Name: Noor Fatin Nadia Bt. Othman Class: 6 Berlian Subject: Science Teacher Name: Pn.

Tengku Azelawati

CONTENTS
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No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Title Introduction Appreciation Sources Giant Panda Polar Bear Siberian Tiger Elephant Whale Penguin

Pages 1 2 3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10 - 11 12 - 13 14 - 15 16 - 17 18 - 19 20 - 21 22 - 23

10. Leatherback Turtle 11. Hornbill 12. Rhinoceros 13. Orang Utan

INTRODUCTION
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Endangered animals are animals that are in danger of extinction because of their low numbers in population in their natural habitats. There are many animals known to be endangered species, and some that have extinct.

APPRECIATION
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I want to say a million thanks to Pn. Tengku Azelawati because helping me giving me a little bit in formation about this project. I also want to say thanks to my parents because give me support to finish up this project.

SOURCES
• Internet
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• Complete Science (Year 4, 5, 6) • Science Texts Book Year 6

Giant Panda
Giant panda have black fur on their ears, around their eyes, muzzle, legs and shoulders. The giant panda can
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climb tree well. The giant panda has a very important thumb which allows it to pick up food. It is part of the wrist. It also has five other fingers on each hands. A giant panda height is about 5 feet tall. It also weight about 250 pounds and lives almost 30 years. The giant panda primary food source is bamboo. They eat almost twelve hours a day and for the rest of the day they sleep. In the course of a year they eat almost 10, 000 pounds of bamboo. The panda usually lives in solitary, except during mating season. Historically pandas lived in both mountainous and lowland regions of central-western and southwestern China. They are now found only in the mountains of central China, in Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Today, an estimated 2,000 pandas are found in the wild. By the end of 2006, there were a reported 180 pandas in captivity on mainland China and about 20 in other countries.

Why giant panda is facing the threat of extinction?
Panda are threatened by excessive logging, land development, and illegal hunting.

How to prevent the giant panda from being extinct?

Organizing campaigns against illegal logging.
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• Educate the public about the importance of protecting and conserving giant panda.

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Polar Bear
Polar bears are among the largest predators in the world. They range in color from pure white after a molt to a yellowish shade resulting from solar oxidation or staining by oil from seal blubber. Polar bears’ long neck and narrow skull aid in streamlining the animal in water, and their large, flat and oar-like front feet make them strong swimmers. Their fur is thicker than any other bears’ even covering their feet, for warmth and traction on ice. An average male polar bear weighs a half a ton. The average female polar bear weighs a quarter of a ton. The largest polar bear ever was a male that stood 11 feet tall and weighed nearly a ton. The polar bear is mostly carnivorous. They mainly eat seals. They also eat walrus, beluga whale and bowhead whale carcasses, birds, vegetation and kelp. The polar bear usually lives in solitary, except during mating season.
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Polar bears are distributed throughout the arctic region in 19 subpopulations. Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland and Norway have polar bear populations. Today, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) estimates that there are between 20,000-25,000 polar bears in the world.

Why polar bear is facing the threat of extinction?
Polar bear are threatened by climate change, pollution, land development and illegal hunting.

How to prevent the polar bear from being extinct?
• Educate the public about the importance of protecting and conserving polar bear. • Enforcing the law and regulations.

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Siberian Tiger
The tiger is the largest member of the cat family. They sport long, thick reddish coats with white bellies and white and black tails. Their heads, bodies, tails and limbs have narrow black, brown or gray stripes. The Siberian tiger are mostly active at night. They are also very good swimmers and have been known to kill prey while swimming.

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An adult male Siberian tiger is usually 11 feet long and 400 pounds, The female is a little smaller, about 8 feet and 300 pounds. Siberian tigers are carnivorous which means they only eat meat. The tiger may go for a week without eating so they may eat up to 55 pounds at one meal. Its main prey is deer, antelope, and wild pigs. It also known to attack sloth bear, dogs, leopards, crocodiles and pythons as well as monkeys and hares. The Siberian tiger usually lives in solitary, except during mating season. Today, they are only found in South and Southeast Asia, China and the Russian Far East. In the early 1900s, there were around 100,000 tigers throughout their range. Today, an estimated total of around 3,000-4,500 exist in the wild.

Why Siberian tiger is facing the threat of extinction?
Siberian tiger are threatened by illegal hunting and illegal logging. Illegal logging causes the Siberian tiger habitats destroyed.

How to prevent the Siberian tiger from being extinct?
• Enforcing the law and regulations. • Establish forest reserves and national parks.
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Elephant
Elephants are the largest land-dwelling mammals on earth. They are brown to dark gray in color and have long, coarse hairs sparsely covering their bodies. They have very thick skin that keeps them cool. Elephant trunks serve as another limb. They also sport large ears and thick tree-trunk-like legs to support their great weight.

An elephant height is about 5 - 14 feet. It also weight about 6, 000 pound and lives about 70 years. The elephant is mostly a herbivore which mean they only eat plants. Its main food is leaves, bamboo, bark and roots. It also known to eat food like banana and sugarcane which are grown by farmers. Adult elephants eat 300-400 lbs of food per day. The elephant usually lives in groups.

African savannah elephants are found in savannah zones in 37 countries south of the Sahara Desert. African forest elephants inhabit the dense rain forests of west and central Africa. The Asian elephant is found in India,
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Sri Lanka, China and much of Southeast Asia. At the turn of the 20th century, there were a few million African elephants and about 100,000 Asian elephants. Today, there are an estimated 450,000 - 700,000 African elephants and between 35,000 - 40,000 wild Asian elephants.

Why elephant is facing the threat of extinction?
Elephant are threatened by illegal logging and illegal hunting. Human hunt elephant to get the ivory.

How to prevent the elephant from being extinct?
• Enforcing the law and regulations. • Avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species.

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Whale
Like all mammals, whales breathe air into lungs, are warm-blooded, feed their young milk and have some (although very little) hair. Their bodies resemble the streamlined form of a fish, while the forelimbs or flippers are paddle-shaped. The tail fins, or flukes, enable whales to propel themselves through the water. Most species of
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whale have a fin on their backs known as a dorsal fin.Beneath the skin lies a layer of fat called blubber. It serves as an energy reservoir and also as insulation. Whales breathe through blowholes, located on the top of the head so the animal can remain submerged. Baleen whales have two blowholes,while toothed whales have one. A whale length is about 110 feet long. It also weight about 150 tons and can lives about 80 years. The whale is mostly a carnivore. It main food is shrimp like crustaceans known as krill, which it eats during the summer feeding season. The whale usually lives in solitary. The blue whale is found in all major oceans of the world. Its populations have been severely depleted throughout its range due to commercial whaling, which ceased in 1964. There have been reports of increased sightings in some areas, but in other areas the number of blue whales remains low.

Why whale is facing the threat of extinction?
Whale is threatened by excessive hunting. Human hunt whale for their fat.

How to prevent the whale from being extinct?
• Avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species.

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Penguin
Penguins are birds that have adapted very well to life in the water. Their wing bones are flipper-like and, while useless for flying, are extremely well-suited to swimming. All penguins are “countershaded”, which means that they are darkly colored on their backs and white on their bellies. Penguins can spend up to 75% of their lives in the water. They do all of their hunting in the water. Their prey can be found within 60 feet of the surface, so penguins have no need to swim in deep water. They catch prey in their beaks and swallow them whole as they swim. Some species only leave the water for molting and breeding.
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The fairy penguin is the smallest of the penguin species at 16 inches tall. It weighs about 2.2 pounds. The largest penguin species is the emperor penguin, which is about 3.7 feet tall and weighs between 60 and 90 pounds. It can lives about 15 -20 years. The penguin is a carnivore. The penguins eat krill, fish and squid. In general, penguins closer to the equator eat more fish and penguins closer to Antarctica eat more squid and krill. The penguin usually lives in groups. Penguins can be found on every continent in the Southern Hemisphere from the tropical Galapagos Islands (the Galapagos penguin) off South America to Antarctica (the emperor penguin). Larger penguin species are found in colder climates where their large body mass enables them to cope with the conditions, while smaller penguins inhabit warmer climates. The penguin species with the highest population is the Macaroni penguin with 11,654,000 pairs. The species with the lowest population is the endangered Galapagos penguin with between 6,000-15,000 individuals.

Why penguin is facing the threat of extinction?
Penguins are threatened by climate change and land development.

How to prevent the penguin from being extinct?
• Enforcing the law and regulations.

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Leatherback Turtle
The leatherback turtle is the largest of all living sea turtles and the fourth largest modern reptile behind three crocodilians. It can easily be differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of a bony shell. Instead, its carapace is covered by skin and oily flesh. It also has backwards spines in its throat to help it swallow food. Leatherback turtles follow the general sea turtle body
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plan of having a large, dorsoventrally flattened, round body with two pairs of very large flippers and a short tail. Leatherback turtle adults average at around one to two meters long and weigh from around 250 to 700 kilograms. The largest ever found however was over three meters from head to tail and weighed 916 kilograms. The leatherback turtle can lives about 80 years. The leatherback turtle eat jellyfish, seaweed and algae. The leatherback turtle is a species with a cosmopolitan global range. Of all the extant sea turtle species, leatherback turtle has the widest distribution reaching as far north as Alaska and Norway and as far south as the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and the southern most tip of New Zealand. The beach of Rantau Abang in Terengganu, Malaysia, had once had the largest nesting population in the world with 10,000 nests per year. However in 2008 only 2 leatherback turtles nested at Rantau Abang and unfortunately the eggs where infertile.

Why leatherback turtle is facing the threat of extinction?
Leatherback turtle are threatened by land development, eggs collecting and pollution.

How to prevent the leatherback turtle from being extinct?

Educate the public about the importance of protecting and conserving leatherback turtle.
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• Enforcing the law and regulations.

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Hornbill
Hornbills are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. They are characterized by a long,
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down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-coloured and sometimes has a casqued on the upper mandible. In addition, they possess a two-lobed kidney. Hornbills are the only birds in which the first two neck vertebrae are fused together; this probably provides a more stable platform for carrying the bill. The largest assemblages of hornbills form at some rossting sites, where as many as 2400 individual birds may be found.

Hornbills show considerable variation in size as a family, ranging in size from the Black Dwarf Hornbill, at 102 grams (3.6 oz) and 30 cm (1 foot), to the Southern Ground-hornbill, at up to 6.2 kg (13.6 lbs) and 1.2 m (4 feet). Hornbills are omnivorous birds, eating fruit, insects and small animals.

The Bucerotidae include some 57 living species, though a number of cryptic species may yet be split in some insular forms. Their distribution ranges from Africa south of the Sahara through tropical Asia to the Philippines and Solomon Islands. Most are arboreal birds, but the large ground-hornbills as their name implies, are terrestrial birds of open Savanna. The remaining species are found in dense forests.

Why hornbill is facing the threat of extinction?
Hornbill is threatened by excessive logging and illegal hunting.
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How to prevent the hornbill from being extinct?

Organizing campaign against excessive logging.

• Enforcing the law and regulations.

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Rhinoceros
There are five species of rhinoceros two African and three Asian. The African species are the White and Black Rhinoceros. Both species have two horns. Asian Rhinoceros include the Indian and the Javan, each with one horn, and the Sumatran, which has two. As solitary creatures, both male and female rhinos establish territories. Males mark and defend their territories. Rhinos use their horns not only in battles for territory or females
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but also to defend themselves from lions, tigers and hyenas. The white rhino is the second largest land mammal next to the elephant. The five species range in weight from 750 pounds to 8,000 pounds and stand anywhere from four and a half to six feet tall. Biologists estimate that wild rhinos live up to 35 years. In captivity, a rhino may live 40 years. Rhinos are herbivores, meaning they eat only plants. White rhinoceros, with their squareshaped lips, are ideally suited to graze on grass. Other rhinos prefer to eat the foliage of trees or bushes. Rhinoceros are found in parts of Africa and Asia. The population of White Rhinoceros is about 7,500 and Black Rhinoceros is about 2,400. The population of Sumatran Rhinoceros is 400. The Javan Rhinoceros is fewer than 100. Meanwhile, the population of Indian Rhinoceros is more than 2,000.

Why rhinoceros is facing the threat of extinction?
Rhinoceros is threatened by illegal hunting. Humans hunt rhinoceros for their horn.

How to prevent the rhinoceros from being extinct?

Established forest reserves and national parks.

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• Avoid consuming or buying products from endangered species.

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Orang Utan
The orang utans are a species of great apes. Known for their intelligence, they live in trees and they are the largest living arboreal animal. Orang utans have thin, shaggy, reddish-brown hair. They have long, powerful arms and strong hands that they can use to manipulate tools. Orang utans have the ability to make 13 to15 different types of vocalizations. Orang utans are arboreal creatures, which means they spend most of their lives slowly walking, swinging and climbing through dense rain forests. Most orang utans are four to five feet long some can reach a length of six feet. Adult males weight between 100 and 200 pounds and adult females weigh between 65 and 100 pounds. Orang utans have an arm spread of about five feet. In the wild, orangutans live for about 35 to 40 years. Orang utans is a herbivores. Orang utans feed mainly on fruits, especially wild figs. They also eat other kinds of vegetation, insects, small vertebrates and birds eggs. Orang utans usually lives in groups. Orang utans are only found on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Southeast Asia. An estimated 19,000 to 25,000 orang utans live in the wild. Another 900 live in captivity.
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Why orang utan is facing the threat of extinction?
Orang utan is threatened by excessive logging.

How to prevent the orang utan from being extinct?
• Organizing campaign against excessive logging. • Reforestation.

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