Module 7

Power System Review Course

Protection & Coordination

By: Dr. Hamid J affari

Fuse
Transformer
Typical Distribution System
FOA KVA
FA KVA
OA KVA
%) 135 ( 000 , 10
%) 125 ( 9375
7500
FOA KVA
FA KVA
OA KVA
%) 135 ( 000 , 10
%) 125 ( 9375
7500
Protection & Coordination
 System Protection Instrumentaion
 Principals of Protection
 Protection Devices (Circuit breakers, Reclosers,
Fuses)
 Principals of Coordination
 Coordination Study
 Fuse-Fuse Coordination
 Recloser-Recloser Coordination
 Recloser-Fuse Coordination
 Relay-Recloser-Fuse Coordination

Power System Review
System Protection
Components
 Instrument Transformers
 PTs
 CTs
 Circuit Breakers & Relays
 Mechanical
 Digital
 Reclosers
 Fuses
Power System Review
Protective Devices Characteristics
 Breaker:
 Distribution Class 12 kA<Isymmetrical Rating<20 kA
 Transmission Class> 50 kA
 Extinguishing arc by means of:
 Oil, air blast, sulfur hexafluoride gas (sF6), vacuum, or simple arc
chutes
 Recloser:
 4 kA< Isymmetrical Rating<12 kA
 Interrupting occurs in Oil or vacuum
 Designed to “reclose” after fault is cleared
 Sectionalizers:
 interrupting capability<10KA
 Master minded by Reclosers
Power System Review
Protective Devices Characteristics
 Expulsion Fuses:
 Typically 8 kA to 16 kA
 Subject to X/R (interrupting capability decreases as ↑ X/R )
 Power Fuse are generally available for Operating Voltage <169KV
with 15KA<X/R<25KA
 Distribution Fuse are generally good for Operating Voltage<40K
with 5KA<X/R<15KA
 less accurate, inexpensive, but effective.
 Current limiting fuses (CLFs)
 As much as 50 kA
 May have minimum interrupting capability, additional
protection may be needed
 Oil switches:
 limited current interrupting capability.


Power System Review
Fault calculations
Note: I-fault drops off as inverse of Distance 1/d
Power System Review
Principals of Protective Devices
 Definition of Protective Devices: Protective
Devices have Time-Current, Time-Voltage, or
Time-Frequency Characteristics
 Protective Devices are responsible for
removing undesired conditions:
 Voltage
 Current
 Frequency
Power System Review
What is the purpose?
 Clear Temporary faults and restore power
when possible.
 Interrupt Permanent Faults and Lock Out
 Interrupt Faults in Proper Sequence
 Remove undesired power conditions to
maintain:
 Steady State
 Stability

Power System Review
EPRI Fault Study
Faults Percentage
Phase-to-Ground 65%
Phase-to-Phase 11%
Phase-Phase to Ground 2%
Three Phase 2%
One Phase on the Ground 15%
Two Phase on the Ground 2%
Others 3%
Power System Review
Protection & Coordination
 What is Coordination?
Definition: Proper trip sequencing of protective devices
to isolate the fault and minimizing outage. This means
proper coordination between time and current curves
during power system abnormal conditions.

 Coordination is :
 1/3 Science
 1/3 Art
 1/3 Luck
Coordination
 Protective Devices with Time-Current characteristics are:
 Relays, Reclosers, Fault Interrupters, and Fuses.
 How about Sectionalizers??
Device Relay Recloser FI Fuse
Relay Relay-Relay Relay-Recloser Relay-FI Relay-Fuse
Recloser Recloser-Relay Recloser-Recloser Recloser Recloser-Fuse
FI FI-Relay FI-Recloser FI-FI FI-Fuse
Fuse Fuse-Relay Fuse-Recloser Fuse-FI Fuse-Fuse
Fuse-Fuse
Coordination
Fuse Selection Process
Fuse Type/Class
Expulsion(Dist, Substation, etc)
CLF
Voltage Class
Fuse Isymm interrupting capability rating
X/R ratio
Fuse continuous current rating
i.e. K(150%), T(150%), QA(100%)
Fuse Application
Fuses are generally:
CLF-used for short-circuit protection
Non-CLF or Expulsion Fuse is used for
Overload protection
Selection Criteria:
Non-CLF: 140% of full load
CLF: 150% of full load

Expulsion Fuse
%
100
Z
x I I load full sc ÷ =
Fuse Clearing Time
@1/2 cycle
Zero Crossing
Transient Voltage
@
Clearing time
CT = MT+ Arcing Time
Current Limiting Fuse(CLF)
B
Curtsey of www.littlefuse.com
60,000 A
7,400 A
Fuse Types & Porperties
 Fuse has two TCC curves
 Minimum Melting
 Total Clearing
 Common fuse types through 27kV are:
 Slow: T
 Fast: K
 Avoid mixing different type fuses for better coordination
 Skip at least a size in each fuse class (K, T, H, C, etc)
for better coordination between two fuses(i.e. 20K, 40K,
65K, etc)



Power System Review
Fusing Philosophy
 Lateral tap fuse selection Criterion:
 I lateral= 2x ILoad
 Cold load
 Daily/monthly/Seasonal cyclic Load
 Peak load
 Transformer Fuse Selection Criterion:
 Minimum Fuse Size= Irated x 1.2
 Cold Load
 Inrush Current
 Operational Limits
Power System Review
Fuse Speed & Continuous Rating
Fuse
Allowable
Continuous
current
Rating(%)
K-tin 150%
K-silver 100%
N 100%
T 150%
QA 100%
S 150%
Fuse speed from fast to slow → N>QA>K>T>S
Power System Review
Fusing Distribution Transformers
 Why? In order to protect the transformer against
internal faults, downstream bolted faults, high
impedance secondary faults.
 Fuse must withstand transient surge currents
caused by lightening, XFMR magnetizing inrush
current, and cold-load pickup. Therefore, fuse
must be capable of handling:
 Cold Load Pickup
 Inrush Current
Power System Review
Dist Transformer using…continued
 Steps to select XFMR fuse size:
1. Calculate Cold Load Pickup withstand level:
1. I cold-load= 3 x I (full load for 10 seconds)
2. Calculate Inrush Current withstand limits:
1. I inrush= 12 x I (Full Load for 0.1 seconds)
2. I inrush= 25 x I (full load for .01 seconds)
3. Select the nearest primary fuse rating that:
1. Starts with 120% of XFMR rated load: Minimum Fuse Size = IRated x 1.2
2. Meets the Cold load & Inrush Requirements (Steps 1 &2)
4. Select the Fuse type (K, T,H, QA,etc) and coordinate it
with upstream & downstream fuses in service.
Note: Using EEI-NEMA type K, T, and T Fuses Provides
protection between 200% to 300% of Rated Load



Power System Review
 Example: Determine the minimum size fuse for
a 300 KVA, 13.8kV/277/480 volts XFMR using
“K” type fuse?
Amp
kV x
KVA
I load full 55 . 12
9 . 23
300
8 . 13 3
300
= = = ÷
Amp x I Sec load Cold 65 . 37 55 . 12 3 10 @ = = ÷
Amp x I Sec Inrush 6 . 150 55 . 12 12 1 . 0 @ = =
Amp x I Sec inrush 75 . 313 55 . 12 25 01 . @ = =
? %) 160 ( 20 ? %) 120 ( 15 : K OR K Fuse Minimum
Transformer Fusing…continued
Power System Review
Transformer Fusing…continued
Power System Review
Problem Area
Substation Transformer Protection

 Plot XFMR operational limits:
 Thermal & Mechanical limits (Damage Curve).
 Use FA Rating for XFMR Damage Curve Plot
 XFMR Inrush &Cold-Load pickup.
 Apply applicable NEMA & IEEE Standards:
 IEEE C57.109-1993 oil immersed XFMR
 IEEE C57.12.59-2001 dry-type XFMR
 Example:

FOA KVA
FA KVA
OA KVA
%) 135 ( 000 , 10
%) 125 ( 9375
7500
% 6
16 . 4 / 86 . 22
= Z
kV kV
Power System Review
Transformer Operating Limitations
t(sec)
I (pu)
Thermal
200
2.5
I
2
t = 1250
2
25
Isc
Mechanical
K=(1/Z)
2
t
(D-D LL) 0.87
(D-R LG) 0.58
Frequent Fault
Infrequent Fault
Inrush
FLA
Power System Review
Devices’ Damage Curves
t
Time
I-Current
I
2
2
t
Gen
I
2
t
Motor
Xfmr
I
2
t
Cable
I
2
t
Power System Review
=Let-through Energy I
2
t

Transformer Prim Fuse Protection
Capacitor Fusing
 Capacitor fuse must be between 135% to 165% of its
full load current rating depending on manufacturer.



 Example: Find appropriate fuse size for a 1800 KVAR
cap bank installed on a 22.86kV line.
65 . 1
35 . 1
x Load Full Fuse Capacitor
or
x Load Full Fuse Capacitor
÷ >
÷ >
Amp
kV x
KVAR
I load full 5 . 45
6 . 39
1800
86 . 22 3
1800
~ = = ÷
Fuse QA or K Select
Amp Fuse
Fuse Capacitor
60 50
5 . 40
35 . 1 * 5 . 45 5 . 1 *
>
>
Note: Check fuse continuous/overload capability (100%-150%)
Fuse-Fuse Coordination
 Fuse-fuse coordination must follow the following
rule:


 Desirable coordination: Time Ratio of two fuses
Must Not Exceed the 75% Ratio

% 75
) (
) (
<
fuse upstream MT
fuse stream down CT
of Ratio Time
Time
limit on coordinati
MT) of (75% A Fuse
Current
A of MT
B of CT
A CTof
Fuse
A B
Source
Fault
Load
Fuse
Power System Review
75 . 0 * ) ( ) ( upstream MT fuse stream down CT t t <
Fuse-Fuse Coordination
 Example: What is the minimum size fuse that
coordinates with 50K lateral tap fuse if calculated
fault current is 1000Amp at point B?
 MT(A Fuse)=0.051 sec for Fault Current @ 1000
Amp

75 . 0
) (
) (
<
A fuse upstream MT
B fuse stream down CT
051 . 0 75 . 0 75 . 0
051 .
) (
x CT
B fuse stream down CT
< ¬ <
sec 038 . 0 < CT
K 50
K ?
amp 26
amp I G 1000 = ÷ u
B
A
Power System Review
50K Fuse-20K Fuse Coordination
Coordination Limit
K 50
K 20
amp 26
amp I G 1000 = ÷ u
B
A
Fuse-Fuse Coordination
 Example: Select a fuse size at point C That can
achieve proper coordination with upstream fuses.
K 65
K ?
amp 35
amp I Max fault 1000 = ÷
B
A
K 100
C
amp 90
amp I Max fault 2000 = ÷
amp I Max fault 1500 = ÷
amp 80
Power System Review
Fuse-Fuse coordination
K 65
K ?
amp 35
amp I Max fault 1000 = ÷
B
A
K 100
C
amp 90
amp I Max fault 2000 = ÷
amp I Max fault 1500 = ÷
amp 80
Recloser-Fuse
Coordination
Recloser
 Defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.60
 Settings Require Selecting:
 Minimum Pick up or Coil size
 Curve Selection:
 Fast Curve
 Slow Curve
 Operating Sequence:
 Number of Fast Curve shots
 Number of Slow Curve shots
 Shots to lockout
 Reset time
Power System Review
Recloser
 Two Types:
 Hydraulic
 Minimum Pickup is done by selecting appropriate rating for
Series Coil inside the tank
 TCC Curve Selection & Settings are done inside the tank
 Electronics
 Minimum Pickup: Trip Resistors
 TCC Curves and Timing plugs are done at the front panel
 Control
 Hydraulic
 Solid State
 Microprocessor
Power System Review
Electronic Recloser Settings
 TCC Curve
 Curve Selection/Type
 Settings:
 Min Trip Setting
 Phase & Ground
 Instantaneous Trip Setting
 Phase & ground
 Constant Time Adder
 Amp Multiplier
 Reclosing Operation Setting
 Typically Two Fast/Two Delay
 0.5 sec<Reclosing intervals<60 sec

Power System Review
Electronic Recloser Settings
 Phase Trip Setting
 Minimum Trip= (Range of 2 to 2.5) x Max Load Current
 This facilitates cold load pick up & load growth
 Ground Trip Setting
 Minimum Trip= (Range of 0.3 to 0.5)x Phase Minimum Trip
 Min trip setting helps to protect against high impedance faults
 Instantaneous Setting
 Trip Setting= (Range of 4 to 16)X Minimum Trip
Power System Review
Hydraulic Recloser Phase Trip-Setting
 Estimate the Peak load
 Determine the Coil Size:
 Inrush Current dictates the coil rating selection
 Coil Size(Amp)=1.25 x Peak Load
 Calculate the Minimum Phase Trip Setting:
 Minimum Trip(Amp)=2 x Peak-Load
 Some utilities use factor of 2.5 or 3.0
 Example (W type Hydraulic Recloser; coil sizes are 100, 140, 200, 280,
400, and 560):
 Assume Peak Load= 150A
 Coil Size= 1.25 x 150= 187.5→ Thus select 200 A
 Minimum Trip= 2x150= 300A→ Select 400A Min Trip Level
(Note: 200A Coil has Minimum Trip Rating of 400A)

Power System Review
Hydraulic Recloser Ground Trip-Setting
 Steps:
 1. Calculate the Normal Load Unbalance





 2. Calculate the end-of-line minimum fault current level.
The Iground-Trip must be bellow Imin-Fault.

 3. Estimate the Ground Minimum Trip Level.
Load Peak of I I ÷ = = ÷ % 10 Unbalance Load Normal 1
fault Min Line of End Trip Min ground I I ÷ ÷ ÷ <
Device) Phase Single Largest the by Created Unbalance Load ( 2 Unbalance) Load Normal ( 1 ÷ ÷ ÷ + > I I I Trip Min ground
Fuse(Amp) Tap Largets Unbalance Load Largest 2 = = ÷ I I
fault Min Line of End Trip Min ground Load Unbalance I I I I I ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ < s + ) ( 2 1
Power System Review
 Recloser-Reloser
 Hydrolic Reclosers:
 Min Trip and continuous current are both dependent of the coil size
 Reclosing intervals are 1, 1.5, and 2 seconds
 Small Reclosers have Series coil : H, VH, L, and E series
TCC Curve Separation >12 Cycles (0.2 sec); typically 0.25-0.30 sec
 Large Reclosers have High-Voltage solenoid : D, V, W, VW series
TCC Curve Separation > 8 Cycles(0.133 sec); typically 0.2 sec
 Electronic Reclosers:
 Unlike Hydraulic recloses, Min Trip is independent of the Recloser’s
continuous rating
 Reclosing intervals are 2, 5, and 15 seconds
 Min Trip selection must allow for the cold-load pick up & load growth
TCC Curve Separation > 0.30 Sec

0.30 Sec=0.22 sec (CT saturation& errors)+0.08 sec (Breaker Opening time)



TCC Coordination Time Margins
TCC Coordination Time Margins
 Electronic Recloser to Hydraulic Recloser:
 TCC Curve Separation > 0.2 Sec; typically 0.25 sec
 Recloser-Fuse
 Methode#1: Use K factor for Recsloser: Range of
1.25<K<1.8

 Methode#2: ADD Recloser Cumulative Times

Add the cumulative reclose interval for a 2A-2C recloser sequence and coordinate with Fuse
Minimum Clearing curve x 0.75


Power System Review
Recloser-Fuse Coordination
Recloser Cumulative Time Method
 <Coordination Limit <
 Temp Fault:
Recloser operates; Fuse
is saved.
 Permanent Fault:
Recloser operates first,
then fuse blows
Current
Time
delay B
B A 2 2 B
'
+ =
'
a
'
b a
b
A 2 A
'
=
Fast) ( A
curve) damage (fuse curve MT fuse of % 75
R
Fuse
'
a
'
b
Power System Review
Recloser-Fuse Coordination
K-Factor Method
 <Coordination Limit<
 Refer to Manufacturer’s
Supplied Tables
 Extract applicable K-Factor
 Multiply Curves by K-Factor
 Note: K-factor is a t-Multiplier
Current
Time
delay B
'
a
'
b a
b
Fast) ( A
curve) damage (fuse curve MT fuse of % 75
B Curve * K B ) Multiplier (Time =
A Curve * K A ) Multiplier (Time =
'
a
'
b
Power System Review
Cooper Reclosers K-Factor
•What is K-Factor?
•K-Factors are Time
multiplying factors for various
Reclosing Intervals. K-Factor
shifts the curves up
increasing the time value by
K-Factor for the same current
value.
Table Below -Curtsey of Cooper Power Systems
Power System Review
Source Fuse-Recloser Coordination
 Phase Trip Setting Steps:
 1. Calculate Full Load Iprim & Isec


 2. Select an Appropriate Fuse size
 Fuse Size: 1.5x126.3A=189.5A → Select 200K
 3. Select an Appropriate Recloser Coil Size:
 Calculate Coil Size: 1.25x400=500A
 Select Coil size: 560A
 4. Desired Minimum Phase Trip= 2.5 x Peak Load to
override the Inrush
A I A Iprim 694
3 16 . 4
5000
sec 3 . 126
3 86 . 22
5000
= = = =
E 1 & 1
C 2 & A 2
Recloser
2 A g
RX
÷
÷ |
% 6
5000
= Z
KVA
kV kV 16 . 4 / 86 . 22
R
FAULT Line of End ÷ ÷
FUSE
R
A x IPhase 1000 400 5 . 2 = =
Note: Cooper W & RX type Recloser Ratings:
Coil Size Min Trip Rating Interrupting Rating
560 A 1120 A 10,000 A
3800A Fault G -
4500A Fault - 3
=
=
|
|
A Fault G 175
1500A Fault - 3
= ÷
=
|
|
400A(Peak) I =
Source Fuse-Recloser Coordination
 Ground Trip Setting Steps:
 1. Estimate Normal Load unbalance: 10% of Peak-Load
 Example: Iunbalance= 10% of Peak Load
Iunbalance-Normal= 0.1 x 400=40A
 2. Estimate the load unbalance created by the largest
single-phase device:
 Example: Assume the largest single phase Load is 90A
Fuse. Iunbalance-Load=90A
 3. Calculate Unbalanced downline Ground Current:


 4. Select Minimum Ground Trip:


A IGround 130 40 90 = + =
Load unbalance Normal unbalance Ground I I I ÷ ÷ + =
) A 175 ( ) A 140 ( ) A 130 ( Fault Min Setting Ground Unbalanced G I I I ÷ ÷ ÷ < <
A 140 = ÷ Trip Min Ig
Source Side Fuse-Recloser Coordination
Recloser-Fuse (Load Side) Coordination
•Determine an appropriate Fuse size @ Point B
•Which fuse coordinates the best (100K or 140K?)
•Answer 140K; Why?
C A
RX
2 2
Recloser
% 6
5000
= Z
KVA
kV kV 16 . 4 / 86 . 22
R
A Fault Min
A
FAULT
600
1900 G
=
= ÷ u
FUSE
R
Amp 400
Amp 90
B
Power System Review
Recloser-Fuse (Load Side) Coordination
A K
A K
2380 140
1112 100
Limit on Coordinati Fuse
A Fault G 175
1500A Fault - 3
= ÷
=
|
|
E 1 & 1
C 2 & A 2
Recloser
2 A g
RX
÷
÷ |
% 6
5000
= Z
KVA
kV kV 16 . 4 / 86 . 22
R
FAULT Line of End ÷ ÷
FUSE
R
3800A Fault G -
4500A Fault - 3
=
=
|
|
A Fault G 175
1500A Fault - 3
= ÷
=
|
|
400A(Peak) I =
B
Relays
Mechanical
&
Digital
Protection System Elements
Protective relays
Circuit breakers
Current and voltage transducers
Communications channels
DC supply system
Control cables
Three-Phase Diagram of the Protection Team
CTs
VTs
Relay
CB
Control
Protected
Equipment
SI
52
TC
DC Station
Battery
SI
Relay
Contact
Relay
Circuit
Breaker
52a
+

Red
Lamp
Most Common Protective Relays
Protection Principles for Transmission &
Distribution Lines:
Overcurrent (50, 51, 50N, 51N)
Directional Overcurrent (67, 67N)
Distance (21, 21N)
Differential (87)
Circuit Breaker Selection
 Relay (The Brain)
 CT Ratio
 PT or VT Ratio
 Interrupting Cycle
 Voltage Class
 K rating=(VMAX/Vmin)
 BIL rating
Power System Review
Load
Ib
Relay-Circuit Breaker Operation
Load
Phase relays
Ground relay
CTs
Circuit
Breaker
In
A
B
C
Ia
Ib
Ic
Ia
Ib
Ic
c b a n I I I I + + =

LOAD
Power System Review
Induction-Type Relays
Power System Review
Relay Classification
 Overcurrent
 Overvoltage
 Undervoltage
 Differential
 Directional
 Under Frequency
 Distance
Power System Review
Relays for Phase Faults
Time overcurrent 51
Instantaneous & time overcurrent 50/51
Directional Time Overcurrent 67
Instantaneous & directional time over
current
50/67
Directional Instantaneous Overcurrent 67
Step Time Overcurrent 51
Directional Instantaneous and directional 67
Zone Distance 21
Power System Review
Relays for Ground Faults
Time Overcurrent 51N
Instantaneous & Time Overcurrent 50N/51N
Product Overcurrent 67N
Instantaneous and Product Overcurrent 67N/50N
Directional time overcurrent 67N
Instantaneous and directional time overcurrent 67N
Directional Instantaneous Overcurrent 67N
Three-zone distance system 21N
Power System Review
Transformer Protection
Open-Phase Condition
CTs=600/5
In
A
B
C
Ia
Ib
Ic
In
Ia
Ic
c a n I I I + + = 0
Open
400 a 0 a 400 a
° Z =
+ =
+ ÷ =
+ = + + =
° + Z = = ° Z =
=
60 333 . 3
886 . 2 666 . 1
886 . 2 667 . 1 333 . 3
120 333 . 3 , 0 , 0 333 . 3
120
n
n
n
a
Ratio
I
j In
j I
Ic Ia Ic Ib Ia I
Ic Ib I
CT
Ground Relay Could Pickup
° Z = 60 333 . 3 n I
° + Z 120 3 . 3
° Z0 3 . 3
0
Single-Phase to Ground
Fault
CTs=600/5
In
A
B
C
Ib
Ia
Ic
° Z = 0 7 . 46 n I
Short
6,000a
400 a
400 a
° Z =
÷ ÷ =
+ + =
° + Z = ° ÷ Z = ° Z =
=
0 666 . 46
667 . 1 667 . 1 50
120 333 . 3 120 333 . 3 , 0 50
120
n
n
n
a
Ratio
I
I
Ic Ib Ia I
Ic Ib I
CT
SC I
° Z = 0 50 a I
° + Z 120 3 . 3
° ÷ Z 120 3 . 3
In
SC I
Ground & Phase Relays both Pickup
Line-to-Line to Ground Fault
CTs=600/5
In
A
B
C
Ib
Ia
Ic
° ÷ Z = 60 7 . 46 n I
Short
6,000a
400 a
° ÷ Z =
÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
+ + =
° + Z = ° ÷ Z = ° Z =
=
60 67 . 46
415 . 40 333 . 23
886 . 2 667 . 1 301 . 43 25 50
120 333 . 3 120 50 , 0 50
120
n
n
n
a
Ratio
I
j In
j j I
Ic Ib Ia I
Ic Ib I
CT
SC I
° Z = 0 50 a I
° + Z 120 3 . 3
In
a I
Ground & Phase Relays both Pickup
SC I
° ÷ Z 120 50
b I
C I
Three-Phase to Ground
Fault
CTs=600/5
In
A
B
C
Ib
Ia
Ic
0 = n I
Short
0
120 100 120 100 , 0 100
120
=
+ + =
° + Z = ° ÷ Z = ° Z =
=
n
n
a
Ratio
I
Ic Ib Ia I
Ic Ib I
CT
SC I
° Z = 0 100 a I
2
100a Ib =
a Ic 100 =
000 , 12 = c I 000 , 12 = b I 000 , 12 = a I
000 , 12 = a I
SC I
SC I
000 , 12 = a I 000 , 12 = a I
Only Phase Relays Pickup
Ib
Ia
Ic
Relay Settings

 Time Overcurrent pickup
& time setting must be
capable of handling:
 Peak Load
 Cold-Load Pickup
 Motor starting
 Instantaneous Setting
must be capable of
handling:
 XFMR Inrush
 Capacitor Inrush
 Asymmetrical Faults
Safety factor=1.2xSymm Fault
Two Settings:
1. Time Overcurrent
2. Instantaneous

Power System Review
Relay Settings
 Phase Time Over Current (TOC) Setting
 Phase pick up:
 Method 1: 2xImax < I Pick up < I Min (phase-phase Fault current)
Note: Ensure I Min-Fault ≥ 2 x I Peak- Load
I Min=Iphase-to-Phase=0.866 x I Three-Phase fault
 Method 2: 25% Margin ; IPickup= Ifull-load/0.80
 Ground Time Over Current (TOC) Setting
 Ground Pick up:
 Method 1: 2xI Normal ground Current < I Pick up< I Min Ground Fault Current
Where; Normal Ground Current Range: 10% to 20% of Load Current
 Method 2: Ipickup=(0.40 to 0.75)x Ipeak-Load

Power System Review
Instantaneous Relays Pickup
Settings
 Instantaneous Pickup
 Range:
 Typical Instantaneous Phase & Ground
 Pick up= 2x Time Over Current relay pick ups

Pickup Phase eous ins Pickup Phase I x I I x ÷ ÷ < < 10 2 tan tan
Power System Review
How to determine Pickup &
Time Dial?
 Step 1: Calculate Short Circuit Current @ each Bus
( usually Phase-Phase Fault)
 Step 2: Identify CT Ratio & Breaker Interrupting Cycles at
each Bus
 Step 3: Calculate Relay Minimum Pickup for each Device
 Step 3: Starts with the last relay and apply Time Margin of
0.3 to 0.4 sec (ANSI/IEEE Std-242 )between Relays:
o CB’s operating time (5 cycles): 0.08 sec
o Relay Over travel time: 0.1 sec
o Safety factor (CT saturation, Errors): 0.22 sec
Total 0.4 Seconds

Power System Review
0.4 Sec
Relay-Relay Setting
Power System Review
TCC Coordination Time
Margins
 Relay-Fuse TCC Curve Separation Rule:
 Mechanical Relay requires minimum time margin of 0.3 sec
time interval
 Digital Relay requires minimum time margin of 0.2 sec time
interval
 Relay-Relay (Mechanical) TCC Curve Separation Rule:
 According to ANSI/IEEE Std-242:1986, the rime interval
between two relays in series must be 0.3 to 0.4 seconds.
This time interval components are:
 Circuit Breaker Operating Time(5cycle): 0.08 sec
 Relay Overtravel Time: 0.1 sec
 Safety factor for CT Saturation & errors: 0.22 sec

Power System Review
 Relay-Relay (Digital)TCC Curve Separation:
 Time margin between series Relays must be minimum of
0.25 sec. This time separation consists of the following:
 5 Cycle Breaker (0.08 sec)
 Relay Accuracy (0.04 sec)
 Safety factor & CT Ration (0.13 sec)
 Relay-Recloser
 Time Margin between Mechanical Relay & Hydraulic
Recloser must be minimum of 0.28-0.30 sec
 Time Margin between Mechanical Relay & Electronic
Recloser must be minimum of 0.25 sec


TCC Coordination
Time Margins
Power System Review
Relay-Recloser-Fuse
Coordination
 In the following CKT coordinate Breaker B1, Cooper
Form-4C Recloser, ABB PCD2000 Reclsoer, and 100K
Tap Fuse.
1 B R 3 R
1 L 2 L 3 L
400A Load =
4C Form
Cooper
÷
3
2 1
MVA 25
kV kV 86 . 22 / 115
PCD2000
ABB
A 1000
A 4000 3
2 @
=
= u
Fault Min
Bus FAULT
K 100
A Fault Min
A
Bus FAULT
443
3000 3
1 @
=
= u
A 2000 N Φ
A 6000 3
3 @
= ÷
= u
Bus FAULT
2 B
300A Load = 200A Load =
231A Load =
BUS
kV 115
Power System Review
Relay-Recloser-Fuse Coordination
 Relay settings:
 Phase setting: PU=2.4 x 400=960A
 Ground setting: PU= 960/2=480 A
 Cooper Recloser Form 4C settings:
 Phase setting: PU=2x300=600A
 Ground setting: 160A<PU=600/3=200A<443A
 ABB Recloser Model PCD2000 settings:
 Phase setting: PU=2x200=400A
 Ground setting: 140A<(PU=150 A)<443

Power System Review
Relay-Recloser-Fuse Coordination
Over Voltage Protection
 Insulation Voltage Class
 Basic Impulse Level (BIL)
 Nameplate Rating
 Surge arrestors.
Power System Review
Overvoltage Protection
 Sources of Overvoltage:
 Ferroresonance
 Low Order Hormonics
 Voltage Regulation (XFMR LTC Malfunction)
 Transients caused by:
 Lightning surge
 Switching operations
 Line-to-Ground faults
 Capacitor Bank Switching
 Protection methods:
 Surge Arresters(ANSI C62.1-1981)
 Static Wires


Useful IEEE/ANSI Standards
 Graph of Curves can be found in ANSI/IEEE Standard
C37.91-1985, “Guide for Protective Relay Applications
to Power Transformers,”
 ANSI/IEEE C57.109-1993, “Guide for Transformer
Through-Fault Current Duration.”
 IEEE/ANSI Standards 141&242
 IEEE Std 242 – Buff Book
 IEEE Std 141 – Red Book
 IEEE Std 399 – Brown Book
 •IEEE C37.90 – Relays
 IEEE C37.91 – Transformer Protection
 IEEE C37.102 – Guide for AC Generator Protection



References
1. J.D. Golver, M.S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and design,
4
th
ed., (Thomson Crop, 2008).
2. M.S. Sarma, Electric Machines, 2
nd
ed., (West Publishing Company,
1985).
3. A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and S. Umans, Electric
Machinery, 4
th
ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983).
4. P.M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power systems(Ames, IA: Iowa
Satate university Press, 1973).
5.W.D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, 4
th

ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982).
Solution
 Answer: 37.5 KVA
Break Time !!!!!

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