Index From Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia

INDEX

Aboriginals, 81–99 and alcohol, 83 attempts to civilize, 8, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98 burial sites, 122 and colonization, 7, 10, 81, 83, 86–8, 89, 92, 98, 99 conflict with colonists, 71, 87 corruption of, 88 drawings of, 37, 42, 85, 93–7 effect of penal colony on, 82, 87, 89 encounters on new expedition, 133–4 exchange of gifts with, 134 expedition collects data about, 116–22 expedition’s opportunity to observe, 82, 85–92, 98–9, 140 land rights, 81, 83 language, 118 music, 116, 118, 119, 121 and natural history fieldwork, 103, 109 ornaments, 120 Port Jackson area, 7, 8, 9–10, 25, 42, 82, 86, 88, 89, 90, 92, 98–9, 140 reaction of French to, 9–10, 88, 89–92, 98–9, 101, 122 relationship with land, 111 rock art, 118, 121 Tasmanian, 5, 85–6, 89, 91, 92 tools and weapons, 118, 120, 122, 134 West Australian, 134 Academie Royale de la Marine (Brest), 15 Age of Exploration, 137 agency Aboriginal, 103 individual, 9 agriculture, colonial, 110, 111

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Bailly, Charles, 27, 37, 108, 111–13, 133 Banks, Sir Joseph, 9, 77, 79, 108, 113 significance for Baudin’s voyage, 68–70 Barbier, Vinard, 34 Barère, Bertrand, 54 Barrallier, Francis, 75, 113 Bass, George, 39, 41, 118 Bass Strait, 21, 26, 85, 101, 126, 127 Baudin, Charles, 54, 55, 129, 134 memoirs, 62 Baudin, Nicolas and Aboriginals, 81–3, 87, 89

Ahu-Toru, 139 Alexander the Great, 105 Amiens, Treaty of, 25, 27, 65 anatomy/anatomists, 17, 18, 84, 85, 91 ancien régime, 3, 17, 53 Anglo-French relations, 9, 43, 64, 65–7 over territorial interests, 76–80, 126–7 scientific collaboration, 103, 104, 108–9, 111, 112, 113, 123 shared cultural traditions and values, 67 Antarctica, 138 anthropology, 18, 82, 85, 91, 92, 98, 99, 140 Arago, Jacques, 98 Arndell, Mr (magistrate), 112–13 Arrowsmith, Aaron, 77 art, Aboriginal, 118, 121, 134 artists, voyager, 37, 42, 85, 92, 93–7, 98, 118, 120–1, 138 astronomy/astronomers, 3, 14, 15, 29, 30, 37–8, 103, 114, 132 Atlas (convict ship), 41 Atlas of the Voyage de découvertes aux terres australes, 92, 93–7, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121

– 183 –

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Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia role as leader, 61–2, 63, 64 and sailors’ conditions, 51 sends natural history collection back on Naturaliste, 122–3, 131, 133 sojourn in Port Jackson, 7, 9, 10, 21–3, 39–43, 60–4, 140 and strategic information, 78, 79, 116, 136 and transport of live specimens, 132–3 treatment of slaves, 52 values accuracy of information above quantity, 127 Baudin des Ardennes (Pierre-Charles-Louis Baudin), 55 Beautemps-Beaupré, Charles-François, 77 Bellasis, George, 36, 75 Belle Angelique, 19, 20, 58, 63 Bellefin (naval surgeon), 106, 108 Bennelong, 90, 98 Bennelong Point, 30, 35, 114, 129 Bernier, Pierre-François, 30, 37–8, 114, 116, 119 Billard, Jean-Pierre, 50 biscuits, ships, 128 Bissy, Frédéric de, 14 Blanckaert, Claude, 6, 17 Bligh, Captain William, 45 Bloch, Marcus Elieser, 105 Blue Mountains, 37, 42, 108, 110, 112, 113, 133 boatswains, 33 Bonaparte, Josephine, 133 Bonaparte, Napoleon ambitions of, 12 at risk of losing Mauritius, 69 and attacks on British colonies, 78 Baudin’s proposal put to, 1 changes in society under, 140 colonial ambitions, 6 defeat at Battle of the Nile, 46 did not consider an Eastern empire, 105 Egyptian campaign, 12, 16, 17, 20, 65, 105 as Emperor, 5 fall of, 138 as First Consul, 1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 47, 57, 60 imperial designs of, 105 and Institut National, 18

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arrival in Port Jackson, 28–32 authority granted by Napoleon, 47 authority in port, 47, 48, 53, 60–4, 71 background of, 61 botanical voyage to Caribbean, 19, 20, 46, 63 challenges British rights to Tasmania, 76–7 choice of crew and scientists for new expedition, 129 collects natural history specimens, 41, 42, 122, 123, 140 correspondence with King about Aboriginals, 81–2, 87 death from tuberculosis, 137 defends honour of his men, 72–3, 74–5 diplomacy required of, 67, 71–2, 73, 74–5, 79 and discipline, 34, 45, 47–8, 51, 52, 62, 63–4, 71, 131 and ethnographic research, 85, 121, 122 and French territorial interests, 76–80, 126–7, 136 handling of officers, 52–3, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63 instructions on conduct, 30, 47, 73–4 instructions on exploration of new lands, 101–2, 126, 132, 135 instructions on fieldwork, 104, 121 itinerary, 4 itinerary of new expedition, 7, 9, 10, 22–3, 40, 126–7, 132 journal, 1, 22, 38, 40 new expedition, 125–36 plans and prepares for new expedition, 32, 39–41, 43, 125, 127–8 poor health, 135 proposal for voyage, 1–2, 5, 20, 141 purpose of voyage, 4 reconstruction of expedition, 22–3 relationship with Flinders, 29, 30, 31, 69 relationship with Governor King, 28, 29–30, 67, 71–3, 74–5, 76–8 relationship with Hamelin, 38–9, 131 reports on achievements of second campaign, 135–6 respect for customs of his hosts, 73–4 reunion with Hamelin, 32 and role of Casuarina, 130–1

Index interest in data from voyage, 116 Irish expedition, 16, 65 Italian campaign, 19 military triumphs, 11–12 paternal care and leadership, 61 plans direct attack on Britain, 78–9 and scientific ventures, 5–6 seizure of power, 66 sends no further maritime expeditions, 137 shift in priorities of, 137 and slavery, 52 support for Baudin’s voyage, 20, 54, 66, 141 Bonnefoy, Gaspard, 34, 35, 49–50, 55, 56–7, 58–9 Bonpland, Aimé, 105 boomerangs, 118 botany/botanists, 27, 37, 103, 110–11, 123, 131, 133, 138 Botany Bay, 7, 19, 37, 107 proposed British settlement at, 66 Bougainville, Hyacinthe de, 54, 55, 60, 61, 129 Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, 2, 3, 4, 55, 61, 130, 139, 141 Boullanger, Charles-Pierre, 37, 92, 114, 116, 117, 135 Bourbons, restoration of, 6, 98, 137 Bourguet, Marie-Noëlle, 84, 89, 102, 106, 128 Brambillo, Fernando, 98 Breton, Desiré, 26, 29 Bretons, 81, 89 Brèvedent, Léon, 73, 131 Brickfield, 116 Britain and colonization, 4 designs on Mauritius, 70 exploration of Australia, 26 fears establishment of French settlements in Australia, 76 and French sojourn in Port Jackson, 8 relationship with France, 65–7, 76–80, 126–7 war with France, 9, 16, 25, 27, 65 British Navy flag customs, 72 superiority of, 65

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Brooks, Richard, 41 Brown, Robert, 27, 111 Brue, Joseph, 54, 55 Bruni d’Entrecasteaux, Antoine, 4–5, 19, 22, 46, 62–3, 66, 85, 86, 139, 140, 141 Bungaree, 98 burial sites, Aboriginal, 122 butterflies, 108 Caley, George, 87, 108 Campbell, Captain William, 72 Caribbean Baudin’s voyage to, 19 French lose possessions to British in, 65 Carpentaria, Gulf of, 40, 126, 135 Carter, Paul, 28 cartography, 114–17, 126, 127, 134–5 Castle Hill, 37, 107 Castries, Charles Eugène Gabriel de la Croix, Marquis de, 51 Casuarina Baudin’s advice to Freycinet, 62, 131 and chart-making, 134–5 as extension of Géographe, 131 fitted out for expedition, 41, 128, 131 flag incident, 72–3 itinerary on new expedition, 126–7 officers transferred to, 129 order aboard, 131 reasons for choice of, 40, 122–3, 130–1 to replace Naturaliste, 7, 39, 130 Catholic Church, recovery of, 13 chart-making see cartography children of Nature, 88, 91 Church and State, separation of, 13 civilization of Aboriginals, 8, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98 benefits of, 91 degrees of, 18 and human health/condition, 84, 86, 139 ideas of, 10, 82–3 class issues, 3, 50, 53 colonization and Aboriginals, 7, 10, 81, 83, 86–8, 89, 92, 98, 99 British, 4 French, 15, 70 Napoleon’s ambitions for, 6

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Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia drunkenness, 33–4, 50 Dumont d’Urville, Jules, 137–8, 139 Dunmore, John, 2, 125 Duperrey, Louis-Isadore, 138 dying race theory, 89 East India Company, 36 economy, French, 12–13 Ector, Pierre, 33 education, French, 13 Egyptian campaign, 12, 16, 17, 20, 65 Egyptian expedition, 5, 6, 16, 104, 105–6, 109, 124 empirical observation, 3, 83, 104 emus, 108, 122, 132 Encounter Bay, 69 Enderby, Samuel, 41 Enlightenment, 2–3, 5, 13, 15, 63, 79, 83, 90, 106, 109, 130, 140, 141 waning of, 6, 11 equality, concepts of, 84, 90 ethnographical work, 82–3, 85, 91, 92, 98, 101, 102, 116–22, 131, 133–4, 138 Eyre Peninsula, 134 Faivre, Jean-Paul, 116 families, of voyagers, 14, 128 Faure, Pierre, 37, 116, 133, 135 First Empire, creation of, 2, 6, 10, 137 flags, dispute over, 72–3, 74 Fleurieu, Antoine-Laurent, comte de, 3, 20, 22, 79, 101–2, 104, 126, 132, 135 Flinders, Matthew, 22, 29, 30, 31, 66, 68–9, 71, 125, 126, 127, 129 Flinders expedition, 9, 27, 35, 87, 98, 111, 132 food supplies, 41, 51, 127–8 forests, destruction of native, 110 Forfait, Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent, 1, 14, 22, 27, 30, 40, 42, 47, 61, 62, 63, 67, 73–4, 76, 78 Fornasiero, Jean, 69, 127 Forth, Christopher, 49 Fortier, C.-F., 94 Fourcroy, Antoine-François de, 79, 133 France between Revolution and Empire, 11 colonial ambitions, 15, 16, 23

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Dampier, William, 126 David, François, 34 Decaen, General, 78, 79 Degérando, Joseph-Marie, 18, 82–3, 85, 88 Delvaux, A., 93 democratic principles, 98 demotions, 45, 57, 58 Denial Bay, 134 Dening, Greg, 1, 45, 50, 51, 62 d’Entrecasteaux, Antoine see Bruni d’Entrecasteaux, Antoine d’Entrecasteaux Channel, 22, 76, 85, 136 Depuch, Louis, 21, 37, 108, 111–13, 129, 133 Diderot, Denis, 3 Directory, 6, 12, 13, 65, 83, 84 discipline, 33–4, 45–6, 47–8, 51, 52, 62, 63–4, 71, 129 disease, 129, 135 Drouin, Jean-Marc, 105

of New South Wales, 68 and scientific study, 101–2 Commission des Sciences et des Arts, 105 Committee of Public Safety, 53, 54 Conley, Mary, 48 Conseil des Anciens, 55 Consulate, 54, 83, 84, 98, 99, 136, 140, 141 aspirations of, 7 establishment of, 2, 12 convicts Aboriginal contact with, 87 populating colony with, 81–2, 89, 90 rehabilitation of, 8, 36 Cook, James, 1, 4, 61, 63, 64, 130, 138, 139 Cormack, William, 46 Council of State, 12 County of Cumberland, 37, 102, 107, 111 map of, 114, 115, 116 Cox, William, 41 crew chosen for return to France, 129 definition of, 51 see also officers, naval; sailors; slaves Cumberland, 76 curfew, 33, 35 Cuvier, George, 17, 18, 85, 91, 92, 102, 103, 105, 139

Index early Napoleonic, 11–15 economy, 12–13 education in, 13 interest in Australia, 20–3 possible invasion of British Australian colony, 78 relationship with Britain, 65–7, 76–80, 126–7 relationship with wider world, 19 Franklin, John, 35 freemasonry, 7, 18 French navy, 9, 46–7 Code (1780), 51 education of crews, 16 laws of honour, 73 reforms in, 16 Republican, 16, 46–7, 54, 65 Revolutionary principles introduced, 46, 53–4, 61–2 Royal, 3, 4 spirit of inquiry among officers in, 15–16 French Revolution, 2, 5, 54 end of revolutionary period, 11, 141 impact on French economy, 12–13 impact on navy, 46, 53–4, 61–2 liberté, egalité et fraternité, 10, 61, 71, 83, 84, 88 opportunities offered by, 61 stabilization of, 83 Freycinet, Henri, 34, 35, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56–7, 58, 59, 73, 135 Freycinet, Captain Louis, 40, 53, 114, 115 account of Aboriginals, 83 ambitions/disagreements with Baudin, 130–1, 135 Baudin’s advice/instructions to, 62, 131 as captain of Casuarina, 39, 41, 62, 129, 130–1, 134–5 later expedition of, 98, 138, 139 frogs, 108 gardeners, 5, 27, 37, 103, 132 Gascoigne, John, 2, 47, 51, 63 Géographe, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14, 21, 22, 25, 27, 39 arrival in Port Jackson, 28–32 at anchor in Port Jackson, 47–8 authority aboard, 47–8

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Hacking, Henry, 87 Haitian Revolution, 15, 52 Hamelin, Captain Emmanuel, 21, 22, 43, 52, 78 and care of natural history collection, 123, 133 and discipline, 34 first sojourn at Port Jackson, 25–8, 29 gathers military intelligence, 28, 42 journal of, 25, 28, 39 loses enthusiasm for expedition, 28 relationship with Baudin, 38–9, 131 relationship with Governor King, 26, 70 return to France with Naturaliste, 32, 38, 39, 129 return to Port Jackson and reunion with Baudin, 32, 33, 38 second sojourn in Sydney, 38–9

Baudin’s command from ashore, 53, 60–4 below deck, 48–52 Casuarina as extension of, 131 Casuarina guides through dangerous waters, 135 chain of command, 49–50, 55 choice of crew for new expedition, 129 flag incident, 72–3 as floating laboratory, 131–2 itinerary on new expedition, 126–7 logbook, 34, 47, 49, 52 maintenance of order aboard, 46 preservation of live species aboard, 132 quarter deck, 52–60 repairs and supplies, 33, 42, 128 return to France, 137 role on new expedition, 131–2 slaves aboard, 51–2 unable to manoeuvre close to shore, 40 Geographe Bay, 40, 85, 108, 126, 136 geographers/geography, 37, 114–17, 130, 131, 134–5 geology, 113 Good, Peter, 27 Grand Corps, 53, 54 Green Point, 27 Guichenot, Antoine, 37, 132 Gulf of Carpentaria, 40, 126, 135

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Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia Italian campaign, 19 Jangoux, Michel, 28, 111 Jardin des Plantes (Paris), 133 Jauffret, Louis-François, 15, 18, 84 Jeanbon Saint-André, André, 53 Jones, Phillip, 98 Jussieu, Antoine-Laurent de, 32, 40, 41, 42, 87, 113, 122, 125, 126, 127, 131, 134, 135 Kable, Henry, 40, 41, 130 Kangaroo Island, 40, 126, 127, 132, 134 kangaroos, 132 Karskens, Grace, 87 Kemp, Captain Anthony Fenn, 74–5 Kent, Captain William, 39 King, Philip Gidley, Governor, 7, 9, 25, 36, 39, 52, 90 attempts to curb liquor trade, 70, 74 Baudin’s correspondence with about Aboriginals, 81–2, 87 and colonial expansion in Tasmania, 77–8 and colony at Port Philip Bay, 126, 127 concerns about Baudin expedition, 66 concerns for well-being of colony, 70, 71 conflict with Aboriginals, 87 fears French attack from Mauritius, 70 fears French settlements in Australia, 76, 136 feelings about accommodating Napoleonic expedition, 26, 28, 29, 30, 45, 64, 66–7, 70, 71, 104 future rests on success of colony, 77 gives permission for purchase of Casuarina, 40, 66, 122, 130 and Joseph Banks, 68, 69 relationship with Baudin, 28, 29–30, 67, 71–3, 74–5, 76–8, 126, 127 relationship with Hamelin, 26, 28 rules laid down by, 48, 60, 71, 104 support for French scientists, 108, 112, 113, 114, 122, 133 King, Philip Parker, 118 King George Sound, 127, 132, 133, 134 King Island, 40, 76, 77, 79, 126, 127, 132, 134

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imperialism Anglo-French rivalry, 66, 68, 69–70, 76–80 British, 65 French, 46–7, 65, 78, 138 India, French threat of attacks on, 78 insects, 108 Institut d’Egypte (Cairo), 16, 105 Institut National de France, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 60, 64, 68, 86, 91, 101, 113, 124, 136, 137, 139, 140 assembles naval and scientific staff for voyage, 20–1, 105, 129 priorities for voyage, 40 insubordination, 49, 50 Investigator, 27, 29, 35, 69, 111 Irish dissidents, 71 Irish expedition, 16, 65

Harrington, 72 Harris, John, 34, 72, 73 Harrison, Carol, 4, 6 Hawkesbury, 37, 112, 128 Hawkesbury River, 42 Heirisson, François, 34 Hervé (slave), 52 Hobart, Lord Robert, 70, 77 honour of French officers, 36, 59, 60, 72, 73, 74–5 manly, 8, 14, 43, 72, 79 national, 43, 45, 65, 67, 72, 74 Horner, Frank, 53, 55, 125, 130 host–guest relationship, 67 Huften, Olwen, 14 Hughes, Michael, 14 human curiosities, 139 human nature, 8, 17, 84, 89, 121 human rights, 8, 17, 18, 52, 81, 82, 89, 99 humanity ideas of, 10, 88, 89, 91, 92 progress of, 81, 98 recognition of shared, 140 study of, 3 Humboldt, Alexander von, 6, 105 Hunt, Susan, 28 Hunter, Captain John, 114, 115 Hunter Islands, 127, 134

Index Kleinne, Valentin, 34 knowledge claims of superiority of French, 77 encyclopaedic, 3, 6, 17, 83, 138 exchange of, 103, 104, 114 extension of, 102, 103, 123 improvement through scientific, 109 international pursuit of, 66–7, 69, 72, 76 Konishi, Shino, 90 Kupang Bay, 135

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Mackay, David, 68 magnetism, terrestrial, 138 Mai, 139 Malaspina, Alessandro, 83, 86, 98 man natural history of, 17–18, 83–5, 86, 88, 89, 91, 98 rights of, 8, 17, 18, 52, 81, 82, 89, 99 maps, 114–17, 126, 134–5 Marsden, Samuel, 87 martial values, 14, 46, 58 La Pérouse, François de Galoup, comte de, masculinity, concepts of, 8, 14, 45, 46, 49, 58, 72 1, 4, 6, 7, 19, 61, 66, 79, 85, 107, 112, Mauritius, 21, 28, 32, 38, 48, 52, 68, 69–70, 130, 141 78, 137 La Réunion, 68 Mayer, Wolf, 113 Labillardière, Jean-Jacques-Jules de, 5, 19, medical care, 31–2, 129 85, 86 medical studies, 84 Lacépède, Bernard Germain de, 17, 105 Menou, Yves, 34 language mercantile activity, 42 Aboriginal, 118 merchants, colonial, 41, 128 Aboriginals’ progress with English, 86 meritocracy, 49 difficulties between French and English, meteorology, 138 35 midshipmen, 49, 53, 54–5 Larra, James, 108 Milius, Lieutenant Pierre, 21, 26, 28, 29, 32, Latour, Bruno, 102 78, 86, 89, 90, 125 laws of nature, 83 mineralogy/mineralogists, 27, 37, 104, 108, Le Havre, voyage departs from, 21 111–13, 114, 123, 131, 133, 138 Ledru, André-Pierre, 14 Leschenault de la Tour, Théodore, 27, 37, 86, monarchy, restoration of, 6, 54, 98, 137 Monge, Gaspard, 53 89–90, 91, 112 Mongez, Abbé, 112 fieldwork in Australia, 110–11, 123, 132 Le Moniteur Universel, 21 Lesueur, Charles-Alexandre, 37, 42, 92, Monteath, Peter, 127 93–4, 98, 107, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, Murray, John, 127 120, 121 Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 2, 6, 13, levée en masse, 58 16, 79, 83, 87, 92, 110, 111, 112, 122, Lharidon, François-Etienne, 31–2, 129 133, 140 lieutenants, 50, 55, 63 music, Aboriginal, 116, 118, 119, 121 lime juice, 129 mutiny, 21, 45, 48, 52, 60 liquor trade, 70, 74 lizards, 108 Napoleon I, Emperor see Bonaparte, Napolongitude, 114, 116 leon Lord, Simeon, 35, 41 Napoleonic Wars, 16, 70, 78 Lorient, voyage returns to, 137 National Assembly, 4, 19 Louis XVI, King, 19, 79, 85 National Convention, 5, 16, 18, 53, 58 Louis XVIII, King, 19 national identity, 84 lycées, 14 natural history Lyons, Martyn, 13 of an Australian colony, 124

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Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia New Holland, 20, 66, 69, 91, 101, 109, 110 New South Wales Baudin’s criticism of British colonial project in, 81 Governor of see King, Philip Gidley New South Wales Corps, 9, 35–6, 71, 72, 75, 107, 108, 114 New Zealand, 122 Nile, Battle of the, 16, 46 noble savage concept, 88, 140 Norfolk Island, 122 North America, French lose possessions to British in, 65 Oceania Anglo-French rivalry in, 9 exploration of, 2, 3 later voyages to, 137, 139 officers, naval age profile, 46 ambitions of, 45, 46, 54 backgrounds of, 3, 53–5, 58 belong to new Republican officer corps, 53 British accusations against, 74–5 chosen for new expedition, 129 class origins, 50, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58 contact with New South Wales Corps, 35–6, 72 discord between, 50, 55–9, 60, 135 drawn into world of colony, 36, 47 duties of, 34–5, 49–50 Géographe quarter deck, 52–60 give up cabins to animals, 132 and Revolutionary Wars, 46 share space with naturalists, 53 spirit of inquiry, 15–16 and supervision of sailors, 49–50, 51 orientalism, 105, 124 Orleanists, 137 Ourou-Mare (’Bull-dog’), 95, 109 Outram, Dorinda, 3 Pacific Anglo-French rivalry in, 66, 79, 138 French expeditions to, 19, 66 Pacific Islands, 118 Palmer, John, 27, 128

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on Baudin’s voyage, 99, 101–24 collection returns to France on Naturaliste, 32, 39, 40, 111, 122–3, 131, 133 extent of new expedition collection, 133 Institut delighted with expedition’s collections, 137 live specimens taken to France, 132–3 transformation of, 6–7, 17–18 see also specific disciplines natural philosophy, 3, 17, 104 natural rights, 17 Naturaliste, 5, 7, 11, 14, 21 first sojourn at Port Jackson, 25–8 Hamelin’s work aboard, 38, 39 repairs and supplies, 33, 128 second arrival at Port Jackson, 32 slaves aboard, 52 takes natural history collection back to France, 32, 39, 40, 111, 122–3, 131, 133 transfer of Géographe crew members to, 54, 55 naturalists age profile of, 105 British, 37 class of, 5 colonial surveillance of, 123–4 disembark natural history collection at Port Jackson, 31 on Egyptian expedition, 20 explorations from Port Jackson, 27, 36–8, 101 fieldwork in Australia, 104–24, 132–3 global laboratory of, 17 on maritime expeditions, 3 number on voyage, 1–2 in Port Jackson, 10, 47 Revolutionary, 84 sedentary, 17, 138, 139 selection of, 129 share space with officers, 53 status of, 6 see also specific types; voyagers naval protocols, 36 Nepean River, 113 Neutral Bay, 27, 29, 130 New Caledonia, 138 New Guinea, 138

Index Palmer, Thomas, 41 Palmer’s Cove, 116 Parramatta, 33, 37, 42, 98, 107, 108 Paterson, Mrs, 107, 122 Paterson, Lieutenant-Colonel William, 27, 74, 75, 107, 108, 113, 118, 133 Pellion, Alphonse, 98 Pemulwuy, 87, 89 penal colony in New Caledonia, 138 Port Jackson, 7, 42, 81–2, 87, 89 penal transportation, 90, 98 Péron, François, 19, 37, 56–7, 76, 78, 79, 84–5, 86, 90–2, 101, 103, 112, 113, 139 fieldwork in Australia, 106–9, 111, 118, 122, 123, 132 Petit, Nicolas-Martin, 37, 42, 92, 95–7, 98 Phillip, Arthur, 90, 112 physiological features, 18, 84, 90, 92 plants, 110, 111, 132, 133 platypuses, 108 Port Bowen (Clinton), 118 Port Dalrymple, 66 Port Jackson arrival of Géographe, 28–32 as base for scientific exploration, 101, 102–3, 109 Baudin reports on, 136 Baudin’s impressions of, 42–3 Baudin’s prolonged sojourn in, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 21–3, 39–43, 60–4, 140 becomes central port-of-call for European voyagers, 138 exclusion from original itinerary, 4, 9 fear of French attack from Mauritius on, 70 first French expedition to visit, 23 Géographe at anchor in, 47–8 maps of, 114, 115, 116 Naturaliste at, 25–8, 32 naturalists in, 10 naval staff at work and leisure in, 33–6 penal colony, 7, 42, 81–2, 87, 89 possibility of French attack on, 78, 79 potential unrest in, 71 relationships with people of, 9 Port Louis, 78 Port Philip, 26, 36, 66 Port Philip Bay, 126–7 Portland, William Cavendish-Bentinck, third Duke of, 26 promotions, 45, 51, 62 prostitutes, 49 provisions, 41, 51, 127, 135 punishments, 34, 51, 52 quarter deck, 52–60

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race classification of, 85, 92 concepts of, 17 dying race theory, 89 theories of, 138 Ransonnet, Joseph, 19, 34, 35, 49–50, 51, 55, 57–8, 59, 122, 133–4 Ravenet, Juan, 98 Recherche, 62 Reddy, William, 63 regional surveys, 83–4 Republican Navy, 16, 46–7, 54, 65 Republican New Year, 72 Restoration, 6, 54, 98, 137, 138 Revolutionary voyages, 4–5, 19, 140 Revolutionary Wars, 12, 16, 25, 46, 65, 70 rights of man, 8, 17, 18, 52, 81, 82, 89, 99 rock art, Aboriginal, 118, 121 Rodger, Nicholas, 48 Roger, B., 95–7 Romarin, isles de, 126, 127 Ronsard, François-Michel, 29, 30, 34, 36, 46, 48, 50, 73 ambitions of, 58, 59, 60, 62–3 background of, 53–4 disloyalty to Baudin, 59 journal of, 35, 52, 53, 55, 56, 59, 75 lack of commitment to expedition, 59 relations with other officers, 57–8, 59, 135 sense of hierarchical etiquette, 71, 72 stirs rumours about British officers, 75 Rosenwein, Barbara, 56 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 3 Emile, 13, 14 Royal Navy (French), 3, 4 Royal Society (London), 68

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Baudin, Napoleon and the Exploration of Australia social elite, new, 13 Société d’Histoire Naturelle, 19 Société des Observateurs de l’Homme, 18, 84, 85, 118, 121 Sorrenson, R., 130 South Pole, 139 Spain, 42, 98 Spencer, George, second Earl Spencer, 68, 69 Spencer Gulf, 40 statistical surveys, 83 Staum, Martin, 18, 83 sub-lieutenants, 49–50, 55, 63 superstition, rejection of, 3 supplies, 41, 51, 127–9, 135 Swan River, 66 swans, black, 122 Sydney Cove, 27, 116, 130 Sydney Harbour, 7, 78, 116 Sydney hospital, 31, 32 Sydney prison, 34 Sydney Town, 8, 10, 19, 25, 26, 27, 98 Baudin in, 30, 141 Hamelin’s second sojourn in, 38–9 map of, 116, 117 naval staff visit, 35 temptations for sailors in, 51 voyagers take lodgings in, 48 Tahiti, 3, 45, 138 Taillefer, Hubert, 31–2, 61 Tasman, Abel, 76 Tasmania, 4, 21, 136 Aboriginals, 5, 85–6, 89, 91, 92 British claims to, 76–8, 81 see also Van Diemen’s Land Tenerife, 21, 48 tensions on quarter deck, 53, 54, 55–9 shipboard, 45, 50, 135, 140 the Terror, 5, 54, 63 Testard, F. M., 120, 121 Thomas, Nicholas, 9 Thompson, Andrew, 41 Thomson, James, 31 Thouin, André, 110, 133 Timor, 21, 48, 60, 91, 135 Toongabbie, 112 Toussant L’Ouverture, 15, 52

rum, 41, 49, 122 rural communities, French, 84, 89 Russell, Penny, 77 Said, Edward, 106 sailors behaviour in port, 48–9 misconduct and discipline, 33–4, 49–50, 51 politics and patriotism, 52 and Revolutionary Wars, 46 work and leisure at Port Jackson, 33–6, 47, 48 St Francis Island, 40, 126 St Peter Island, 40, 126, 132, 134 Saint Vincent, Bory de, 14 St Vincent Gulf, 40 Saint-Cricq, 32 Saint-Domingue, 15 Saint-Hilaire, Geoffrey, 105 Sankey, Margaret, 85, 109, 123 savages, concept of, 83, 84, 85, 88, 90, 109, 140 science nineteenth-century scientific voyages, 137–40 data collection on later voyages, 138 disciplinary specialization, 83 extension of knowledge, 102, 106 improvement through knowledge, 109 integral to Revolutionary France, 6, 8, 9, 13, 16–17, 83 rise of professionalized, 11 separation from war, 66 and study of man, 84–5, 86 Scientific Revolution, 2–3 scurvy, 129 secularization, 13 Seven Years War, 65 Shark Bay, 40, 134 shells, 27, 107, 122 Skinner, Samuel, 41 slaves African, 17 as crew on voyage, 51–2 in Haiti, 15 issues of morality, 3, 52, 83 trade in, 52

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Index trade opportunities, 15, 66, 79, 137, 138 transportation system, penal, 90, 98 Tuckey, Lieutenant James Hingston, 36 Tulard, Jean, 105 Underwood, James, 40, 41, 130 Van Diemen’s Land, 66, 76–7, 78, 110 see also Tasmania vegetation, 110 Venus, 41 Volney, Constantin-François Chasseboeuf, comte de, 105–6 voyage, Baudin’s compared with Bruni d’Entrecasteaux expedition, 4–5, 63 compared with later expeditions, 137–40 contact with Aboriginals on, 81–99 discipline ashore, 45–64 government pays little attention to return of, 137 legacy of, 137 natural history on, 99, 101–24 new expedition, 125–36 proposals for, 1–2, 5, 20 reconstruction of, 22–3 relations with British during, 65–80 sojourn in Port Jackson, 7, 9, 10, 21–3, 25–43, 60–4, 140 through British eyes, 68–70

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Voyage de découvertes aux terres australes, 108–9, 112 see also Atlas voyagers area of origin, 15 collaboration of naval and scientific, 20–1 discipline in port, 45–64 first impressions of Port Jackson, 25–8 regulations for conduct of, 26, 30, 33, 35, 48, 60, 71 sickness among, 29, 31–2 social class, 11, 16 tensions between, 21 see also crew; naturalists; officers, naval; slaves voyages, nineteenth-century, 137–40 warriors, Aboriginal, 95–6 water supplies, 128 weapons, Aboriginal, 118, 120, 122, 134 West-Sooby, John, 69, 127 Wolf, Stuart, 6 wombats, 132 women Aboriginal, 97, 134 position and rights of, 13–14

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zoology/zoologists, 37, 103, 105, 106–9, 123, 131, 132, 133, 138

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