Dynamic Design of a High-Speed Motorized Spindle-Bearing System

Shuyun Jiang1
e-mail: jiangshy@seu.edu.cn

Shufei Zheng
School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China

This technical brief presents a dynamic model based on the traditional transfer matrix method (TMM) and Jones–Harris nonlinear rolling bearing model to study the effects of the extended structure parameters on the vibration behavior of a high-speed motorized spindle-bearing system. The first critical speed and the dynamic stiffness of the high-speed motorized spindle-bearing system are systematically studied. A design sensitivity analysis of the structure parameters is then conducted to identify the main factor to affect the first critical speed of the spindle-bearing system. The results show that the processing condition, the shaft shoulder, the dimension of motor, and the bearing arrangement are sensitive to the spindle dynamic behavior. The TMM model of the spindlebearing system is verified by measuring the high-speed motorized spindle overall dynamic stiffness. ͓DOI: 10.1115/1.4001109͔ Keywords: motorized spindle, rotor dynamic, transfer matrix method, rolling bearing analysis theory

of dealing with the system as a whole, the study can start at a certain station and proceed station by station ͓14͔. The TMM was generalized by Prohl ͓15͔ to include gyroscopic moments, which can be used for the study of free whirling and evaluation of the critical speeds but also for the computation of the unbalance response. The TMM deals with relatively small matrices and is very time-saving for the general program developed. Thus, this technical brief establishes a coupling model of a motorized high-speed spindle supported by angular-contact ball bearings by using the traditional TMM and the Jones–Harris rolling bearing model including the centrifugal force and gyroscopic effects. A design sensitivity analysis of the extended design variables is then conducted based on the developed model to investigate their influence on the first critical speed of the spindlebearing system, and some valuable optimization strategy has been proposed based on the rule of maximum improvement first ͑MIF͒. Finally, the analytical dynamic stiffness of the spindle-bearing system is verified by experiment.

2

Dynamic Model

1

Introduction

The spindle system is one of the most important parts of a machine tool since its dynamic properties directly affect the machining productivity and finish quality of the workpieces. Considerable research related to the modeling of machine tool spindlebearing system has been published ͓1–13͔. An early work on the dynamic model for the machine tool spindle was proposed by Al-Shareef and Brandon ͓4͔, they used the influence coefficient method to investigate the effects of design variables on the dynamic performance of spindle-bearing systems, and the variables included bearing stiffness, position of the drive pulley, mass of the workpiece, optimum position for introduction of damping, and the number of steps of the spindle between the bearings. Recently, the finite element method ͑FEM͒ has been widely used to study the dynamic behavior of the high-speed motorized spindle-bearing system͓5–11͔. The effects of the design variables on static and dynamic performance of the spindle-bearing systems were also discussed, which included the preload, journal diameter, span ratio, bearing configuration, bearing stiffness, length of the spindle shaft, material of the spindle shaft, etc. Although the FEM can be used to deal with the dynamics of this spindle-bearing system, it is troublesome or time-consuming to write the stiffness matrix, or, alternatively, the compliance matrix, although the mass and gyroscopic matrices of such systems are easily obtained in a discrete system ͓14͔. To avoid such difficulty, together with that linked to the solution of large eigenproblems, the transfer matrix method ͑TMM͒ can be applied. Instead
1 Corresponding author. Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 2, 2009; final manuscript received December 5, 2009; published online March 1, 2010. Assoc. Editor: Zissimos P. Mourelatos.

Figure 1͑a͒ shows the rotor schematic of a high-speed motorized grinding spindle-bearing system built by a spindle manufacturer. The spindle is designed to operate at up to 51,000 rpm, where the rotor is supported by two pairs of angular-contact ball bearings with double back-to-back arrangement. The front bearings and the rear bearings are simultaneously preloaded by a series of compressive springs around the perimeter. The bearings are individually cooled by oil/air lubrication. To drive this spindlebearing system, an integral induction motor rated at 12 kW maximum power is located between the front and rear bearings. The grinding tool is mounted at the end of the spindle. The system parameters are summarized in Table 1. Figure 1͑b͒ shows the simplified dynamic model of the highspeed motorized spindle-bearing system. The rotor is divided into several sections, each section is modeled as a massless elastic shaft with the lumped masses at two ends, the motor rotor and the grinding wheel are modeled as rigid disks with gyroscopic moment considered. Two front bearings and two rear bearings are simplified as both translational and angular springs, as well as the dashpots. The dynamic behavior of this spindle-bearing system including the first critical speed and the overall dynamic stiffness has been analyzed by using TMM ͓12–16͔ and the Jones–Harris bearing model ͓17͔. A computer program is developed by aid of MATLAB tool. In this study, only the first critical speed is discussed, it is based on the fact that the maximum running speed of the spindle cannot exceed 70% of the first critical speed; moreover, the critical speeds in higher order are too high to affect the spindle dynamic behavior.

3

Dynamic Analysis

3.1 Bearing Stiffness Analysis. Figure 2 shows the change in the radial stiffness, the contact angles, the centrifugal forces, and the gyroscopic moments of the bearings with the rotational speed. It can be seen that the dynamic stiffness of the bearing is apparent

Table 1

Parameters of the high-speed motorized spindle Type of 7005 Type of 7004 Steel 0–51,000 rpm 500 N 168 mm 44.8 mm 82 mm

Front bearing Rear bearing Material of bearing Rotational speed Initial axial preload Bearing span Inner diameter of motor rotor, d Length of motor rotor, L2

Journal of Mechanical Design

Copyright © 2010 by ASME

MARCH 2010, Vol. 132 / 034501-1

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the working speed of 28. the processing conditions of both the rough grinding and the finishing grinding are investigated.000 rpm. 3. When at a lower rotational speed.2.asme. the bearing stiffness almost keeps constant. but the bearing stiffness is gradually softened when the rotational speed exceeds a certain speed of 30.org/ on 04/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://asme. and gyroscopic moments of rolling bearings with rotational speed 034501-2 / Vol. 132.asmedigitalcollection.1 Effects of Processing Conditions on the First Critical Speed. contact angles.000 Fig.2 Spindle Dynamic Design 3. By the machine tool industrial standard. centrifugal force. 1 „a… High-speed grinding motorized spindle-bearing system and „b… the corresponding lumped mass model of TMM nonlinear. MARCH 2010 Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://mechanicaldesign. For better understanding of the dynamic behavior for the high-speed motorized spindle.org/terms . this significant softening phenomenon at high rotational speed is due to the change in bearing contact angles caused by the centrifugal force and the gyroscopic moment. 2 The change in the dynamic stiffness.Fig. From the viewpoint of the rolling bearing analysis theory.

asme. As the arbor length increases to a certain degree. the first critical speeds under all preloads will converge gradually owing to the flexibility induced by the arbors. According to High Precision Grinding Spindle Handbook from GMN.org/ on 04/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://asme. The same trend holds for the rear shaft shoulder ͑Fig. for the finishing grinding. Because of the geometrical constraint of the built-in motor. 3 „a… Effects of processing conditions on the first critical speed—finishing grinding and „b… effects of processing conditions on the first critical speed—rough grinding Journal of Mechanical Design Downloaded From: http://mechanicaldesign. The reason is simple: the larger the rotor inner diameter of the motor. when the arbor length is less than 45 mm. axial preload. 250 N…—rear shaft shoulder 3. the bearing spacing between the middle lines of front and rear bearing sets is changed by adjusting length of the shaft shoulder between the bearing and the motor. 3͑a͒ and 3͑b͒.asmedigitalcollection.000 rpm.2 Effects of Length of Shaft Shoulders on the First Critical Speed. the larger the bending rigidity to MARCH 2010. it is found that there existed a monotonous increase with the rear shaft shoulder shortened.2. 4͑a͒. 250 N…— front shaft shoulder and „b… effects of shaft shoulder length on the first critical speed „rotational speed. while a monotonous decrease with the front shaft shoulder shortened ͓18͔.3 Effects of the Dimension of Motor on the First Critical Speed. 3. The effect of variations in the front shaft shoulder on the first critical speed is shown in Fig. the first critical speed increases monotonously with the decrease in the shaft shoulder when the arbor length is less than 40 mm. It is worth noting that the monotonous variation in first critical speed with the shaft shoulder is not universal for all types of the motorized spindle. The results in Fig.000 rpm. the bearing spacing can be changed only within a certain limits. 132 / 034501-3 Fig. The effects of two processing conditions under different preloads on the first critical speed are shown in Figs. In this section. The length of rear shaft shoulder is fixed while that the front shaft shoulder varied from 10 mm shortened to 10 mm lengthened. Figures 5͑a͒ and 5͑b͒ illustrate the effects of the variations in the inner diameter and the rotor length of the motor on the first critical speed. however. the first critical speed increases about 3000 rpm with a 2 mm increment in the inner diameter. the first critical speeds decrease slightly when the arbor length is less than a certain value of 45 mm. It can be seen that. Fig. This is consistent with the practical experience in highspeed grinding. axial preload. It can be seen that the first critical speeds of both the rough grinding and finishing grinding increase with the increase in axial preload.Table 2 Dimensions of the grinding wheel and the arbor for two conditions Grinding wheel Arbor Outer diameter Inner diameter Thickness Diameter Rough grinding Finishing grinding 40 20 16 8 32 20 25 13 rpm is roughly used for the rough grinding for a spindle with a maximum speed of 51. 4͑b͒͒. However. the dimensions of the grinding wheel for two conditions are listed in Table 2. long arbor should be avoided to prevent chatter. 51.org/terms . they will decrease drastically as the arbor length exceeds 45 mm due to the gyroscopic effect of the grinding wheel. for which. In another case. For the rough grinding. and increment in critical speed is about 1700 rpm with a 5 mm decrement in shaft shoulder. Vol.2. the first critical speed decreases sharply with the increase in arbor length. in detail. 5͑a͒ shows that the first critical speed increases monotonously with the increase in the inner diameter.000 rpm. in general. 51. 4 „a… Effects of shaft shoulder length on the first critical speed „rotational speed.

the design strategy of the bearing arrangement for a motorized spindle is that the rear bearing size is smaller than that of the front bearing by one grade. the original bearing arrangement is type 7005 for the front bearings and 7004 for the rear bearings. it can result from both the softening of the bearing and the centrifugal effects of the shaft. A series of unbalance masses have been prepared. A test system was developed. 5 „a… Effects of dimension of motor rotor on the first critical speed „rotational speed.0 software and the out-of-balance response at the spindle nose for different rotational speed is obtained. then the sampled signal is analyzed by the CRAS V7.000 rpm. 250 N…— inner diameter and „b… effects of dimension of motor rotor on the first critical speed „rotational speed. where m is the mass of the unbalanced mass and ͉x͉ is the amplitude of the displacement at the spindle nose. Traditionally. For this spindle.Fig.000 rpm. as shown in Fig. The simulated and experimental overall dynamic stiffness at the spindle nose is illustrated in Fig. A highly precision-machined disk with an unbal034501-4 / Vol. 132. 7. axial preload. It can be seen that the spindle with a bearing arrangement of 7005–7003 appears the excellent dynamic behavior. 3. the lower the mass effect to the spindle. 8. a measuring method of the spindle overall dynamic stiffness is proposed by detecting the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the spindle nose. finally. the larger rear bearing contributes more to mass effect rather than the rigidity of the system. 250 N… ance mass is installed at the nose of the spindle to apply excitation.org/terms . Figure 5͑b͒ shows clearly that the first critical speed increases with the decrease in the rotor length of the motor because the longer rotor contributes more to the mass effect rather than the bending rigidity introduced into the spindle. The dynamic stiffness at the spindle nose is as follows: Fig. The displacement of the spindle nose is detected by an eddy current sensor and the displacement signal is sampled by a signal acquisition unit ͑AZ308R͒. in this case. the larger the rotor inner diameter of the motor. the results are shown in Fig. MARCH 2010 Fig. 6. 5 Conclusion This technical brief establishes a dynamic model of the highspeed motorized spindle-bearing system by using the traditional TMM and the Jones–Harris bearing analysis theory. 51. the maximum type of the front bearing is 7005. 7 Test system for measuring the overall dynamic stiffness of the spindle Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://mechanicaldesign. The effect of the three arrangement modes of the bearings on the first critical speeds are studied. A design sensitivity analysis of the design parameters is then conducted based on the integrated model to investigate their influence on the natural frequencies of the spindle system. 51. and the suitable one is selected by the test speed. 51. axial preload.asmedigitalcollection. The dynamic stiffness is softened as the rotational speed increases. 250 N…—length of motor K= me␻2 ͉x͉ spindle.asme.4 Effects of Bearing Arrangement on the First Critical Speed.000 rpm. the proposed model 4 Experimental Verification of the Model To verify the TMM model of the high-speed motorized spindlebearing system. It can be seen that the simulated result is nearly consistent with the experimental measurement within the whole range of the running speed. the rear bearing changes from 7003 to 7005. The explanation is that a larger size bearing can bring in not only a high supporting stiffness but also an added mass into the spindle.org/ on 04/28/2013 Terms of Use: http://asme. 6 Effects of the bearing arrangement on the first critical speed „rotational speed. Limited by the DN ͑the product of the bearing pitch diameter ͑dm͒ and the rotational speed ͑n͒͒ value of the bearing.2. axial preload.

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