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Kendall O‘Neill Megan Keaton ENG 112 4 March 2012 Smith, Hendrick. "Schools by School Reform KIPP." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/makingschoolswork/sbs/kipp/>. Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is a system that some charter schools, especially middle schools follow. It has proven to be very efficient for a number of reasons. KIPP exercises longer schools days and longer school years. Before students are fully enrolled parents and students and parents must sign a contract, the ‗Commitment to Excellence‘. Students complete about 2 hours of homework a night and are disciplined in class if not on task. KIPP‘s school days are from 7:30 AM – 5:00 PM, they attends Saturday classes and everyone must spend 3 ½ weeks in summer school. KIPP is a rigorous program and because of that both student and parent must sign a ‗Commitment to Excellence‘. This simply says that the parent help the student stay on track, check homework, and they must be involved in the school. The student pledges to work hard on their classwork and homework. Each night a student receives approximately 2 hours of homework on top of the 9 ½ hour school day. Parents are expected to oversee that it gets done and teachers must remain accessible by phone until 9 PM in case a student has a question. If a student fails to complete their homework or acts up in class they become ‗on the bench‘. Instead of being sent to the principal‘s office they are separated from the rest of the class and forced to sit alone. This way the student never misses out on the lesson but doesn‘t enjoy being with his classmates.

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This article seems as if it were written by someone directly involved with KIPP. The author only focuses on the succeeding aspects of KIPP and never on the negative aspects. The article talks a lot about how rigorous the course is but how it is worth it because 85% of alumni go to college. However, the article never states that more kids will drop out of KIPP than finish it. Also the fact that PBS published this article also seems biased. PBS focuses on positivity in schools and trying to help teachers and students with innovative ways of teaching. I‘m going to use this paper to show that while all charter schools may not be successful there are a few programs that truly do work. While this program is rigorous it could be the reform that the school system needs across the board. • ―With a long school day (7:30 to 5 PM), Saturday classes and three and a half weeks of

summer school for everyone, KIPP students spend 67% more time in class that regular public schools‖ • ―In 2004, 85% of KIPP alumni who were seniors in high school were accepted in to a

university or college‖ • ―KIPP‘s routine includes motivational and educational chants and sons. You will hear the

kids chanting their multiplication tables and singing…‖ Morris, David. "After 20 Years, Charter Schools Stray From Their Original Mission." After 20 Years, Charter Schools Stray From Their Original Mission. On the Commons Magazine, 7 Aug. 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2013. <http://www.onthecommons.org/magazine/after-20-years-charterschools-stray-their-original-mission>. This article came out only a couple months ago when charter schools celebrated its 20 year anniversary since they first one opened in late 1991. The article compares what charter schools

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were originally intended to do and what they are like now, 20 years later. The article compares the charter system to the invasive plant kudzu. Kudzu is a Japanese weed that grows extremely quick and steals nutrients from other plants as it grows over them, ultimately smothering the original plant. Originally charter schools were created to use experimental teaching methods, if they proved to be effective they were to give the methods to the existing public schools to mimic. However that is far from what has happened. Charters are now seen as a competitor that could replace public education instead of a way of improvement. Charter school numbers continue to grow while public schools begin to close due to lack of funding. ―And this cycle feeds on itself. More charters mean less money for public schools; the more public education deteriorates, the greater the popularity and number of charter schools.‖ The article continues by talking about Finland‘s educational system saying how it was one of the worst and it managed to turn itself around by doing one simple thing. It made the process of become a teacher more difficult than become a doctor or a lawyer. With the introduction to some of the best teachers, students began to excel and climb up the ranking to become one of the top education systems. This article came from on the commons magazine that focuses on improving communities. This article is very opinionated but has reliable quotes and statistics through-out. This type of writing appeals to both pathos and ethos. The author appeals to pathos by comparing kudzu to charter schools. David Morris talks about how kudzu takes over other plants and smothers them and what is what charter schools are doing to the public education system. He also refers to the public education system on Finland and they are superior because they made the process of becoming a teacher more difficult than becoming a doctor or lawyer. He appeals to ethos by referring to CREDO and then again when he lists the number of charter schools and the number of students waiting to be enrolled.

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I‘m going to use this article to show how charters schools are exhausting the public education system and if they continue to grow they will deplete the resources the neighborhood public schools need to stay open. • As the cycle feeds on itself. More charters mean less money for public schools; the more

public education deteriorates, the greater the popularity and number of charter schools. • ―Groups of teachers and administrators who wanted to innovate and try new things would

band together and little laboratories of education would emerge… the idea was simple: anything valuable culled from these experiments would be copied by the district…‖ • ― And so the kudzu like growth of charters and vouchers continues, stealing essential

nutrients from a dying public health education system Clark, Charles S. "Charter Schools Will They Imporove or Hurt Public Education." CQ Research. CQ Press, 20 Dec. 2002. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. <http://library.cqpress.com.ezproxy.cpcc.edu/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre200212200 0&type=hitlist&num=0>. This is compiled stack of research that talks about all aspects of charter schools. It touches briefly on all accounts like is it going to hurt the public education, the innovators with the original idea, is it just a passing fad? Piece by piece it takes it breaks it down and remains objective. One section that was focused on was ‗Do charter schools foster innovation and achievement?‘ It touches on teachers having the ability to incorporate art and music into teaching math and science, the fact that public schools have to step it up to compete with charter schools and the testing comparison between the two. Since charter schools don‘t have to follow any specific guidelines they are free to teach as they see best fit. When the ability to incorporate art

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and music into core subjects, it becomes more interesting and relatable to students. When this ability to teach how teachers feel best fit, students leave the traditional public schools to attend charter school. When students leave their neighborhood school, the funding goes with them. One superintendent lost only 1.3% of his student population but lost 1 million dollars in funding because of it. He was interviewed and said that his students left but he was going to fight for their return. There is lots of controversy about the testing results between charter and neighborhood schools. While some statistics say that charters aren‘t testing worse, others say they are way behind those in the same district. Testing levels in comparison of the two vary from state to state. This article touches on a wide variety of topics surrounding the concerns and benefits of charter school. It offers unbiased material and different opinions from both sides of the argument. While it doesn‘t delve too deep in any one passage for extended time, it gives every issue some light. While this writing style could be good for those who don‘t need a lot of information focused on one topic, it makes the writer appear as if they don‘t know enough about the topic. The writer appears unknowledgeable in his writing and as if he didn‘t do the appropriate amount of research. However, the author did compile a good amount of charts, graphs, pictures, maps and interviews with people of several different areas of the public education system. This piece could have been better if the author wrote it as an essay rather than breaking it into several different topics. I am going to use this article to help me form more opinions on these matters while I continue to research. I think this is going to be one of my most helpful sources once I have gone completely through it. It offers me statistics, maps, graphs, and quotes from those directly involved in either the government, school boards or works in a charter school

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―We‘re better because of charters. I hate to say it, but we‘re more aware of the

importance to what parents say and have become more customer-service oriented… The charter schools stole our students; we will steal them back.‖ • • A map showing the amount of charters in every state Snip bits of CREDO (the Center of Research on Education Outcomes) which did a huge

study across the U.S comparing charter schools and the local public schools in testing scores. Raymond, Margaret, Dr. Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States Executive Summary. Rep. N.p.: CREDO.stanford.edu, 2009. CREDO.stanford.edu. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://credo.stanford.edu/reports/MULTIPLE_CHOICE_EXECUTIVE%20SUMMARY.pdf>. Center for Research on Education Outcomes or CREDO did a study in 2009 comparing charters schools to traditional public schools in fifteen states and the District of Columbia. CREDO was able to use 70% of charter school students in their analysis on the performance difference between charter and traditional public school (TPS). ―The study examined the differences three ways: a pooled nationwide analysis of charter school impacts, a state-by-state analysis of charter school results, and an examination of the performance of charter schools against their local alternatives.‖ They did this by creating a ‗virtual twin‘ meaning they found someone in a charter school and found someone with the same demographics in a TPS and compared their standardized test scores. The finding CREDO produced show that only 17% of charter school students nationwide showed superior testing results compared to their TPS. About half have the same results as their TPS and 37% tested significantly worse. There are several factors that cause results like these like state to state laws, how new the charter is, and the type of student that attends these school. Charters from state to state can have ‗caps‘ meaning that there is a limit to

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the amount of charter schools in that specific state. CREDO found that states that do have caps performed worse than those who did not have caps. Charter schools in the first year have a decline in proficiency and after two or three years begin to have an increase in testing scores. Once CREDO finished this analysis they discovered that schools catering to students in poverty and students learning English as a second language performed significantly better than those of TPS. This study that CREDO produced is very important because it is the first of its kind. It has given the argument of charter schools being proficient or not, data to use. This study and written synopsis are very neutral. They show both pros and cons without focusing on one or the other too much. This writing style is very effective. Not only is the author convincing that charter schools are failing but gave number of failing charters in every state. The author was very thorough in his research. It was professionally written and at times, hard to fully comprehend. The publisher and coordinator of this research and essay is Stanford, giving it more credibility. I am going to use this document to show how the majority of our charter schools are failing. In my final paper I want to use this is my argument to give evidence that while all charter schools may not be efficient and helpful in their communities some of them are working and some of them are truly helping guide students. I also want to use this document to show the magnitude of even 5 years ago the amount of students wanting to attend charter schools. This paper will be one of the major pieces I use to back up my arguments. • ―As of 2009, more than 4,700 charter schools enrolled 1.4 million children in 40 states

and the District of Columbia. The ranks of charters grow by hundreds each year. Even so, more than 365,000 names linger on charter school wait lists after more than fifteen years, there is no doubt that both supply and demand in the charter sector are strong.‖

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―In our nationally pooled sample, two subgroups fare better in charters than in the

traditional system: students in poverty and ELL student. This is no small feat.‖ • ―Despite promising results in a number of states and within certain subgroups, the overall

findings of this report indicate a disturbing – and far-reaching – subset of poorly performing charter schools.‖ • ―The replication of successful school models is one important element of this effort.

Onthe other side of the equation, however, authorizers must be willing and able to fulfill their end of the original charter school bargain: accountability in exchange for flexibility. When schools consistently fail, they should be closed.‖ Harvey, James. "Privatization: A Drain on Public Schools." EBSCO Host. EBSCO Host, Dec. 2011. Web. <http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.cpcc.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=f2230e381c2d-4fb0-8244 4e41c3d66554%40sessionmgr198&hid=4&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=a9h&AN=6766 4426>. This article focuses on the budget cuts the public education system received in 2011, the need and American right for public education and the disappointment of charter schools. This piece starts by mentioning the collapse of the economy and how it trickled down to take about 11 billion dollars out of the public education system but remained able to support the charter and voucher program. It then goes on to list the long line of services that will be removed or receive far less funding. It then goes on to say ―While voting to cut $11 billion out of federal education funding for fiscal year 2011 (including cuts in Title I, the Striving Readers program, literacy, teacher quality, math and science, and education technology, as well as special and vocational

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and adult education), the U.S. House of Representatives found the money to maintain charter and choice funding (Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011).‖ This article focuses largely on the American right to attend public schools. He focuses on the necessity for kids to have the right to a public education and how privatizing them is taking out the best of the students and leaving those less motivated students behind. This article was very well written and at times hard to completely understand. James Harvey, the writer quotes several educational philosophers, politicians, and statistics on both the disposition of funding and charter success. There are several very strong points that are very eye opening. One of the most is the complete disregard of the public school education funding while charter schools continued to get there. He backs this up several times with strong, times with strong, foul proof statistics. This type of writing is very persuading. Harvey is a strong writer and has done more than enough research to prove he is reliable. This article has almost completely changed my stand point on charter school. I plan to use this article to show the budget cuts public education received, the importance of keeping public schools public and once again reiterating how charters are failing.  Privatizing public schools strikes at the core of the American democratic experiment. In which schools are expected to serve as the great melting pots great melting pot.  Even national figures got in on the act. While voting to cut $11 billion out of federal education funding for fiscal year 2011 (including cuts in Title I, the Striving Readers program, literacy, teacher quality, math and science, and education technology, as well as special and vocational and adult education), the U.S. House of Representatives found the money to maintain charter and choice funding (Full-Year Appropriations Act, 2011).

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John Dewey, the other great American educational philosopher, thought of schools as essential to civil society—not because they provided a set of practical skills but because they helped individuals realize their potential

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