Chapter 1 – Health in a Changing Society Multiple Choice Questions 1. The primary goal of wellness is the ability to achieve A.

freedom from disease. B. a multicultural view of health. C. the highest possible quality of life. D. greater control over lifestyle decisions. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 2. C 2 1

Which of the following is considered a social determinant of health? A. heredity B. lifestyle choices C. substance abuse D. the physical environment Answer: Page(s):3, 4 Objective(s): D 1


Which of the following best demonstrates an ecological view of health and wellness? A. seeking a natural balance between your own life forces and those in your environment B. being aware of hereditary risks and avoiding unhealthy environments and behaviors C. going to the doctor whenever you suspect an illness D. seeking nontraditional medical treatments Answer: Page(s):3-4 Objective(s): B 1


One of the hallmarks of community health promotion is its emphasis on improving A. common health-related resources. B. privately funded wellness programs. C. taxpayer-funded health initiatives. D. the regulation of hospitals and clinics. Answer: Page(s):4-5 Objective(s): A 1


Which of the following best illustrates a public health measure? A. upgrading the local hospital’s dialysis equipment

lifestyle. language D. Theory of Reasoned Action Model C. What model was developed in the 1950s to understand why people failed to take advantage of accessible and low-cost prevention programs? A. politics Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 6 2 8. Stages of Change Model . physical characteristics B. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 3. Health Belief Model D. The aspect of personal health that is most within your control is A. technological status C. human biology. B. C. D. environment. acculturation theory B. genetic inheritance. Transtheoretical Model B.B. preventing the spread of disease-carrying insects medical schools competing for research grants promoting a new surgical technique B 5 1 Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 6. risk exposure theory C. 3 7. 8 1. racial discrimination theory D. Which of the following explanations for the poor health outcomes of ethnic minorities focuses on the lack of infrastructure to support health? A. C. Which of the following is one of the five basic criteria that describes culture in the health promotion context? A. D. resource deprivation theory Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 7 2 9.

contemplation B.Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 10. if he quits. others also criticize his smoking. benefits of change. he has a serious health scare. as compared to the general population? A. lower lifestyle risk factors B. C. equal health benefits from medical advances C. he will only quit smoking if A. C 8 3 In general. Mackenzie has resolved to start exercising three times a week when her membership at a local gym begins in two weeks. stages of change. B. D. decreased exposure to carcinogens Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 7 2. precontemplation D. he would improve both his health and his athletic performance. Charlie’s sister lectures him daily about the threat that his smoking poses to his health. 4 11. effectiveness of change. C. Answer: Page(s):8 Objective(s): A 3 12. higher rates of cancer. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of health behavior change differs from the Health Belief Model in its emphasis on the A. but according to the Health Belief Model. She argues that. and alcoholism D. infant mortality. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 9-10 3 13. maintenance . action C. his sister stops lecturing him. D. Charlie knows his sister is right. he thinks he can and that it will be worth the effort. what can American ethnic minority populations expect concerning their health. preparation E. In which stage of change in the Transtheoretical Model is Mackenzie operating? A. B. need for change.

I should do it. I will get more exercise in the new year. I must do it. C. D. and (2) A. contemplation C. D. B. preparation B. I will avoid situations where I am tempted to eat junk food. D 9 3 In which stage of change in the Transtheoretical Model does an individual intend to change a specific health behavior within the next six months? A. I can do it. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 7 2 17. decrease tobacco and alcohol use in all age groups. I will eat my meals on time and limit myself to one snack daily. Which of the following best illustrates a SMART goal? A. I will make smart health choices in each major life activity. action Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 9 3 15. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 10 3 16. C. C.Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 14. B. I can’t do it. cut the incidence of accidental deaths in half by 2020. decrease binge drinking among college students. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 10 3 . eliminate health disparities among different population groups. maintenance D. B. Which of the following statements best illustrates a sense of self-efficacy? A. D. The two major goals of Healthy People 2010 are to (1) increase life expectancies and life quality. precontemplation E.

reduce researcher bias. individual. Researchers assign participants to either a treatment group or control group in order of when the participants register for the study. C.18. The purpose of making a clinical study double-blind is to A. educational institution. D. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 13 4 22. Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning medical research studies? A. C. To be considered reliable results. experimental Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): A 12 4 19. the same results must be obtained by no other researchers conducting the same study. guarantee the results. The best type of website on which to do research on health issues is one that is sponsored by a(n) A. D. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 12 4 21. correlational B. What type of research study can suggest likely associations but cannot establish cause-and-effect relationships? A. disguise the study’s sponsors. Subjects are not randomly assigned to either a treatment group or control group. D. Clinical studies attempt to establish cause-and-effect relationships. B. B. retrospective D. . make the results depend on the outcomes of other studies. The definition of health risk is the probability or likelihood of an event occurring. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 12 4 20. commercial health organization. B. C. Which of the following statements about health risks is FALSE? A. perspective C. nonprofit political organization.

A health risk is the probability of exposure to a hazard that can result in negative consequences. cognitive. obtain and use health information. C 11 4 Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 23. navigate the health care system successfully. functional D.B. functional D. Fifty percent of children and adults are classified as overweight or moderately obese. Basic reading and writing skills that enable consumers to follow health messages are known as ____________ literacy. D. People who are overweight at age 40 are likely to die sooner than people who are not overweight. critical B. achieve maximum wellness. critical B. health C. Americans walk more today than they did 20 years ago. Health risks include factors such as age. Which statement is TRUE concerning the obesity epidemic in the United States? A. D. B. B. family history. C. interactive Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 11 4 25. C. A. All health risks can be avoided. income. C. A. describe symptoms to a doctor. health C. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 11 4 24. gender. and education. and interpersonal skills that enable consumers to navigate the health care system are known as ____________ literacy. The basic definition of health literacy refers to one’s ability to A. Advanced literacy. . interactive Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 11 4 26.

minority communities are more likely than white communities to be exposed to environmental health risks. available health care services. Factors such as income level. and literacy are examples of social determinants of health. and poverty. mental. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 5 1 29. Ethnicity is synonymous with race. such as physical. and spiritual domains. Answer: Page(s):4 Objective(s): True 1 32.D. . Physical inactivity and poor diets are not likely to overtake smoking as the leading cause of preventable death. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 3 1 31. The terms disease prevention and health promotion mean the same thing. According to the risk exposure theory. emotional. In the United States. low educational attainment. B 13 4 Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True/False Questions 27. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 2 1 28. Health and wellness are conceptualized as having several domains. poor health outcomes are associated with environmental pollution. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 7 2 30.

Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 8-9 3 36. The slogan “healthy people in healthy communities” accurately expresses the goals of Healthy People 2010. and environmental protection have produced significant and equal health benefits for most American ethnic populations. lifestyle improvements. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 8 3 37. A major assumption underlying most theory-based models for health behavior choices and change is that people usually gravitate toward unhealthy lifestyles. The Health Belief Model is a more useful and accepted framework than the Transtheoretical Model for understanding health behavior change is. In the maintenance stage of the Transtheoretical Model for health behavior change. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 9 3 .Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): 33. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 8-9 3 38. False 6 2 Advances in medical technology. a new behavior has been in place for more than two years. The Health Belief Model was developed in the 1950s in an effort to understand why people failed to take advantage of disease prevention or detection programs. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 8 2 35. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 6 2 34.

Most people are motivated more by the long-term benefits of health behavior change than by the short-term benefits. The most important factor influencing health behavior change is commitment to change. Behavior change contracts are among the most effective tools for change. Activities such as developing social support systems and establishing goals and rewards help people to move through the stages of change in the Transtheoretical Model. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 10-11 3 41. such as alcohol addiction. few people reach the termination stage of the Transtheoretical Model. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 9 3 40. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 10 3 43. For a person to change a behavior successfully. Your behavior change plans must include strategies for dealing with potential barriers to change. For some types of health problems. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 10 3 42. he or she does not necessarily have to have efficacy expectations about making the change.39. Answer: True . Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 10 3 44. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 10-11 3 45.

we can expect our society to face less-complex health questions. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 6-7. Scientists typically consider the results of a single study to be conclusive and definitive. largely as a result of technological advances. 11 2.Page(s): Objective(s): 46. In the future. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 12-13 4 Short Answer Questions . Early public health programs were created mainly to combat chronic degenerative illnesses. immunization. Three of the top ten current health concerns in the United States are substance abuse. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 7 2 49. 10 3 Cultural values have little influence on health. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 5 1 48. Healthy People 2010 includes a focus on community responsibility. 4 47. and mental health. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): False 12 4 50. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): True 13 4 51.

a sixth stage called _________________ occurs when the new behavior is firmly entrenched in a person’s lifestyle. or cultural origin.52. ____________________ is an internal state in which a person feels competent to perform a task. The ________________ People initiative sets national health objectives aimed at improving the quality of life for all Americans. In the Transtheoretical Model. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): ethnicity 6 2 54. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): Wellness 2 1 53. language. is referred to as __________________. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): behavior 10 3 58. religion. as well as a common national. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): contemplation 9 3 55. a person intends to change a specific health behavior within the next six months in the ___________________ stage. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): Self-efficacy 10 3 57. In the Transtheoretical Model. Answer: Page(s): Healthy 7 . The sense of identity that individuals draw from a common ancestry. ___________________ is generally defined as the process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and life satisfaction. tribal. Signing a ________________ change contract is one of the most effective strategies for change. Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): termination 9 3 56.

Activities directed toward bettering the health of the public Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): E 4-5 1 62.Objective(s): Matching Questions Match the following: A) B) C) D) E) 59. 2 wellness public health disease prevention health promotion community health The study and practice of health promotion and disease prevention at the population level Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): B 5 1 60. The process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and heightened life satisfaction Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): A 2 1 63. Actions taken to protect individuals from specific diseases Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): C 5 1 61. Actions designed to maintain a current healthy state or to advance to a more desirable state Answer: Page(s): Objective(s): D 5 1 .

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