outnumber the references to coating systems in the selection criteria because Chevron has many coating systems in use. Do not choose a coating system unless you have been directed to do so by following either: The selection guide in this publication. Instructions from one of the Companys coating specialists or a coating manufacturer.

Also included in this Guide, the Coatings Compatibility Chart is a resource for projects involving maintenance coatings. For questions about the Guide, contact the CRTC specialists listed on the Contacts page.

May 1998

QR-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Introduction

Company Contacts
CRTCs Coatings Specialist
Rich Doyle CTN 242-3247 Atmospheric, Concrete, Internal Vessel Coatings, Downhole Tubular Coatings, Pipeline Coatings

Other Company Contacts


Corporate Identity Colors Chevron Color Chips CRTC Environmental Resource CRTC Mat'ls & Equip. Engineering Company Identity Center, Corporation Public Affairs DepartmentCTN 894-0260 Additional copies from Technical StandardsCTN 242-7241 CTN 242-5696 CTN 242-3247

Facilities for Analyzing Lead in Coatings


Clayton Environmental Consultants Forensic Analytical Specialties 800/294-1755 800/827-3274 22345 Roethel Drive 3777 Depot Road, Suite 409 Novi Hayward MI CA 48375 94545

Coating Manufacturers
Manufacturers of Atmospheric and Internal Vessel Coatings
Ameron Ashland Chemical Carboline Ceilcote Dampney Company, Inc. Devoe Dudick Glidden Hempel International PPG (Attn Dave Landry) Sherwin Williams Sigma Southern Coatings Tempil Valspar Wisconsin Protective Coatings 714/529-1951 800/643-1234 314/644-1000 216/831-5500 617/389-2805 502/897-9861 216/562-1970 216/344-8000 713/672-6641 800/525-6824 713/944-8550 800/321-8194 504/347-4321 800/845-0487 908/757-8300 800/638-7756 414/437-6561 201 North Berry Street 1851 E. First Street, #700 350 Hanley Industrial Court 23700 Chagrin Boulevard 85 Paris Street 4000 Dupont Circle 1818 Miller Parkway 925 Euclid Avenue 6901 Cavalcade P. O. Box 4806 P. O. Box 5772 101 Prospect Avenue NW Corporate Offices 1401 Destrehan Avenue P.O. Box 160 2901 Hamilton Boulevard 1401 Severn Street 614 Elizabeth Street Brea Santa Ana St. Louis Cleveland Everett Louisville Streetsboro Cleveland Houston Houston Pasadena Cleveland Harvey Sumpter So. Plainfield Baltimore Green Bay CA CA MO OH MA KY OH OH TX TX TX OH LA SC NJ MD WI 92621 95705-4017 63144 44122 02149 40207 44241 44115 77028 77210-4806 77502 44115 70058 29151 07080 21230 54302

Manufacturers of Concrete Coatings


Dudick (Attn: Customer Service) KCC Corrosion Control Co. (Attn: Sales Engineer) Master Builders (Attn: Technical Support) Sauereisen (Attn: Technical Service) Sentry Polymers (Attn: Technical Support) 800/322-1970 800/395-5624 800/821-3582 412/963-0303 800/231-2544 P.O. Box 2550 4010 Trey Road 23700 Chagrin Boulevard 160 Gamma Drive P.O. Box 2076 Streetsboro Houston Cleveland Pittsburgh Freeport OH TX OH PA TX 44241 77084 44122-5554 15238-2989 77541

Chevron Corporation

QR-3

May 1998

Introduction

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Sika (Attn: Technical Service) Stonhard Wisconsin Protective Coatings (Attn: Technical Service)

800/933-7452 800/854-0310 414/437-6561

12767 E. Imperial Highway 1 Park Avenue 614 Elizabeth Street

Santa Fe Springs Maple Shade Green Bay

CA NJ WI

90670 08052 54308-8147

Manufacturers of Pipeline Coatings


3M Canusa Carboline Denso DuVal DuPont Canada Elf Atochem Hempel Lilly Montell (Himont) OBrien Nap-Gard Polyguard Polyken Power Marketing Group Raychem Albert Schupbach Ben Medley Hank Reuser John Montle 512/984-5683 713/367-8866 713/974-7211 314/644-1000

(Carboline markets) 713/821-3355 Trevor McClery Jamie Cox Igor Leclere Michael Bentkjaer Mark Schaneville Ed Phillips John Bethea Sherill Miller Bob Nee Grover Marshall Bob Hayes James Power Shiv Kumar Walt Greuel Joseph Merket John Johnson Lou Cucker John Ward Thomas Weber Trevor McClery 416/284-1681 416/338-3764 215/419-5610 713/672-6641 334/365-9454 302/996-6236 713/939-4000 713/939-4000 918/749-3634 918/627-3635 510/284-1515 303/741-3993 619/482-8306 619/482-8302 415/361-4095 317/247-8141 (ext. 6771) 800/221-7978 704/896-7803 713/556-1000 416/284-1681

Reilly Coal Tar Sigma Coatings Tapecoat Trenton Valspar

Manufacturers of Pipeline Coating Applicators


Bayou Pipe Coating Co 713/591-1614 (F) 713/591-0284 Bredero Price International, Inc. (Domestic USA) 713/ 974-7211 (F) 713/260-4500 450 N. Sam Houston Parkway East #232 Plants: Houston Baton Rouge New Iberia TX LA LA TX CA LA TX TX 77060

7211 Regency Square Bl. St. 104 Houston Plants: Fontana Harvey Pearland 250 North Belt, Suite 220 Plants: Houston Australia Indonesia Malaysia Nigeria Scotland Singapore U.A.E.

77036

Bredero Price International, Inc. (Foreign)

713/999-2600 (F) 713/999-6189

77060

May 1998

QR-4

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Introduction

Commercial Coating Services, Inc. (CCSI) Commercial Resins Co.

409/539-3294 (F) 409/539-3073 918/438-6522 (F) 918/437-5410 713/353-8597 (F) 409/756-8599

Post Office Box 3296 Plants: 2001 North 170th East Avenue Plants:

Conroe Bakersfield Conroe Tulsa Napa Valley Tulsa

TX CA TX OK CA OK TX

77305-3296

74116

Compression Coat, Inc. Energy Coatings Co. (Encoat) Shaw Pipe, Inc.

3513 N. Frazer Conroe Plants: Uses portable equipment

77303

Now Bredero Price International, Inc. 713/367-8866 800/SHAW PIPE (800/742-9747) (F) 713/367-4304 2408 Timberloch Place, Bldg C-8 The Woodlands Plants: Australia Canada New Iberia TX 77380-1038

LA

Suppliers
Suppliers of Coated Tubing and Accessories
Baker Hughes Tubular Service Tuboscope Vetco Intl ICO, Inc. Shield Coat, Inc. (USA: Now owned by ICO, Inc.) (Overseas: Now owned by Tuboscope Vetco International) 713/799-5100 (F) 713/799-5183 713/872-4994 (F) 713/872-9610 504/879-3539 (F) 504/868-3173 P. O. Box 808 100 Glenborough, Suite 250 Station 1, Box 10185 Houston Houston Houma TX TX LA 77001 77067 70363-5990

Suppliers of Cement Linings


Permian Enterprises, Inc. (now owned by ICO Inc.) 915/683-1084 (F) 915/683-1319 P. O. Box 2745 Midland TX 79702

Suppliers of Fiberglass Linings


Rice Engineering Corp 800/533-5480 316/793-5483 (F) 316/ 793-5521 1020 Hoover Great Bend KS 67530

Suppliers of PVC Linings


Rice Engineering Corp 800/533-5480 316/793-5483 (F) 316/ 793-5521 800/835-0133 (F) 316/331-6832 1020 Hoover Great Bend KS 67530

Sealtite

P. O. Box 965

Independence

KS

67301

Chevron Corporation

QR-5

May 1998

Introduction

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Suppliers of Pipeline Coatings


Canusa Denso North America Inc. DuPONT Canada, Inc. Modified Polymers Division Elf Atochem North America Inc. Hempel Coatings (USA), Inc. Kop-Coat Carboline Co. Lilly Powder Coatings, Inc. Pipe Clad Products Div 3M Company Madison Chemical Industries, Inc. Nap-Gard Pipe Coatings OBrien Powder Products, Inc. Polyguard Products, Inc. Polyken Technologies Kendall Co. 713/367-8866 (F) 713/292-8571 713/821-3355 (F) 713/821-0304 519/862-5700 (F) 519/862-5880 215/419-7000 (F) 215/419-5305 800/678-6641 (F) 713/674-0616 314/644-1000 (F) 314/644-4617 816/421-7400 (F) 816/421-4563 512/984-1800 (F) 512/984-3556 905/878-8863 (F) 905/878-1449 713/939-4000 (F) 713/939-4027 214/875-8421 (F) 214/875-9425 508/261-6200 800/248-7659 (F) 508/261-6271 303/741-3993 (F) 303/ 741-2548 619/482-8300 (F) 619/ 482-2813 317/ 247-8141 (F) 317/248-6402 412/828-1500 800/245-3209 847/866-8500 (F) 708/866-8596 416/284-1681 (F) 416/284-6549 6801 River Place Boulevard 490 McGeachie Drive 9800 Genard Street P. O. Box 755 15 Hampshire Street Austin Milton, Ontario Houston Ennis Mansfield TX 78726-9000 6901 Cavalcada 350 Hanley Industrial Court 1136 Fayette North Houston St. Louis Kansas City TX MO MO 77028 63144-5199 64116 2408 Timberlock Pl., Bdg C-8 18211 Chisholm Trail Albert Street 2000 Market Street The Woodlands Houston Corunna, Ontario Philadelphia TX TX 77380-1038 77060

N0N 1G0 Canada PA 19103-3222

L9T 3V5 Canada TX TX MA 77041 75119 02048

Power Marketing Group, Inc. Raychem Corp., Ultratec Div. Reilly Industries, Inc. Royston Laboratories, Chase Corp Tapecoat Co., TC Manufacturing Co., Inc. Valspar Inc.

6416 South Quebec St, Ste 41 1670 Brandywine Avenue 1500 South Tibbs Avenue 128 First Street 1527 Lyons Street 645 Coronation Drive

Englewood Chula Vista Indianapolis Pittsburgh Evanston West Hill, Ontario

CO CA IN PA IL

80111 91911 46241 15238 60201-3551

M1E 4R6 Canada

Suppliers of Inspection Tools


Paul N. Gardener Co., Inc. KTA-Tator Inc. 954/946-9454 316 NE First Street (F) 954/946-9309 or -9375 412/788-1300 115 Technology Drive Pompano Beach Pittsburgh FL PA 33060 15275

May 1998

QR-6

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Introduction

Steps to Coating System Selection

Start

No

Type of Coating: Atmospheric Coating? Concrete Coating (Mild Environment)? Internal Vessel Coating?

Contact a CRTC Coating Specialist Yes

System Number Selection Guide Choose a system number by type of surface, service, voc units.

System Data Sheets

Locate the correct data sheet by system number

No Coating over an existing system?

Yes

No Compatibility Chart: Compatible?

Yes

Photocopy Coating System Fact Sheet. Attach to spec.

End

Chevron Corporation

QR-7

May 1998

System Number Selection Guide

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

System Number Selection Guide


Note Pick a coating system number from one of the following tables then find that number in the System Data Sheets for Coating Systems. For coatings under insulation & fireproofing, see chart next page
Atmospheric Coatings for On- & Offshore (1 of 2)
Onshore Type of Equipment Std Hi Perf Offshore

Code C/E: Vessels & Heat Exchangers Uninsulated below 200F Uninsulated to 200F and steamed out Uninsulated 200600F Uninsulated 300-600F Code D: Tanks Uninsulated to 200F Wind girders Floating roofs (Uninsulated) Stairways & railings Code F: Furnaces Structural steel & platforms Stacks, breeching, furnace body to 600F 2.6 2.4 2.6 N/R 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.2 3.1 N/R 3.1 3.1 2.2 2.6 N/R 2.4 3.1 3.1 2.4 N/R 3.1 3.1 2.4 N/R

Code G/K: Pumps, Turbines, Compressors & Drivers Uninsulated to 200F Uninsulated 200600F Motors N/R Externally insulated exhaust ducts Code J: Instruments Field instrument panels (steel) Weatherproof housings (steel) N/A Instrument tubing (stainless) N/R Instruments (galvanized or aluminum) N/R N/R Code L: Piping (including Valves & Fittings) Uninsulated to 200F Uninsulated below 200F steamed out Uninsulated 200600F 2.2 2.6 2.4 3.1 3.1 2.4 3.1 3.1 2.4 N/A 2.2 2.6 3.1 3.1 N/R 1.4 N/R 2.4 3.8 2.4 3.8 3.8 2.4 3.8

May 1998

QR-8

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

System Number Selection Guide

Atmospheric Coatings for On- & Offshore (2 of 2)


Onshore Type of Equipment Code M: Structural Concrete Exposed steel, platforms, ladders, supports Floor plate (smooth) Galvanized floor grating repairs Galvanized stairways and railings Jacket above splash zone; deck modules; boat landing Jacket splash zone - structural members Jacket splash zone - appurtenances Risers, conductors: splash zone below 140F not pressure treated Risers, conductors: splash zone to 160F Risers, conductors: splash zones to 250F Code P: Electrical Equipment Galvanized or aluminum Steel N/R 2.2 Code R: Buildings and Control Houses (Exterior) Galvanized steel N/R Masonry walls N/A Steel Wood 2.2 N/R Code S: Miscellaneous Equipment Subsea completion equipment Standard: High Performance: N/A N/A 8.4 11.4 2.6 N/R N/R N/R 3.1 N/R 3.1 N/A N/A 4.1 N/R 2.2 4.6 1.6 N/R 3.1 4.5 1.6 N/R 3.1 4.5 1.6 N/A 3.1 4.2 Std Hi Perf Offshore

4.3 4.2

Coatings for Concrete


Coating System by Exposure Item Oil/water Separator Secondary Containment Temperature < 140F < 140F Environment Oil/water mixture Hydrocarbons, caustics
(2)

Physical Abuse Moderate(1)

Continuous 20.1 20.2 20.1 20.3 N/A

Intermittent N/A 20.2 20.1 20.3 20.2

dilute acids,

Mild

(1)

Moderate(1) Aggressive
(3)

Equipment Foundations (1) (2) (3) (4)

< 140F

Hydrocarbons , dilute acids, caustics

(2)

Mild

(4)

Moderate coating loss due to abrasion, light equipment wear. Possibility of impact on coating. Crude oil, jet fuel, gasoline, etc. Severe coating loss due to abrasion, heavy equipment wear. Definite potential for impact on coating. No coating loss due to abrasion, possible light foot traffic. No physical impact on coating

Chevron Corporation

QR-9

May 1998

System Number Selection Guide

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Coatings Under Insulation & Fireproofing


Substrate Carbon Steel Exposure to Temperature Continuous Continuous Cyclic (produce wet/dry conditions) Continuous Special Conditions Stainless Steel Continuous Continuous Cyclic (produce wet/dry conditions) Continuous Above 300F Above 300F Above 300F -50F to 140F 140F to 300F Temperature(1) -50F to 140F 140F to 300F Coating System 12.1 12.2 12.3 Do not coat 12.7 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7

(1) Actual temperature of steel not design temperature.

Internal Vessel Coatings


Non-Reinforced Thin Film 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 N/R Ethyl & Methyl Alcohol 8.11 Reinforced Glass Flake 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 High Temperature/Pressure Laminate 10.1 10.2 N/R 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.4.1 11.5.1 11.6.1 11.4.2 11.5.2 11.6.2 11.2 11.2.1 High Temperature/ Cathodic High Temperature/ Non Cathodic High Pressure/ Non Cathodic

Services Fresh Water Demineralized Water Potable Water Salt Water & Brine Produced Water Crude Oil (sweet or sour) Fuels (low aromatic) Fuels (high aromatic) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Acetone

May 1998

QR-10

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Coating Compatibility Chart

Coating Compatibility Chart


Coating Being Overcoated Chlorinated Rubber Polyamide Epoxy

Silicone Alkyds

Asphalt Mastic

Latex Emulsion

Inorganic Zinc

Coating Being Applied Alkyd

YES

YES 3 YES 2 N/R YES 3 N/R YES N/R YES 1 YES 3 YES YES

N/R

YES 3 YES 2 N/R YES 3 N/R YES N/R YES 1 YES 3 YES YES

N/R

YES

N/R

YES

YES

YES

YES 3 YES

YES 3 YES 2 N/R YES 3 N/R YES N/R LTD

YES

YES

YES

YES

Amine Epoxy

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

YES

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

YES

Asphalt Mastic Chlorinated Rubber Coal Tar Paints Epoxy Mastic Inorganic Zinc Lacquer

YES N/R

YES N/R

YES LTD

N/R YES

YES YES

N/R N/R

YES YES

YES YES

N/R YES 3 N/R YES N/R YES

YES N/R

N/R YES

N/R YES

YES YES

N/R YES N/R N/R

N/R YES N/R N/R

YES YES N/R N/R

N/R YES N/R N/R

YES YES YES LTD

N/R YES N/R YES

YES YES N/R YES

LTD YES N/R N/R

N/R YES N/R N/R

N/R YES N/R YES

N/R YES N/R N/R

YES YES N/R YES

Latex Emulsion Phenolic Polyamide Epoxy Polyurethane

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES 3 YES YES

YES 3 YES YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES LTD

N/R N/R

N/R N/R

YES LTD

LTD YES

YES N/R

YES N/R

YES LTD

YES LTD

YES N/R

YES N/R

YES YES

N/R

YES 2 YES 3 N/R YES N/R

N/R

YES 2 YES 3 N/R YES N/R

N/R

N/R

YES

N/R

YES

N/R

YES

YES 2 YES 3 N/R YES N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

YES

Silicone Alkyd

YES

N/R

N/R

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES 3 N/R YES N/R

YES

YES

YES

YES

Vinyl Vinyl Acrylic Wash Primers Notes:

N/R LTD N/R

LTD N/R N/R

LTD LTD N/R

N/R YES N/R

YES YES YES

N/R N/R N/R

YES YES N/R

N/R LTD N/R

N/R YES N/R

YES YES N/R

YES YES N/R

LTD YES N/R

YES: Applied coating will not lift, wrinkle, blister; will have reasonable bond; check in field with a test patch. LTD: Some formulae are compatible; some not. Consult manufacturer. N/R: Not recommended 1 Durability and use depend on type of lacquer. 2 Must apply topcoat before coated surface has hardened. 3 Gloss on paint being overcoated must be removed by weathering or sanding. 4 Topcoat may blister if high-solvent topcoat applied too thickly, too quickly.

Chevron Corporation

QR-11

May 1998

Wash Primers

Coal Tar Paint

Epoxy Mastic

Polyurethane

Amine Epoxy

Vinyl Acrylic

Phenolics

Lacquer

Vinyls

Alkyd

Coating System Data Sheets

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Coating System Data Sheets


Available System Data Sheets
Primer Only Systems
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8.1 1.9 Inhibited Alkyd (Primer Only) Silicone Alkyd (Primer Only) Self-Cured Inorganic ZincSolvent Reducible (Primer Only) Self-Cured Inorganic ZincWater Reducible Polyamide Epoxy (Primer Only) Amine Adduct Epoxy (Primer Only) Organic Zinc-Rich Primer for Galvanizing Repair Vinyl Butyral Wash Primer Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant Prime Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant PrimerAluminum Color Only Temperature-Indicating Paint

Two-Component Systems
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.12.1 2.13 2.13.1 2.14 Inhibited Alkyd | Alkyd Enamel Inhibited Alkyd | Alkyd Enamel | Alkyd Enamel Silicone Alkyd | Silicone Acrylic Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | High-Temperature Silicone Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Silicone Acrylic Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) High-Temperature Silicone | High-Temperature Silicone Manufacturer's Standard | Alkyd Enamel Manufacturer's Standard | Alkyd Enamel | Alkyd Enamel Manufacturer's Standard | Silicone Acrylic Manufacturer's Standard | High-Temperature Silicone Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant Primer | Polyamide Epoxy (Finish) Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant PrimerAluminum Color Only | Aliphatic Polyurethane Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant Primer | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant PrimerAluminum Color Only | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) Polyamide Epoxy | Polyamide Epoxy

May 1998

QR-12

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Coating System Data Sheets

2.15 2.15.1

Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant Primer | Aliphatic Polyurethane Epoxy MasticSurface-Tolerant PrimerAluminum Color Only | Aliphatic Polyurethane

Three-Component Systems
3.1 3.1.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.6 3.7 3.8 Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Zinc-Rich Epoxy | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Vinyl Tie-Coat | Vinyl (High Build) | Vinyl (High Build) Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc | Vinyl Tie-Coat | Vinyl (High Build) | Vinyl (High Build) Zinc-Rich Epoxy | Vinyl (High Build) | Vinyl (High Buid) Epoxy Mastic | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Epoxy MasticAluminum Color Only | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane (reserved for future use) Manufacturer's Standard | Universal Primer | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Manufacturer's Standard | Universal Primer | Aliphatic Polyurethane

Specialty Coating Systems


4.1 4.1.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Splash Zone CoatingSprayable Splash Zone CompoundAsbestos Free Rated to Cure Underwater Monel Sheath for Splash Zones Vulcanized Neoprene for Splash Zones Polyamide Epoxy | Fireproofing | Polyamide Epoxy (High Build) | Aliphatic Polyurethane Polyester Non-Skid | 2030 Mesh Grit | Polyester Non-Skid Epoxy Non-Skid | Grit | Epoxy Non-Skid

Non-Reinforced Thin Film Internal Coatings


5.1 5.2 FDA-Approved Epoxy (Polyamide or Amine Cured) for Potable Water Polyamide Epoxy (Thin Film) | Polyamide Epoxy (Thin Film)

Chevron Corporation

QR-13

May 1998

Coating System Data Sheets

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Amine Adduct Epoxy (Thin Film) | Amine Adduct Epoxy (Thin Film) Polyamide Coal Tar Epoxy | Polyamide Coal Tar Epoxy Amine Adduct Coal Tar Epoxy | Amine Adduct Coal Tar Epoxy Epoxy Phenolic | Epoxy Phenolic

Glass Flake Reinforced Internal Coatings


6.1 6.1.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 Polyamide Epoxy Glass Flake (Spray) | Polyamide Epoxy Glass Flake (Spray) Polyamide Epoxy Glass Flake (Trowel) | Polyamide Epoxy Glass Flake (Trowel) | Glass Flake-Free Epoxy Resin Gel Coat Amine Adduct Epoxy Glass Flake (Spray)| Amine Adduct Epoxy Glass Flake (Spray) Isophthalic Polyester Glass Flake (Spray) | Isophthalic Polyester Glass Flake (Spray) Isophthalic Polyester Glass Flake (Trowel) | Isophthalic Polyester Glass Flake (Trowel) | Wax Coat of Glass Flake-Free Isopolyester Resin Vinyl Ester Glass Flake (Spray) | Vinyl Ester Glass Flake (Spray) Vinyl Ester Glass Flake (Trowel) | Vinyl Ester Glass Flake (Trowel)

6.5 6.5.1

Laminate Reinforced Internal Coatings


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Polyamide Epoxy Laminate Amine Adduct Epoxy Laminate Isophthalic Polyester Laminate Bisphenol A Laminate Vinyl Ester Laminate

Non-Reinforced Thin Film Coatings for Immersion Service


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Fresh-Water Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Demineralized Water or Condensate Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for FDA-Approved Potable Water Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Salt Water and Brine Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Produced-Water Immersion Service

May 1998

QR-14

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

Coating System Data Sheets

8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11

Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Crude Oil (Sweet or Sour) Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Fuel (Low-aromatic) Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Fuel (High-Aromatic) Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Acetone Immersion Service Non-Reinforced Thin-Film Coatings for Ethyl & Methyl Alcohol Immersion Service

Glass Flake Reinforced Coatings for Immersion Service


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Fresh-Water Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Demineralized Water or Condensate Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for FDA-Approved Potable Water Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Salt Water and Brine Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Produced Water Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Crude Oil (Sweet or Sour) Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Fuel (Low Aromatic) Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Fuel (High Aromatic) Immersion Service Glass-Flake-Reinforced Coatings for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Immersion Service

Laminate Reinforced Coatings for Immersion Service


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Fresh-Water Immersion Service Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Demineralized-Water or Condensate Immersion Service (reserved for future use) Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Salt-Water Brine Immersion Service Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Produced-Water Immersion Service

Chevron Corporation

QR-15

May 1998

Coating System Data Sheets

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9

Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Crude-Oil (Sweet or Sour) Immersion Service Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Fuel (Low Aromatic) Immersion Service Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Fuel (High Aromatic) Immersion Service Laminate-Reinforced Coatings for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Immersion Service

High-Temperature/High-Pressure Coating Systems


11.1 11.2 11.2.1 11.3 11.4 11.4.1 11.4.2 11.5 11.5.1 11.5.2 (reserved for future use) Demineralized Water or Condensate Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Compatible with Cathodic Protection Demineralized Water or Condensate Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection (reserved for future use) Salt Water & Brine Service Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Compatible with Cathodic Protection Salt Water & Brine Service Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection Salt Water & Brine Service Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection Produced Water Service Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Compatible with Cathodic Protection Produced Water Service Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection Produced Water High Temperature/High Pressure Service Coatings Resistant to Temperatures to 180F, Pressures of 1000 PSI & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection Crude Oil Service (Sweet or Sour) Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Compatible with Cathodic Protection Crude Oil Service (Sweet or Sour) Coatings Resistant to Temperature Gradients of 50F & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection Crude Oil (Sweet or Sour) High Temperature/High Pressure Service Coatings Resistant to Temperatures to 180F, Pressures of 1000 PSI & Incompatible with Cathodic Protection

11.5.2 11.6.1 11.6.2

Coatings Under Insulation & Fireproofing


12.1 Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Continuous Carbon Steel Temperatures -50F to 140F

May 1998

QR-16

Chevron Corporation

Coatings ManualQuick Reference Guide

12.2 12.3

Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Continuous Carbon Steel Temperatures 140F300F Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Cyclic Carbon Steel Temperatures that Produce Wet/Dry Conditions Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Continuous Stainless Steel Temperatures -50F to 140F Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Continuous Stainless Steel Temperatures 140F300F Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Epoxy Coatings for Cyclic Stainless Steel Temperatures that Produce Wet/Dry Conditions Under Insulation & FireproofingNon-Reinforced Thin Film Inorganic Coatings for Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel Temperatures Above 300F

12.4 12.5 12.6

12.7

(Series 13 through 19 Reserved for Future Use) Concrete Coatings


20.1 20.2 20.3 Epoxy Coatings for Concrete: Service Temperatures <140F, Moderate Physical Abuse, Intermittent & Continuous Exposure Epoxy Coatings for Concrete: Service Temperatures <140 F, Mild Physical Abuse, Intermittent & Continuous Exposure Epoxy Coatings for Concrete: Service Temperatures <140 F, Aggressive Physical Abuse, Intermittent & Continuous Exposure

Chevron Corporation

QR-17

May 1998

Appendix A. Conversion Charts

Chevron Corporation

A-1

Appendix A

Coatings Manual

A-2

Chevron Corporation

Coatings Manual

Appendix A

Chevron Corporation

A-3

Appendix B. Color Chips

(Not available in electronic format. Please find a paper copy of the manual in your facility, or chips may be obtained by contacting the Technical Standards team at CTN 242-7241.)

Chevron Corporation

B-1

January 1995