This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Vol. 3 Issue 2
The University of Utahʼs Science and Engineering Literary Magazine
WATER IS LIFE!
Water Week Issue
Also... Top Jobs of the Future Religion in Sports Multi-Gap Solar Cells
...was founded in Fall 2010 to encourage and showcase the creative interests of the science and engineering community at the University of Utah. We publish anything from poems to scientific reviews, short stories to opinion articles, photography to cartoons, as well as ads for student organizations and events and practical articles helpful to students, once each semester. We hope you enjoy this Spring 2013 issue and consider contributing to our next one! You can visit our website at http://thesponge.eng.utah.edu/. The Sponge is made possible by the University of Utah Student Media Council. Views expressed in The Sponge do not represent the views of our staff or the University of Utah. In this Issue: C'est La Vie by Anonymous - page 2 The Sport Stop by Cheyenne Schmid - page 3 Top Jobs of the Future by May Bo and Dallin Hubbard - page 3 Near the End of the Chapter by James Gracey - page 4 Multi-Gap Solar Cells by Stephanie Prochaska - page 5 The People of The Sponge: Jourdan Colter Editor Undergraduate Student Bioengineering Dallin Hubbard Staff Writer Graduate Student Bioengineering Sourav Kole Editor Graduate Student Bioengineering Nicholas Nolta Editor in Chief Graduate Student Bioengineering Monir Parikh Editor Graduate Student Bioengineering Stephanie Prochaska Editor, Staff Writer Undergraduate Student Materials Science and Eng. Cheyenne Schmid Staff Writer Undergraduate Student Exercise and Sport Science Georgia Sinimbu Editor Graduate Student Biology
In this issue, the Intermountain Section of the American Water Works Association (IMS-AWWA) partnered with The Sponge to host a paired poetry-photography contest in celebration of Utah's Water Week May 5-11. Contestants were asked to submit a poem and photo that go together and represent the theme "Water is Life!" Either the poem, the photo, or both could be original works. The Sponge and IMS-AWWA staff selected the top 3 poem-photo pairs and awarded additional prizes for best original poem and best original photo. Thank you to all who participated, and have a good Water Week! 1st Place Pair ($100): Finally, It Is Raining by Mausam Kalita, Medicinal Chemistry - back cover 2nd Place Pair ($75): Tolerant Rust by Allen Larsen, Mathematics - back cover 3rd Place Pair ($50): Untitled by Nosheen Khan, Biology - page 6 Best Original Poem ($50): Finally, It Is Raining by Mausam Kalita, Medicinal Chemistry - back cover Best Original Photo ($50): Damn! It's a dam!! by Manasi Datar, School of Computing - back cover Runners Up: Still Water by Safia Hassan, Mathematics - page 2 The Ocean Waves by Veronica Montes, Bioengineering - page 5 Untitled by Ujala Masood, Mathematics - back cover 1
C'est La Vie Anonymous I'm sure you didn't know what was in store for you in the course of the day. The morning must have started like any other. A rush to get ready to get to the trail head in time. Carrying water and food for the trip. Looking forward to spending time with other members of your church. The ride along the scenic highway and the path loop leading to the trail head. There would have been a prayer for a safe hike. The prayer said so fast, it ends even before it begins. The hike begins. You have a fun time with your friends. You have your girlfriend by your side. You'll have interesting conversations. Take a picture here, sing a song there or just enjoying the nature that surrounds you. You ask her to sing her favorite football chant, Runner Up - Safia Hassan
she has none. You sing your favorite chant, you try convincing her it's the best, you're not very successful. You cross paths with fellow hikers on the trail. Greet some as they pass you by, smile politely to a few others. The hike is short, it doesn't take long to reach the falls. I'm sure you may have done several such hikes before. But today was different. The spray of water from the fall feels nice on your face in the 95° F temperature, which you checked on a weather channel before setting out in the morning. There is a rocky trail leading you further up, close to the falls, it's slippery and has loose gravel, which makes climbing so much more difficult. Your basketball shoes are not helping at all. Basketball shoes wasn't the best footgear to wear for such a hike, you must be thinking as you make your way further up, in-
Photo title: Frozen Sight Still Water Separate and realize, the effect of my existence Why is there no single element in my representation Why must I rely on both hydrogen and oxygen? Separate and realize, the effect of my existence. Reflect on my behalf, Change by my permission, Taste through my depletion, And just for a still second, separate and realize. 2
spite of the conditions. You have your expensive camera which you will use to capture what you see once you reach the summit. Your friends don't want to go any further. They know they wouldn't be able to climb further. You decide you want to, they warn you of the dangers. You don't listen. Your girlfriend is a little nervous, but doesn't say anything. She knows you, she knows you well. Their warnings fall on deaf ears. You climb up quickly leaving the others behind. Within minutes, you're alone. You're going further, where no one has ventured before. You reach the highest point. You are being cheered by your friends from below. They take pictures of you. You take out your camera to take the breathtaking view of the falls and its surroundings. You're lucky to even have a rainbow in frame. And then a loose rock gives way, you lose balance, you promptly grab onto the rocks. Your camera has fallen from your hand in the meanwhile. It falls hitting each rock on the way down and finally plops to the ground 70 feet below. It's broken into pieces. You are heart broken. Your expensive camera has been destroyed, bruised to such an extent it would be unable to revive it to life. Your awesome shots captured with it are lost too. You regret not paying heed to the advice given to you a few minutes back. You return the way you climbed up. Maneuvering your descent, you soon reach where your friends are waiting for you, right at the spot where your camera lies. Your girl friend has "see we told you look" on her face. You're sad. You had the camera for 22 years. You took care of it from the rain. Ensured that it didn't have even a small scratch on its lens. All those years of care and love, gone in a blink of an eye. Your friends try cheering you up. You pick up the mangled remains of your camera, in hope that a technician can fix it, but you know there is no hope. But then it suddendly dawns on you, things could have been much worse. In an instant everything is put into perspective. You're grateful and not so sad anymore. You hug your girlfriend in relief. It could have been worse. It could have been you instead of the camera.
The Sport Stop Cheyenne Schmid, Staff Writer Exercise and Sport Science In the past couple of years Tim Tebow, quarterback for the National Football League’s (NFL) New York Jets (previously Denver Broncos), has sparked a flame between sport and religion. After big plays he will get down on one knee and say a prayer. Fans now know this as “Tebowing” and have begun wearing the quarterback’s number fifteen jersey with the name “Jesus” instead of Tebow. He also has been seen with scripture written into his eye paint. People have argued both ways of this display as either being a strong devoted sign of the Christian faith or just making an idol out of a football player (CBSNews, 2011, p. 1). Even Jake Plummer, a previous quarterback for the Denver Broncos, has seemed to come to the end of the line with Tebow’s routines. He said, “…I wish he’d just shut up after a game and go hug his teammates” (NewsCore, 2011, p. 1). Plummer continues, “I don’t hate him because of that. I just would rather not have to hear that every single time he takes a good snap or makes a good handoff” (NewsCore, 2011, p.1). Tebow’s response to all of this is, “I don’t know what to think about [this] because I don’t know where people’s hearts are. It’s important to not judge without knowing their hearts. If their heart is to honor the Lord, then it’s a good thing. Only God can judge because only God know what’s truly in a person’s heart” (CBSNews, 2011, p. 1). Religion getting involved with sport is a hard, complicated concept that is taken many different ways to many different people. Sport is often seen as a religion itself, so bringing in a “true” religion can offset the balance. Coakley brings up this topic of sport being the same as a religion when, “some people go so far as to say that sports are religion because they involve passions, dedication, identities, and ritualistic actions and they are played with bodies made in the image of God” (Coakley, 2009, p. 519). This statement can definitely be true; it just honestly depends on the view and standing of the individual. On the other hand, some see sport as being completely different than re-
ligion. According to Coakley, “the essence of religion, [people who argue that religion and sport are different] believe, is grounded in divine inspiration, whereas the essence of sport is grounded in human nature” (Coakley, 2009, p. 519). These people are called essentialists who think that sport and religion both bring out truths, but each clearly contains different truths from one another. When combined, the secular character of sport is claimed to corrupt the sacred character of religion. Sport is obviously on the secular, material side while religion is on the spiritual, divinity side –their roots and origins are distinctively different. When the two worlds collide, as in the case with football quarterback Tim Tebow, religion can either be seen as uplifting and moralizing sport or sport can be seen as demoralizing and corrupting religion. The religious or non-religious background and culture one has will ultimately determine what view the individual will stand for and uphold. CBSNews. (2011, November 18). Tim Tebow “Jesus” jerseys raise eyebrows. Retrieved from http://cbsnews. com Coakley, J. (2009). Sports in society (10th ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. NewsCore. (2011, November 22). Plummer wishes Tebow could keep his faith to himself. Retrieved from http:// msn.foxsports.com
followed by strict accuracy guidelines and is audited frequently. The BLS can be a good resource for us engineering students and the data can be accessed by the public for free on http://www. bls.gov/. The top current five highest paying engineering jobs from BLS are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Petroleum Engineers $114,080 Nuclear Engineers $99,920 Computer Hardware Engineers $98,810 Aerospace Engineers $97,480 Chemical Engineers $90,300
The top five fasting growing engineering jobs (2020 projection) are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Biomedical Engineers +9,700 (62% growth) Environmental Engineers +11,300 (22% growth) Civil Engineers +51,100 (19% growth) Petroleum Engineers +5,100 (17% growth) Health and Safety Engineers +3,100 (13% growth)
Top Jobs of the Future May Bo Hubbard Computer Science Dallin Hubbard, Staff Writer Bioengineering Many of us as we approach graduation will ask the question "Can I get a job?" A good place to find answers to this question is with the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The BLS is a sector in the US Federal Department of Labor that funds analyze and administers statistical reports on the US work force. They are the people who put out the monthly unemployment rates announce on all news stations. The information collected by the BLS is 3
If you’re looking on the job market, we recommend looking up your job profile at the BLS website to get more information on how your own job outlook is. Looking for a job can be fun, time consuming and challenging. We wish all the best to those of you who are out there looking. As a side note... if you can’t find the job you want and you haven’t ruled out other options for your profession yet... the most satisfying jobs around as rated by several websites might surprise you. The popular career advice website MyPlan surveyed 13,000 members as they joined their site and found the most satisfying jobs to be: 1. Singers 2. Firefighters 3. Aircraft assemblers 4. Pediatricians 5. College professors 6. School counselors 7. Managers of animal husbandry
8. 9. 10.
or animal care workers Criminal investigators and special agents College instructors, other Therapists, other 
Forbes Magazine rates the top most satisfying jobs (as reported a General Social Survey by the National Organization for Research): 1. Clergy 2. Firefighters 3. Physical therapists 4. Authors 5. Special education teachers 6. Teachers 7. Artists 8. Psychologists 9. Financial services sales agents 10. Operating engineers  Whatever your career path may be, pick something you love to do and you’ll probably end up being good at it. Cheers! 1. "Top Ten Lists: Highest Job Satisfaction." MyPlan.com, LLC, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.myplan.com/ careers/top-ten/highest-job-satisfac tion.php on 4-23-13. 2. Denning, Steve. "The Ten Happiest Jobs." Retrieved from http:// www.forbes.com/sites/steveden ning/2011/09/12/the-ten-happiest-jobs/ on 4-23-13.
Above: G. J. Romanes' copy of Ernst Haeckel's somewhat exaggerated 1866 depiction of embryonic similarities in early development.
Near the End of the Chapter James Gracey Alumnus Near the end of the chapter “Miscellaneous Objections” in the book The Origin of Species, Mr. Darwin uses a little quip about embryology to combat a naysayer by the name of Mr. Mivart. He says that many characteristics of distinct species are not recognizable until after certain stages in their embryological development e.g. the wings of bats, the necks of giraffes etc. He states that the development of an embryo sort of serves as a physical record of the (successful) genealogy of each species and that the fine grades of change each embryo undertakes to develop arms or eyes etc. are proof that these species
could not have developed these characteristics suddenly and spontaneously. This is all fine and dandy, I will not attempt to justify or negate this, what really stood out to me was how the earlier the stage of the embryo, the more cross-species the characteristics were. All the way until the moment of conception when the embryo is no more then a newly joined sperm and egg and thus physically differs no more from a sparrow to a blue jay to an alligator to a human. This makes sense to our genetically savvy minds. We all know that genetically speaking, humans differ from a mushroom by only a certain combination of letters. But if you take this idea and put it into terms that speak closer to home like “nothing about being human is unique until after you leave your mother’s womb,” then maybe more thoughts would be provoked. It's true (in case you even cared enough to think it wasn't), up until a point (a point not a single human can designate) we are no more unique in any physicality than your most rudimentary land crawler. The only time we gain the title of unique is when we start to stick “I” into the picture of the world by flexing our self-conscious muscle. But we have no idea when we are able to do this. There is no record of this change in or out of the embryo. We just couldn't then what seems by hap4
penstance we knew we liked purple tootsie pops the most. While with embryology we can trace with cut precision when our legs, mouth, brain etc. begin to develop, there is still no way of tracing our consciousness. This is because consciousness still hasn't reached the level of cross-species commonality to be held eligible of the exclusive rank of embryo. Embryos are a secure path for change to make it into the next cut of reality, and it depends on each particular change's utility, paired with time, whether or not it makes the cut. It is needless to point how useful legs are, and even more so under this embryo-bouncer theory, as they are developed during an embryonic stage. Self-consciousness at the level of human is impossible to measure in any embryonic stage and as such it is possible to tell whether humans putting all their eggs into the mind basket during our trip down the path of evolution could be an action that ends dead. There still hasn't been enough time to tell whether the human's mind over the hawk's eye, or snake's tongue, or ant's sheer number - is the ticket to the next big show and while our narcissism can't imagine any other reality, the reality is that until our minds, as they stand today, are developed completely while as an embryo, we will never know for sure.
Multi-Gap Solar Cells Stephanie Prochaska, Staff Writer Materials Science and Engineering Worldwide, more than 30 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere every year (Biello, 2009). Scientists estimate that only less than one quarter of known oil, natural gas and coal reserves to be emitted before climate change becomes damaging. To avoid catastrophe, the United States and other industrialized countries will need to cut their greenhouse gas emissions by 90 percent by the year 2050. On the outside, the widespread implementation of solar power seems like the perfect solution to the world's dire energy crisis. Solar power does not emit any carbon into the atmosphere – not even during production of the solar cells' components. Furthermore, solar energy can be harnessed anywhere, is generated at point-of-use, and is not dependent on foreign imports. However, according to the US Department of Energy, the United States only gets about 0.1 percent of its electricity from solar energy sources (Fetzer, 2006). While the benefits are clear, solar power is currently far too expensive (about two to three times more expensive than conventional methods) and too inefficient (the highest efficiency of a commercial-grade solar cell is around 17.4%) for widespread implementation. This article will discuss the reasons for the efficiency limits of solar cells and how researchers are attempting to optimize the efficiency while reducing cost. In a one-gap solar cell, only photons with energy equal to or greater than the band gap of the cell's material can free an electron to make an electric Runner Up - Veronica Montes
circuit. In other words, the photovoltaic response of one-gap cells is limited to the portion of the sun's spectrum that has an energy level that is above the band gap of the absorbing material. While this type of cell is the cheapest, it has relatively low efficiency due to their intrinsic limits of adsorption and radiative loss (the loss of energy from the remaining portion of the sun’s spectrum). Figure 1 presents the intrinsic efficiency limit versus the band gap. The ideal band gap for maximum efficiency was found to be 1.35 eV. This band gap corresponds to an efficiency of around 31 percent. In order to achieve solar cells with higher efficiency, multi-gap cells need to be manufactured. Therefore, more of the sun's energy spectrum can be absorbed into the cell. While multigap solar cells are more efficient than one-gap cells, they are much more expensive and more difficult to fabricate. In addition, after about four to five gaps, multi-gap solar cells do not become much more efficient – resulting in a maximum (feasible) efficiency of roughly 54 percent. Recent research has shown promise in a new type of solar cell that implements single layer graphene formed into carbon nanotubes and nanoribbons. This type of solar cell has been theorized to be more efficient than multi-gap cells, is much easier to fabricate and is much more cost effective. Unlike traditional solar cells that require specific combinations of materials and dopants to obtain specific energy gap values (with no guarantee that the perfect combination exists that results in the desired energy gap) this new type of graphene cell has energy gaps that can be adjusted simply by
Figure 1: Power vs. energy for a one-gap cell.
changing the width of the ribbons. Using solar energy to solve the world's energy problems may not be the most realistic solution for today, but huge strides in advancing technologies will undoubtedly make it a real possibility for the near future. Nonetheless, current solar cell technologies continue to make impacts in smaller-scale applications and are beginning to make their way into large-scale endeavors as efficiency goes up and prices go down. Nobody knows what the year 2050 will bring and if the United States and other industrialized countries will have reduced their greenhouse gas emissions. One thing for sure is that while solar energy may be at the forefront of emerging technologies, more than one type of sustainable energy source will be necessary to provide a truly sustainable solution. Biello, D. (2009), How Much Is Too Much?: Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved March 27, 2013, from Scientific American. Fetzer, C. (2006), Multijunction III-V Solar Cells: Advanced Materials Creating Clean Terrestrial Power. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from the University of Utah.
The Ocean Waves There are some that choose to just sit and let the waves wash them away, Becoming passive and submissive, Not thinking for the world, but only of their comfort. But you can choose to resist the waves and only use them as inspiration to become more like yourself. You decide what you will give, who you are, and if you will follow the wave or not. 5
3rd Place Pair - Nosheen Khan I was trying to ignore my stomach’s groans By focusing on skimming stones Wondering what it would be like to be half fish Suddenly I heard a gurgling voice “I grant your wish” I thought to myself, “Wish?” “And was that a talking fish?” Before I could do anything brave I was drowned by a tidal wave. I closed my eyes preparing to die Then I thought I’ll look death in the eye I tried my best to scream and shout But waves of bubbles escaped my mouth As my eyes adjusted to the underwater light I slowly retrieved back my eyesight I thought I caught a glimpse of a whale But realized my legs were the fish tail I was a mermaid like the movies I had seen Mainly “Little Mermaid” and “Aquamarine” I started to swim as if the tail wasn’t new When an incredible sight came into view Nestled on the rocky bottom was a city Yet when I got closer I felt pity Its architecture was made of junk From tires to sailboats that sunk Despite the advances in human evolution The water was murky with pollution Humans should take a moment to think About what they dump down their sink Realizing the water wasn’t safe Made me start to chafe The city’s merfolk were covered with marks Which I assumed were from attacks by sharks I didn’t get noticed by the merfolk As if I was under an invisibility cloak. For some time I observed them feed On mounds and mounds of seaweed Their eating habits were crappy And not one of them looked happy They looked at each other with disgust I couldn’t find a hint of trust I continued to wander hoping at last Someone would notice the outcast At the outskirts of the city The merfolk were all gritty They were harvesting kelp Without any device to help They worked desolately in the field As if their lips were permanently sealed There was no interaction with other species of fish Not even to hunt them and eat them as a dish I started to believe it wasn’t in their mentality To show others some hospitality It was safe to conclude from their frigid behavior The city was in dire need of a savior Someone to show them life can be fun Even if there’s no sight of the sun Now even I didn’t think it was fun to be Living life in the deep blue sea I decided it was best I get some sleep For now I was tired from swimming so deep I wanted to return to my family who cared Since at that moment I was alone and scared I needed to find a way As soon as it was the next day I guess somehow I was set free Because I woke up under a tree.
Photo by US Navy (public domain)
1st Place Pair and Original Poem - Mausam Kalita (Photo Vijay Varma Indukuri) 1st Best Place Pair - Mausam Kalita (Photo by Vijay by Varma Indukuri)
Finally, It Is Raining gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggg gggg gggggg ggggg ggg ggggggg ggg ggggggg gg gggg gggggg gg ggggg ggggg ggg ggggg gg g ﬂggg gg gggg gg ggg ggggg ﬂgggg ggggggg gggggg ggg gggggg ggggg g ggg ggg ggggg gggg gg ggg gggg gg gg ggggggggggg Sgg gggg gggg gggg jgg-gggggg gg ggg ggggggg gggggg gggggg gg gggggg gggg ggggggggg ggggg gggg gggg gg gg ggg gggg gg gggg gggggg gg ggg gggggggg gg gggggggg ggggggggg gggg gggg gggg gggg ggg ggggg gggggg gggg gggg gggg ggggg jggg gg gggggggg ggggg ggggg ggggggggggg gggg gggg gggggg gggg gg gggg ggg ggggggg gg ggg ggg gggg gg ggg ggggg ggggg gg ggg gg ggggg ggggg gg ggg ggg ggggggg gg gggg ggggg gg gggg gggg gggg ggg ggggggg gggg ggggggg ggggggggggg gggggg gg gg gg gggggg gggg tgg ggg gggggg gggg gggggggg ggggggg
Water is Life!
Ujala Masood (Photo creative commons)
2nd Place Pair - Allen Larsen (Photo by Cameron Murri)
Photo and Poem Contest Winners
Best Original Photo Manasi Datar
Tolerant Rust ttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttt ttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt ttttttttttttttttttt tggg gggggggg gggggggg g gg ggg ggg ggggg gg ggggg g ggggg ggggg ggg gggg ggggg ggggg gggggg gg ﬂgg gggggg gggggg-gggg gggggg gggggg ggggggg gg ggg ggg tgg gggggggg gggg
ggg gg ggg ggg ggg ggggggg Lgg gggg ggg ggg gggggg gggggggg ggg ggggg gg ggg ggg gggg gg gg gg ggg gggg ggggg gggggggggg gg gggggg gg gggg gggg ggg gggg ggg ggggggg ggggg gg ggg gggg gg ggggggg ggggggg ggggggg ggg ggggg gggggg gggggg ggggg gggg gg gggg ggggggg gg ggggg ggggg gggggg gggg gggggg ggg gggggg ggggggggg gxggggggg gg gggggg ggg ggggg Pggggggggg gggggg ggg ggg ggg ggggg Gggggggg gg ggg gg gg ggg ggggggg ggggggg ggggg gg gggg gggggggggg gg gg ggg gggg ggg gg ggg ggg ggg ggggggg Lgg gggg ggg ggg gggggg gggggggg ggg ggggg gg ggg ggg gggg gg
ggggg gggg ggggg gggg gggggg ggg gggg-gggggg ggggggg ggg tgg gggggggg ggggg Fggg gggggggg gggg g gggg ggg ggg gggg ggg gggg ggg ggg ggg g ggggg gggg ggg ggggg ggg ﬂggg gggg ggg gggg g ggggggg gg ggg ggg ggg ggg gggg gggg g gggg gg ggg gggggg ggg ggggg ggg gggg Pggggg gggg gg ggg ggggggg ggg ggggg ggg ggggg
gg gg ggg ggggggggggggg gg gg ggg gggggg-ggggggg: gggg ggggg gg ggggggg jggg ggggggggg gggggggg jgg: ggg ggggg gg gggg gggggggg gg ggggggg gggg ggg ggggggg gggg g gggg gg gggggg gggggggg gggggggg gggggggg
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.