You are on page 1of 6

Mech2300/Mech2301 Bending of Beams Practical

Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Frank White Annex 44-162

SECTION 1: DESCRIPTION
1.1 Aim The aim of the practical is to visualise and reinforce basic concepts of bending of beams for different end conditions and the principle of superposition. 1.2 Experiments The practical consists of a set of experiments using a structures test frame, rectangular beam samples, different support conditions and hangers which hold masses to apply various loads. Dial gauges, strain gauges and load cells are used to measure deflections, stresses and reaction forces, respectively.

Figure 1. Bending of beams experimental setup ( TQ Education and Training Ltd) Experiment 1: Cantilever Beam a) Measure deflections and bending stresses at one point for various loads to establish relations between loads, deformations and stresses and compare the results with theoretial predictions. b) Measure the elastic curve of a cantilever beam for a single point load and compare the experimental result with a theoretical prediction.

Experiment 2: Superposition Principle a) Measure deflections at three points along a cantilever beam for two different loads to investigate displacement superposition. b) Determine the reaction force at the simply supported end of a propped cantilever beam for two different loads to investigate force superposition. Experiment 3: Circular Bending Measure central deflections of a simply supported beam under symmetric loading to determine the Young's modulus of a material. 1.3 Assessment One hardcopy workbook per group has to be submitted to the School of Engineering before Friday, 8 May, 4pm and must include: your group number and the details of the group members worked solutions to the pre-work questions described in section 2.2 description of experimental procedures experimental results analysis and discussion of experimental data The workbook will be assessed considering the following criteria: a) Preparation Tasks (20%): evidence of preparation as demonstrated during prac session and correct solutions to pre-work questions b) Results (30%): describing data collection procedures; reporting collected data including discussion of experimental uncertainties c) Discussion (30%): critical analysis and discussion of experimental results d) Presentation (20%): quality and completeness of workbook presentation Mech2300: The practical workbook accounts for 8% of the overall course and is part of the structures assessment tasks of the course. Mech2301: The practical workbook accounts for 15% of the overall course.

SECTION 2: PREPARATORY TASKS


2.1 Workbook Keeping Each student must keep an individual workbook. The group has to edit and complement one of the workbooks after the prac sesssion and submit it for assessment to the School Office (Hawken Building) by Friday, 8 May 4pm. An example of an annotated workbook based on the first year ENGG1010 Kinematics and Mechanisms laboratory class is available on Blackboard. Familiarise yourself with the instructions and recommendations given in that document, prepare your individual workbook accordingly and use the example to create the final version of the group workbook. 2.2 Pre-work Questions Solving the following bending of beams problems will help you understanding the experimental tasks in the prac session. Solutions for these problems have to be included in 2

the workbook. The numerical values need to be calculated for an aluminium beam with Youngs modulus E = 70 GPa, width b = 18mm and thickness t = 3mm. Pre Work 1: Cantilever Beam

a d W x Calculate the deflection at x = a = 200mm and the maximum bending stresses in the beam at x = d = 50mm if the mass of the applied load is W = 200 grams.
Hints: To determine the deflection (x), make use of the formula given in the textbook for a cantilever beam with a point load. The maximum bending stress at x = d is the magnitude of the stress at the top or bottom surface of the beam calculated from the fundamental normal stress bending moment formula = -My/I. The bending moment at cross section x = d is determined using FBD and statics. In the experiment you have to enter a conversion factor C that describes the relation betweeen the mass W in [kg] acting at x = a and the bending stress in [MPa] at x = d. Based on the description in the previous dot point, this conversion factor is calculated to be 6g ( a d ) C= bt 2 with the gravity constant g in [m/s2] and geometry parameters a, d, b and t in [mm]. Pre Work 2: Simply Supported Beam

c a

W x
Calculate the deflections at x = 150mm and x = 350mm and the maximum bending stresses at the same locations for W = 250 grams, a = 250mm and c = 400mm. Hints: To determine the deflection (x), make use of the formula given in the textbook for a simply supported beam with a point load.

For the deflection at x = 350mm the same formula can be used but some adjustments are required. For the stress calculation use the same procedure as described in pre work 1.

Pre Work 3: Propped Cantilever Beam


L a B x W

Determine the reaction force at the roller support B for the propped cantilever beam and the maximum bending stresses at x = 50mm and x = 300mm. for W = 200 grams, a = 250mm and L = 400mm. Hints: This is an indeterminate system. Use the superposition principle of two cantilever beams with single loads and the corresponding deflection results in the textbook to calculate the reaction force B. Once B is determined the stresses can be calculated following the procedue described in pre work 1.
Pre Work 4: Circular Bending

h W R W

Calculate the radius of curvature R between the supports and the central defelction h for a symmetrically loaded, simply supported beam for a = 100mm, c = 400mm and W = 200 grams or W = 400 grams, respectively. Show that (M/I) = E (1/R). This relation is used in experiment 3 to determine the Youngs modulus of the material.

Hints: Consider that the loading is equivalent to applying bending moments at the supports and use the results of the corresponding load case in appendix C of the textbook to calculate the central deflection h. The radius of curvature R can be calculated from geometry using Pythagoras.

SECTION 3: INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCEDURES


Familiarise yourself with the following instructions. They describe some of the procedures that are used during the prac session. Data acquisition is done using a purpose built software environment which allows you to enter comments and copies experimental data, graphs, text input and some test parameters into a Word document. Follow the instructions on the computer screens how to operate the program. At the end of the prac session copy the file, which can be found in the Bending of Beams Prac folder on the Desktop of the PC onto your memory stick. Use the data in the file to prepare the hardcopy group prac workbook that has to be submited for assessment.
Experiment 1a The aim of this module is to acquire and graph deflections and bending stresses for a cantilever beam under a point load. Step 1. Clamp the strain gauge instrumented steel beam to the rig. Place the dial gauge at 200mm and zero it. Step 2. Load the beam with different weights at 200mm. Enter the mass into the corresponding box and Acquire the data point.
Notes: a) Acquire also a zero load data point. b) To delete an individual data point, click on that row in the table and then click Delete Row.

Step 3. Enter the parameters of the beam including the conversion factor to plot the theoretical deflection and stress curves.
Note: Remember to label your plot including the units used.

Experiment 1b The aim of this module is to acquire and graph the shape of a cantilever beam under a point load. Step 1. Clamp a plain beam to the rig with approximately 450mm overhang.
Note: Before acquiring data make sure that the dial gauge is zeroed at the fixed end of the beam.

Step 2. Enter the location of the dial gauge into the Dial gauge location box and Acquire the data point. Step 3. Enter the parameters of the beam to plot the theoretical deflection curve.
Experiment 2a The aim of this module is to demonstrate the theory of superposition principle for the deflection of a cantilever beam. Step 1. Clamp a plain beam to the rig with approximately 450mm overhang.
Note: This module requires you to measure the deflection at three locations along the beam; once with Mass 1, once with Mass 2 and the third time with both masses attached.

Step 2. Decide on the combination of masses you want to use and the measurement locations. Enter the details into the boxes and Set the Parameters

Step 3. Select the cell that corresponds to the experimental configuration and Acquire the data point.
Experiment 2b The aim of this module is to demonstrate the superposition principle for the reaction force of a propped cantilever beam. Step 1. Clamp a plain beam to the rig with approximately 450mm overhang. Step 2. Place the load cell support at 400mm.
Notes: a) The right edge of the load cell bracket is 20mm to the right of the contact point. b) Perform a recalibration when the beam is resting on the load cell to compensate for the dead weight of the beam. c) The concept of the module is to choose three locations for Mass 1 but keep the second mass at the same location.

Step 3. Decide on the combination of masses you want to use and the measurement locations. Enter the details into the boxes and Set the Parameters. Step 4. Select the cell that corresponds to the experimental configuration and Acquire the data point.
Note: The theoretical values are calculated using the results for a propped cantilever, which are part of the pre-work questions

Experiment 3 The aim of this module is to determine the Youngs modulus of a material by using a symmetric four point bending test. Step 1. Place a beam on two knife edge supports located at 100mm and 500mm. Step 2. Clamp the dial gauge at 300mm. Step 3. Use matched pairs of weights to load the beam symmetrically outside of the supports and acquire the deflection data.
Note: The deflection data is presented as outlined in pre-work problem 4 in section 2.2. A linear curve is fitted to the data and the slope of the line of best fit is displayed.