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Course title: English Writing Course code: ENG1212 Spring Semester 2011

Submitted by:
1101020006 1101020007 1101020008 1101020009 1101020010 Dept. of C.S.E

Submitted to:
Debashish Moy Dutta Lecturer, Dept of English

Date of submission: 30-03-2011

Page 2 of 14 Acknowledgement: Firstly. We also like to give thanks to our follow classmate who helped us regarding this assignment. we would like to give a special thank to our honorable teacher Debashishmoy dutta for giving us the opportunity for preparing assignment on “Cyber Crime”. Sincerely Yours: Name ID 1101020006 1101020007 1101020008 1101020009 1101020010 . This is definitely helping us to acquire lots of knowledge regarding this topic.

Page 3 of 14 Content Introduction What is cyber crime? Origin and History of Cybercrime Commercialization and Modernization of Cybercrime Types of Cybercrime Case Study Effect of cyber crime in Bangladesh Preventing Cybercrimes for Businesses and the Public The Future of Cybercrime and Recommendations References 04 04 04 05 06 07 09 11 11 References .

It took the radio thirtyeight years to reach fifty million users. the computer was perceived as a “toy” for teenagers. and legislature. the Internet. Enforcement has led to the creation of laws. or even the Personal Computer. In 1970 researchers for Xerox developed the Ethernet at their Palo Alto Research Center. keyboard. Stewart Nelson. danger. so did all of the other terminals. used the university’s computer to generate the tones needed to access their long distance phone service. Several years later the first multimedia computer was released. simply a mouse. Cybercrime is when a men use computers or networks as a tool. The earliest of networks contained a mainframe computer. the Commodore 64. as it enabled them to own a computer and learn to program. and several “dumb” terminals. This network failed. or target for criminal activity and behavior. Law enforcement agencies must vigorously fight and prevent cybercrime in order to help create a safer society. due to the simple fact that if the mainframe crashed. and introduced them to present-day hacking. the Altair 8800. What is cyber crime? A new strain of crime has developed through the invention of the computer and Internet: cybercrime. The popularity of the Internet is growing exponentially. Origin and History of Cybercrime: The origins of cybercrime can be traced back to the days without Microsoft Windows. and a mere sixteen years for the computer to reach fifty million users. everything it runs comes off of the mainframe. After four years of the Internet. and risk. The term “hacking” became popular and mainstream in 1970 with the creation of the first personal computer. policies. a student at MIT. The . The development of cybercrime has affected law enforcement agencies and society. The first “networks” did not use the Internet at all. A dumb terminal possesses no processor power. cybercrime and all of its auxiliaries have grown in complexity.Page 4 of 14 Cyber crime Introduction: The internet has revolutionized how individuals interact with each other. Over the years. and display. fifty million people are connected to this global network. place. These terminals had no memory or processor. The Altair 8800 created the “hacker”.

The first Internet Service Providers (ISP’s) consisted of two computer geniuses (“nerds”) with a low cost budget. Accessing the Internet in the early stages was a challenge. those who could afford expensive computer equipment. such as a modem. Transmission Control Protocol\Internet Protocol (TCP\IP) and Winsock. This system was unreliable and extremely slow. which later resulted in the influx of cyber crimes . cybercrime . the operating system of choice was Windows 3. Scientists claim that the emergence of the BBS fostered. Thus. the BBS were for the elites. and AOL began to emerge. the user’s workstation is still accessible. This operating system lacked the software to access the Internet. These are not referred to ISP’s. rather as Wide Area Networks. it attracted many computer gurus and hackers. pornography began to be posted. but someone copied the program to their computer and posted it for others to use. The modem and phone line created a new way for computers to communicate with each other throughout the world.Page 5 of 14 Ethernet is still the basis for most local area networks (LAN’s) today. PGP was used to hide sensitive . they must configure the settings in a text editor. In 1990 and 1991 users began to ponder the thought of privacy. and charge a fee to view the pictures. if a server crashes. As a result Phillip Zimmermann created an encryption program called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). post images. Commercialization and Modernization of Cybercrime: In the 1980s companies such as CompuServe. inserting a disk and running a program would have the user “wired” In the early 1990s the fees for dial up internet decreased to $25 per month for unlimited access. This led to the creation of the Bulletin Board System (BBS) in 1978. Once the user has obtained the software. At the time.x. and actually required hacking and programming. which means pirated software. Until the creation of the dial up Internet. Prodigy. with the settings written in computer jargon. There was no configuring. and are the roots of. The decline in cost made it possible for more online criminals to emerge in the anonymous online community. free of charge. During these stages of the BBS service. which could take weeks. hackers began sharing software. As the forums grew more complex. Sysops would create a forum. This is referred to as “warez”. Pirated software is applications that were created to be sold. because they were not able to communicate with the outside world. In the 1980s the fee to dial into CompuServe was $25 per hour. Users chose to connect through these companies due to ease of use. They were not sure if a third party would intercept their Internet communications. These were commercial providers who would charge amonthly fee to users if they wanted to access their “community”. As the BBS service grew. A local area network allows many PC’s to access a server (mainframe) with the information.

text . Major web sites like MSN. In the midst of chaos the Melissa virus was programmed. or access materials that sexually exploit underage children. but criminals also used the program to hide evidence of crimes they had committed to the police. videos. called First Virtual. In 1994 the first online bank opened. Cybercrime was not uncommon. distribute. increasing their wealth by 31% . As the millennium was near. which sent a virus to e-mail servers causing thousands of companies servers to malfunction . and has no plans to slow down. The Code Red virus and Sircam virus spawned to millions of e-mail accounts worldwide. This opened up a lot of opportunities for hackers. Cyberlaundering – electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination. From hacking passwords to creating viruses and worms. Cyber Contraband – transferring illegal items through the internet (such as encryption technology) that is banned in some locations. or phones. The false news story created a huge profit for a third party small technology company.Page 6 of 14 information. phones. which is exactly like a phone wiretap. The DEA was able to shut down a company who was selling illegal cell phone cloning equipment. From here on out. Child Pornography – the use of computer networks to create. a group of criminals created a website to simulate that of Bloomberg Financial. Types of Cybercrime: Assault by Threat – threatening a person with fear for their lives or The lives of their families or persons whose safety they are responsible for (such as employees or communities) through the use of a computer network such as email. including the US Department of Commerce and the US Senate’s website. Cybercrime was slowly becoming more popular. In 1995 the Secret Service and Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) obtained the first Internet wiretap. Hundreds of websites and servers were hacked. cyber criminals were doing it all. Yahoo. Cybercrime has only accelerated through the years. Entering the millennium caused a huge disruption for companies due to a Denial of Service attack. and Apache were shut down and hacked. Cyberstalking – express or implied physical threats that creates fear through the use of computer technology such as email.

espionage. . websites or videos. This includes activities related to:Breaking and entering. The widespread use of computer hacking by China's government is also reported in one message. Among the messages revealed is a report that King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. and piracy.000 similar documents on Iraq in October. embezzlement and unlawful appropriation. The whistle-blowing website has released some 250. employees) of the network itself and the data or information contained on the network. or damage the data or system. DNS cache poisoning. allowing militants to make an atomic weapon. urged the US to destroy Iran's nuclear facilities. Cyberterrorism – premeditated. plagiarism. including the New York Times and the United Kingdom's Guardian to publish stories as and when they fancy. webcams.000 secret records on Afghan conflict in July and 400. misuse. among other Arab leaders. This can include a situation where network services are disrupted or stopped.Page 7 of 14 messages.fraud. Examples include: Cybertresspass – someone accesses a computer’s or network’s resources without the authorization or permission of the owner but does not alter.identify theft . Case Study: WikiLeaks Reveled The Biggest Cybercrime of All Time WikiLeaks. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad however dismissed the leak as sheer US propaganda. an Australian with a background in computer network hacking. Other concerns aired in the cables include the possibility of Pakistani nuclear material falling into the wrong hands.malicious hacking. Cybervandalism . a website run by Julian Assange. Cybertheft – using a computer to steal. usually politically-motivated violence committed against civilians through the use of. or with the help of. computer technology. The entire bundle of cables has been made available to five publications. This deprives the computer/network owners and authorized users (website visitors.000 cables---this time communications and messages between the US State Department and its embassies and consulates around the world sent between 1966 and 2010. disturb. has already released 77.Damaging or destroying data rather than stealing or misusing them (as with cybertheft) is called cybervandalism.

say. Now heads of state and civil and military diplomats alike will be sealing their lips. Releasing documents carelessly and without regard for the consequences is not the way a journalist should pursue his professionalism. A foreign government may not wish to discuss any sensitive subject with the United States or for that matter with any other state.Page 8 of 14 Other issues reportedly covered in the cables are Iranian attempts to adapt North Korean rockets for use as long-range missiles. etc. But. Journalism. US officials being instructed to spy on the UN leadership by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The release of these classified cables will only serve to hurt international relations of all the countries of the world. . corruption in Afghanistan. WikiLeaks' release of classified records may redefine the very concept of secrecy. now that confidentiality can't be guaranteed. In this age of information technology and an era when there is always a sneaking suspicion that a neighbor can suddenly turn into an enemy. thanks to hacking by internet nerds like Mr. alleged links between the Russian government and organized crime. etc. politics. So it makes sense to report on. but suspicion has fallen on US Army private Bradley Manning. bargaining to empty the Guantanamo Bay prison camp. lest their words are downloaded by internet hackers. No-one has been charged with passing the diplomatic files to WikiLeaks. the weather. should give citizens information that helps them in their everyday lives. The damage the leaks will cause to American interests at home and abroad will be profound. including Slovenian diplomats being told to take in a freed prisoner to secure a meeting with President Barack Obama. with intelligence agencies using underworld bosses to carry out operations. Assange. an intelligence analyst arrested in Iraq in June and charged over an earlier leak of classified US documents to Assange's website. what is the point in showing diplomatic cables to general public? People of course have right to have access into information if such information are of use. changes in laws. a passenger may turn into a terrorist and a diplomat may be engaged in espionage. the old values are fast dying giving rise to a delusion of grandeur among people---security authority in an airport or journalists in a web-based media---who are fast forgetting their onus to honor the sanctity of privacy and the necessity of secrecy. crime rates. But there are pieces of information that need to be kept confidential. at the basic level. development projects.

However. But like the traditional ones most of the computer related crimes remain unpublished. the then Prime Minister. This was the last known invasion in government's cyber territory as well as the first criminality by the foreign hackers. An analyst of Premium Bank Brokerage House. they are probably unable to trace the same if it is committed from outside the country. the terrorist organizations may use the Internet system in their benefits. Although their own web . he could not be traced. The Prime Minister inaugurated the opening of 64 district web-portals on 06 January 2010 while the hackers invaded 19 of them by 21 March/2010. but he had been hacking domestic and international web sites also for long time. the news of cyber crime sporadically published in the newspapers at intervals. He invaded at least 21 domestic web sites including the web site of Bangladesh Army. the then Leader of the Opposition in the parliament. Two days latter on 25 August/2004 another email was sent to the Bangladesh Police Headquarters threatening Khaleda Zia. her elder son and some members of the parliament. While in police custody Mahbub provided the law enforces with sensational information about Internet fraudulence. In 2008. But very few people imagine that the digitalization without proper security measures will make our lives hell overnight. Mirza claimed that he hacked not only the RAB web site. Lives will be much easier." He also claimed that if he would hack the RAB web site by changing the Internet Protocol (IP). a Bangladeshi petty hacker named Shahi Mirza occupied the RAB web site. we have already stepped into the digital era. Most communications of the Al Queda network are performed through Internet. people did not feel satisfied if a printed newspaper was not at their hands in the morning. Many of the terrorist organizations maintain their own web sites. Even the Bangladeshi terrorist organization JMB does not go less. In his confession to the police. quicker and meaningful if we use the digital facilities to perform our day-to-day activities. The petty hacker Shahi Mirza who hacked the RAB web site put forward a pertinent question about our cyber security. It is very easy to think that we will be in a digital Bangladesh in few years. unregistered and un-investigated. These were the first cyber crime incidents in Bangladesh which received due attention of the police authority. On 23 August 2004 an email was sent to the Bangla Daily Prothom Alo threatening to kill Sheikh Hasina. From disseminating motivated information to the innocent public to credit card fraud. "You do not know what the cyber security is or how to protect yourself. He disseminated misleading share-tips to his Face Book friends manipulating price of certain shares in the Dhaka Stock Exchange. One thing is clear from the confession and claim of Mirza that though Bangladesh Police showed some success in detecting hacking business committed inside the country. The terrorist organizations are the beneficiaries of the Internet communication system. At least 12 of the 30 groups on the US State Department's list of designated foreign terrorist organizations maintain Web sites on the Internet. Once. robbed nearly five million Taka from the root level investors of the Dhaka Stock Exchange. the same people feel nasty if the Internet is disconnected. Mahbub Saroar.Page 9 of 14 Bangladesh is still unaware of Cyber threat: Targeting to make a digital Bangladesh by 2021. Today.

Their measures are simultaneously preventive. So. . According to reports from Chinese media. There is no denying that Cyber-criminals are very much capable of robbing Bangladesh of crores of taka. This country is the home of the second largest number of internet users in the male. The intensity of cyber crime victimization in Bangladesh is yet to be measured. There are no research or data collection efforts on how much money is lost every year due to cyber criminality. we cannot expect them to acquire the necessary skills to investigate the most complicated hi-tech computer related crimes. better than cure. very few computer related offences are reported to the police. With compare to the developing and the third world countries. At that time we will find that our stallions are stolen and we will then be very much careful to lock our empty stables. So. The Malaysian Computer Emergency Response Team (MyCERT) operates the Cyber999 Help Center. Yet. a public service that provides emergency response to computer security related emergencies as well as assistance in handling incidents such as computer abuses. Cyber-crime is still a low priority to Bangladesh Police. The present government is expected to invest millions of taka to materialize their promise to build a digital Bangladesh. But this amount. In the United States the total money-loss from the reported cyber fraud is increasing leaps and bounds. investigative and propagative. Almost every country developed Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). in 2009. They can make havoc in our national life at any time. reached at $559. Prevention is.Page 10 of 14 site is still unknown. According to the US Internet Crime Complaint Center statistics. The Chinese government have taken innovative techniques to fight cyber crimes. it is a small portion of the actual loss of money as only 15 percent of cases of cyber fraud are being reported to crime control agencies. in 2001 the dollar loss of reported cyber crime was only $17. The virtual long arm of the law will be there to remind users of Internet security -and to sniff out any activity the Government deems illegal. Neither the government nor the non-government organizations have initiated any data-collecting project about it.will appear at the bottom of users' browser windows every 30 minutes. to detect and investigate the cyber crime they have been adopting innovative measures. undoubtedly.8 million dollars. hack attempts and other information security breaches. As a whole Bangladesh is not aware of her cyber security. the developed ones are more infested with cyber crimes. the issue of Cyber Security must get due priory and a considerable portion of budget should be allocated for making the police capable of fighting cyber crimes. So. one female -. Though computer is becoming a common household item and the number of Internet users has already crossed six millions. let us prepare for the worse before hand. two virtual police officers -. But many countries of the world collect and preserve statistics on cyber crimes and the monetary loss due to cyber criminality across and outside of their countries. As our police have not been furnished with modern techniques and technology to investigate even traditional crimes. a visual reminder that they are being monitored.7million dollars. they have developed Internet specialization among their operators. They used the Internet materials to teach their members bomb-making formulae.

The first step in prevention is to create a security plan for the company. adware. It is vital for businesses to have an updated operating system.Page 11 of 14 Preventing Cybercrimes for Businesses and the Public: Businesses have lost billions of dollars due to cyber crimes. The Future of Cybercrime and Recommendations The future of cyber crime is uncertain. Measures need to taken in regards to the privacy and personal information stored on servers and computers. One must work in a pyramid. Such examples include a router with a firewall and Norton Anti Virus. as well as how to store confidential data and passwords. even hourly. finding the creators of the viruses and worms will create a better Interne For yong teenagers and children. and worms. People would be surprised if they knew how much information is stored on the Internet. spyware. such as databases with social security numbers. and on computers. Checking for updates on a daily. it will be fixed. A terrorist can do more with a computer than he can with a gun. but cyber terrorism is a threat to society that will always exist. Antivirus. basis will ensure that if vulnerability is found. viruses. do not allocate proper funding for security implementations. and law enforcement agencies must continue to expand into the “cyber” universe. going on commercial websites dramatically increases the risk of infection. Many businesses. Adding an encryption or password can greatly detract a hacker. a mixture of invasive (hardware firewalls) and non-invasive (software applications) is needed. Any time a company’s network is shut down means a loss of profit. users should never take work related information home that is confidential. Most parents do not track their . These will prevent harmful data to be placed on user workstations. The key to success is communication – businesses must train their employees on proper internet usage at work. They are the heart of corruption on the Internet. and anti-Trojan applications are essential. law enforcement must target those criminals who create spam. parents are the first line of defense. Businesses can prevent cybercrime by monitoring user workstations. anti-spam. about them. Lastly. As a bottom line. especially smaller organizations. software and hardware.

Page 12 of 14 child’s online usage. When the word cybercrime is mentioned. many children have computers in their rooms. Pictures are a problem for young women. some people tend to copy paste material without doing any citing. I couldn‟t . I did it accordingly. Companies such as Myspace and Facebook must take responsibility too. behind closed doors. assuming no children have a VISA or MasterCard. until children come forth and confess. Furthermore. These websites are a lure for stalkers. encyclopaedias and dictionaries. you have already fallen victim to internet crime or committed a cybercrime. Maybe even before you know it. to lodge a report if these complaints were false. computer crime or online crime. According to TechTerms. I would agree that the Internet is a great tool and companion for all age groups especially for students and working adults. have to submit their IP address for review on a periodic basis. known to many as cybercrime. stating that he was an administrator from Facebook.Presenting ideas from others as your own is a form of theft. However. which even surpasses books. Facebook. While using the internet for research purposes. online stalking occurs mainly behind parent’s backs. stalkers are exposed to quite scandalous pictures of women who are only twelve or thirteen. I would like to provide an insight to crime that can happen there. A credit card authorization is a new form of verifying one’s age. there are various other types of cybercrimes. Thus. while some just couldn‟t be The email directed me to a Facebook log in page. The phisher in question sent me an email. apart from the above mentioned. However. acknowledgement of the author should be done. and that my Facebook account was reported several times for abuse. Using ideas and material without authorization of the original author is a crime called plagiarism. as it looked legitimate to me. And in this case. when in fact they are nine or ten. people while using this convenience to their advantage. Having such technology is a privilege. the stalker is lead to believe they are the age on the profile. and perhaps limit pictures to profiles of users 18+. I reckon many people will be reminded of computer hackers or organizations that commit fraud via the internet. not a god given right. Parents must realize that using the Internet is a privilege. based on the fact that most users list their screen name. Such tasks can be accomplished electronically without the work of parole or probation officers. and anyone on parole or probation for similar charges. Cybercrime is criminal activity done using computers and the internet. Some were ignorant. It is the recommendation that all sexual predators. Such websites as MySpace. referencing tools like the „Oxford Reference Online‟ or „Harvard Referencing Guide‟ will come in handy. some don‟t know how to do proper referencing. It wasn‟t until the next day when I realised my mistake. and even address. on the internet. it may also be known as E-crime. and not change. I was unlucky enough to fall into a phishing scam two years ago. They do a poor job at verifying a user’s age. It is a great source of information. Sometimes. and any dating\personals site be banned. neglected the fact that they could get into trouble. However. This is harder for the younger generation – as they grew up with the Internet. Children register for the site claiming to be 15 or 16. This is because all information is available only a few clicks away and easily accessible. city. Because of the pervasiveness of the internet. this will ensure that there has not been any activity on stalking websites. The creators of such websites need to ensure that users are of age. Social security numbers or licenses may then verify the person’s age. to avoid plagiarism. their IP addresses should remain static.

each with a different motive and implication. Julianne Flory. I began to screen my mails more carefully. the uploading and distrib uting works that are protected by copyright law without permission of the copyright owner is .britannica. software and other materials. which can form a branch of its own. such as theft of identity.Page 13 of 14 access my Facebook account anymore. It wasn‟t until after I requested a password change that I realised some of my information was changed and some applications sabotaged. Copyright. Have it ever crossed your mind that when you‟re downloading illegally on one end. http://www. BBC news UK reported the story of a cyber-bullying victim. So. theft of confidential business information. it is to common knowledge that not all of these downloads are legal. spyware and antivirus software and so on is a must. and sometimes cyberbullies can even target a random person to satisfy their ego or rage. viewed 25 February 2011. we can know that there are many sites offering free download of songs. as the person could remain anonymous if he or she chooses not to reveal themselves. Some illegal downloads are against the copyright law. movies. on any corner of the earth. It was only resolved after she reported it to the authorities. This way.. My account was already hacked and the password changed. They can happen to you too. and it could turn into an offense. defamation and so on. These are happening every second round the clock.techterms. you‟re letting the creator down at the other end? He/she not only loses revenue. Sometimes. is “to secretly find a way of looking at or changing information on somebody‟s computer system without permission”. instead of downloading them from the net illegally. using foul language towards someone. However. or just for the gist of it. The same goes to downloading these illegally distributed works. There are various types of cyber-bullying. you show respect to both the creator and the law. steps to ensure internet security such as the installation of firewalls. This is an act of invading privacy. from now on. using other‟s accounts without permission is also a form of hacking. Last but not least. musical. viewed 25 February 2011. References: „TechTerms. whereas cyber-bullying can happen to anybody. and perform a literary. Regretfully. She has an outgoing personality. legally secured right to reproduce. and cannot be ignored. threatening. or artistic work”. videos. So. and be on your toes to avoid being associated with cybercrime. Since then. In 2007. By doing a simple search with search engines. Thus. I received a forwarded email from one of my contacts. Phishers try to obtain data such as log in information or credit card numbers through email scams. Hackers cause serious problems to internet users. files. there are many who use this skill to enter others‟ computer systems in order to obtain data or change information to their own‟ n. Shortly after. and the bullies were tracked down and „Britannica Online Encyclopaedia‟ n. or for sabotaging purposes. to prevent hackers having a chance to gain access to your computer system. Cyber stalking. The phisher mentioned was the same with the one who sent me the phishing mail. yet she was insulted by a group of schoolmates through her social networking website. Another common cybercrime is cyber-bullying among minors.d. Apart from that. Copyright law is amended to acknowledge the creator. also to protect the monetary rights of the creator from the copyrighted work. they even threatened to stab her and hurt her family members. as defined by the Oxford‟s Advanced Learner‟s dictionary. the most serious cybercrime of all – hacking. Sometimes you won‟t even know who is the one harassing you. Thus. asking me to beware of a certain phishing scam. spamming and so on are all classified under cybercrimes. There can be various types of hacking attacks too. We see this often when someone uses a friend‟s password to log in to social networking sites without permission. distribute. as in school usually those physically or mentally weaker students get harassed or bullied. It is very different from school-bullying.d. obtained credit card information and so on. such as harassment. illegal trading.http://www. “Hack”. dramatic. Cybercrime.. Therefore. They got access to her instant messaging service and the insults grew worse. companies and the online community. creating and distributing viruses to destroy computer systems. it is against the law and you are at the risk of being apprehended. there are many other illegal activities conducted via the internet that I did not manage to cover. Copyright is defined by Britannica Online Encyclopaedia as “the exclusive. the right thing to do is to purchase original works or obtaining them through legitimate sites like iTunes. so think twice before you check out links in fishy emails. be sure to take measures to protect you and your computer from all sorts of risks. stealing of identity. But it was too late. In the end. but also influence and honour.

http://news. Oops.stm th “Hack. No student discount for now. Oxford: Oxford UP. viewed 26 February 2011.Page 14 of 14 „BBC News‟ 2007. preferably Cheryl Plankton has an obsession towards plankton. =) . 6 ed. 2000.” Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary. Cheryl Ting. Completed AUSMAT in Sunway College JB and currently doesn’t belong to any tertiary institution. she laughs and turns red-faced at jokes and bites if you step on her toes. for no whatsoever Cyberbullying: A victim’s story. A random girl with a peculiar temper.