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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank the teacher for having given me the work, because it contributed to the deepened study of the topic. I thank in simultaneous my family that financially and morally helped me so that this work became real. To whom direct or indirectly had contributed to the accomplishment of the research project.

Table of Contents

I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................... i 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 2. OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................... 3 2.2.. Specifics..3 3. HYPOTHESES ................................................................................................................... 4 4. MINE RESOURCES AND RESERVE EVALUATION ................................................... 5 4.1. Classification of Mineral Resources5 4.2. Mineral Resources...6 4.3. Mineral Reserves or Ore Reserves..8 5. STAGES OF MINERAL EXPLORATION ....................................................................... 9 6. AREA SELECTION ........................................................................................................... 9 7. TARGET GENERATION - REGIONAL SCALE........................................................... 11 8. REMOTE SENSING ........................................................................................................ 11 9. RESERVE EVALUATION .............................................................................................. 12 10. RESERVE DEFINITION ................................................................................................. 13 11. EXTRACTION ................................................................................................................. 13 II. RECOMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................... 15 III. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................. 16 IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 17

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1. INTRODUCTION This research project talks about mine resources and reserve evaluation. It is composed by two categories or sections. The first speaks about mine resources; in this section we can see that, for exploration of any kind of minerals we have first to analyze the quantity or extension of the field. This analyse evolves many areas like geology, topography, management, and others. We can see also that Mineral resources are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for eventual economic extraction. The second section, the main topic is reserve evaluation. In simple explanation when we speak about reserve evaluation we are making the deeper analyses about economical benefits of the field.

2. OBJECTIVES 2.1. 2.2. General Analyze the extension and economical benefits of the field Specifics Analyze the fields in extension; Classify mineral resources; Analyze proven ore reserves; How to see when field is rentable; How to extract economically an field.

3. HYPOTHESES

This research project studies all process that we have to respect until we open the mine. To explore an mineral we have to have preliminary data of quantities that exists in the area that concerns the company. These data will help the company to determinate that the open of the mine will come with economical benefits to the company. These preliminary data also have the function to determinate which kind and quantities of equipments we are supposed to buy, how many workers are necessary in the company, and in the sight of all these productivity facts the preliminary data helps to determinate the companys production.

4. MINE RESOURCES AND RESERVE EVALUATION

The mineral resources are important in our lives because them increases the economy of the world. In avaliao econmica de projectos de minerao (Souza, 1995:12) said that in nowadays minerals becomes the 48% of economy activity. But disagreeing with him subsided by annual report of provincial direction of Mineral Resources in page 14, mineral resources contribute in 68% for Mozambique and in the world minerals contributes in 60.4%.

4.1.

Classification of Mineral Resources

Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral deposits based on their geologic certainty and economic value. (Mozambican Geological Survey, 1988:8) In next point I will show according to (WHITTLE, 1997: 45) agreeing with McKelvey the diagram that shows the relation of mineral resource classifications to economics and geologic certainty.

When we speak about mine reserves we have to speak first about the mineral deposits. The mineral deposits can be classified as: Mineral resources that are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for eventual economic extraction. Mineral reserves or Ore reserves that are valuable and legally and economically and technically feasible to extract. As Im concerned in common mining terminology, an "ore deposit" by definition must have an 'ore reserve', and may or may not have additional 'resources'. (Dill 2010: 36) in his book, commented about Classification and argument: it is an economic function, is governed by statutes, regulations and industry best practice norms. There are several classification schemes worldwide, however the Canadian classification, the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee Code (JORC Code), the South African Code for the Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (SAMREC) and the chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits by H. G. Dill are examples of the general standards. 4.2. Mineral Resources

In my point of view de definition or concept of Mineral Resource is a concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest in or on the earth's crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. Mineral Resources are further sub-divided, in order of increasing geological confidence, into inferred, Indicated and measured Categories.

Inferred Mineral Resource is that part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from location such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes which may be of limited or uncertain quality and reliability. (KIM, 1979: 54) Indicated resources are simply economic mineral occurrences that have been sampled (from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits and drill holes) to a point where an estimate has been made, at a reasonable level of confidence, of their contained metal, grade, tonnage, shape, densities, physical characteristics. (KIM, 1979: 54) Measured resources are indicated resources that have undergone enough further sampling that a 'competent person' (defined by the norms of the relevant mining code; usually a geologist) has declared them to be an acceptable estimate, at a high degree of confidence, of the grade, tonnage, shape, densities, physical characteristics and mineral content of the mineral occurrence. (KIM, 1979: 56) In other hand resources may also make up portions of a mineral deposit classified as a mineral reserve, but: Have not been sufficiently drilled out to qualify for Reserve status; or Have yet to meet all criteria for Reserve status.

4.3.

Mineral Reserves or Ore Reserves

According to (Dill, 2010: 47) disagreeing with (WHITTLE, 1997: 76) Mineral reserves are resources known to be economically feasible for extraction. Reserves are either Probable Reserves or Proven Reserves. A Probable Ore Reserve is the part of Indicated resources that can be mined in an economically viable mode, and in some circumstances, a Measured Mineral Resource. It includes diluting material and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined. A Probable Ore Reserve has a lower level of confidence than a Proved Ore Reserve but is of sufficient quality to serve as the basis for decision on the development of deposit. (KIM, 1979: 89) A Proven Ore Reserve is the part of measured resources that can be mined in an economically viable fashion. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which occur when the material is mined. (KIM, 1979: 89) According with the definition of (KIM, 1979: 89) A Proven Ore Reserve represents the highest confidence category of reserve estimate. The style of mineralization or other factors could mean that Proven Ore Reserves are not achievable in some deposits. In his book (NILSSON, 1997: 12) according to (KIM, 1979: 112) generally the conversion of resources into reserves requires the application of various modifying factors, including: Mining and geological factors, such as knowledge of the geology of the deposit sufficient that it is predictable and verifiable; extraction and mine plans based on ore models; quantification of geotechnical risk-basically, managing the geological faults, joints, and ground fractures so the mine does not collapse; and consideration of technical risk-essentially, statistical and vario-graphy to ensure the ore is sampled properly:

Metallurgical factors, including scrutiny of assay data to ensure accuracy of the information supplied by the laboratory required because ore reserves are bankable. Essentially, once a deposit is elevated to reserve status, it is an economic entity and an asset upon which loans and equity can be drawn generally to pay for its extraction at (hopefully) a profit; Economic factors- we have to see how the exploration can be economical valuable for our exploration. Environmental factors- when we extract any thing on the nature at the same time we are affecting directly the environment, before open the mine environmental studies should be done; Marketing factors- the situation of the market determinates which kind of mineral is more requested; Legal factors- the open of mines should respect the laws figuring in the country ; Political factors and Social factors- the principal factor is the social responsibility. The social responsibility can in other literatures linked with political end legal factors. 5. STAGES OF MINERAL EXPLORATION

Mineral exploration methods vary at different stages of the process depending on size of the area being explored, as well as the density and type of information sought. Aside from extraplanetary exploration, at the largest scale is a geological mineral Province (such as the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia), which may be sub-divided into Regions. At the smaller scale are mineral Prospects, which may contain several mineral Deposits.1 6. AREA SELECTION

Area selection is a crucial step in professional mineral exploration. Selection of the best, most prospective, area in a mineral field, geological region or terrain will assist

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in making it not only possible to find ore deposits, but to find them easily, cheaply and quickly. (Mozambican Geological Survey, 1988: 66). Area selection is also influenced by the commodity being sought; exploring for gold occurs in a different manner and within different rocks and areas to exploration for oil or natural gas or iron ore. Areas which are prospective for gold may not be prospective for other metals and commodities. I disagree strongly with (KIM, 1979:33), (SOUZA, 1995: 123) and (NILSSON, 1997:54) because similarly, companies of different sizes (in terms of market capitalization and financial strength) may look for different sized deposits, or deposits of a minimum size, depending on their will and ability to finance construction. Often the major mining houses will not look for deposits of less than a certain size class because small deposits will not meet their criteria for an internal rate of return. This practice may result in larger mining companies relinquishing control of smaller ore bodies they find, or may preclude them from entering a terrene which is characterized by deposits of a particular type or style. Often a company or consortium wishing to enter mineral exploration may conduct market research to determine, if a resource in a particular commodity is found, whether or not the resource will be worth mining based on projected commodity prices and demand growth. This process may also inform upon the Area Selection process as noted above, where areas with small-sized deposit styles will be ruled out based on likely economic returns should a deposit be found. This occurs because often smaller deposits are more expensive to run, and hence, carry greater risks of closure if commodity prices fall significantly. Continuing, in my not agreeing with these authors area selection may also be influenced by previous finds, a practice affectionately named subsurface control or neurology, and may also be determined in part by financial and taxation incentives and tariff systems of individual nations. The role of infrastructure may also be crucial in area selection, because the ore must be brought to market and infrastructure costs may render isolated ore uneconomic.

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7.

TARGET GENERATION - REGIONAL SCALE

The target generation phase involves investigations of the geology via mapping, geophysics and conducting geochemical or intensive geophysical testing of the surface and subsurface geology. In some cases, for instance in areas covered by soil, alluvium and platform cover, drilling may be performed directly as a mechanism for generating targets.2 8. REMOTE SENSING

Aerial photography is an important tool in assessing mineral exploration tenements, as it gives the explorer orientation information - location of tracks, roads, fences, habitation, as well as ability to at least qualitatively map outcrops and regolith systematic and vegetation cover across a region. Aerial photography was first used post World War II and was heavily adopted in the 1960s onwards. Since the advent of cheap and declassified Landsat images in the late 1970s and early 1980s, mineral exploration has begun to use satellite imagery to map not only the visual light spectrum over mineral exploration tenements, but spectra which are beyond the visible. Satellite based spectroscopes allow the modern mineral explorationist, in regions devoid of cover and vegetation, to map minerals and alteration directly. Improvements in the resolution of modern commercially based satellites have also improved the utility of satellite imagery; for instance Geo-Eye satellite images can be generated with a 40 cm pixel size.3

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9. RESERVE EVALUATION In agreement with (Strobart, 2001: 247) resource evaluation is undertaken to quantify the grade and tonnage of a mineral occurrence. This is achieved primarily by drilling to sample the prospective horizon, lode or strata where the minerals of interest occur. The ultimate aim is to generate a density of drilling sufficient to satisfy the economic and statutory standards of an ore resource. Depending on the financial situation and size of the deposit and the structure of the company, the level of detail required to generate this resource and stage at which extraction can commence varies; for small partnerships and private non-corporate enterprises a very low level of detail is required whereas for corporations which require debt equity (loans) to build capital intensive extraction infrastructure, the rigor necessary in resource estimation is far greater. For large cash rich companies working on small ore bodies, they may work only to a level necessary to satisfy their internal risk assessments before extraction commences. (Strobart, 2001: 254) Resource estimation may require pattern drilling on a set grid, and in the case of sulfide minerals, will usually require some form of geophysics such as down-hole probing of drillholes, to geophysically delineate ore body continuity within the ground. The aim of resource evaluation is to expand the known size of the deposit and mineralization. A scoping study is often carried out on the ore deposit during this stage to determine if there may be enough ore at a sufficient grade to warrant extraction; if there is not further resource evaluation drilling may be necessary. In other cases, several smaller individually uneconomic deposits may be socialized into a mining camp and extracted in tandem. Further exploration and testing of anomalies may be required to find or define these other satellite deposits.

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10. RESERVE DEFINITION Concluding the discussion between (SOUZA, 1995: 208) and (NILSSON, 1997:59) reserve definition is undertaken to convert a mineral resource into an ore reserve, which is an economic asset. The process is similar to resource evaluation, except more intensive and technical, aimed at statistically quantifying the grade continuity and mass of ore. Reserve definition also takes into account the milling and extractability characteristics of the ore, and generates bulk samples for metallurgical test work, involving crushability, floatability and other ore recovery parameters. In my point of view reserve definition includes geotechnical assessment and engineering studies of the rocks within and surrounding the deposit to determine the potential instabilities of proposed open pit or underground mining methods. This process may involve drilling diamond core samples to derive structural information on weaknesses within the rock mass such as faults, foliations, joints and shearing. At the end of this process, a feasibility study is published, and the ore deposit may be either deemed uneconomic or economic. 11. EXTRACTION The ultimate goal of mineral exploration is the extraction, beneficiation and profitable and beneficial sale of mineral commodities. Extraction methods may vary considerably and it is the discipline of engineers trained in mining engineering to determine the safest, cost effective and efficient method of mining the ore body. According to (LAMBERT, 1983:67& 79) Mineral exploration and development does not cease upon a decision to mine. Exploration of a brownfields nature is conducted to find near-mine repetitions, extensions and continuity of the existing ore body. In13

mine exploration and grade control drilling is a major concern of operating mines and can be an effective tool in adding value to existing mineral operations. Often the lessons learned from studying an exposed ore body, both empirically and scientifically, are invaluable to the exploration geologist and geophysicist, for they get to see the proof of their concepts and the errors of the assumptions they used in the search for the ore body. It is always the case that the exact nature of the ore body does not exactly match the models used to find it. At the end of my research project, the last idea or the essence of study mine resources and reserve evaluation is to centre our attention in the economical benefits of exploration. A Proven Ore Reserve represents the highest confidence category of reserve estimate. The style of mineralization or other factors could mean that Proven Ore Reserves are not achievable in some deposits. Generally the conversion of resources into reserves requires the application of various modifying factors, including: Mining and geological factors, such as knowledge of the geology of the deposit sufficient that it is predictable and verifiable; extraction and mine plans based on ore models; quantification of geotechnical risk basically, managing the geological faults, joints, and ground fractures so the mine does not collapse; and consideration of technical risk essentially, statistical and variography to ensure the ore is sampled properly: Metallurgical factors, including scrutiny of assay data to ensure accuracy of the information supplied by the laboratory required because ore reserves are bankable. Essentially, once a deposit is elevated to reserve status, it is an economic entity and an asset upon which loans and equity can be drawn generally to pay for its extraction at (hopefully) a profit;

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II. RECOMENDATIONS

I recommend that more identical works are given for better comprehend topics which linked with our formation area. I recommend in the same moment that the access to the computers of the school is liberated for students, because most of us dont have conditions for buy one. I recommend that the wireless network code should be deactivated because in nowadays is long process to obtain the key.

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III. CONCLUSION Arrived in this part of the job I conclude that the mineral deposits classification is an economic function, is governed by statutes, regulations and industry best practice norms. Extraction and mine plans based on ore models; quantification of geotechnical riskbasically, managing the geological faults, joints, and ground fractures so the mine does not collapse; and consideration of technical risk-essentially, statistical and variography to ensure the ore is sampled properly. Area selection is also influenced by the commodity being sought; exploring for gold occurs in a different manner and within different rocks and areas to exploration for oil or natural gas or iron ore. Areas which are prospective for gold may not be prospective for other metals and commodities. Similarly, companies of different sizes (in terms of market capitalization and financial strength) may look for different sized deposits, or deposits of a minimum size, depending on their will and ability to finance construction.

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IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1-Annual report of provincial direction of mineral resources. (2011), Tete. 2-Dill, H. G., (2010), The "Chessboard" Classification Scheme Of Mineral Deposits, Load Paper Editor, Djibouti. 3-http: \\www.cetem.com\estagios+exploracao\12j34s0937\pdf 4-http:\\www.bing.com/roads+inside+mines/kikikile9?li00/76ki9b0k:z.pptx 5-http:\\www.ufop.com.br/materialmineracao2/3edicao/volume2/download.pdf 6-KIM, Y. C., (1979), Open-Pit Limits Analysis, p. 297-303.dunbook: New York. 7-LAMBERT, R. N., (1983), layout and opening up of western deep mine, Mir Moscow, Moscow. 8-Mozambican Geological Survey, (1988), Principles of a Resource/Reserve classification for Minerals, Circular 831. 9-NILSSON, D., (1997), Optimal Final Pit Depth: (Once Again. Mining Engineering), vol. 49, p. 71-72, Papyri, Spain. 10-SOUZA, P. A., (1995). Avaliao econmica de projectos de minerao, 230p, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia. 11-STAFF, (2012), SAMCODE (South African Mineral Codes), South African Minister of Mineral Resources, South Africa. 12-Strobart W. T., (2001), Reserve Evaluation and the Importance of Human Resources, Macmillan, Sweden. 13-WHITTLE, D., (1997), The Relationship Between Economic Design Objectives and Reserves Estimates, p. 27-29, Melbourne, Australia.

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