CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAKES AND THRUST REVERSER USAGE

Giuliana Fonseca EMBRAER - Flight Operations Liasion

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage

Agenda
• • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations

THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage Agenda • • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

landing performance do not take into account the use of TRs – TRs are a “bonus” for increased safety margins – On the other hand..Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Introduction – Usually. THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . carbon brakes are more efficient under certain conditions – TRs and Brakes operating policies vary from an operator to another..

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • So. what’s the best option??? – Should T/Rs be used on all landings? – Or should they be used only on restricted/contaminated runways? – How can I save my (expensive) carbon brakes? – Can I combine Autobrake with T/Rs? THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage Agenda • • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

– It’s use below 60 kt increases the chances of foreign object ingestion by the engine. – TRs are stopping devices that do not depend on runway condition. but its importance increase on slippery runways. – Costs of TRs usage are difficult to determine since maintenance is usually part of agreements with engine manufacturer.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about reversers… – TRs are more effective at high speeds. THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

The ANTI-SKID system will modulate the brakes if required… – Pedals should not be pumped!!! THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about carbon brakes… – Brake wear is far more related to the number of applications than to the energy applied – Braking performance can be optimized by applying maximum continuous pressure on the brake pedals.

)… – Test results show brakes wear is minimized around 200°C – Carbon brakes wear faster when they are cool – Costs of brakes usage are (also) difficult to be determined due to particular agreements with the brakes supplier… THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about carbon brakes (Cont.

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about performance.4 ft/s2 • b) MED mode: . – Brakes applied as required to reach target deceleration level – Deceleration is affected by three factors: • Aerodynamic drag • Wheel brakes • Reverse thrust THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION ..8 ft/s2 • c) HI mode: -13 ft/s2.. – Autobrake system works aiming a deceleration target: • a) LO mode: .

the thrust reversers will not help the landing performance… Deceleration Total Deceleration Brakes Deceleration Reversers Deceleration Autobrake Target Time THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . if the braking coefficient is good.. – In a nutshell..Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about performance (Cont.).

).Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Facts about performance (Cont. the thrust reversers could help achieve the maximum deceleration Deceleration Total Deceleration Brakes Deceleration Reversers Deceleration Autobrake Target Time THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .. – …but.. if the braking coefficient is NOT good.

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage Agenda • • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

100 0. leakage. etc.SCHEDULED E-Jets . cycle limit. EJETS .200 0.BrakeREMOVALS RemovalsRATE L12M BRAKE ISSUES 0.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Carbon Brakes Assembly – Replacement Reason: Worn to limits.250 Rate per 100 S.050 0.150 0. damaged. inop.300 0.000 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 2007 2008 2009 THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .F 0.

F 2.000 2.500 0.000 1.000 0. etc.000 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 2007 2008 2009 THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .500 1.SCHEDULED REMOVALS RATE L12M E-Jets .Wheel and Tire Removals TIRE AND WHEEL ISSUES 3.) EJETS .Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • MLG Tire / Wheel Assembly – Replacement Reason (Worn to limits.500 3.500 Rate per 100 S. damaged. time limit.

best practices for saving brakes do not necessarily mean that there will be more wear on wheels and tires! THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION ..Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • So what?? – On the previous plots there is no clear correlation between brake wear and wheel/tire replacements.. – …so.

000.) – As a reference.00 considering a 2000 cycles per acft/yr average utilization) – Using TRs for 15 sec per flight increases fuel consumption by about 20lbs per landing (USD 10. 2000 cycles per acft/yr average utilization and fuel @ USD 2/Gal) THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . a 500 cycles increase in brake’s life represents a reduction of about 6 USD/FC on brakes cost (USD 12.000.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • So what?? (Cont.00 acft/yr considering TRs always used.

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage Agenda • • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

autobrakes and TRs utilization – Environmental conditions and severe winter do have an effect on brakes’ life... Middle East and Asia Pacific were asked about their policies for brakes... Europe. good practices do make the difference! THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Case studies – Operators in Americas. – .but most of all.

each variation of 0.100 means ~USD 33. Using an average overhaul cost. wet or contaminated runways. THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . – TRs always deployed but used only on short. taxi and parking. – TRs used “as required” being: • limited to idle reverse on normal landings • Mandatory on contaminated runways – Rational utilization of TRs and autobrakes during landing. Brake wear reduction policies are adopted and spread between pilots.00 per FC.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Case studies – TRs used on all landings.

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage Agenda • • • • • Introduction Some facts Some numbers Case studies Final considerations THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

so special attention should be paid to taxi-out procedures • Maximum carbon brake life can be achieved during taxi by using a small number of long.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • What have we seen so far… – .on Brakes: • Carbon brakes wear is much more a function of number of applications than of the energy applied. moderately firm brake applications instead of numerous light brake applications • Releasing the parking brake after confirmation that chocks are in place is a good idea as this expedites the cool-down and reduces the chance of “soft spots” on the brake pads THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . Then it’s not a good idea to pump the pedals • Brakes’ wear is greater when they are cool (<200ºC)...

the use of thrust reversers could increase the airplane deceleration. according to the airplane speed. reversers should not be used as the system will disengage brakes anytime the target deceleration is sensed – Whenever the airplane braking coefficient is good and autobrakes are used (any setting). the T/Rs will not improve the landing performance – For expected braking coefficient medium or poor.Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • …and on Reversers – If the autobrake is set to LO. decreasing the landing distance – The T/R should only be used when the pilot’s judgment says to do so. THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION . etc. weather conditions. weight.

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • Remember our initial questions: – How can I save my expensive carbon brakes? – Should TRs be used on all landings? – Can I combine Autobrake with TRs? • Now we should be able to get them answered… THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage • … and don’t forget: – Safety and passenger comfort come first! THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

Considerations on Brakes and Reversers usage THANK YOU THIS INFORMATION IS EMBRAER PROPERTY AND CANNOT BE USED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION .

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