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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 19, Issue 2, April 2013
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**Design of STBC-WIMAX System by Using DWT with Four Transmit Antennas in Fading Channel
**

Laith Ali Abdul-Rahaim and Rusul Noori Saeed

Abstract - This paper provides details about the two main applications of World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) which are fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX. Fixed WiMAX 802.16 delivers point to multipoint broadband wireless access to our homes and offices. Whereas Mobile WiMAX gives full mobility of cellular networks at higher broadband speeds than other broadband networks like Wi-Fi. Both applications of WiMAX are designed in a proper network planning which is helpful to offer better throughput broadband wireless connectivity at a much lower cost. The design of the STBC-WiMax systems is based on DWT, simulations results, and evaluation tests of these proposed systems. The Bit Error Rate (BERs) and the operating range of these systems are obtained using frequency domain baseband simulations as well as more realistic full-system simulations, and are compared to other systems types designed using FFT and Discrete Wavelets transform DWT. The results of both systems in the three types of channels will be examined and compared. The effects of several parameters of wireless channels on the systems will be investigated. In the STBC-WiMax system the two types of the transform FFT and WT (Wavelet Transform) are considered. The new proposed structures for the STBC-WiMax system based on wavelet transform (DWT) will be studied. Different new techniques of realization of modulation mapping in the communication systems will be used throughout the preceding sections as a data mapper to obtain a constellated data symbols prior to the sub-carrier modulation. These WiMax systems were modeled using MATLAB V7.10 to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The aim of doing that simulation is to measure the performance of WiMax under different channel conditions. Index Terms: UWB, Frequency selective fading channels, multiband, OFDM, .

1- INTRODUCTION

The experienced growth in the use of digital networks has led to the need for the design of new communication networks with higher capacity and high reliability broadband wireless telecommunication systems. WiMAX is one of the most promising techniques which has changed the scenario of the industry completely. WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which is also called Wireless MAN. Compared with other wireless networks , WIMAX has the virtues of higher transmission speed and larger transmission coverage. Its transmission rate and distance can reach up to 75 Mbps and 50 km [1]. The WiMAX physical layer is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. One of the main reasons to use OFDM is to increase robustness against frequency-selective fading or narrowband interference. OFDM belongs to a family of transmission schemes called multicarrier modulation, which is based on the idea of dividing a given high-bit-rate data stream into several parallel lower bit-rate streams and modulating each stream on separate carriers—often called subcarriers (SCs) , or tones. Because the symbol duration increases for the lower rate parallel subcarriers, the relative amount of dispersion in time caused by multipath delay spread is decreased. The fixed and mobile versions of WiMAX have slightly different implementations of the OFDM physical layer. Fixed WiMAX, which is based on IEEE 802.16- 2004, uses a 256 FFT-based OFDM physical layer. Mobile WiMAX, which is based on the IEEE 802.16e-20055 standard, uses a scalable OFDMA-based physical layer. In the case of mobile WiMAX, the FFT sizes can vary from 128 bits to 2,048 bits. Fixed WiMAX OFDM-PHY: For this version the FFT size is fixed at 256, which 192 subcarriers used for carrying data, 8 used as pilot subcarriers for channel estimation and synchronization purposes, and the rest used as guard band subcarriers.6 Since the FFT size is fixed, the subcarrier spacing varies with channel bandwidth. When larger bandwidths are used, the subcarrier spacing increases, and the symbol time decreases. Decreasing symbol time implies that a larger fraction needs to be allocated as guard time to overcome delay spread. Mobile WiMAX OFDMA-PHY: In Mobile WiMAX, the FFT size is scalable from 128 to 2,048. Here, when the available bandwidth increases, the FFT size is also increased such that the subcarrier spacing is always 10.94kHz. This keeps the OFDM symbol duration, which is the basic resource unit, fixed and therefore makes scaling have minimal impact on higher layers. A scalable design also keeps the costs low. The subcarrier spacing of 10.94kHz was chosen as a good balance between satisfying the delay spread and Doppler spread requirements for operating in mixed fixed and mobile environments. This subcarrier spacing can support delay-spread values up to 20 !s and vehicular mobility up to 125 kmph when operating in 3.5GHz[2]. 2-

MOTIVATION WIMAX

TOWARD A NEW STRUCTURE FOR

The Fourier based WiMax uses the complex exponential bases functions and it’s replaced by orthonormal wavelets in order to reduce the level of interference. It is found that the Haar-based orthonormal wavelets are capable of reducing the ISI and ICI, which are caused by the loss in orthogonality between the carriers [74]. In [20, 63, 70], the simulation results show the BER performance of OFDM system with different orthogonal bases which is the Fourier based OFDM and wavelet based OFDM. The simulations have found a great deal of channel dependence in the performance of wavelet and Fourier filters. A main motivation for using wavelet-based WiMax is the superior spectral containment properties of wavelet filters over Fourier filters. It has been found that under certain channel conditions. Wavelet WiMax does indeed outperform Fourier WiMax. However, under other channels the situation is reversed as in the selective fading channel. Further performance gains can be made by looking at alternative orthogonal basis functions and found a better transform rather than Fourier and wavelet transform. The implementations in practice of WiMax today have been done by using FFT and its inverse operation IFFT (or DWT and its inverse operation IDWT) to represent data modulation and demodulation. Intersymbol interference (ISI) is eliminated almost completely by introducing a

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guard time in every OFDM symbol and this will take nearly about 25%-40% and this is one of the disadvantage of FFTOFDM ,therefor we will use two systems the first is DWT to increase the orthogonality of the system and this will be better to combat the narrowband interference and the second is STBC to combat the effect of multipath frequency selective fading channel .In this paper we will designing a wireless communication system with least bit error rate for high data rate to stationary and mobile users by improving the performance of WIMAX based on STBC and DWT under flat fading channel. OFDM is multicarrier modulation (MCM) technique which provides an efficient means to handle high speed data streams on a multipath fading environment that causes ISI. Normally OFDM is implemented using FFT and IFFT’s [3]. To decrease the BW waste brought by adding cyclic prefix, wavelet based OFDM is employed. Due to use of wavelet transform the transmission power is reduced. One type of wavelet transform is Discrete Wavelet transforms have been considered as alternative platforms for replacing IFFT and FFT , which employs Low Pass Filter (LPF) and High Pass Filter (HPF). These filters operate as Quadrature Mirror Filters satisfying perfect reconstruction and orthonormal bases properties [4]. The transceiver of DWTOFDM is shown in Fig. (1).

sampling rule, based on the spectrum of function x (t), to −j discretize τ at any given scale τ = k s0 T . The resultant wavelet functions are then as follows:

(

)

Ψj , k (t ) = s0j 2 Ψ s0jt − kτ 0

(

)

… (1)

If s0 is close enough to one and if T is small enough, then the wavelet functions are over-complete and signal reconstruction takes place within non-restrictive conditions on Ψ (t ) . On the other hand, if the sampling is sparse, e.g., the computation is done octave by octave (s0 = 0), a true orthonormal basis will be obtained only for very special choices of Ψ (t ) . Based on the assumption that wavelet functions are orthonormal: ⎧1 if j = m and k = n … (2) ∫ Ψ j , k (t )Ψm, n (t )dt = ⎨0 otherwise ⎩ For discrete time cases, (2.8) is generally used with s0 = 2, the computation is done octave by octave. In this case, the basis for a wavelet expansion system is generated from simple scaling and translation. The generating wavelet or mother wavelet, represented by Ψ (t ) , results in the following two-dimensional parameterization of Ψ j , k (t ).

Ψj , k (t ) = 2 j 2 Ψ 2 j t − k

j 2

(

)

… (3)

The 2 factor in (2.9) normalizes each wavelet to maintain a constant norm independent of scale j. In this case, the discretizing period in τ is normalized to one and is assumed that it is the same as the sampling period of the discrete signal τ = k 2-j . All useful wavelet systems satisfy the multiresolution conditions. In this case, the lower resolution coefficients can be calculated from the higher resolution coefficients by a tree-structured algorithm called filter-bank [30]. In wavelet transform literatures; this approach is referred to as discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

(

)

**3.1 The Scaling Function
**

The multiresolution idea is better understood by using a function represented by Φ (t ) and referred to as scaling function. A two-dimensional family of functions is generated, similar to (3), from the basic scaling function by [30]: … (4) Any continuous function, f(t), can be represented, at a given resolution or scale j0, by a sequence of coefficients given by the expansion: f j0 (t ) = ∑ f j0 [k ]⋅ Φ j0 , k (t ) k … (5) In other words, the sequence x j0 [k ] is the set of samples of the continuous function x(t) at resolution j0 . Higher values of j correspond to higher resolution. Discrete signals are assumed samples of continuous signals at known scales or resolutions. In this case, it is not possible to obtain information about higher resolution components of that signal. It is however, desired to use the given samples to obtain the lower resolution representation of the same signal. This can be achieved by imposing some properties on the scaling functions. The main required property is the nesting of the spanned spaces by the scaling functions. In other words, for any integer j, the functional space spanned by [31]:

Φ j , k (t ) = 2 j 2 Φ 2 j t − k

(

)

Fig.(1) Block Diagram of a STBC-WiMax system

3-

**A FAST COMPUTATION METHOD ALGORITHMS
**

Under the reconstruction

OF

DWT

the

continuously labeled basis functions (wavelets), Ψ j , k (t ) behave in the wavelet analysis and synthesis just like an orthonormal basis. By appropriately discretizing the timescale parameters, τ , s, and choosing the right mother wavelet, Ψ (t ) , it is possible to obtain a true orthonormal basis. The natural way is to discretize the scaling variable s −j in a logarithmic manner s = s0 and to use Nyguist

condition ∫ Ψ(t ) dt = 0 ,

(

)

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{Φ (t );

j,k

for k ∈1,2,…

}

The Haar wavelet function that is associated with the scaling function in Fig. (2a) are shown in Fig. (2.b). For Haar … (6) wavelet, the coefficients in (2.15) are

g (0) = 1

2

,

Should be a subspace of the functional space spanned by:

g (1) = −1

2 .

{Φ (t );

j +1, k

for k ∈1,2,…

}

… (7)

The nesting of the space spanned by Φ 2 j t − k is achieved by requiring that Φ (t ) be represented by the space spanned by Φ (2t ) . In this case, the lower resolution function, Φ (t ) , can be expressed by a weighted sum of shifted version of the same scaling function at the next higher resolution, Φ (2t ) , as follows:

k … (8) The set of coefficients h(k ) being the scaling function

(

)

Φ(t ) = ∑ h(k ) 2 Φ(2t − k )

Fig. (2): (a) Haar Scaling Function, (b) Haar wavelet function.

coefficients and 2 maintains the norm of the scaling function with scale of two. Φ (t ) being the scaling function which satisfies this equation which is sometimes called the refinement equation, the dilation equation, or the multiresolution analysis equation (MRA) [29-31].

**Any function f (t ) could be written as a series expansion in terms of the scaling function and wavelets by [31]:
**

f (t ) =

k = −∞

∑ a j0 (k )Φ j0 , k (t ) + ∑ ∑ b j (k )Ψ j , k (t )

j = j 0 k = −∞

∞

∞

∞

… (13)

**3.2 The Wavelet Functions
**

The important features of a signal can better be described or parameterized, not by using Φ j , k (t ) and increasing j to increase the size of the subspace spanned by the scaling functions, but by defining a slightly different set of functions Ψ j , k (t ) that span the differences between the spaces spanned by the various scales of the scaling function. It is shown that these functions are the same wavelet functions discussed earlier. Since it is assumed that these wavelets reside in the space spanned by the next narrower scaling function, they can be represented by a weighted sum of shifted version of the scaling function Φ (2t ) as follows:

Ψ(t ) = ∑ g (k ) 2 Φ(2t − k )

k

In this expansion, the first summation gives a function that is a low resolution or coarse approximation of f(t) at scale j0 . For each increasing j in the second summation, a higher or finer resolution function is added, which adds increasing details. The choice of j0 sets the coarsest scale whose space is spanned by Φ j0 .k (t ). The rest of the function is spanned by the wavelets providing the high-resolution details of the function. The set of coefficients in the wavelet expansion represented by (13) is called the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the function f(t). These wavelet coefficients, under certain conditions, can completely describe the original function, and in a way similar to Fourier series coefficients, can be used for analysis, description, approximation, and filtering. If the scaling function is well behaved, then at a high scale, samples of the signal are very close to the scaling coefficients. In order to work directly with the wavelet transform coefficients, one should present the relationship between the expansion coefficients at a given scale in terms of those at one scale higher. This relationship is especially practical by noting the fact that the original signal is usually unknown and only a sampled version of the signal at a given resolution is available. As mentioned before, for wellbehaved scaling or wavelet functions, the samples of a discrete signal can approximate the highest achievable scaling coefficients. It is shown that the scaling and wavelet coefficients at scale j are related to the scaling coefficients at scale (j + 1) by the following two relations.

a j (k ) = ∑ h(m − 2k ) a j +1 (m)

m

… (9)

The set of coefficients g (k ) ’s is called the wavelet function coefficients (or the wavelet filter). It is shown that the wavelet coefficients are required by orthogonality to be related to the scaling function coefficients by [29,31]:

g (k ) = (− 1)n h(1 − k )

One example for a finite even length-N h(k )

… (10)

g (k ) = (− 1)k h(N − 1 − k )

… (11)

The function generated by (9) gives the prototype or mother wavelet Ψ (t ) for a class of expansion functions of the form shown in (3). For example the Haar scaling function is the simple unitwidth, unit-height pulse function Φ (t ) shown in Fig. (2.) [30] and it is obvious that Φ (2t ) can be used to construct Φ (t ) by:

Φ (t ) = Φ (2t ) + Φ (2t − 1)

… (14) … (15)

b j (k ) = ∑ g (m − 2k ) b j +1 (m )

m

… (12)

which means (8) is satisfied for coefficients

h(0) = 1

2 ,

h(1) = 1 2 .

The implementation of equations (14) and (15) is illustrated in Fig.(3). In this figure, two levels of decomposition are depicted. h and g are low-pass and high-pass filters corresponding to the coefficients h(n ) and g (n ) respectively. The down-pointing arrows denote a

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decimation or down-sampling by two. This splitting, filtering and decimation can be repeated on the scaling coefficients to give the two-scale structure. The first stage of two banks divides the spectrum of a j −1, k into a low-pass and high-pass band, resulting in the scaling coefficients and wavelet coefficients at lower scale a j , k and b j , k . The second stage then divides that low-pass band into another lower low-pass band and a band-pass band.

⎡ h(0 ) h(1) ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢h(2 ) h(3) T = ⎢ h(3) − h(2 ) ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ h(1) − h(0 )

h(2 )

h(3)

0

0

h(0 ) h(1) h(2) h(3) 0 0 0 0 h(1) − h(0 ) h(3) − h(2 ) h(1) − h(0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 h(0 ) h(1) ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ h(3) − h(2 ) h(1) − h(0 )⎥ ⎥ 0 0 h(3) − h(2 )⎦

(19)

Fig. (3): The filter bank for calculating the wavelet coefficients. For computing fast discrete wavelet transform (FDWT) consider the following transformation matrix for length-2:

0 ⎡ h(0) h(1) 0 ⎢ ( ) (1) 0 0 h 0 h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 T = ⎢ ⎢ g (0) g (1) 0 0 ⎢ 0 g (0) g (1) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ h(0 ) h(1)⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ g (0) g (1)⎥ ⎦

It is useful to think of the filter ( h(0) , h(1) , h(2) , h(3) …) as being a smoothing filter, H, something like a moving average of four points. Then, because of the minus signs, the filter ( h(3) , −h(2) , h(1) , −h(0) , …), G, is not a smoothing filter. In signal processing contexts, H and G are called Quadrature mirror filters. In fact, the h(n ) ’s are chosen so as to make G yield, insofar as possible, a zero response to a sufficiently smooth data vector. This results in the output of H, decimated by half accurately representing the data’s “smooth” information. The output of G, also decimated, is referred to as the data’s “detail” information. For such characterization to be useful, it must be possible to reconstruct the original data vector of length N from its N/2 smooth and its N/2 detail. That is affected by requiring the matrices to be orthogonal, so that its inverse is just the transposed matrix:

⎡h(0 ) 0 ⎢ ⎢ h(1) 0 ⎢ 0 h(0 ) ⎢ 0 h(1) T 2 = ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0

⎡ h(0 ) ⎢ ⎢ h(1) ⎢h(2 ) ⎢ ⎢ h(3) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 T 2 = ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 h(0 ) h(1) 0 0 0 0

(16)

0 0

h(0 ) h(1)

0 0 0 0 0 h(0 ) h(1)

h(1) 0 − h(0 ) 0 0 h(1) 0 − h(0) 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 h(3)

**and the following transformation matrix for length-4:
**

⎡ h(0 ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ h(2 ) T = ⎢ g (0 ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ g (2 ) h(1) h(2 ) h(3) 0 0 0 h(0 ) h(1) h(2 ) h(3) h(3) 0 0 0 0 g (1) g (2 ) g (3) 0 g (0) g (1) g (2 ) g (3) 0 0 0 0 0 g (3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 h(0 ) h(1) ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ g (0 ) g (1) g (2) g (3)⎥ ⎥ 0 0 g (0 ) g (1)⎦

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 h(1) ⎥ ⎥ 0 − h(0)⎥ ⎦

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 h(3) − h(2 ) h(1) − h(0 ) h(1) ⎤ ⎥ − h(0 )⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ h(3) ⎥ ⎥ − h(2 )⎦

0 0 0 0

(20)

(17)

h(2 ) h(3) h(3) − h(2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0

h(1) h(3) − h(0 ) − h(2 ) 0 0 0 0 h(1)

h(2 ) h(0 ) h(3) h(1) 0 h(2 ) 0 h(3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(21)

− h(0 ) − h(2 ) 0 h(1) 0 − h(0 )

Here blank entries signify zeros. By examining the transform matrices of the scalar wavelet as shown in equations (16) and (17) respectively, one can see that, the first row generates one component of the data convolved with the low-pass filter coefficients ( h(0) , h(1) , …). Likewise the second, third, and other upper half rows. The lower half rows perform a different convolution, with high pass filter coefficients ( g (0) , g (1) , …). The action of the matrix, is thus to perform two related convolutions, then to decimate each of them by half (throw away half the values), and interleave the remaining halves. By using (11), the transform matrices become:

0 0 ⎡h(0) h(1) ⎢ ( ) (1) 0 0 h 0 h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ T = ⎢ h(1) − h(0) 0 0 ⎢ 0 h(1) − h(0) ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ h(0) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ h(1) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − h(0)⎦

h(2 ) h(0 ) h(3) h(1)

**For a length-2 h(n ) , there are no degrees of freedom left after satisfying the following requirements [89,140]:
**

h (0 ) + h (1) = 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ h 2 (0) + h 2 (1) = 1 ⎪ ⎭

(22)

**which are uniquely satisfied be:
**

⎧ 1 1 ⎫ (23) hD 2 = {h(0) , h(1)} = ⎨ , ⎬ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2 These are the Haar scaling function coefficients, which are also the length-2 Daubechies coefficients. For the length-4 coefficients sequence, there is one degree of freedom or one parameter which gives all the coefficients that satisfies the required conditions [74-78]:

(18)

h(1)

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h (0 ) + h (1) + h (2 ) + h (3) = 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ h 2 (0 ) + h 2 (1) + h 2 (2 ) + h 2 (3) = 1 ⎬ ⎪ h (0 ) h (2 ) + h (1) h (3) = 0 ⎪ ⎭

(24)

1. 2. 3.

Letting the parameter be the angle α , the coefficients become

Let X be the Nx1 wavelet transformed vector. Construct NxN reconstruction matrix, T2, using transformation matrices given in (20) and (21). Reconstruction of input vector, which can be done by apply matrix multiplication to the NxN reconstruction matrix, T2, by the Nx1 wavelet transformed vector.

**( ) h(1) = (1 + cosα + sin α ) (2 2 ) h(2) = (1 + cosα − sin α ) (2 2 ) h(3) = (1 − cosα − sin α ) (2 2 )
**

h(0) = (1 − cosα + sin α ) 2 2

3.4. Signal model

Multiple accesses are introduced in two fashions. Namely, a multiband approach by time-frequency hopping codes (proposed for multiband OFDM [2]) is studied. Secondly, multiple accesses are created by assigning a different spreading code to every user in the system (similar to multicarrier CDMA). Like in multiband OFDM, we consider DMWTCS symbols of duration T, bandwidth 1GHz, spanning Ns =180 samples (equivalent to 180 subcarriers of OFDM) to be transmitted in different subbands.[18] y(k, n) = H(k)s(k, n) + z(k, n), (27) where z(k, n) (2 × 1) is a complex-valued additive white Gaussian noise vector with entities of zero mean and variance σ Z ; H(k) (2 × 2) denotes the channel frequency response according to the IEEE UWB channel model [18].We assume that the channel for a certain frequency band keeps constant within the time interval of N OFDM symbols. The (i, j )th element of H(k) is given by

i, j [ H (k )]i , j = X ∑ ∑ α m ,l e l ≥0 m≥0

i, j − j 2πkΔf (Tli , j +τ m .l )

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(25)

These equations give length-2 Haar coefficients of equation (2.55) for length-4 Daubechies α = 0, π 2 ,3π 2 and coefficients for α = π 3 . These Daubechies-4 coefficients have a particularly clean form:

⎧ ⎪1 + 3 3 + 3 3 − 3 1 − 3 ⎫ ⎪ (26) hD 4 = ⎨ , , , ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 ⎩ ⎭ The structure of a one-dimensional DWT is shown in Fig. (4). is the X (n ) 1-D input signal. h(n ) and g (n ) are the analysis lowpass and highpass filters which, split the input signal into two subbands: lowpass and highpass. The lowpass and highpass subbands are then downsampled

2

generating X L (n ) and X H (n ) respectively.

(28)

**where ∆f is the frequency separation between two adjacent subcarriers;
**

i, j αm ,l is the multipath gain for cluster l and ray

m between the jth transmit antenna and the ith receive antenna; the lth cluster arrives at Tl i , j and its kth ray arrives

i, j at τ m ; X represents the Rayleigh's distributed random ,l

variable for shadowing, i.e., 20 log10 X

2 N(0, σ X ), while

**Fig. (4): Analysis and Synthesis stages of a 1-D single level DWT.
**

are filtered by the ~ ~ (n ) corresponding synthesis lowpass h (n ) and highpass g filters and then added to reconstruct the original signal. Note that the filters in the synthesis stage, are not necessary the same as those in the analysis stage. For an orthogonal ~ ~ (n ) are just the time reversals of h(n ) filter bank, h (n ) and g The up sampled signals

i, j the total energy contained in the terms α m , m, l for each ,l couple (i, j ), is normalized to unity for each channel realization. For simplicity of notation, we omit the indices of k and n, and denote hi,j = [H(k)]i,j and ci,j =

i, j ∑ ∑α m ,l e

i, j − j 2πkΔf (Tli , j +τ m .l )

, respectively. Thus, it shows that (29)

l ≥ 0 m≥ 0

hi,j = Xci,j

When the Alamouti coding is applied, the system is equivalent to independent single-input single-output systems defined as [15, 17]

and g (n ) respectively [33]. To compute a single level FDWT for 1-D signal the next step should be followed: 1. Checking input dimensions: Input vector should be of length N, where N must be power of two. 2. Construct a transformation matrix: using transformation matrices given in (18) and (19). 3. Transformations of input vector, which can be done by apply matrix multiplication to the N×N constructed transformation matrix by the N×1 input vector.

u j = φd j + ς j

2

(30)

**Where φ = ∑i2=1 ∑2 , dj denote original symbols before h j =1 i , j dispreading and $j is an equivalent complex Gaussian
**

2 random variable with zero mean and variance % σ Z From

**(23), we can rewrite φ = ∑i =1 ∑ j =1 ci , j . Therefore, the output signal to noise ratio (SNR) in (25) can be expressed as
**

γ = ρs X 2χ 2 σz

2

2

2

2

**3.3- Computation of IFDWT for 1-D Signal:
**

To compute a single level IFDWT for 1-D signal the next step should be followed:

(31)

2 2 χ = ∑i =1 ∑ j =1 ci , j and &s denotes the averaged power of transmitted symbols.

Where

6 JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 19, ISSUE 2, APRIL 2013

**4. SIMULATION RESULTS OF THE PROPOSED WIMAX SYSTEMS:
**

In this section the simulation of the proposed STBC DWTWiMax system in MATLAB version 7.10 is achieved, beside the BER performance of the WiMax system considered in different channel models, the AWGN channel, the flat fading channel, and the selective fading channel. We used the carrier frequency of 5.8 GH for fixed and mobile WiMax system with three values of MDS (10.7Hz with speed 2km/hr ,241.7Hz with speed 45 km/hr, and537Hz with speed 100 km/hr). Also we used ITU Path Loss Models (indoor office, outdoor to indoor , vehicular ) that we mentioned in section (2.4.1)for selective fading channel . Table (4.1) shows the parameters of the system used in the simulation. Table (.1): Simulation Parameter

**4.1 Performance of STBC DWT-WiMax in AWGN channel
**

According to the table (1) we only used the size of 256(FFT or DWT) for fixed WiMax. Figure (5) for BER=10-5 shows that in FFT system the SNR of 1 antenna is about 38 dB and this ratio decreasing to 34dB in 4 antenna and in DWT system the SNR is about 14dB in 1 antenna and decreasing to 10dB in 4 antenna, therefore a gain of 4dB for the STBC because the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter enhances the system spectral efficiency and supports better error rate and these benefits come at no extra cost of bandwidth and power. It is shown clearly that the proposed STBC DWT-WiMax is much better than the traditional system of STBC FFT-WiMax this is a reflection of the fact that the orthogonal base of the DWT-WiMax is more significant than the orthogonal bases used in FFTWiMax.

**Fig. (6) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in AWGN channel model-128 subcarriers
**

Parameter Fixed WiMax OFDMPHY FFT or DWT size Number of used data subcarriers Modulation types Cyclic prefix or guard time (Tg/Tb) Channel (MHz) bandwidth 100 100 100 100 100 QASK 1/16 256 96 128 64 512 180 1024 360 2048 720 Mobile WiMax Scalable OFDMA-PHY

Fig. (5) BER performance of STBC DWT-Fixed WiMax in AWGN channel model-256 subcarriers

Fig. (7) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in AWGN channel model-512 subcarriers

For mobile WiMax we used the size of (128,512,1024,2048)-(FFT or DWT) according to the table (4.1) .Generally the dB power losses increase when the size of subcarriers increase as shown in fig.(6) , fig.(7) , fig.(8) and fig.(9)

7 JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 19, ISSUE 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. (8) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in AWGN channel model-1024 subcarriers

**Fig. (10) BER performance of STBC DWT-Fixed WiMax in flat fading Channel model -256 subcarriers
**

Three values of the Doppler frequencies (fd) are considered in the simulation of mobile system, these are 10.7Hz , 241.7Hz and 537Hz.In all sizes of subcarriers we can see that the smaller effect appears in fd=10.7Hz and the larger effect appears in fd=537Hz as shown in figures.

Fig. (9) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in AWGN channel model-2048 subcarriers

4.2 Performance of STBC DWT-WiMax in Flat Fading Channel In this type of channel, the signal will be affected by the flat fading in addition to AWGN; in this case all the frequency components in the signal will be affected by a constant attenuation and linear phase distortion of the channel, which has been chosen to have a Rayleigh's distribution. For fixed system the proposed WiMax it still performs better than the traditional WiMax using FFT as shown in fig.(10) and we can see that the SNR increases about 5dB as a compare with the AWGN channel due to the

Rayleigh's distribution.

Fig. (11) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -128 subcarriers- MDS=10.7Hz

Fig. (12) BER performance of STBC DWT- Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -128 subcarriers- MDS=241.7Hz

8 JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 19, ISSUE 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. (13) BER performance of STBC DWT- Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -128 subcarriers- MDS=537Hz

Fig. (16) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -512 subcarriers- MDS=537Hz

Fig. (14) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -512 subcarriers- MDS=10.7Hz

Fig. (17) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -1024 subcarriers- MDS=10.7Hz

Fig. (15) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -512 subcarriers- MDS=241.7Hz

Fig. (18) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -1024 subcarriers- MDS=241.7Hz

9 JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 19, ISSUE 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. (19) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -1024 subcarriers- MDS=537Hz

Fig. (22) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -2048 subcarriers- MDS=537Hz

5. Conclusion The simulation of the proposed and traditional STBCWIMAX systems with three and forth antennas using FFT or DWT has been investigated. It has been shown that the new algorithm is widely active to work under different channel characteristics. A gain of about 20 dB was obtained in fading channel at different Doppler frequency shift. A gain of 19 dB appeared at the AWGN channel at BER=10-4 for the traditional STBC-WIMAX. The proposed STBC-WIMAX with DWT is less affected by changing Doppler shift frequency. As a result of using the Space time block coding and DWT, the BER performance was improved significantly, especially in the existence of fading channels on the average. An SNR gain of 6.5dB is gained to achieve an error of 10-4 in AWGN, flat fading channels respectively. References

Fig. (20) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -2048 subcarriers- MDS=10.7Hz • Baig S. and Mughal M. J., 2007 “A Frequency Domain Equalizer in Discrete Wavelet Packet Multitone Transceiver for In-Home PLC LANS”, IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and its Applications, March 2007, PISA, Italy. Fazelk and S. Kaiser-2002, “Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems”. 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons. Kitming, Tommy C.-2002, “Hybrids OFDM- CDMA: A Comparison of MC/DS-CDMA, MC-CDMA and OFCDM”, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic, Adelaide University, SA 5005, Australia. Koga H., N. Kodama, and T. Konishi-2003, "High-speed power line communication system based on wavelet OFDM," in Proc. IEEE ISPLC 2003, Kyoto, Japan, May, pp. 226-231. Keita I., Daisuke U., and Satoshi D., 2007 “Performance Evaluation of Wavelet OFDM Using ASCET” IEEE. You-L. C. and Shiao-L. T., 2012 “A Low-Latency Scanning with Association Mechanism for Real-Time Communication in Mobile WiMAX”, IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communications, Accepted For Publication. Qinghua Shi, Yong Liang Guan, Yi Gong and Choi Look Law, 2009 “Receiver Design for Multicarrier CDMA Using Frequency-Domain Oversampling”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 8, No. 5.

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Fig. (21) BER performance of STBC DWT-Mobile WiMax in flat fading Channel model -2048 subcarriers- MDS=241.7Hz

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Roberto C. and García A., 2009 “Joint Channel and Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM in Fast-Fading Multipath Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 2. Sobia B., Gohar N.D., Fazal R., 2005 “An efficient wavelet based MC-CDMA transceiver for wireless communications”, IBCAST Shun-Te Tseng and James S. Lehnert, 2009 “Windowing for Multicarrier CDMA Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 57, No. 10 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), Dec. 2004 “Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Deployment aspects,” (release 6), 3GPP. TS 25.943, version 6.0.0. Vasily S., Peter N., Gilbert S., Pankaj T., and Christopher H.-1999, “The Application of Multiwavelet Filterbank to Image Processing”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp(548-563),April. Yeen, Linnartz J-P and Fettweis G. -1993, “Multicarrier CDMA in Indoor Wireless Radio Networks”. Proc. of IEEE PIMRC 1993,Yokohama, Japan, Sept. , pp.109-13 Yu-Wei Lin, Hsuan-Yu Liu, and Chen-Yi Lee-2005 “A 1GS/s FFT/IFFT Processor for UWB Applications” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No.8, pp.1726-1735. Yuan D., Zhang H., Jiang M. and Dalei Wu-2004 “Research of DFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM on Different Transmission Scenarios.” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Technology for Application (ICITA), pp. 31–33. Zhang H., D. Yuan, M. Jiang and Dalei Wu-2004 “Research of DFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM on Different Transmission Scenarios.” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Technology for Application (ICITA). Gupta A., Chandavarkar B. R.,2012, “An Efficient Bandwidth Management Algorithm for WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) Wireless Network EBM Allocation Algorithm.” IEEE Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS).

Laith Ali Abdul-Rahaim (Member IEEE) was born in Babylon-1972, Iraq. He received the B.Sc. degree in Electronics and Communications Department from the University of Baghdad (1995)-Iraq, M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electronics and Communication Engineering from the University of Technology-Iraq in 2001 and 2007 respectively. Since 2003, he has been with the University of Babylon-Iraq, where he is now head of Electrical Engineering Department. His research interests include MC-CDMA, OFDM, MIMO-OFDM, CDMA, Space Time Coding, Modulation Technique, Image processing. Rusul Noori Saeed was born in Babylon-1989, Iraq. She received the B.Sc. degree in Electronics and Communications Department from the University of Babylon (2011)-Iraq and she studies M.Sc. degrees in Electronics and Communication Engineering in the University of Babylon -Iraq (2012).. Her research interests include MC-CDMA, OFDM, MIMOOFDM, CDMA, DWT, Space Time Coding and Modulation Technique.

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